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1.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252328

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B infection is one of the most important health problems around the world. The high mortality rate of the hepatitis B encouraged research that led to the finding of an effective vaccine against it. The aim of the present study was to find out the use of the Euvax-B vaccine in sectors of Nineveh province. According to the results obtained in this study, in the next five years, the vaccination coverage for the second and third doses needs to improve(AU)


La infección por hepatitis B es uno de los más importantes problemas de salud del mundo. La alta tasa de mortalidad de la hepatitis B impulsó las investigaciones que llevaron a encontrar una vacuna eficaz contra la misma. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer el uso de la vacuna Euvax-B en sectores de la provincia de Nínive. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, en los próximos cinco años, se debe incrementar la cobertura de inmunización de la segunda y tercera dosis de la vacuna(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepadnaviridae Infections , Hepatitis B/mortality , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Iraq
2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 313-318, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879637

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a threat to public health by 2030. Blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the key step for eliminating viral hepatitis, at the same time, it is the hotspot in the field of hepatitis B prevention and control as well. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) organized a team of specialists to develop an algorithm for preventing MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and the latest evidence. The algorithm covers 10 continuous steps from pregnant management to follow-up postpartum. Among the 10 steps, screening, antiviral therapy during pregnancy, and infant's immunization are the core components in the algorithm.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , China , Female , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1160-1167, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is a promising disease-monitoring marker for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated correlations between HBcrAg with antiviral efficacy and virological and histological variables.@*METHODS@#One hundred and forty-five CHB patients from the mainland of China between August 2013 and September 2016 who underwent liver biopsy received entecavir therapy and had paired liver biopsy at 78 weeks. We analyzed correlations between HBcrAg and virological and histological variables in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients. We also explored the predictors of HBeAg loss after 78 weeks of antiviral therapy. Pearson correlation analysis and logistic forward stepwise regression were the main statistic methods.@*RESULTS@#HBeAg-positive patients (n = 93) had higher baseline HBcrAg (median 7.4 vs. 5.3 log10 U/mL P < 0.001) and greater HBcrAg declines (median 1.6 vs. 0.9 log10 U/mL P = 0.007) than HBeAg-negative patients after 78 weeks of therapy. At baseline, HBcrAg correlated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in both HBeAg-positive (r = 0.641, P < 0.001) and -negative patients (r = 0.616, P < 0.001), with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.495, P < 0.001), but not with anti-hepatitis B virus core antibody (anti-HBc). Weak correlations existed between HBcrAg, histology activity index (HAI; r = 0.232, P = 0.025), and Ishak fibrosis score (r = -0.292, P = 0.005) in HBeAg-positive patients. At 78 weeks, significant correlations existed only between HBcrAg and anti-HBc in HBeAg-positive (r = -0.263, P = 0.014) and HBeAg-negative patients (r = -0.291, P = 0.045). Decreased HBcrAg significantly correlated with reduced HBV DNA (r = 0.366, P = 0.001; r = 0.626, P < 0.001) and HBsAg (r = 0.526, P = 0.001; r = 0.289, P = 0.044) in HBeAg-positive and -negative patients, respectively, and with reduced HAI in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.329, P = 0.001). Patients with HBeAg loss (n = 29) showed a larger reduction in HBcrAg than those without (median 2.3 vs. 1.3 log10 U/mL, P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, decreased HBcrAg was an independent predictor of HBeAg loss (P = 0.005).@*CONCLUSIONS@#HBcrAg reflects viral replication and protein production. Decreased HBcrAg could predict HBeAg loss after antiviral therapy.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01962155; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01962155?term=NCT01962155&draw=2&rank=1.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , China , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Virus Replication
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 69-73, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vaccinated for hepatitis B have a low success rate in achieving protective antibody levels. The main factors suggested for this are IBD itself and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concentration of anti-HBs antibodies and to verify factors associated with the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a prospective, consecutive, observational, descriptive and analytical, non-randomized, qualitative study that evaluated the levels of anti-HBs antibodies in IBD patients at the Interdisciplinary Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic of the Family and Community Health Unit of UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV), of which 29 were female. The average age was 46.2 years. Regarding the type of IBD, twenty-four patients had Crohn's disease and the duration of inflammatory bowel disease was 74 months. Fifteen patients were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. The effective response rate to HBV vaccine was 72.2%, verified by anti-HBs titration ≥10 UI/L. Statistical analysis revealed a negative response to vaccination in patients with Crohn's disease and immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: The success rate of HBV immunization in IBD patients is low compared to the general population. Type of disease and use of immunosuppressive drugs appear to influence the vaccine response.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) vacinados para hepatite B possuem baixa taxa de sucesso em alcançar níveis protetores de anticorpos. Os principais fatores sugeridos para isso são a própria DII e o uso de medicamentos imunossupressores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs e verificar fatores associados a efetividade da vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes com DII. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo e consecutivo, de caráter observacional, descritivo e analítico, não-randomizado, qualiquantitativo, que avaliou a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs em pacientes portadores de DII no Ambulatório Interdisciplinar de Doença Inflamatória Intestinal da Unidade de Saúde da Família e Comunitária da UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram vacinados contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB), destes, 29 eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 46,2 anos. Em relação ao tipo de DII, 24 pacientes eram portadores de doença de Crohn e o tempo médio de doença inflamatória intestinal encontrado foi de 74 meses. Quinze pacientes estavam em uso de terapia imunossupressora concomitante à vacinação. A taxa de resposta à vacina contra o VHB foi de 72,2%, verificada através de titulação de anti-HBs ≥10 UI/L. A análise estatística revelou uma resposta negativa à vacinação em pacientes em uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e portadores de doença de Crohn. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de sucesso na imunização contra o VHB em pacientes com DII é baixo quando comparado à população em geral. Tipo de doença e uso de medicamentos imunossupressores parecem desempenhar influência na resposta vacinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Qualitative Research , Seroconversion , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190559, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136898

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil's western Amazon basin has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the country. Coinfection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) is also endemic. To estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV markers in a population inhabiting the northwest portion of Mato Grosso state in the western Amazon. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in the Três Fronteiras District northwest of Mato Grosso. Anti-HBc-positive subjects were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Those positive for this marker were tested for HDV antibodies. Anti-HBc-negative participants were tested for anti-HBsAg. All tests were performed by EIA. RESULTS: A total of 623 individuals in the community were assessed; the majority (67.6%) were male, with a mean age of 30.8 ± 15.4 years. Two hundred and fourteen individuals (34.3%) were anti-HBc-positive, and 47 (7.5%) were HBsAg carriers. Only one individual was anti-HDV-positive. Among the 409 individuals without HBV infection, 18.3% were anti-HBsAg-positive. There was no association between HBV infection and known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study area had intermediate-to-high endemicity for HBV infection, but a low prevalence of HDV. Our serological results suggesting low vaccination-induced protection indicate a need for reinforced immunization programs in the populations of northwest Mato Grosso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Middle Aged
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1386-1390, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the reasons causing the false positive of HBsAg single-ELISA-reactive in blood donors of Jiangsu province so as to provide reference data for the return of blood donors.@*METHODS@#Serological test: HBsAg ELISA parallel detection was performed on 319 444 samples of blood donors from 2014 to 2017; the ECLIA was employed to confirm the single-ELISA-reactive (S/CO≥0.5) samples, the nucleic acid test was used to detect the HBV DNA on the all single-ELISA-reactive samples in 6/8 people mixed/single. Reagent evaluation: the Receiver-Operating-Characteristic curve (ROCC) was drawn by the ECLIA/NAT results as the gold standard, and the diagnostic performance of reagents A and B under different cut-off was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#A total of 227 (0.71‰) single-ELISA-reactive samples were detected among 319 444 blood donors, including 39 cases (17.2%) of positive HBsAg and 12 cases (5.3%) of positive HBV DNA; Under the maximum YI, the COI (1.0) employed by the manufacturer recommendation has a better diagnostic value than laboratory COI (0.5), and the capability of reagent A was better than that of reagent B (AUC: 0.661 vs 0.632; Youden: 0.329 vs 0.297), but the specificity of both reagents was restricted (<60%). Under the maximum YI, the best cut-off value of reagents A and B were 2.4 and 1.4 COI, respectively. Compared with the cut-off value of manufacturer, the sensitivity of reagents A decreased by 33% and the false positive rate decreased by 60% while the sensitivity of reagent B increased by 140% and the false positive rate increased by 36%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The false positive of HBsAg single-ELISA-reactive in blood donors is caused by the limited specificity of ELISA reagent and the setting of COI values. According to ROCC maximum YI method, the COI can be set as 2.4 COI and (0.5-1.4) COI for reagent A and B to reduce false positive rate.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1391-1396, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the reentry situation of HBsAg single reagent reactive blood donors in Anhui province, and to verify the rationality and effectiveness of reentry strategy of blood donors in Anhui province.@*METHODS@#Shielded blood donors who were HBsAg single reagent reactive might voluntarily apply for returning to the team of blood donors after the shield of 6 months. Blood bankstaff that shielded those donors should draw blood and conduct screening tests. Samples from donors who were HBsAg negative should be delivered to Anhui Blood Center to conduct the reentry detections. Shielded blood donors were allowed to return to the team if the results of HBsAg test, neutralization test, HBcAb test and nucleic acid test were negative.@*RESULTS@#109 person-portions of samples for returning to team from September 2013 to December 2016 were delivered to Anhui Blood Center. After reentry tests, 60 of them were negative, 8 cases were positive, while 41 cases were undetermined, and the qualified rate was 55.05%.25 negative donors were from Hefei, 20 of them donated blood again and were negative.@*CONCLUSION@#The shielding and reentry strategy of blood donors with HBsAg single reagent reactive in Anhui province is rational and effective. However, there are still some deficiencies in trace of donors and information transmission, which needs to be further improved.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) - characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg in the presence of HBV DNA - represents a potential threat for blood safety. OBJECTIVES This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the serological and molecular characterization of occult HBV infection (OBI) among blood donors in Mozambique. METHODS 1,502 blood donors were tested for HBsAg. All HBsAg-negative individuals were tested for HBV DNA. Antibodies against HBV core, surface and HBe antigen (anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBeAg) were measured in HBV DNA positive individuals. FINDINGS 1435 serum samples were HBsAg negative and 16 positive for HBV DNA, 14 confirmed to have OBI, corresponding to a frequency of 0.98%. Of the 14 OBI infections identified, 13/14 (92.8%) were positive for anti-HBc, 4/14 (28.5%) for anti-HBs, and no samples were reactive for HBeAg. Of the 14 OBI cases, nine samples (64.2%) were sequenced for the S/P region. Eight samples (88.9%) belonged to genotype A1 and one (11.1%) to genotype E. One escape mutation (T123A) associated with OBI and various amino acid substitutions for genotype A1 and E were observed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results show the importance of using nucleic acid amplification test to detect occult hepatitis B infection in blood donors in Mozambique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Blood Donors , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/genetics , Phylogeny , DNA, Viral , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mozambique
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180533, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057270

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: HBV and HIV have identical transmission routes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV in HIV patients and to detect the presence of occult HBV infection. METHODS: All samples were tested for serology markers and using qPCR. RESULTS: This study included 232 individuals, out of which 36.6% presented with HBV markers and 11.8% presented with HBsAg or HBV-DNA, including 3 patients that showed OBI. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HBV among HIV patients. In addition, the results suggest that OBI can occur in patients with serological profiles that are indicative of past infection. Therefore, the application of molecular tests may enable the identification of infections that are not evident solely based on serology.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis for hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence is essential after liver transplantation (LT) in HBV-associated recipients. We conducted real-world analysis of HBV prophylaxis after LT in the Korean population.METHODS: Korean Organ Transplantation Registry (KOTRY) database and additionally collected data (n = 326) were analyzed with special reference to types of HBV prophylaxis.RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 267 cases of living-donor LT and 59 cases of deceased-donor LT. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was diagnosed in 232 (71.2%) of these subjects. Antiviral agents were used in 255 patients (78.2%) prior to LT. HBV DNA was undetectable in 69 cases (21.2%) and detectable over wide concentrations in the other 257 patients (78.8%) prior to LT. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the store blood samples detected HBV DNA in all patients, with 159 patients (48.9%) showing concentrations > 100 IU/mL. Post-transplant HBV regimens during the first year included combination therapy in 196 (60.1%), hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) monotherapy in 121 (37.1%), and antiviral monotherapy in 9 (2.8%). In the second post-transplant year, these regimens had changed to combination therapy in 187 (57.4%), HBIG monotherapy in 112 (34.4%), and antiviral monotherapy in 27 (8.3%). Trough antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen titers > 500 IU/mL and >1,000 IU/mL were observed in 61.7% and 25.2%, respectively. The mean simulative half-life of HBIG was 21.6 ± 4.3 days with a median 17.7 days. Up to 2-year follow-up period, HCC recurrence and HBV recurrence developed in 18 (5.5%) and 6 (1.8%), respectively. HCC recurrence developed in 3 of 6 patients with HBV recurrence.CONCLUSION: Combination therapy is the mainstay of HBV prophylaxis protocols in a majority of Korean LT centers, but HBIG was often administered excessively. Individualized optimization of HBIG treatments using SHL is necessary to adjust the HBIG infusion interval.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cohort Studies , DNA , Follow-Up Studies , Half-Life , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Organ Transplantation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recurrence , Transplants
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 576-584, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058083

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Chile es un país de baja endemia de virus de hepatitis B (VHB), pero los países de mayor flujo migratorio hacia Chile tienen una endemia intermediaalta. La inmunoprofilaxis (IP) en el recién nacido (RN) es fundamental para evitar la transmisión vertical de VHB. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de HBsAg en mujeres embarazadas: inmigrantes, y chilenas con conductas de riesgo (CR), y evaluar el cumplimiento de la indicación de IP a los RN de madre con HBsAg reactivo. Material y Métodos: Cohorte prospectiva de cribado de HBsAg a mujeres embarazadas inmigrantes, y chilenas con CR, entre julio 2017 y junio 2018 en CABL. Los RN de madre con HBsAg reactivo se les administró IP adecuada (antes de 12 h de vida). Resultados: Se realizó un total de 1.415 HBsAg: 1.265 a inmigrantes y 150 a chilenas con CR. Se obtuvieron 37 pacientes con HBsAg reactivos. Dos falsos positivos. La prevalencia HBsAg en inmigrantes fue 2,7% y 0,66% en chilenas con CR (p < 0,05). El 91,1% provenía de Haití, con una prevalencia de 3,5% en nuestra área. Todos los RN (36) recibieron IP. La mediana de administración de IP fue 3:02 h. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de VHB en mujeres gestantes inmigrantes fue superior a lo reportado en la población general y en mujeres chilenas con CR. Planteamos la necesidad de implementar el cribado universal en el embarazo, y en especial, en mujeres embarazadas provenientes de países con endemia intermedia-alta.


Background: Chile is a low-endemic HBV country, but countries with the highest migratory flow to Chile have an intermediate-high endemicity. In order to avoid vertical transmission of HBV, immunoprophylaxis (IP) in the newborn (NB) is a key factor. Aim: To identify HBsAg prevalence in pregnant immigrants and Chilean pregnant women with risk behaviors (RB) and to asses IP use in the NB. Material and Methods: Prospective HBsAg screening cohort of immigrant and Chilean pregnant women with RB, between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018 in CABL. IP of all NB of reactive HBsAg mothers was assessed. Results: 1,415 HBsAg samples, 1,265 immigrants and 150 Chileans with RB. 37 reactive HBsAg. Two false positive. HBsAg prevalence in immigrant pregnant women was 2.7% and 0.66% in Chileans with RB (p < 0.05). 91.1% came from Haiti, with a prevalence of 3.5% in our region. All NB (36) received IP with a median of administration of 3:02 h. Conclusions: The prevalence in immigrant pregnant women was higher than that reported in the general population and in Chilean women with RB. We proposed the need for universal screening in pregnancy, especially in pregnant women from countries with intermediate-high endemicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Emigrants and Immigrants , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/analysis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Risk-Taking , Time Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Vaccination/methods
12.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 210-217, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Discrepancies in the results between hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels pose difficulties in the management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aims to better understand the different phases of CHB and to detect additional meaningful parameters for CHB patients. METHODS: We collected datasets of HBeAg and HBV DNA levels measured during 2016 and the follow-up results for CHB patients for past 3 years. We analyzed the collected data by applying the definitions of CHB clinical phase and compared the results of semi-quantitative and quantitative HBeAg assays. RESULTS: About 55% of 2,291 result pairs from CHB patients showed qualitative agreement between HBeAg and HBV DNA results. HBeAg (−) CHB was reported in 16.49%, while hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss occurred in 0.18% among 1,146 patients annually. HBeAg reversion occurred in 2.74% of 839 patients that experienced HBeAg seroconversion. Patients with HBeAg (+) and HBV DNA (−) showed statistically significant differences in the levels and percentage abnormality of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) based on whether HBV DNA was ‘Target not detected’ or ‘Detected,

Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Dataset , DNA , DNA, Viral , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Seroconversion
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763391

ABSTRACT

Despite all these exciting developments, there remain some unmet needs in the management for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). As majority of CHB patients are going to use oral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) for decades, Safety profile of NAs is of no doubt an important issue. The newest nucleotide analogue tenofovir alafenamide is potent in terms of viral suppression, together with favourable renal and bone safety profile. Biochemical response as reflected by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization is recently found to be prognostically important. Patients who achieved ALT normalization have reduced the risk of hepatic events by 49%. Functional cure as reflected by hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance not only implies patients may stop NA treatment, it also confers to a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and other hepatic events. Hence functional cure should be the ultimate treatment goal in CHB patients. Preemptive antiviral treatment may reduce mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus, especially if birth dose of vaccination cannot be given in the first two hours after delivery. Lastly, despite the currently first-line NAs have high-genetic barrier to drug resistance mutations, there are still are many patients who were previously treated with low barrier of resistance including lamivudine, telbivudine or adefovir dipivoxil which could lead to antiviral resistance and affecting the choice of NAs.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Drug Resistance , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Lamivudine , Mortality , Parturition , Tenofovir , Vaccination
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761568

ABSTRACT

Improved management of chronic hepatitis B patients with oral nucleos(t)ide analogues has increased the number of these patients who are getting older and have other accompanying comorbidities. These comorbidities frequently require various immunosuppression treatments and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. Not only the patients who are positive for HBsAg, but also the patients who are positive for isolated anti-HBc are at risk for hepatitis B reactivation during immunosuppression. Prophylactic antiviral treatment with oral nucleos(t)ide analogues with high genetic barriers can decrease the risks of HBV reactivation, HBV reactivation-associated hepatitis, and mortality in these patients. It is crucial to screen HBV markers in all of the patients who have to undergo immunosuppression, be administered prophylactic antiviral treatment in the high risk groups, and be monitored for HBV reactivation during and after immunosuppression and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. This study summarizes the recommendations from the recently updated guidelines from Korea, United States, and Europe.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Drug Therapy , Europe , Hepatitis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Immunosuppression , Korea , Mortality , United States
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761567

ABSTRACT

A HBV infection is a dynamic disease and long-term liver inflammation contributes to the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently available nucleos(t)ide analogues and pegylated interferon are effective in inhibiting HBV replication but rarely achieve HBsAg clearance. The present article introduces a new definition of HBV cure and several emerging therapies for HBV cure, including direct acting antivirals and immune modulatory antivirals.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Inflammation , Interferons , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1856-1861, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the conversion rate from negative to positive (positive rate) of HBsAb in lymphoma patients inoculated with different dose of hepatitis B vaccine, to evaluate the immune efficacy of different dose of hepatitis B vaccine, and to analyze the influencing factors.@*METHODS@#Two hundred thirty six patients with lymphoma were selected, whose 5 indexes of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb and HBcAb) were all negative confirmed by ELISA. The hepatitis B vaccine was inoculated according to 0, 1 and 6 months immune procedures at 1-2 weeks before chemotherapy. The HBsAb level was detected at 1 month after the immunization, the differences in each indexes between HBeAb and HBeAb patients were compared.@*RESULTS@#The positive rate of HBsAb was 75% in all patients with lymphoma.The positive rate of high dose (20 μg) group was 81.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the low dose (10μg) group with 68.6% (χ=5.09, P<0.05). The positive conversion rate of HBsAb significantly higher in the patients of young, female, B-cell (except DLBCL subtype), early Ann Arbor stage, and the treatment regimens without glucocorticoid and rituximab. There were no statistical significances in systemic symptoms or no and treatment regimens with or without lenalidomide. Two doses of hepatitis B vaccine not displayed obvious adverse reactions.@*CONCLUSION@#The high dose of hepatitis B vaccine can achieve better immune efficacy than that of the low dose in the patients with lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Female , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Lymphoma , Therapeutics
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1998-2002, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781505

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To understand the infection of hepatitis B virus(HBV) in blood donors, and to evaluate the effectiveness and necessity of TMA technology for HBV-DNA screening in blood donors.@*METHODS@#Using the ELISA/NAT model, routine serology test and NAT were performed in the 169 160 donors,including voluntary blood donors and some of donors returned to donor team. For some donors with test positive NAT, nucleic acid identification test was performed. And the HBsAg neutralized and confirmed assay would conduct in blood donors with unilateral HBsAg positive and HBV-DNA negative result.@*RESULTS@#Among 169 160 donation cases-times, the donors of bilateral positive of HBsAg detection was 803, accounted for 0.476%; donors of unilateral positive was 243, accounted for 0.144%. For 40 specimens with HBV-DNA negative, unilateral HBsAg positive, the neutralization and confirmed assay was performed.In result, only 4 specimens were confirmed to be HBsAg positive, the confirmed positive rate was 10%. Among detected 1003 specimens with HBV-DNA positive specimens, both HBsAg and HBV-DNA positive were 739, the consistency rate between 2 kinds of detection was 73.7%. The comparision of positive rate detected by using 3 kinds of reagents showed that there were statistical differences (P<0.05); moreover, there were statistical difference in positive rate detected by using Murex reagent and In Tec reagent (P<0.0125). The comparison of detected rate of HBsAg and HBV-DNA during March 2016-February 2017 showed no statistical difference (P>0.05). Among 60 blood donors with HBsAg and HBV-DNA who has retured to the donor team, 1 donor presented the transformation of HBsAg from negative to positive, suggesting the HBV infection of window period, HBsAg of the other 59 was negative. The detection of HBV-DNA showed that the HBV-DNA in 28 donors was negative, and the HBV-DNA in 31 donors was positive, 1 donor showed HBV-DNA was uncertain.@*CONCLUSION@#The routine TMA technology combined with ELISA HBsAg can effectively shorten the window period for detection of HBV infection, effectively detect the occult HBV infection, and reduce the potential risk of hepatitis B spread due to blood transfusion.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Genetics , Humans
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the therapeutic effects of entecavir (ETV) and interferon- (IFN-) treatments for 48 weeks for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in patients with different baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the data of 369 CHB patients receiving ETV and IFN- treatments for 48 weeks. We compared the virological response rates, HBsAg clearance, and HBsAg reduction between the patients receiving ETV and IFN- treatments with different baseline ALT levels[≤ 5×upper limits of normal (ULN) level (subgroup 1), 5-10×ULN (subgroup 2), and > 10× ULN (subgroup 3)].@*RESULTS@#In patients receiving ETV treatment, the virological response rate was 83.3% in subgroup 1, 91.4% in subgroup 2, and 95.5% in subgroup 3, as compared with 19.7%, 40%, and 42.9% in the 3 subgroups with IFN- treatment, respectively, showing significantly differences both among different subgroups with the same treatment and between the same subgroup with different treatments ( < 0.05). HBeAg clearance rates in the 3 subgroups were 8.3%, 16.7% and 35.5% in patients with ETV treatment and were 1.8%, 41.9%, and 38.1% in patients with IFN- treatment, respectively, showing significant differences among the 3 subgroups with the same treatment ( < 0.05); in the same subgroups with different treatments, the rates differed significantly only between subgroups 2 ( < 0.05). In ETV group, the rate of HBsAg reduction to below 200 IU/ml was 2.5% in subgroup 1 and 13.8% in subgroup 2, showing no significant difference between the two subgroups; in IFN- group, the rates were also similar between subgroups 1 and 2 (30.6% 33.3%, > 0.05); but the rates differed significantly between the same subgroups with different treatments ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In all the subgroups with different baseline ALT levels, ETV treatment for 48 weeks results in significantly higher virological response rates than IFN- treatment in patients with CHB. In patients with a baseline ALT of 5-10 ×ULN, IFN- can result in a higher HBeAg clearance rate than ETV. In patients with comparable baseline ALT level, IFN- more effectively reduces HBsAg level than ETV. The patients with a relatively high baseline ALT level (> 5 × ULN) show better responses to both ETV and IFN- treatment than those with ALT level below 5×ULN. We thus recommend IFN- for patients with a baseline ALT of 5-10×ULN and ETV for patients with a baseline ALT either below 5 × ULN or beyond 10×ULN.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , DNA, Viral , Guanine , Therapeutic Uses , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B virus , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Humans , Interferon-alpha , Therapeutic Uses , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the application of blood screening method based on chemiluminescence immunoassay(CLIA)and to evaluate its officacy.@*METHODS@#Screening HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and TP was performed on 3,530 voluntary blood donors by ELISA and CLIA, and then all the specimens with ELISA and ELISA/CLIA were further confirmed by NAT; TP single and double positive specimens by ELISA or CLIA were further confirmed by TPPA.@*RESULTS@#The results of CLIA method was well consistent with NAT results, displaying better repeatability and higher sensitivity than ELISA method. For CLIA/ELISA specimens there was a certain false-negative result obtained by ELISA method, especially for blood donors with low virus biter concentration or "window period".@*CONCLUSION@#ELISA and CLIA have complementary advantages in blood screening, which can improve the sensitivity of blood screening, reduce the missed detection and shorten detection time. The introduction of CLIA for blood screening is of great importance for ensuring the quality of blood and the safety of clinical transfusion.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Luminescence , Luminescent Measurements , Mass Screening
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to provide health screening for low-income people and early diagnosis and treatment for health risk factors and diseases for the promotion of the health of vulnerable people. This study was also aimed toward the implementation of a comprehensive cancer health screening system to improve quality of life.METHODS: This study was conducted in 1,546 subjects aged >40 years who underwent free cancer screening between February and December 2017 in the Jeollanam-do region. In the first, we performed a survey HBsAg, Anti-HBs, 54 peoples with hepatitis B abnormalities were checked to secondary screening, HBeAg/Anti-HBe, HBV DNA.RESULTS: The overall HBsAb total seropositivity rate was 59.8% (924/1,546), and the HBsAb total seronegativity rate was 40.2% (622/1,546). The HBsAg total seropositivity rate was 3.8% (58/1,546) overall, 1.7% (26/1,546) in the men, and 2.1% (32/1,546) in the women. The HBeAg seropositivity rate was 11.1% (6/54) in the second hepatitis B screening.CONCLUSION: We found that the positivity and negativity rates of HBsAb (Anti-HBs) were similar to those reported in other studies, but the positivity rate of HBeAg was slightly higher in the second hepatitis screening. In future surveys, factors must be analyzed, including an additional investigation of the related health risk factors to confirm the factors that affect diagnosis and initial evaluation results.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Surface , Diagnosis , DNA , Early Detection of Cancer , Early Diagnosis , Female , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
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