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Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 69-73, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098064


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vaccinated for hepatitis B have a low success rate in achieving protective antibody levels. The main factors suggested for this are IBD itself and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concentration of anti-HBs antibodies and to verify factors associated with the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a prospective, consecutive, observational, descriptive and analytical, non-randomized, qualitative study that evaluated the levels of anti-HBs antibodies in IBD patients at the Interdisciplinary Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic of the Family and Community Health Unit of UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV), of which 29 were female. The average age was 46.2 years. Regarding the type of IBD, twenty-four patients had Crohn's disease and the duration of inflammatory bowel disease was 74 months. Fifteen patients were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. The effective response rate to HBV vaccine was 72.2%, verified by anti-HBs titration ≥10 UI/L. Statistical analysis revealed a negative response to vaccination in patients with Crohn's disease and immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: The success rate of HBV immunization in IBD patients is low compared to the general population. Type of disease and use of immunosuppressive drugs appear to influence the vaccine response.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) vacinados para hepatite B possuem baixa taxa de sucesso em alcançar níveis protetores de anticorpos. Os principais fatores sugeridos para isso são a própria DII e o uso de medicamentos imunossupressores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs e verificar fatores associados a efetividade da vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes com DII. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo e consecutivo, de caráter observacional, descritivo e analítico, não-randomizado, qualiquantitativo, que avaliou a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs em pacientes portadores de DII no Ambulatório Interdisciplinar de Doença Inflamatória Intestinal da Unidade de Saúde da Família e Comunitária da UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram vacinados contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB), destes, 29 eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 46,2 anos. Em relação ao tipo de DII, 24 pacientes eram portadores de doença de Crohn e o tempo médio de doença inflamatória intestinal encontrado foi de 74 meses. Quinze pacientes estavam em uso de terapia imunossupressora concomitante à vacinação. A taxa de resposta à vacina contra o VHB foi de 72,2%, verificada através de titulação de anti-HBs ≥10 UI/L. A análise estatística revelou uma resposta negativa à vacinação em pacientes em uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e portadores de doença de Crohn. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de sucesso na imunização contra o VHB em pacientes com DII é baixo quando comparado à população em geral. Tipo de doença e uso de medicamentos imunossupressores parecem desempenhar influência na resposta vacinal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Qualitative Research , Seroconversion , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180533, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057270


Abstract INTRODUCTION: HBV and HIV have identical transmission routes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV in HIV patients and to detect the presence of occult HBV infection. METHODS: All samples were tested for serology markers and using qPCR. RESULTS: This study included 232 individuals, out of which 36.6% presented with HBV markers and 11.8% presented with HBsAg or HBV-DNA, including 3 patients that showed OBI. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HBV among HIV patients. In addition, the results suggest that OBI can occur in patients with serological profiles that are indicative of past infection. Therefore, the application of molecular tests may enable the identification of infections that are not evident solely based on serology.

Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 40-44, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001500


ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the major public health problems in developing countries. HEV can cause chronic infections in immunocompromised individuals e.g. thalassemic patients with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In addition there is possibility of HEV transmission through blood transfusion. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of HEV infection in β-thalassemic children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 140 Egyptian children suffering from β-thalassemia, attending the hematology outpatient clinic from April to October 2016. Serum samples from patients were collected and anti-HEV antibodies; Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM)were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The seroprevalence of HEV in β-thalassemic chidren was relatively high (27.15%). Anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 24.29% while that of IgM was 2.86%. There was significant association between HEV infection and age, residence, liver enzymes and amount of blood transfusion per year. Conclusions: Thalasemic patients are vulnerable to chronicity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality from HEV infection. Frequent assessment of liver enzymes in thalassemic patients to monitor subclinical HEV is recommended. Close monitoring and HEV screening of blood donations should be taken in consideration. Public awareness about HEV endemicity, modes of transmission, and risk hazards especially in high risk group should be done to reduce the disease burden.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Blood Transfusion , Hepatitis E/transmission , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , beta-Thalassemia/epidemiology , beta-Thalassemia/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Egypt/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Immunocompetence
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180132, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041500


Abstract INTRODUCTION Medical students have an occupational risk for hepatitis B (HB). This study sought to determine anti-HBs and anti-HBc IgG levels in vaccinated students, check their seroconversion, and correlate this with vaccination. METHODS One hundred and forty-three students' blood samples and their vaccination schedules were analyzed. RESULTS: 65.7% were positive for anti-HBs; however, anti-HBs was absent in 34.3%. Only two samples were positive for anti-HBc IgG. CONCLUSIONS More than 30% of students did not have minimum protective levels. Comparing HBV vaccination and anti-HBs reactivity, the majority of reactive individuals received their last dose within the past 16 years.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 267-273, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973883


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C are diseases with high morbimortality and constitute a global public health problem. In Brazil, the prevalence is not homogeneous, oscillating among different regions, but it is estimated that currently about 1% of the population present chronic disease related to the B virus and that there are 1.5 million infected with the C virus. Despite the development of hepatitis B vaccine, improvement in diagnostic methods and therapeutic advances in the field of viral hepatitis, there is still a large number of people who continues to be infected by these viruses, especially in populations at risk and also due to several factors, including vaccination and migration policies. Vertical and perinatal transmissions are of great importance in the epidemiology of viral hepatitis and the blood tests performed during prenatal care constitute a great opportunity for screening and identifying these viruses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the seroprevalence of markers for B and C viruses in women who underwent prenatal care at the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro (Antonio Pedro University Hospital) from 2006 to 2013 and to compare the results found with regional data and those described in the specific literature. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study with retrospective data collected from 635 records of pregnant women attended at the Prenatal Service of the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, from March 2006 until December 2013. The database was built in the Microsoft Office Access program and was later exported to Microsoft Office Excel. For the processing and analysis of the data, it was used the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science, IBM) version 22.0, for Windows. RESULTS: Twelve cases with positive HBsAg (1.9%), 189 cases with positive anti-HBs (35.9%) and seven positive anti-HCV patients (1.3%) were observed. There was no significant association between age and positivity for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HCV (P =0.205, 0.872 and 0.676, respectively). There was a direct relationship between the anti-HBs positivity and the last four years of the study (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of HBsAg was observed, higher than the expected for the evaluated region; there was a prevalence of anti-HCV, consistent with the current Brazilian reality; and a likely low rate of hepatitis B immunization, with a relatively high rate of susceptibility to this infection and no case of co-infection between B and C viruses and HIV. It is emphasized not only the need to trace hepatitis B and C, without exceptions, during prenatal care, since even though the current advances in therapy may not cure, at least they may allow a better quality of life for patients with chronic disease and the mandatory completion of immunoprophylaxis in all newborns. Special attention should be given to those patients susceptible to HBV, with prompt diagnosis and referral for specific vaccination.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: As hepatites pelo vírus B e C são doenças com elevada morbimortalidade e um problema de saúde pública global. No Brasil a prevalência não é homogênea, variando entre as diferentes regiões, mas estima-se que atualmente cerca de 1% da população apresente doença crônica relacionada ao vírus B e que haja 1,5 milhões de infectados pelo vírus C. Apesar do desenvolvimento da vacina contra a hepatite B, da melhoria nos métodos diagnósticos e dos avanços terapêuticos no campo das hepatites virais, ainda é grande o número de pessoas que continuam sendo infectadas por esses vírus, principalmente nas populações sob algum tipo de risco e devido a vários fatores incluindo políticas de vacinação e migração. A transmissão vertical e também a perinatal têm grande importância na epidemiologia das hepatites virais e os exames realizados durante o pré-natal constituem uma oportunidade única de rastreio e identificação destes vírus. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a soroprevalência de marcadores para os vírus B e C em mulheres que realizaram a assistência pré-natal no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro no período de 2006 a 2013 e comparar os resultados encontrados com os dados regionais e os descritos na literatura específica. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo, do tipo quantitativo, com coleta retrospectiva de dados em 635 prontuários de gestantes atendidas no Serviço de pré-natal do Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Niterói, estado do Rio de Janeiro no período de março de 2006 a dezembro de 2013. O banco de dados foi construído no programa Microsoft Office Access, sendo posteriormente exportado para Microsoft Office Excel. Para o processamento e análise dos dados, foi utilizado o pacote estatístico SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science, IBM) versão 22.0, para Windows. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 12 casos com HBsAg positivo (1,9%), 189 casos com anti-HBs positivo (35,9%) e sete pacientes positivas para o anti-HCV (1,3%). Não foi observada associação significativa entre a faixa etária e a positividade do HBsAg, anti-HBs e anti-HCV (P=0, 205, 0,872 e 0,676 respectivamente). Houve relação direta entre a positividade do anti-HBs e os últimos quatro anos da pesquisa (P<0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: Foi observada uma prevalência alta do HBsAg, acima daquela esperada para a região avaliada; uma prevalência para o anti-HCV concordante com a realidade brasileira atual; um índice provavelmente baixo de imunização contra a hepatite B, com índice relativamente alto de susceptibilidade para esta infecção e nenhum caso de coinfecção entre o vírus B, C e o HIV. Enfatiza-se não só a necessidade da triagem das hepatites B e C, sem exceções, durante o pré-natal, já que os avanços atuais na terapêutica poderão se não curar, pelo menos possibilitar uma melhor qualidade de vida para as pacientes com doença crônica e da realização mandatória da imunoprofilaxia em todos os recém-natos. Atenção especial deverá ser dada àquelas pacientes susceptíveis ao HBV, com pronto diagnóstico e encaminhamento para a realização da vacinação específica.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/blood , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hospitals, University , Middle Aged
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e3085, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-978614


ABSTRACT Objective: to estimate the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B and C in patients with diabetes mellitus and analyze potential associated factors. Method: a cross-sectional study with 255 patients with diabetes mellitus. Demographic, clinical, and risk behavior factors for hepatitis B and C were selected. The markers HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs, and Anti-HCV were investigated. A questionnaire and venous blood collection and inferential statistical analysis were used. Results: 16.8% of the patients had a total reactive Anti-HBc marker, 8.2% an isolated Anti-HBs, and 75% were non-reactive for all hepatitis B markers. No case of reactive HBsAg was found and 3.3% of the patients had a reactive anti-HCV marker. The prevalence of prior hepatitis B virus infection was directly associated with the time of diabetes mellitus and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection was not associated with the investigated variables. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in patients with diabetes mellitus was higher when compared to the national, with values of 16.8% and 3.3%, respectively. Conclusion: the results suggest that patients with diabetes are a population of higher vulnerability to hepatitis B and C, leading to the adoption of preventive measures of their occurrence.

RESUMO Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B e C em pacientes com diabetes mellitus e analisar potenciais fatores associados. Método: estudo transversal com 255 pacientes com diabetes mellitus. Elegeram-se variáveis demográficas, clínicas e comportamentos de risco para hepatite B e C. Investigou-se os marcadores HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs e Anti-HCV. Utilizou-se um questionário e coleta de sangue venoso e análise por estatística inferencial. Resultados: 16,8% pacientes apresentaram marcador Anti-HBc total reagente, 8,2% Anti-HBs isolado e 75% foram não reagentes para todos os marcadores de hepatite B. Nenhum caso de HBsAg reagente foi encontrado, 3,3% dos pacientes apresentaram marcador anti-HCV reagente. A prevalência de infecção pregressa pelo vírus da hepatite B mostrou-se diretamente associado ao tempo de diabetes mellitus, e a prevalência de infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C não teve associação com as variáveis investigadas. A prevalência de infecção por hepatite B e C em pacientes com diabetes mellitus foi superior a nacional, 16,8% e 3,3% respectivamente. Conclusão: os resultados sugerem que pacientes com diabetes sejam uma população de maior vulnerabilidade às hepatites B e C, ensejando à adoção de medidas preventivas de sua ocorrência.

RESUMEN Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de marcadores serológicos para la hepatitis B y C en pacientes con diabetes mellitus y analizar potenciales factores asociados. Método: estudio transversal con 255 pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Se eligieron variables demográficas, clínicas y comportamientos de riesgo para hepatitis B y C. Se investigaron los marcadores HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs y Anti-HCV. Se utilizó un cuestionario, colecta de sangre venosa y análisis por estadística inferencial. Resultados: 16,8% de los pacientes presentaron marcador Anti-HBc total reactivo, 8,2% Anti-HBs aislado y 75% fueron no reactivos para todos los marcadores de hepatitis B. Ningún caso de HBsAg reactivo fue encontrado, 3,3% de los pacientes presentaron marcador anti-HCV reactivo. La prevalencia de infección previa por el virus de la hepatitis B se mostró directamente asociado al tiempo de diabetes mellitus, y la prevalencia de infección por el virus de la hepatitis C no tuvo asociación con las variables investigadas. La prevalencia de infección por hepatitis B y C en pacientes con diabetes mellitus fue superior al nacional, 16,8% y 3,3% respectivamente. Conclusión: los resultados sugieren que pacientes con diabetes son una población de mayor vulnerabilidad a las hepatitis B y C, lo que da lugar a la adopción de medidas preventivas de su ocurrencia.

Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis C/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 356-358, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038704


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients on chronic dialysis present a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. Despite infection-control practices, surveillance of serological markers, and hepatitis B vaccination, there are still outbreaks of the disease in dialysis centers. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the serologic and vaccination status for hepatitis B in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed serologic markers and hepatitis B vaccination status of chronic kidney disease patients on regular dialysis program in São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Patients without information about hepatitis B status (anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs) were referred for testing. Individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunization status and without serological conversion (anti-HBs <10mIU/mL) were referred to vaccination, with adverse effects monitored. RESULTS: The study included 130 from a total of 181 dialysis patients. The majority were male (63.8%), mean age 53.9 years. All patients were already screened and negative for HBsAg, and 73.8% were vaccinated against hepatitis B (59.2% complete and 14.6% incomplete schedule), with a seroconversion rate of 75.3%. Only 11 (8.5%) patients had prior dosage of anti-HBc (negative). Among the 47 patients referred for anti-HBc testing, four were anti-HBc positive and one indeterminate. Of the total of patients referred to immunization, 34 have actually received HBV vaccine; among them five had mild adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Despite the benefit of dosing of anti-HBc and anti-HBs before admission to dialysis, economic constraints have reduced the screening to only HBsAg. Since occult HBV infection has already been demonstrated in hemodialysis patients, the measure of anti-HBc should be encouraged.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Pacientes cronicamente em diálise apresentam alta prevalência de infecção por vírus da hepatite B. Apesar de práticas de controle de infecção, vigilância de marcadores sorológicos e vacinação contra a hepatite B, ainda há surtos da doença em centros de diálise. OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o estado sorológico e a vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando marcadores sorológicos e vacinação contra a hepatite B em pacientes com doença renal crônica em programa regular de hemodiálise em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Pacientes sem marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B disponíveis (anti-HBc, HBsAg e anti-HBs) foram encaminhados para testagem. Em caso de situação vacinal desconhecida, incompleta ou sem resposta vacinal (anti-HBs <10mIU/mL), os pacientes foram encaminhados para vacinação, sendo os efeitos adversos monitorados. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 130 de um total de 181 pacientes em diálise. A maioria era do sexo masculino (63,8%), com idade média de 53,9 anos. Todos os pacientes já haviam sido rastreados e eram negativos para HBsAg, e 73,8% foram vacinados contra a hepatite B (59,2% esquema completo e 14,6% esquema incompleto), com uma taxa de soroconversão de 75,3%. Apenas 11 (8,5%) pacientes dispunham de dosagem prévia de anti-HBc (negativo). Entre os 47 pacientes encaminhados para testagem anti-HBc, quatro eram anti-HBc reagentes e um indeterminado. Do total de pacientes encaminhados à imunização, 34 receberam efetivamente a vacina contra o HBV; entre eles, cinco tiveram efeitos adversos leves. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do benefício da dosagem de anti-HBc e anti-HBs antes da admissão à diálise, restrições econômicas reduziram o rastreio apenas à dosagem de HBsAg. Como a infecção oculta por HBV já foi demonstrada em pacientes em hemodiálise, a dosagem de anti-HBc deve ser incentivada.

Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Middle Aged
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 296-304, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893771


Abstract Introduction: Bacterial or viral diseases are one of the major causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These patients show a quantitative reduction of levels of antibodies over time. Among the infectious diseases that affect CKD patients, stands out hepatitis B (HB). Immunization and control of antibodies levels against the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are ways to prevent the HB infection in this population. Patients with anti-HBs levels ≥10 IU/ml are considered adequate responders, whereas those with anti-HBs levels ≥ 100 IU/ml are considered excellent responders. Objective: To analyze the variation of the anti-HBs levels obtained after vaccination against HB in children and adolescents in the pre-dialysis stage of CKD. Methods: A retrospective cohort study on anti-HBs levels of children and adolescents in the pre-dialysis stage of CKD. Correlation between levels of anti-HBs titers and time since the vaccination were estimated. Results: From the total of 116 studied patients most of the studied patients were considered excellent responders, obtaining in the three anti-HBs titers percentages of 70.7%, 62.1% and 54.9% respectively. The anti-HBs titer levels showed a negative correlation with the time since vaccination (Kendall Tau-b = -0.16; p = 0.02). Conclusion: The majority of the studied population was vaccinated by PNI and showed excellent anti-HBs titer levels, even experiencing a progressive reduced response over the time.

Resumo Introdução: As doenças infecciosas, bacterianas ou virais, são uma das principais causas de morte dos pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC), que apresentam um decréscimo na duração da imunidade em comparação às pessoas saudáveis. Entre as doenças infecciosas que acometem os portadores de DRC, destaca-se a hepatite B (HB). A imunização e o controle dos níveis de anticorpos contra o antígeno da superfície da hepatite B (anti-HBs) são formas de evitar a contaminação da HB nessa população. Pacientes com o nível de anti-HBs ≥ 10 UI/ml são considerados adequados respondedores, enquanto aqueles com níveis de anti-HBs ≥ 100 UI/ml são considerados excelentes respondedores. Objetivo: Analisar a variação dos níveis de anti-HBs adquiridos após a vacinação contra a HB em crianças e adolescentes na fase pré-dialítica da DRC. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo dos níveis de anti-HBs de crianças e adolescentes na fase pré-dialítica da DRC. Resultados: Dos 116 pacientes do estudo, a maior parte foi considerada respondedores excelentes, obtendo nas três titulagens percentuais de 70,7%, 62,1% e 54,9%, respectivamente. Os níveis de anti-HBs apresentaram uma correlação negativa com o tempo de vacinação (Kendall Tau-b = - 0,16; p = 0,02). Conclusão: Conclui-se que a maior parte da população do estudo apresenta níveis de anti-HBs excelentes, ocorrendo uma queda progressiva da titulagem ao longo do tempo.

Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Monitoring, Physiologic
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(8): 544-550, Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894870


BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in Brazil. Several risk factors are involved in HBV infection and their identification by a rational and essential approach is required to prevent the transmission of this infection in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To evaluate risk factors associated with HBV infection in South Brazil. METHODS A total of 260 patients with HBV and 260 controls from Caxias do Sul (state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) participated in this study. All participants were given a standard questionnaire to yield the sociodemographic information and to identify HBV risk factors. HBV infection was detected by HBsAg test in all participants. FINDINGS HBV infection in these cases was strongly associated with history of a family member HBV-infected, mainly mother [odds ratio (OR) = 4.86; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.69-13.91], father (OR = 5.28; 95% CI: 1.58-17.71), and/or siblings (OR = 22.16; 95% CI: 9.39-52.25); sharing personal objects (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.37-2.38); and having history of blood transfusion (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.10-2.84). CONCLUSIONS HBV infection was strongly associated with having a family member infected with hepatitis B, sharing personal objects, and having history of blood transfusion.

Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/transmission , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Family Health , Transfusion Reaction
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(2): 141-145, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893753


Abstract Introduction: Vaccination is the most effective tool in preventing transmission of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). The patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis appear to be at greater risk of becoming infected with this virus and does not show the same vaccine response when compared to patients without uremia. Objectives: To evaluate the results related to the HBV vaccine and identify factors associated with the response in patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Methods: Individuals with HBsAG and negative anti-HBC, under hemodialysis were assessed in two units of São Luis, Maranhão and were undergone full vaccination schedule for HBV. They were divided in groups: anti-HBs10 mUI/mL and compared as to age, gender, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), time on dialysis and anti-HCV status. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with the vaccine response. p10mUI/Ml (or = 5.239 IC: 1.279-21.459, p = 0.021). Conclusion: The rate of vaccine response to HBV in patients with CKD on dialysis was 70% and the lack of anti-HCV infection was associated with seroconversion of anti-HBs suggesting that infection by the hepatitis C virus may be a factor that decreases the response of the HBV vaccine in dialysis CKD patients.

Resumo Introdução: A vacinação é a medida mais efetiva na prevenção da transmissão do vírus da hepatite B (HBV). O portador de doença renal crônica (DRC) em diálise apresenta maior risco de se contaminar com este vírus e não tem a mesma resposta vacinal quando comparada com indivíduos sem uremia. Objetivos: Avaliar os resultados da vacina para o HBV e identificar fatores associados à resposta, em portadores de DRC em hemodiálise. Metodologia: Foram avaliados indivíduos com HBsAg e anti-HBc negativos, que estavam sob hemodiálise em duas unidades de São Luís, Maranhão e que haviam sido submetidos ao esquema completo de vacinação para o HBV. Foram distribuídos em dois grupos: anti-HBs < 10mUI/mL e anti-HBs ≥ 10mUI/mL e comparados quanto à idade, gênero, presença de diabetes mellitus (DM), tempo em diálise e status do anti-HCV. Análise de regressão logística foi realizada para identificar fatores independentemente associados à resposta vacinal. Anti-HBs ≥ 10mUI/mL(OR = 5.239 IC:1.279-21.459, p = 0.021) Conclusões: A taxa de resposta vacinal ao HBV em portadores de DRC em diálise foi de 70% e a ausência do anti-HCV foi associada à soroconversão do anti-HBs, sugerindo que a infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C pode ser um fator que diminui a resposta da vacina para o HBV em indivíduos portadores de DRC em diálise.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Renal Dialysis , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 209-213, Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040567


Rapid tests (RTs) can be used as an alternative method for the conventional diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aims to evaluate antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibodies to HBeAg (anti-HBe) RTs under different Brazilian settings. The following three groups were included: GI: viral hepatitis outpatient services; GII: low resource areas; and GIII: crack users and beauticians. Imuno-rápido anti-HBsAg™ and Imuno-rápido anti-HBeAg™ RTs were evaluated and showed specificities greater than 95% in all groups. The sensitivity values to anti-HBs were 50.38%, 51.05% and 46.73% and the sensitivity values to anti-HBe were 76.99%, 10.34% and 11.76% in the GI, GII and GIII groups, respectively. The assays had a low sensitivity and high specificity, which indicated their use for screening in regions endemic for HBV.

Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(7): e00109216, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889724


Data are limited in Brazil on hepatitis B infection among homeless individuals, a marginalized population with high risk of sexually transmissible infections (STI), including hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis B epidemiology in homeless persons lodged in a public shelter in Goiânia, Central Brazil. From August 2014 to June 2015, 353 individuals were interviewed and tested for markers of HBV infection. Overall HBV prevalence was 21.8% (95%CI: 17,82-26,41), and 19,5% (95%CI: 15,75-24,0) showed a serological profile of previous HBV vaccination. Older individuals (> 50 years), blacks, and homosexuals or bisexuals showed increased exposure to HBV. The low frequency of individuals immunized against HBV, high social vulnerability, and risk behaviors emphasize the need for health services administrators to provide more opportunities for HBV vaccination in this target population.

No Brasil, existem poucos dados sobre a infecção por hepatite B entre pessoas em situação de rua, uma população marginalizada com alto risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST), incluindo a hepatite B. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a epidemiologia da hepatite B em pessoas alojadas em um abrigo público da cidade de Goiânia, Brasil Central. De agosto de 2014 a junho de 2015, 353 indivíduos foram entrevistados e testados para os marcadores da infecção pelo HBV. Uma prevalência global de 21,8% (IC95%: 17,82-26,41) para HBV foi estimado, e 19,5% (IC95%: 15,75-24,0) apresentaram perfil sorológico de vacinação prévia contra o HBV. Ser mais velho (acima de 50 anos de idade), preto e homossexual ou bissexual foram preditores de exposição ao HBV. A baixa frequência de indivíduos imunizados contra o HBV, bem como de alta vulnerabilidade social e ocorrência de comportamentos de risco reforçam a necessidade dos gestores de saúde proporcionar mais oportunidades de vacinação para esta população-alvo.

En Brasil, existen pocos datos sobre la infección por hepatitis B entre personas sin techo, una población marginalizada con un alto riesgo de infecciones sexualmente transmisibles (IST), incluyendo la hepatitis B. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la epidemiología de la hepatitis B en personas alojadas en un albergue público de la ciudad de Goiânia, Brasil Central. De agosto de 2014 a junio de 2015, se entrevistó a 353 individuos y se probaron los marcadores de la infección por HBV. Se estimó una prevalencia global de un 21,8% (IC95%: 17,82-26,41) para HBV, y 19,5% (IC95%: 15,75-24,0) presentaron un perfil serológico de vacunación previa contra el HBV. Ser más viejo (por encima de 50 años de edad), negro y homosexual o bisexual fueron predictores de exposición al HBV. La baja frecuencia de individuos inmunizados contra el HBV, así como la alta vulnerabilidad social y ocurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo refuerzan la necesidad de los gestores de salud de proporcionar más oportunidades de vacunación para esta población-objetivo.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/etiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Middle Aged
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(3): 175-179, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787352


ABSTRACT Background Occult hepatitis B infection is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and also detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) -DNA, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). HBV reactivation in individuals under immunosuppressive therapy is critical, occurring in occult HBV. Objective In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection among hepatitis B surface antigen negative in cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy. Methods Sera from 204 cancer patients who were negative for HBsAg, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc also examined for HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Of the 204 HBsAg negative blood samples, 11 (5.4%) samples were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 9/11 (81%) of anti-HBc positive samples. Occult HBV infection in hematological cancers was more than solid cancers, 4.8% and 4.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in HBc antibody positivity based on vaccination, previous blood transfusions, history of familial hepatitis or biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, total and direct bilirubin levels) (P>0.05). Conclusion Screening of occult HBV infection by HBsAg, HBV DNA and anti HB core antibody should be suggested as a routine investigation in cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy.

RESUMO Contexto A infecção oculta da hepatite B caracteriza-se por antígeno de superfície da hepatite B (AgHBs) negativo com vírus detectável da hepatite B (HBV) -DNA, com ou sem anticorpo de núcleo da hepatite B (anti-HBc). A reativação do HBV em indivíduos sob terapia imunossupressora é crítica, originando a infecção oculta pelo VHB. Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de infecção oculta pelo VHB entre em pacientes com câncer e com antígeno de superfície da hepatite B negativo antes de receber quimioterapia. Métodos Soro de 204 pacientes com câncer que foram negativos para AgHBs, foram testados para anticorpos anti-HBc. As amostras que foram negativos para AgHBs, mas positivo para anti-HBc foram também examinadas para HBV-DNA, por reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados Entre 204 amostras de sangue AgHBs negativas, 11 (5,4%) foram positivos para anticorpos anti-HBc. HBV-DNA foi detectado em 9/11 (81%) das amostras positivas de anti-HBc. Infecção oculta de VHB em câncer hematológico foi maior que em cânceres sólidos, 4,8% e 4,3% respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa na positividade anti-HBc, com base na vacinação, transfusões de sangue anteriores, história de hepatite familiar ou parâmetros bioquímicos (ALT, AST, total e níveis de bilirrubina total) (P & gt; 0,05). Conclusão A triagem de infecção oculta por AgHBs, HBV-DNA e anti-anticorpo de núcleo HB deve ser sugerida como uma investigação de rotina em pacientes com câncer antes de receber a quimioterapia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 1-7, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776471


Abstract Background The mechanism underlying the coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HBsAg in chronic hepatitis B patients remains unknown. Aims This research aimed to determine the clinical and virological features of the rare pattern. Methods A total of 32 chronic hepatitis B patients infected by HBV genotype C were included: 15 carrying both HBsAg and anti-HBs (group I) and 17 solely positive for HBsAg (group II). S gene and reverse transcriptase region sequences were amplified, sequenced and compared with the reference sequences. Results The amino acid variability within major hydrophilic region, especially the “a” determinant region, and within reverse transcriptase for regions overlapping the major hydrophilic region in group I is significantly higher than those in group II. Mutation sI126S/T within the “a” determinant was the most frequent change, and only patients from group I had the sQ129R, sG130N, sF134I, sG145R amino acid changes, which are known to alter immunogenicity. Conclusions In chronic patients, the concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs serological profile is associated with an increased aa variability in several key areas of HBV genome. Additional research on these genetic mutants are needed to clarify their biological significance for viral persistence.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , China , DNA, Viral , Genotype , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
Arq. gastroenterol ; 52(4): 321-324, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771923


Background - Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are among the principal causes of severe liver disease. There is limited data of epidemiology of Hepatitis B in community, more so in rural population. Objective - To find the prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in community and study the risk factors for their transmission. Methods - This was a community based cross sectional study. A total of 1833 randomly selected subjects from a rural area were interviewed for risk factors for transmission and tested for markers of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection. All the positive card tests were confirmed by ELISA. Results - Out of 2400 subjects, rate for participation was 76.38%. None of the subjects was positive for anti hepatitis C virus antibody. Point prevalence for HBsAg positivity was 0.92. Being healthcare worker and having tattoo were significantly associated with HBsAg positive results. Nose and ear piercing was reported by almost. History of blood or blood product transfusion, I/V drug abuse, multiple sexual partners, unsafe Injections, hemodialysis and any h/o surgery was not associated with HBsAg positivity. Conclusion - Health care workers are at high risk for transmission of hepatitis B. Educating common people regarding mode of transmission of Hepatitis B and C will help to reduce their transmission.

Contexto - O vírus da hepatite B e o vírus da hepatite C estão entre as principais causas de doença grave do fígado. Há dados limitados de epidemiologia da hepatite B na comunidade observada, mais ainda na população rural. Objetivo - Encontrar a prevalência de infecção de hepatite B e C em uma comunidade da India e pesquisar os fatores de risco para sua transmissão. Métodos - Feito estudo de corte transversal em uma comunidade. Um total de 1833 sujeitos selecionados aleatoriamente em uma área rural foram entrevistados para fatores de risco para transmissão e testados para marcadores da infecção por hepatite B e C. Todos os testes positivos de cartão foram confirmados por ELISA. Resultados - Dos 2400 pacientes objetivados houve uma taxa de participação de 76.38%. Nenhum dos indivíduos foi positivo para anticorpo anti vírus da hepatite C. A prevalência pontual para a positividade do HBsAg foi de 0,92. Ser trabalhador na área de saúde e ter tatuagem foram significativamente associados com resultados positivos de HBsAg. "Piercing" em nariz e orelha foram relatados por quase todos. História de transfusão de sangue ou uso de hemoderivados, abuso de drogas via endovenosa, múltiplos parceiros sexuais, injeções inseguras, hemodiálise e história prévia de cirurgia, não estiveram associadas à positividade do HBsAg. Conclusão - Os trabalhadores de saúde estão em alto risco para a transmissão de hepatite B. Educar pessoas comuns sobre o modo de transmissão de hepatite B e C ajudará a reduzir a sua transmissão.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , India/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Seroepidemiologic Studies
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(6): 674-681, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767824


Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B and C viral infections remain an important cause of global morbidity and mortality. Studies have been conducted in population groups of large cities, leaving gaps in the knowledge regarding the situation in small municipalities. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hepatitis B and C markers and presence of infection-associated factors. METHODS: All inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros aged ≥18 years who agreed to participate in the research were included. We collected blood as well as information via a questionnaire between March 2011 and December 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Among the 1,001 participants, 41 (4.1%) participants had a serological profile of hepatitis B viral exposure, and only one (0.1%) participant was considered a virus carrier. The frequency of isolated antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) markers was 17.8% for the overall population. In the multivariate analysis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was associated with age, birth outside the State of São Paulo, history of hepatitis, ≥2 sexual partners in the last 6 months, and tattoos. Four (0.4%) participants had a serological profile of hepatitis C viral exposure. However, after confirmation using viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) evaluation, only one (0.1%) individual remained positive. CONCLUSIONS: The positivity rates for hepatitis B and C were low, despite greater sexual freedom and the recent emergence of illicit drugs, as observed by the health personnel working in Cássia dos Coqueiros.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(5): 524-531, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763325


ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:Since women are frequently the minority among blood donors worldwide, studies evaluating this population usually reflect male features. We assessed the features of female blood donors with positive serology for HBV and compared them with those of men.METHODS The study comprised consecutive blood donors referred to a specialized liver disease center to be evaluated due to HBsAg- and/or anti-HBc-positive tests.RESULTS: The study encompassed 1,273 individuals, 219 (17.2%) of whom were referred due to positive HBsAg test and 1,054 (82.8%) due to reactive anti-HBc test. Subjects' mean age was 36.8±10.9 years, and 28.7% were women. Female blood donors referred for positive HBsAg screening tests demonstrated higher prevalence of healthcare workers (9.3% vs 2.5%) and lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors (15.1% vs 41.1%) and alcohol abuse (1.9% vs 19.8%) compared to men. Women had lower ALT (0.6 vs 0.8×ULN), AST (0.6 vs 0.8×ULN), direct bilirubin (0.2 vs 0.3mg/dL), and alkaline phosphatase (0.5 vs 0.6×ULN) levels and higher platelet count (223,380±50,293 vs 195,020±53,060/mm3). Women also had a higher prevalence of false-positive results (29.6% vs 17.0%). No differences were observed with respect to liver biopsies. Female blood donors referenced for reactive anti-HBc screening tests presented similar clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical characteristics to those reported for positive HBsAg screening tests and similarly had a higher prevalence of false-reactive results.CONCLUSIONS: Compared to men, female blood donors with positive HBsAg and/or anti-HBc screening tests demonstrated higher prevalence of professional risk and false-positive results and reduced alteration of liver chemistry.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , False Positive Reactions , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Sex Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(3): 258-264, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749874


INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is considered to be one of the major risks for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis (HD) and patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study compared the prevalence of OBI among these two high-risk groups in the Suez Canal region, Northeastern Egypt, to obtain a better national overview of the magnitude of OBI in this region. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 165 HD patients and 210 chronic HCV-infected patients. Anti-HCV antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HCV RNA was detected using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and HBV was detected using a nested PCR. RESULTS: All patients were negative for HBsAg. A total of 49.1% and 25.2% of the patients in the HD and HCV groups, respectively, were anti-HBc-positive. In addition, more anti-HBs-positive patients were detected in the HD group compared to the HCV group (52.1% and 11.4%, respectively). Three cases were positive for HBV DNA in the HD group, while eighteen positive cases were detected in the HCV group. Both study groups showed significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level as well as anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV-DNA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was more prevalent among chronic HCV patients than HD patients in the Suez Canal region, Egypt, with rates of 8.5% and 1.8%, respectively. However, more precise assessment of this infection requires regular patient follow-up using HBV DNA detection methods. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , DNA, Viral/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Egypt/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(3): 285-290, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751887


Background: Data regarding Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) prevalence among military personnel in Brazil are lacking, but the work-related risk of exposure can be high. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV and the risk factors associated to HBV exposure among Brazilian military personnel. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted and included 433 male military adults aged 18-25 years old working in Rio de Janeiro during October 2013. All individuals completed a questionnaire to assess their risk of exposure and provided a blood sample to HBV and HCV testing. Results: None of the participants presented HBsAg or anti-HBc IgM, 18 (4.1%) were positive for total anti-HBc, 247 (57.0%) were positive for anti-HBs, and 3 (0.7%) were anti-HCV reactive. The majority of military personnel with past HBV infection (anti-HBc reactive) and HBV immunity (anti-HBs reactive) had a history of prior dental procedures (88.9% and 77.3%), consumption of alcohol at least once a week (50% and 55.9%), and practiced oral sex (61.1% and 58.3%, respectively). In addition, anti-HBc positivity was common among individuals with a history of surgery (44.4%) and practice of anal sex (50%). At univariate analysis, age group was associated to anti-HBc and anti-HBs positivity. Conclusions: Low rates of HBV and HCV infection were observed among Brazilian military personnel in comparison to the general Brazilian population. HBV immunity rates were relatively low indicating the need for vaccination campaigns in this group. .

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(2): 181-186, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746518


Evidence-based strategies to improve the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination coverage rates might help to reduce the burden caused by co-infection with HBV and human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV). In this study, the aim was to evaluate the vaccination coverage and immunity against HBV among HIV-infected individuals in South Brazil, and identify factors that are associated with compliance patterns and antibody reactivity. Three hundred HIV-infected men and women were included in this survey. The patients answered a standardized questionnaire, and vaccination cards were checked in order to assess hepatitis B vaccine status. A blood sample was collected for quantitative determination of antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs). Participants were also evaluated for their CD4 cell count and HIV viral load. The overall vaccination coverage of HBV vaccination found in this study (57.4%) was lower than that was previously reported in South Brazil. Anti-HBs levels >10 IU/L were observed in 47.0% of the studied population. A significant inequality in the coverage rates and antibody reactivity was found in favor of patients with better economic status. In conclusion, the results indicate the need for improvement in the HBV vaccination coverage among HIV carriers, in particular focusing on low-income individuals.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Carrier State , Coinfection , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/immunology , Prevalence , Risk Factors