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Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811288


An increase in the number of patients with infectious diseases in Korea, can be attributed to various factors, such as the prevalence of new infectious diseases of the 21st century, the re-emergence of past infectious diseases, an increase in the number of elderly individuals, patients with chronic diseases, immune deficiency, and globalization. In this context, vaccination becomes vital for the adult population. Although, the guidelines for adult immunization are currently being updated, the rate of adult vaccination remains lower than that of infant vaccination. At present, the major challenges for increasing the rate of adult immunization include negative views on the need for some immunizations and a lack of understanding of group immunity among the youth. Consequently, a successful immunization program will be required to direct efforts towards educating patients and spreading awareness. Based on the current guidelines and practical applications, varicella zoster; Japanese encephalitis; tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis; pneumococcus; measles, mumps, and rubella; and hepatitis A vaccines could effectively be considered for adult vaccination.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Chickenpox , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases , Diphtheria , Encephalitis, Japanese , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Herpes Zoster , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization , Infant , Internationality , Korea , Measles , Mumps , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Prevalence , Rubella , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tetanus , Vaccination , Whooping Cough
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828989


Objective@#Long-term seroprotection the hepatitis A vaccine is essential for the prevention of disease from the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Due to documented difficulties during decade-long follow-ups after receiving vaccines, statistical-modeling approaches have been applied to predict the duration of immune protection.@*Methods@#Based on five-year follow-up data from a randomized positive-controlled trial among Chinese children (1-8 years old) following a 0, 6 months vaccination schedule, a power-law model accounting for the kinetics of B-cell turnover, as well as a modified power-law model considering a memory-B-cell subpopulation, were fitted to predict the long-term immune responses induced by HAV vaccination (Healive or Havrix). Anti-HAV levels of each individual and seroconversion rates up to 30 years after vaccination were predicted.@*Results@#A total of 375 participants who completed the two-dose vaccination were included in the analysis. Both models predicted that, over a life-long period, participants vaccinated with Healive would have close but slightly higher antibody titers than those of participants vaccinated with Havrix. Additionally, consistent with previous studies, more than 90% of participants were predicted to maintain seroconversion for at least 30 years. Moreover, the modified power-law model predicted that the antibody titers would reach a plateau level after nearly 15 years post-vaccination.@*Conclusions@#Based on the results of our modeling, Healive may adequately induce long-term immune responses following a 0, 6 months vaccination schedule in children induction of memory B cells to provide stable and durable immune protection.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Hepatitis A , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Blood , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Active , Infant , Male , Models, Statistical , Vaccination
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 166-170, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974214


ABSTRACT Vaccination against the hepatitis A virus (HAV) administered in two doses has been used effectively in universal child immunization programs in several countries. A single-dose vaccination was adopted in some low-income countries in an attempt to reduce costs without losing effectiveness. In 2014, single-dose universal vaccination was introduced in Brazil for children aged two years. Since such strategy is still not universally accepted, its efficacy should be compared to the two-dose strategy. To assess the humoral response after the single-dose HAV vaccination schedule, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Primavera do Leste, in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, including 265 children vaccinated through the National Immunization Program. Blood was collected by using a digital puncture and further applied to filter paper cards. Anti-HAV was detected in 218 out of 265 dried blood spots (DBS). Blood venous samples were collected from 34 out of 47 children who were not anti-HAV positive in DBS samples. Eighteen of them tested positive for anti-HAV, giving a final score of 93.6% (236/252) of seropositivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a high rate of anti-HAV positivity in the short term after single-dose hepatitis A vaccination in the population investigated. Moreover, the DBS was shown to be a reliable tool for detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Mass Vaccination/methods , Hepatitis A Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis A Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Program Evaluation , Logistic Models , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Retrospective Studies , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunization Schedule , Hepatitis A Virus, Human/immunology , Hepatitis A Vaccines/immunology , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Hepatitis A/epidemiology
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 8(4): 31-36, dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1028329


Objetivo: Analisar a situação vacinal contra os vírus da hepatite A e B em crianças da educação infantil. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico, quantitativo, baseado em cópias dos cartões de vacinas de 1.434 crianças da educação infantil. Os dados foram em dados coletados por meio de checklist, e sua análise deu-se mediante a estatística descritiva e os dados foram apresentados em tabela e figura. Resultados: Para a vacina contra o vírus da hepatite B, 73,7% dos cartões das crianças foram classificados com esquema vacinal completo e 25,1% com esquema incompleto. Já para a vacina contra o vírus da hepatite A, 72,2% dos cartões foram classificados com esquema vacinal completo em das crianças com faixa etária entre um ano e um ano 11 meses e 29 dias. Conclusão: O quantitativo de doses administradas ainda não corresponde ao que é preconizado e foram observados doses administradas fora do período recomendado e erros nos registros das vacinas.

Objective: To analyze the vaccination situation against hepatitis A and B viruses in pre-school children. Methodology: Epidemiological, quantitative study, based on copies of vaccination cards of 1,434 children in early childhood education. The data were collected through a checklist, and their analysis was based on descriptive statistics and the data were presented in table and figure. Results: For the vaccine against hepatitis B virus, 73.7% of the children’s cards were classified as complete vaccine scheme and 25.1% were incomplete. In the case of the hepatitis A virus vaccine, 72.2% of the cards were classified with complete vaccination schedule in children aged between one year and one year 11 months and 29 days. Conclusion: Doses administered do not yet correspond to what is recommended and doses administered outside the recommended period and errors in vaccine records have been observed.

Objetivo: Analizar la situación vacunal contra los virus de la hepatitis A y B en niños de la educación infantil. Metodología: Estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo, basado en copias de las tarjetas de vacunas de 1.434 niños de la educación infantil. Los datos fueron en datos recolectados por medio de checklist, y su análisis se dio mediante la estadística descriptiva y los datos fueron presentados en tabla y figura. Resultados: Para la vacuna contra el virus de la hepatitis B, el 73,7% de las tarjetas de los niños fueron clasificados con esquema vacunal completo y el 25,1% con esquema incompleto. Para la vacuna contra el virus de la hepatitis A, el 72,2% de las tarjetas fueron clasificadas con esquema vacunal completo en los niños con edades entre un año y un año 11 meses y 29 días. Conclusión: El cuantitativo de dosis administradas aún no corresponde a lo que se preconiza y se observaron dosis administradas fuera del período recomendado y errores en los registros de las vacunas.

Male , Female , Humans , Nursing , Immunization Schedule , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis B Vaccines
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 371-373, ago. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899726


Resumen El presente documento corresponde a la opinión del Comité Consultivo de Inmunizaciones de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología, en relación a los brotes de hepatitis A en Chile. Las recomendaciones emitidas se basan en antecedentes epidemiológicos, características de la infección por virus hepatitis A(VHA) y en la experiencia mundial con las vacunas disponibles En relación a la infección por virus hepatitis A, Chile ha transitado de una endemia alta a una endemia intermedia, concentrándose actualmente los casos en personas mayores de 15 años, con brotes frequentes, uno de ellos este año causado por el genotipo 1A del VHA que se concentró en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). La endemia actual, la presencia de brotes regulares, la frecuencia de desastres naturales en el país como terremotos e inundaciones sumado a la disponibilidad de vacunas eficaces, seguras y con estudios de costo efectividad locales, nos llevan a plantear medidas para el control de brotes, medidas focalizadas en grupos de riesgo y especialmente medidas a mediano y largo plazo, que incluyen la vacunación universal de niños contra esta enfermedad.

This document represents the position of the Chilean Infectious Diseases Society Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices regarding hepatitis A epidemiological situation in Chile. The recommendations are based on local epidemiological data, the hepatitis A virus infection characteristics and the global experience with the available vaccines. In relation to hepatitis A, Chile is no longer a highly endemic area but actually an intermediate one, currently concentrating cases in individuals over 15 years of age, with frequent outbreaks. In 2017 we have seen an important outbreak of genotype 1A in men who have sex with men (MSM). The current endemic, the presence of regular outbreaks, the frequency of natural disasters in Chile, together with the availability of safe, effective vaccines and local cost-effectiveness studies led us to propose measures for outbreak control for high risk groups protection and mid and long term, including a more definitive solution which is universal vaccination against this disease in small children.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Vaccination , Hepatitis A Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Societies, Medical , Chile/epidemiology , Advisory Committees , Hepatitis A/epidemiology
Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases. 2017; 9 (4): 246-247
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189681
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218587


Although the overall incidence of hepatitis A in Korea has been decreasing, adolescents remain highly vulnerable to its outbreaks. This study was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of three hepatitis A vaccines in Korean adolescents. Healthy anti-hepatitis A virus seronegative subjects aged 13 to 19 yr were randomized in three equal groups to receive two doses of Avaxim(TM), Epaxal(R), or Havrix(R), 6 to 12 months apart. Seroconversion rates one month after the first dose were 98%, 95%, and 93% for Avaxim(TM), Epaxal(R), and Havrix(R), respectively. Seroconversion rates reached 100% for all vaccine groups one month after the second dose. Anti-HAV geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 7,207.7 mIU/mL (95% CI, 6023.1-8684.7), 1,750.5 mIU/mL (95% CI, 1362.9-2248.3), and 1,953.5 mIU/mL (95% CI, 1459.4-2614.7) after two doses of Avaxim(TM), Epaxal(R), and Havrix(R) respectively. Avaxim(TM) was significantly more immunogenic than Epaxal(R) and Havrix(R), whereas there were no significant differences in antibody responses between Epaxal(R) and Havrix(R). Local and systemic solicited adverse events (AEs) were mostly of mild-to-moderate intensity and resolved within 5 days. No serious AEs were reported. In conclusion, all three vaccines are highly immunogenic and well-tolerated in Korean adolescents. (Clinical Trial Registry NCT00483470)

Adolescent , Antibody Formation , Female , Hepatitis A/immunology , Hepatitis A Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis A Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16575


This report includes the recommended immunization schedule table for children and adolescents based on the 8th (2015) and revised 7th (2012) Immunization Guidelines released by the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society (KPS). Notable revised recommendations include: reorganization of the immunization table with a list of vaccines on the vertical axis and the corresponding age on the horizontal axis; reflecting the inclusion of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and hepatitis A vaccine into the National Immunization Program since 2012; addition of general recommendations for 2 new Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines and their interchangeability with existing JE vaccines; addition of general recommendations for quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines and scope of the recommended targets for vaccination; and emphasizing catch-up immunization of Tdap vaccine. Detailed recommendations for each vaccine may be obtained from the full KPS 8th Immunization Guidelines.

Adolescent , Child , Communicable Diseases , Encephalitis, Japanese , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Immunization , Infant , Korea , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Conjugate
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(11): e00175614, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828385


Abstract: This cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2011 and July 2012 in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Dried blood spot samples were collected on filter paper from 919 individuals between the ages of 1 and 19 and were tested for antibodies against the hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV). The total prevalence was 20.7%, while 94.7% of children under the age of 5 were found to be susceptible to HAV infection. The prevalence of anti-HAV increased with age, reaching 33.3% among individuals aged between 15 and 19, thereby indicating that this municipality has a low level of endemicity for hepatitis A. Age, non-white skin color, accustomed to swimming in the river and more than five people living at home were the factors that were associated with an increase in the chance of a positive anti-HAV result. Mother's education level (secondary or tertiary) was considered a protective factor for HAV infection. The data obtained showed that a large proportion of the children from Campos dos Goytacazes were at risk of HAV infection, which should be minimized with the introduction of the vaccination program against hepatitis A that was launched in the municipality in 2011.

Resumo: Estudo do corte transversal, realizado entre agosto de 2011 e julho de 2012 em Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Amostras de sangue capilar em papel de filtro foram coletadas de 919 indivíduos com idade entre 1 e 19 anos e testadas para anticorpos para o vírus da hepatite A (anti-HAV). A prevalência total foi de 20,7% e 94,7% das crianças abaixo de 5 anos foi suscetível a infecção pelo HAV. A prevalência de anti-HAV aumentou com a idade, alcançando 33,3% entre indivíduos com 15 a 19 anos, caracterizando este município com um nível baixo de endemicidade para hepatite A. Idade, cor da pele não-branca, hábito de nadar no rio e número de moradores na residência acima de 5 foram associados com o aumento de chance de ser positivo para anti-HAV. O nível educacional materno (médio ou superior) foi considerado como fator de proteção para a infecção pelo HAV. Os dados obtidos mostraram que uma grande parte das crianças de Campos dos Goytacazes estava sob risco de infecção pelo HAV, o que deve ser minimizado com o programa de vacinação contra hepatite A implantado em 2011 no município.

Resumen: Estudio de corte transversal, realizado entre agosto de 2011 y julio de 2012 en Campos dos Goytacazes, Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Se recogieron muestras de sangre capilar en papel de filtro de 919 individuos con una edad entre 1 y 19 años y testadas para anticuerpos del virus de la hepatitis A (anti-HAV). La prevalencia total fue de un 20,7% y un 94,7% de los niños por debajo de los 5 años fue susceptible a la infección por el HAV. La prevalencia de anti-HAV aumentó con la edad, alcanzando un 33,3% entre individuos con 15 a 19 años, caracterizando este municipio con un nivel bajo de endemicidad para la hepatitis A. Edad, color de piel no-blanca, hábito de nadar en el río y un número de ocupantes en la residencia de más de 5 se asociaron con el aumento de oportunidad de ser positivo para anti-HAV. El nivel educacional materno (medio o superior) se consideró como un factor de protección para la infección por el HAV. Los datos obtenidos mostraron que una gran parte de los niños de Campos dos Goytacazes estaba bajo riesgo de infección por el HAV, lo que debe ser minimizado con el programa de vacunación contra la hepatitis A implantado en 2011 en el municipio.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Hepatitis A Virus, Human/immunology , Hepatitis A Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis A Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis A/prevention & control
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(2): 142-149, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750802


OBJECTIVE: To assess possible factors associated with the loss of antibodies to hepatitis A 7 years after the primary immunization in children of HIV-infected mothers and the response to revaccination in patients seronegative for hepatitis A. METHODS: Quantification of HAV antibodies by electrochemiluminescence was performed in 39 adolescents followed up at the Pediatric Aids Clinic of Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp): 29 HIV-infected (HIV group) (median age: 12.8 years) and 10 HIV-exposed but non-infected (ENI group) (median age: 13.4 years). All of them received two doses of HAV vaccine (Havrix(r)) in 2002. RESULTS: The median age at primary immunization (PI) was 5.4 years for HIV group and 6.5 years for ENI group. All children, from both groups, had antibodies to HAV >20 mIU/mL after PI. Seven years later, the ENI group showed a median concentration of antibodies = 253.5 mIU/mL, while the HIV group = 113.0 mIU/mL (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.085). All ENI group and 23/29 (79.3%) from HIV group mantained HAV antibodies 7 years after PI. The levels of hepatitis A antibodies in the primary vaccination were the only factor independently associated with maintaining these antibodies for 7 years. The group that lost HAV seropositivity was revaccinated and 83.3% (5/6) responded with antibodies >20 mUI/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The antibodies levels acquired in the primary vaccination in the HIV group were the main factor associated with antibodies loss after HAV immunization.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar possíveis fatores associados à perda de anticorpos para o vírus da hepatite A (VHA) sete anos após a imunização primária e resposta à revacinação em crianças nascidas de mães soropositivas para HIV nos pacientes soronegativos para Hepatite A. MÉTODOS: Quantificação de anticorpos para o VHA por meio da eletroquimioluminescência foi feita em 39 adolescentes acompanhados no Ambulatório de Aids Pediátrica da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp): 29 infectados pelo HIV e 10 expostos e não infectados (ENI) pelo HIV, com mediana de idade, respectivamente, de 12,8 e 13,4 anos. Todos receberam duas doses da vacina VHA (Havrix(r)) em 2002. RESULTADOS: A mediana da idade na época da imunização primária (IP) era de 5,4 anos para o grupo HIV e 6,5 anos para o grupo ENI. As crianças dos dois grupos apresentaram anticorpos para o VHA > 20 mUI/mL após a IP. Sete anos após, o grupo ENI apresentava mediana de anticorpos = 253,5 mUI/mL e o grupo HIV = 113,0 mUI/mL (Mann-Whitney; p=0,085). Todo grupo ENI e 23/29 (79,3%) do grupo HIV mantiveram anticorpos contra o VHA sete anos após IP. Os níveis de anticorpos para hepatite A na primovacinação foram o único fator independentemente associado à manutenção desses anticorpos decorridos sete anos. O grupo que perdeu soropositividade para VHA foi revacinado e 83,3% (5/6) responderam com anticorpos >20 mUI/mL. CONCLUSÕES: Os níveis de anticorpos obtidos na primovacinação no grupo HIV foram o principal fator associado à perda de anticorpos após imunização VHA.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hepatitis A Vaccines , HIV , Immunosuppression
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224780


Infectious diseases have historically resulted in suspended or cancelled military operations. Vaccination for disease prevention is a critical component of the military's force readiness doctrine. Until recently, Korea had not recognized the importance of vaccinating military personnel. However, a 2011 meningococcal disease outbreak at an army recruit training center led to dramatic changes in the paradigm of traditional medical practice in the Korean armed forces. A new vaccination policy was formed by a 2012 Military Healthcare Service Act. Since then, Neisseria meningitidis, hepatitis A, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines have been routinely administered to all new recruits early in basic training to ensure protection against these diseases. All active-duty soldiers also receive seasonal influenza vaccination annually. Despite quantitative improvements in vaccination policies, several instances of major infectious diseases and adverse vaccine reactions have threatened soldier health. In the future, vaccination policies in the Korean armed forces should be based on epidemiologic data and military medical research for vaccine use and safety management.

Health Policy , Hepatitis A Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Meningococcal Vaccines/immunology , Military Personnel , Republic of Korea , Vaccination
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337058


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the antiviral efficacy, safety and protective ability against mother-to-infant transmission of telbivudine in pregnant patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) during the first trimester.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty four gravid women who were diagnosed with CHB, in their first trimester of pregnancy, and had refused to terminate their pregnancies were enrolled; all study participants were clinically classified as active hepatitis cases with positivity for both hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA more than or equal to 107 copies/mL and serum level of alanine aminotarnsferase (ALT) of more than or equal to 4 ULN.Patients with YMDD mutations were excluded from the study. The study participants were divided into a telbivudine treatment group (n=43; administered in the first trimester of pregnancy) and a control group (n=41, consisting of patients who refused to take antivirals). All babies bom to the women in both groups of the study received standard immune prevention (anti-hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus hepatitis B vaccine) and artificial feeding.Data recorded for the women during pregnancy included clinical findings for tests of hepatic and renal function, myocardial enzymes, blood and urine clinical parameters, hepatitis B virus makers and HBV DNA, as well as notation of any adverse reactions. The neonates were evaluated for presence of HBV infection, parameters of growth and development, presence of complications, and Apgar score. At 6 and 12 months old, all infants were evaluated for HBV DNA level and HBsAg presence.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The genetic variant rtM204I was detected in one of the women in the treatment group at 36 weeks of pregnancy. One woman in the control group developed severe hepatitis at 28 weeks of pregnancy and was put on the telbivudine treatment The treatment group showed greater recovery rates of ALT than the control group at 12 weeks of pregnancy (62.8% vs.29.3%, P=0.002), 24 weeks of pregnancy (76.7% vs.46.3%, P=0.000), and at ante partum (88.1% vs.60.0%, P=0.004). The treatment group also showed greater HBV DNA-negative conversion rates at 12 weeks of pregnancy (20.9% vs.0, P=0.006), at 24 weeks of pregnancy (37.2% vs.0, P=0.001) and at ante partum (78.6% vs.0, P=0.000), and greater HBeAg seroconversion rates at 12 weeks of pregnancy (2.3% vs.0, P=1.000), at 24 weeks of pregnancy (9.3% vs.0, P=0.116) and at ante partum (2 1.4% vs.0, P=0.002). The HBsAg-positive rates and HBV DNA-positive rates among the infants born to the mothers in the treatment and control groups, respectively, were 2.4% vs.17.5% (P=0.027) at birth, 0 vs.17.5% (P=0.005)at 6 months old and 0 vs.17.5% (P=0.005) at 12 months old. The Apgar scores were not significantly different for the children born to the mothers from the two groups, and all the children showed parameters of growth development within normal limits.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Telbivudine administration in the first trimester had a good antiviral curative effect and effectively blocked mother-to-infant transmission in women with CHB. The treatment was safe, causing no obvious adverse reaction in the gravid women or developmental effects on the infants.</p>

Antiviral Agents , DNA, Viral , Female , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mother-Child Relations , Mutation , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Thymidine , Vaccines, Combined
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1127-1130, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335273


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Hepatitis A immunization strategies were carried out in 2001 in Tianjin. We wanted to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies related to hepatitis A control programs and to provide the basis for further modification of the strategies.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Descriptive epidemiology study was used to analyze the hepatitis A epidemic situation in 2000-2011 in Tianjin and to evaluate the disease reporting system. Hepatitis A vaccine coverage of target population and serum epidemiological study were carried out in 1999, 2005 and 2010 to check on the hepatitis A antibody levels so as to evaluate the immuno-barrier condition in the normal population. Cox-Stuart test was used to analyze the epidemic trend of hepatitis A and other intestinal infectious diseases in Tianjin.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidence rate of hepatitis A decreased from 2.89/100 000 in 2000 to 0.12/100 000 in 2011, and the percentage of hepatitis A in all types of viral hepatitis decreased from 8.02% in 2000 to 0.48% in 2011 in Tianjin. The positive rates of hepatitis A antibody also increased in the residents.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The hepatitis A vaccination program was successful in the programs on prevention and control of hepatitis A in Tianjin, China.</p>

China , Epidemiology , Epidemics , Hepatitis A , Epidemiology , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Blood , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Humans
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 126-131, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86931


PURPOSE: Assessing the immunogenicity of a single dose of hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccines is important because some people receive only a single dose. However, previous studies have shown variable results and have not examined the effects of demographic characteristics other than gender. This study was performed to examine the immunogenicity of a single dose of HAV vaccine according to the vaccine type and demographic characteristics in young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seronegative medical school students were randomly allocated to receive either Havrix or Epaxal. RESULTS: After approximately 11 months, the seroconversion rate in 451 participants was 80.7%. In men, the Havrix group showed a significantly higher seroconversion rate (81.9%) than the Epaxal group (69.2%), whereas both vaccine groups showed similarly high immunogenicity in women (Havrix: 90.1%, Epaxal: 92.9%; P for interaction=0.062). According to the results of a multivariate analysis, Epaxal showed significantly lower immunogenicity than Havrix only in men. Age, obesity, drinking, smoking, and follow-up time did not significantly affect seroconversion in either gender. CONCLUSION: The seroconversion rate of single-dose HAV vaccines was low in men, particularly in those who received Epaxal. Our results suggest that gender effects should be considered when comparing the immunogenicity of different HAV vaccines.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Hepatitis A/immunology , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis A Virus, Human/immunology , Humans , Male , Young Adult
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161115


Hepatitis A can cause serious illness among adolescents and adults with low vaccination coverage. Even though hepatitis A vaccine is one of the strong candidates for Korean national immunization program, adolescents aged older than 12 yr would not benefit. Our purpose was to assess the willingness and analyze the correlates of Korean mothers for hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination to develop strategies for HepA vaccination. A national telephone survey on 800 mothers with children aged 7-18 yr was conducted with random-digit dialing method. Sixty-two percent and 92% of the mothers reported that they were willing to HepA vaccination at current cost and at half of the current cost, respectively. However, at current cost, only 79% wished to vaccinate their child in an epidemic and 32% wished to vaccinate promptly. Having two or more children, not having future plans to send the child overseas, and low family income were significantly associated with not willing to HepA vaccination. Low perception of the susceptibility for hepatitis A and perception of the current cost as barrier increased the odds of unwillingness to vaccination at current cost and to prompt vaccination. The mothers' willingness to HepA vaccination for the children aged 7-18 yr in Korea was not very high at current cost and associated socioeconomic status and health-belief. Targeted intervention or strategies are needed to increase the HepA vaccination rate among children in Korea.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Demography , Female , Health Status , Health Surveys , Hepatitis A/economics , Hepatitis A Vaccines/economics , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Mothers/psychology , Republic of Korea , Social Class , Vaccination
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 111(2): 0-0, Apr. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-671999


La hepatitis A (HA) presenta una evolución benigna, pero en ocasiones puede causar una insuficiencia hepática aguda con necesidad de trasplante. En 2003, en un consenso realizado en la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, se recomendó la incorporación de la vacuna contra la HA en el calendario nacional. Esto se concretó por decreto ministerial y se efectivizó a partir del 1 de junio de 2005, con la obligación de aplicar una dosis de la vacuna a todos los niños al año de edad. Desde entonces, se registró una disminución marcada de casos y no se documentaron cuadros de insuficiencia hepática aguda desde el año 2006. Los estudios de seguimiento mostraron, hasta el momento, una circulación viral baja y la persistencia de anticuerpos hasta los 5 años posteriores a su introducción.

Hepatitis A (HA) presents a benign evolution, but occasionally some patients develop a more severe disease. Previously to 2005 hepatitis A was an important cause of acute liver failure (ALF) and hepatic transplant. In 2003, a consensus in the Argentinian Pediatrics Society was done; it had just recommended the inclusion of the vaccine in the mandatory immunisation schedule. This was issued by the Health Ministery, and was applied on June 1st, 2005. The schedule was one dose at the age of one year of age. Since then, an important reduction of HA was registered, without any case of ALF since 2006. Follow-up studies so far showed low viral circulation and persistence of antibodies to 5 years later.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Argentina/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Time Factors
Brasília; CONITEC; jan. 2013. tab, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-837304


No Brasil, a vacina contra hepatite A está disponível no SUS, apenas para a vacinação de pessoas de maior vulnerabilidade e risco de doença grave, nos Centros de Referência para Imunobiológicos Especiais (CRIEs). A vacina está também disponível na rede privada. Essa estratégia resulta em baixíssima cobertura vacinal. Com base em dados administrativos, menos de 1% das crianças de 1 a 4 anos receberam a vacina em 2009. A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) recomenda vacinação universal contra hepatite A para países com média endemicidade. Estudos de avaliação econômica são importantes no processo de tomada de decisão da introdução de uma nova vacina em programas de imunização. Esses estudos comparam benefícios e custos de intervenções, procurando garantir alocação eficiente dos recursos no sistema de saúde. O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver modelo de avaliação de custo-efetividade da vacinação universal contra hepatite A na infância, no Brasil, utilizando dados nacionais. Para isso, foram desenvolvidos modelos dinâmicos de infecção pelo vírus da hepatite A tendo como base os dados de soroprevalência da infecção obtidos no Inquérito Nacional de Hepatites. Segundo inquérito nacional das hepatites virais, a estimativa da prevalência para a exposição à infecção pelo VHA, referente ao conjunto das capitais do Brasil, foi de 39,5% (IC 95% 36,5%-42,5%). O percentual de expostos ao VHA na faixa etária de 5 a 9 anos foi de 27,0% (IC 95% 23,5%-30,5%) e de 44,1% (IC 40,4%-47,8%) para o grupo de 10 a 19 anos. Os resultados indicam associação inversa entre o nível socioeconômico e a prevalência de anti-HAV total, bem como a redução das prevalências nas faixas etárias de crianças e adolescentes, implicando um aumento do número de indivíduos suscetíveis à doença. No período de 1999 a 2010 foram confirmados no Sinan 130.354 casos de hepatite A, sendo a maior parte deles no tificados nas Regiões Nordeste (31,2%) e Norte (22,6%). Em relação às taxas de incidência, verfica-se queda no País desde 2006, e para as regiões, observa-se a mesma tendência. Em 2009, o País registrou uma taxa de 5,6 casos por 100 mil habitantes e que apenas oito estados (Ceará, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, Espírito Santo e São Paulo) apresentaram taxas abaixo desse patamar. Em 2013, com o intuito de ampliar esta proteção, o Ministério da Saúde (MS) pretende incluir as vacinas de varicela e hepatite A no calendário básico de vacinação da criança. Para que ocorra a introdução destas novas vacinas é necessário levar em consideração aspectos importantes como a redução dos custos dos imunobiológicos, logística operacional (armazenamento, transporte, seringas e agulhas), eficácia dos insumos além do custo-benefício desses produtos. Portanto, estudos de avaliação econômica em saúde têm apoiado diretamente a tomada de decisão, demonstrando transparência, perspectivas econômicas e epidemiológicas, promovendo assim a eficiência e equidade. Obedecendo a tais prerrogativas. Foram encomendados e apresentados os estudos de custo-efetividade das vacinas de varicela e hepatite A. Os membros da CONITEC presentes na 8ª reunião do plenário do dia 06/09/2012, por unanimidade, ratificaram a decisão de recomendar a incorporação da vacina de hepatite A na rotina do Programa Nacional de Imunização. A Portaria SCTIE-MS N.º 2 de 18 de janeiro de 2013 - Torna pública a decisão de incorporar a vacina de hepatite A na rotina do Programa Nacional de Imunização do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).

Humans , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis A/diagnosis , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/supply & distribution , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unified Health System
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177240


PURPOSE: Although the overall incidence of hepatitis A in Korea has been decreasing recently, the adolescents born before the introduction of the hepatitis A vaccine remain to be highly vulnerable to outbreak. This study examines the unvaccinated adolescents' and their parents' knowledge and health beliefs toward hepatitis A vaccination. METHODS: Healthy adolescents aged 13-19 years old who had no previous history of hepatitis A vaccine and hepatitis A infection, and their parents or legal guardians were the subjects of the study. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model, and examined the subjects' demographics, knowledge, and health beliefs (i.e., perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers). RESULTS: We included 157 adolescents and their parents/guardians (mean age: 16.0+/-1.6 and 45.6+/-4.7 years, respectively). The average knowledge item score for adolescents and parents was 6.4+/-3.7 and 7.3+/-3.4 (out of 18), respectively. Similarly, average Health Belief Model item scores were: susceptibility, 5.6+/-1.6 and 5.9+/-1.7 (range: 2-10); severity, 16.3+/-4.1 and 18.3+/-3.6 (range:5-25); benefits, 19.7+/-3.3 and 20.6+/-2.1 (range:5-25); and barriers, 41.3+/-8.9 and 39.0+/-9.1 (range:7-85). The major reason for not undergoing hepatitis A vaccination was lack of knowledge about its importance. CONCLUSIONS: Refresher health lectures about hepatitis A and the vaccine are needed by both the adolescents and their parents. Furthermore, the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the national immunization program should be considered to reduce the risk of hepatitis A outbreak and to raise the vaccination coverage among the adolescents in Korea.

Adolescent , Demography , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis , Humans , Immunization Programs , Incidence , Korea , Lecture , Legal Guardians , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(5): 652-658, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-643751


Age-related seroprevalence studies that have been conducted in Brazil have indicated a transition from a high to a medium endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the population. However, most of these studies have focused on urban populations that experience lower incidence rates of HAV infection. In the current study, the prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies was investigated in children with a low socioeconomic status (SES) that live on the periphery of three capital cities in Brazil. A total of 1,162 dried blood spot samples were collected from individuals whose ages ranged from one-18 years and tested for anti-HAV antibodies. A large number of children under five years old (74.1-90%) were identified to be susceptible to HAV infection. The anti-HAV antibody prevalence reached ≥ 50% among those that were 10-14 years of age or older. The anti-HAV prevalence rates observed were characteristics of regions with intermediate level of hepatitis A endemicity. These data indicated that a large proportion of children with a low SES that live at the periphery of urban cities might be at risk of contracting an HAV infection. The hepatitis A vaccine that is currently offered in Brazil is only available for high-risk groups or at private clinics and is unaffordable for individuals with a lower SES. The results from this study suggest that the hepatitis A vaccine should be included in the Brazilian National Program for Immunisation.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis A Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis A Virus, Human/immunology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population