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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341785

ABSTRACT

La levadura metilotrófica Pichia pastoris (clasificada actualmente como Komagataella phaffii) es una de las más importantes para la producción de proteínas heterólogas. En el trabajo se presenta un análisis de las principales características que se ponen de manifiesto en la expresión de proteínas recombinantes expresadas en este microorganismo. Se describen las cepas disponibles para la transformación y producción de proteínas recombinantes expresadas en Pichia pastoris, los principales vectores comerciales para la expresión, los promotores más eficientes, los marcadores seleccionables, la señal de secreción, los métodos usados en las transformaciones genéticas y los patrones de glicosilación que se presentan. Se brindan recomendaciones generales acerca de los parámetros de bioprocesos como la composición del medio, el pH, la temperatura, la velocidad de aireación, la inducción y las estrategias de alimentación para alcanzar altos valores de productividad. Se presentan los resultados de las aplicaciones de Pichia pastoris en la producción de dos vacunas en Cuba, la vacuna contra la hepatitis B y la vacuna para el control de la garrapata(AU)


Pichia pastoris metylotrofic yeast (currently classified as Komagataella phaffii) is one of the most important yeast for the production of heterologous proteins. The work presents an analysis of the main characteristics that are marked in the production of recombinant proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris. It describes the strains available for the transformation and production of recombinant proteins expressed in P. pastoris, the main commercial vectors for expression, the most efficient promoters, selectable markers, the secretion signal, the methods used in genetic transformations and glycosylation patterns that occur. General recommendations are provided on bioprocess parameters such as media composition, pH, temperature, aeration velocity, induction, and feeding strategies to achieve high productivity values. The results of Pichia pastoris applications for the production of two vaccines in Cuba, the hepatitis B vaccine and the tick control vaccine are shown(AU)


Subject(s)
Pichia , Yeasts , Recombinant Proteins , Protein Engineering , Tick Control/methods , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cuba
2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252328

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B infection is one of the most important health problems around the world. The high mortality rate of the hepatitis B encouraged research that led to the finding of an effective vaccine against it. The aim of the present study was to find out the use of the Euvax-B vaccine in sectors of Nineveh province. According to the results obtained in this study, in the next five years, the vaccination coverage for the second and third doses needs to improve(AU)


La infección por hepatitis B es uno de los más importantes problemas de salud del mundo. La alta tasa de mortalidad de la hepatitis B impulsó las investigaciones que llevaron a encontrar una vacuna eficaz contra la misma. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer el uso de la vacuna Euvax-B en sectores de la provincia de Nínive. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, en los próximos cinco años, se debe incrementar la cobertura de inmunización de la segunda y tercera dosis de la vacuna(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepadnaviridae Infections , Hepatitis B/mortality , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Iraq
3.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(1): e1252, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126831

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El personal de salud se encuentra expuesto a contraer enfermedades infecto contagiosas en el ejercicio de su labor, una de ellas es la hepatitis B. Los estudiantes de atención prehospitalaria no se encuentran exentos de sufrir esta enfermedad, sobre todo por el contexto de las emergencias y desastres donde se desenvuelven. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de seroprotección para el virus de hepatitis B en estudiantes de atención prehospitalaria en una universidad en Colombia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado a estudiantes de atención prehospitalaria en el periodo febrero-junio de 2017. No se utilizó ninguna técnica de muestreo porque se incluyó la totalidad de los estudiantes en práctica. Se aplicó un cuestionario con preguntas de datos sociodemográficos, registro del esquema de vacunación para hepatitis B y el resultado de los anticuerpos (Anti-HBs). Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó Microsoft Excel 2010, se construyeron estadísticas descriptivas. Las variables numéricas se describieron con base en medidas de tendencia central y variabilidad, las variables categóricas se describieron con base en prevalencias y distribuciones porcentuales. Resultados: En la caracterización de los 103 estudiantes evaluados se encontró que el 98 por ciento obtuvo títulos de anticuerpos (Anti-HBs) mayores a 10 UI/ml, considerándose como reactivos a las dosis de las vacunas, alcanzando títulos protectores. Sin embargo, el 93 por ciento no cumplió con el esquema de vacunación establecido. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos evidencian la efectividad de las dosis aplicadas de vacuna para el virus de hepatitis B para obtener los títulos de anticuerpos a estudiantes de atención prehospitalaria en una universidad en Colombia. Pero existen incumplimientos en los tiempos recomendados para la aplicación de cada una de las dosis y en el tiempo de toma de los títulos(AU)


Introduction: Health personnel are at risk of infectious diseases when doing their job. One of them is hepatitis B. Prehospital care students are not free from suffering this disease, especially due to the emergencies and disasters context in which they work. Objective: To determine the prevalence of seroprotection for the hepatitis B virus in prehospital care students at a university in Colombia. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study carried out on prehospital care students during the period February-June 2017. No sampling technique was used because all the students in practice were included. A questionnaire was applied with questions of social-demographic data, registration of the vaccination schedule for hepatitis B and result of (Anti-HBs) antibodies. For statistical analysis, Microsoft Excel 2010 was used and descriptive statistics were designed. Numerical variables were described based on measures of central tendency and variability, categorical variables were described based on prevalence and percentage distributions. Results: In the depiction of the 103 students who were evaluated, it was found that 98 percent obtained antibody titers (Anti-HBs) bigger than 10 IU / ml, being considered as reactive to the doses of the vaccines and getting protective titles. However, 93 percent did not fill the established vaccination schedule. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the results obtained show the effectiveness of the applied doses of vaccine for the hepatitis B virus to obtain antibody titers to prehospital care students at a university in Colombia. But there are breaches in the recommended times for the application of each of the doses and in the time of taking the antibody titers(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Education, Premedical , Prehospital Care , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 69-73, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vaccinated for hepatitis B have a low success rate in achieving protective antibody levels. The main factors suggested for this are IBD itself and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concentration of anti-HBs antibodies and to verify factors associated with the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a prospective, consecutive, observational, descriptive and analytical, non-randomized, qualitative study that evaluated the levels of anti-HBs antibodies in IBD patients at the Interdisciplinary Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic of the Family and Community Health Unit of UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV), of which 29 were female. The average age was 46.2 years. Regarding the type of IBD, twenty-four patients had Crohn's disease and the duration of inflammatory bowel disease was 74 months. Fifteen patients were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. The effective response rate to HBV vaccine was 72.2%, verified by anti-HBs titration ≥10 UI/L. Statistical analysis revealed a negative response to vaccination in patients with Crohn's disease and immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: The success rate of HBV immunization in IBD patients is low compared to the general population. Type of disease and use of immunosuppressive drugs appear to influence the vaccine response.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) vacinados para hepatite B possuem baixa taxa de sucesso em alcançar níveis protetores de anticorpos. Os principais fatores sugeridos para isso são a própria DII e o uso de medicamentos imunossupressores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs e verificar fatores associados a efetividade da vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes com DII. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo e consecutivo, de caráter observacional, descritivo e analítico, não-randomizado, qualiquantitativo, que avaliou a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs em pacientes portadores de DII no Ambulatório Interdisciplinar de Doença Inflamatória Intestinal da Unidade de Saúde da Família e Comunitária da UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram vacinados contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB), destes, 29 eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 46,2 anos. Em relação ao tipo de DII, 24 pacientes eram portadores de doença de Crohn e o tempo médio de doença inflamatória intestinal encontrado foi de 74 meses. Quinze pacientes estavam em uso de terapia imunossupressora concomitante à vacinação. A taxa de resposta à vacina contra o VHB foi de 72,2%, verificada através de titulação de anti-HBs ≥10 UI/L. A análise estatística revelou uma resposta negativa à vacinação em pacientes em uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e portadores de doença de Crohn. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de sucesso na imunização contra o VHB em pacientes com DII é baixo quando comparado à população em geral. Tipo de doença e uso de medicamentos imunossupressores parecem desempenhar influência na resposta vacinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Qualitative Research , Seroconversion , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3278, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101736

ABSTRACT

Objective: to compare the direct cost, from the perspective of the Unified Health System, of assessing the post-vaccination serological status with post-exposure management for hepatitis B among health care workers exposed to biological material. Method: cross-sectional study and cost-related, based on accident data recorded in the System of Information on Disease Notification between 2006 and 2016, where three post-exposure and one pre-exposure management scenarios were evaluated: A) accidents among vaccinated workers with positive and negative serological status tests for hepatitis B, exposed to known and unknown source-person; B) handling unvaccinated workers exposed to a known and unknown source-person; C) managing vaccinated workers and unknown serological status for hepatitis B and D) cost of the pre-exposure post-vaccination test. Accidents were assessed and the direct cost was calculated using the decision tree model. Results: scenarios where workers did not have protective titles after vaccination or were unaware of the serological status and were exposed to a positive or unknown source-person for hepatitis B. Conclusion: the direct cost of hepatitis B prophylaxis, including confirmation of serological status after vaccination would be more economical for the health system.


Objetivo: comparar o custo direto, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde, da avaliação do status sorológico pós-vacinação com o manejo pós-exposição para hepatite B entre trabalhadores da área da saúde expostos ao material biológico. Método: estudo transversal e de custo, realizado a partir dos dados de acidentes registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação entre 2006 e 2016, em que foram avaliados três cenários de manejo pós-exposição e um de pré-exposição: A) acidentes entre trabalhadores vacinados com status sorológico positivo e negativo para hepatite B, expostos à pessoa-fonte conhecida e desconhecida; B) manejo dos trabalhadores não vacinados expostos à pessoa-fonte conhecida e desconhecida; C) manejo dos trabalhadores vacinados e status sorológico desconhecido para hepatite B e D) custo do teste pós vacinação pré-exposição. Os acidentes foram avaliados e o custo direto foi calculado utilizando o modelo árvore de decisão. Resultados: apresentaram maior custo os cenários em que os trabalhadores não possuíam títulos protetores após a vacinação ou desconheciam o status sorológico e foram expostos à pessoa-fonte positivo ou desconhecida para hepatite B. Conclusão: o custo direto da profilaxia para hepatite B, incluindo a confirmação do status sorológico após vacinação seria mais econômico para o sistema de saúde.


Objetivo: comparar el costo directo, desde la perspectiva del Sistema Único de Salud, de la evaluación del status serológico post-vacunación con el manejo post-exposición para la hepatitis B entre los trabajadores de la salud expuestos a material biológico. Método: estudio transversal y de costos, basado en datos de accidentes registrados en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables entre 2006 y 2016, en el que se evaluaron tres escenarios de gestión posteriores a la exposición y uno previo a la exposición: A) accidentes entre trabajadores vacunados con status serológico positivo y negativo para hepatitis B, expuestos a una fuente de origen conocida y desconocida; B) manejo de trabajadores no vacunados expuestos a una fuente conocida y desconocida; C) manejo de trabajadores vacunados y estado serológico desconocido para hepatitis B y D) costo de la prueba de pre-exposición post-vacunación. Se evaluaron los accidentes y se calculó el costo directo utilizando el modelo de árbol de decisión. Resultados: los escenarios en los que los trabajadores no tenían títulos de protección después de la vacunación o desconocían el status serológico y estaban expuestos a una persona fuente positiva o desconocida para la hepatitis B reflejaron un costo más alto. Conclusión: el costo directo de la profilaxis para la hepatitis B, incluida la confirmación del status serológico después de la vacunación sería más económico para el sistema de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Occupational Exposure , Vaccination/economics , Health Care Costs , Health Personnel , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Costs and Cost Analysis , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral/blood
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 419-426, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for one of the most common human viral infections. An estimated 257 million people are living with chronic HBV infection worldwide, and mortality has reached 900,000 deaths in recent years. In 2001, the World Health Organization reported a prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in Iran between 2-7%. Objective: To assess the effect of the national HBV mass vaccination program after 25 years. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in vaccinated and unvaccinated people according to the year of birth. Blood samples were obtained from each enrolled person and data about demographic variables, and medical and vaccination history were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Persons were considered uninfected if they were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBc. Also, Vaccine effectiveness was measured by calculating the risk of disease among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons and defining the percentage risk reduction of infection in the vaccinated group. Results: A total of 2720 persons were interviewed. The rate of HBV breakthrough infection among the vaccinated group was significantly lower than in unvaccinated group. One hundred ninety-four cases with positive HBV markers of infection were identified. The risk ratio of HBV infection was 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54-0.94 (vaccinated/unvaccinated). The estimated vaccination effectiveness against Hepatitis B infection was 29% (95% CI: 6%-46%). Conclusions: Iran has successfully combined hepatitis B vaccination into regular immunization programs. The WHO goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to an equivalent of 1% by 2020 has been reached. With respect to vaccination effectiveness and low prevalence of the disease in the country, catch-up hepatitis B vaccination programs for adolescents can guarantee the immunity of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 440-446, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055157

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although liver transplantation is considered to be a high-risk procedure, it is well-established as a treatment option for the cure and quality of life enhancement for individuals who suffer from diseases. Preventing an infection by hepatitis B virus through immunization schedules has been the most effective way to reduce complications, since it decreases the number of people who suffer from chronic hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus and eradicates its transmission. OBJECTIVE: 1. Analyzing evidence in the literature on various schedules employed for immunization against hepatitis B in patients who have received a liver transplantation. 2. Suggesting potential immunization schedules against hepatitis B in patients who suffer from liver cirrhosis, without previous verifying documentation, using the Child-Turcotte Pugh score, according to evidences found in the literature. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature, conducted on the data bases MedLine, PubMed, and Lilacs, between September, 2017 and January, 2018, by using the following keywords: "Liver Transplantation, "Immunization Schedule", "Hepatitis B Vaccines". In order to analyze the articles, a summary figure was especially designed and both the results and discussion were presented in a descriptive way. RESULTS: We included 24 studies; among them, eight had accelerated immunization schedules, 13 followed the conventional schedules, and three had super accelerated schedules. Regarding immunization, 21 studies were conducted with patients in the pre-transplant period, one with a transplanted patient, one with a pre-transplant group, and one with a post-transplant group. Found articles suggest that, disregarding the chosen immunization schedule, seroconversion rates tended to be lower as the liver disease advanced, compared to the healthy population. CONCLUSION: The studies did not find seroconversion superiority between the different immunization schedules (conventional and unconventional). However, since candidates to liver transplantation are usually very vulnerable, results show that super accelerated immunization schedules are possibly recommended for such group of patients; serologic test results will be higher when the immunization schedule is completed in the pre-transplant period.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O transplante de fígado, apesar de ser um procedimento de elevado risco, está consolidado como recurso terapêutico para cura e melhoria da qualidade de vida de indivíduos acometidos por doenças. A prevenção da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B através da vacinação tem sido a medida mais efetiva para reduzir complicações, diminuindo o número de pessoas com hepatite crônica pelo vírus da hepatite B e eliminando a transmissão. OBJETIVO: 1. Analisar as evidências na literatura sobre os diferentes esquemas utilizados para a vacina contra a hepatite B em pacientes submetidos a transplante de fígado. 2. Sugerir possíveis esquemas de vacinação contra hepatite B para pacientes com cirrose hepática, sem documentação comprovatória anterior, em relação à classificação de Child-Turcotte Pugh, segundo evidências encontradas na literatura. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada nas bases de dados MedLine, PubMed e Lilacs, no período de setembro/2017 a janeiro/2018, com as seguintes palavras chaves: "Liver Transplantation, "Immunization Schedule", "Hepatitis B Vaccines". Para análise dos artigos foi utilizado um quadro sinóptico especialmente construído para esse fim e a apresentação dos resultados e discussão foi feita de forma descritiva. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 24 estudos, sendo oito com esquemas vacinais acelerados, 13 com esquemas convencionais e três com esquemas super acelerado. Quanto ao período da vacinação, 21 estudos foram realizados com pacientes no período pré-transplante, um em pacientes transplantados e um com um grupo pré e um grupo pós transplante. Os artigos encontrados sugerem que independente do esquema vacinal escolhido, as taxas de soroconversão tendem a ser menores conforme o avançar da doença hepática, em relação à população saudável. CONCLUSÃO: Os estudos não encontraram superioridade de soroconversão entre os diferentes esquemas de vacinação (convencional e não convencional). Entretanto, sabendo da vulnerabilidade que os candidatos a transplante de fígado estão expostos, os resultados demonstram que o esquema de vacinação superacelerado pode ser indicado para este grupo de pacientes, e que os resultados sorológicos são mais elevados quando o esquema de vacinação é completado no período pré-transplante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunization Schedule , Liver Transplantation , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1856-1861, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781528

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the conversion rate from negative to positive (positive rate) of HBsAb in lymphoma patients inoculated with different dose of hepatitis B vaccine, to evaluate the immune efficacy of different dose of hepatitis B vaccine, and to analyze the influencing factors.@*METHODS@#Two hundred thirty six patients with lymphoma were selected, whose 5 indexes of hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb and HBcAb) were all negative confirmed by ELISA. The hepatitis B vaccine was inoculated according to 0, 1 and 6 months immune procedures at 1-2 weeks before chemotherapy. The HBsAb level was detected at 1 month after the immunization, the differences in each indexes between HBeAb and HBeAb patients were compared.@*RESULTS@#The positive rate of HBsAb was 75% in all patients with lymphoma.The positive rate of high dose (20 μg) group was 81.4%, which was significantly higher than that of the low dose (10μg) group with 68.6% (χ=5.09, P<0.05). The positive conversion rate of HBsAb significantly higher in the patients of young, female, B-cell (except DLBCL subtype), early Ann Arbor stage, and the treatment regimens without glucocorticoid and rituximab. There were no statistical significances in systemic symptoms or no and treatment regimens with or without lenalidomide. Two doses of hepatitis B vaccine not displayed obvious adverse reactions.@*CONCLUSION@#The high dose of hepatitis B vaccine can achieve better immune efficacy than that of the low dose in the patients with lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Female , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Lymphoma , Therapeutics
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 110 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025453

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As complicações resultantes das infecções pelo vírus da hepatite B e pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV) são importantes problemas de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo. As vacinas hepatite B e HPV constituem a principal medida de controle para esses agentes infecciosos, e estão disponíveis no calendário básico de vacinação nacional Objetivos: avaliar a situação vacinal dos adolescentes da cidade de São Paulo e identificar os fatores associados à vacinação contra a hepatite B e o HPV. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, com amostragem probabilística, estratificada, sorteada em dois estágios, realizado a partir de 859 registros de adolescentes de 12 a 19 anos de idade, não institucionalizados e residentes em área urbana. A fonte de dados foi o Inquérito de Saúde ISA Capital 2015. Para a identificação dos fatores associados, foram calculadas as razões de prevalência (RP) por meio do modelo de regressão de Poisson, observando a estrutura hierárquica conceitual. Resultados: Para a vacina Hepatite B, a prevalência de vacinados foi de 81,33% (IC95%: 75,88 - 85,78). Cerca de oito em cada 10 adolescentes não vacinados relataram como motivo não ter recebido orientação para se vacinar, e dois em cada 10 vacinados comprovaram a vacinação por meio da apresentação do cartão de vacina. Foram identificados, como fatores associados à vacinação contra a Hepatite B, idade (RP 0,78; IC95%: 0,64 - 0,96), religião (RP 1,25; IC95%: 1,09 - 1,44) e orientação profissional sobre a importância da vacina (RP 1,23; IC95%:1,10 - 1,37). Para a vacina HPV, a prevalência de vacinados foi de 66,71% (IC95%: 60,67 - 72,25). Cerca de quatro em cada 10 adolescentes não vacinados relataram como motivo não ter recebido orientação para se vacinar, e dois em cada 10 vacinados comprovaram a vacinação. Foram identificados, como fatores associados, idade (RP 0,38; IC95%: 0,26 - 0,57) e religião (RP 1,36; IC95%: 1,01 - 1,83). Conclusões: As coberturas das vacinas hepatite B e HPV estão abaixo das metas estabelecidas, pelo Ministério da Saúde, para a população alvo da vacinação (95% para a vacina hepatite B e 80% para a vacina HPV). Conhecer detalhadamente as barreiras contemporâneas à vacinação, empregar estratégias que facilitem o acesso às vacinas, como vacinação nas escolas, comunicação criativa e específica para os adolescentes e para os profissionais sobre a importância das vacinas, são relevantes para a ampliação das coberturas vacinais.


Introduction: The complications caused by the infections of hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus (HPV) are important public health problems in Brazil and the world. Hepatitis B and HPV vaccines are the main control measure for these infectious agents and are available in the basic national vaccination schedule. Objectives: to evaluate the vaccination situation of adolescents in São Paulo City and identify factors associated with vaccination against hepatitis B and HPV. Methods: This is a crosssectional population-based study, with probabilistic sampling, stratified, drawn in two stages, based on 859 records of adolescents of 12 to 19 years old, non-institutionalized and living in urban areas. The data source was the ISA Capital 2015 Health Survey. For the identification of the associated factors, the prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using the Poisson regression model, observing the conceptual hierarchical structure. Results: For the Hepatitis B vaccine, the prevalence of vaccinated patients was 81.33% (CI 95% 75.88 - 85.78). Approximately eight out of 10 unvaccinated adolescents reported that they had not received counselling to vaccinate and two out of 10 proved vaccination by submitting the vaccine card. Identified, factors associated to vaccination against Hepatitis B, age (PR 0.78; CI 95% CI 0.64 - 0.96), religion (PR 1.25; CI 95% 1.09 - 1.44), and professional guidance on the importance of the vaccine (PR 1.23; CI 95% CI 1.10 - 1.37). For the HPV vaccine, the prevalence of vaccinated patients was 66.71% (CI 95% 60.67 - 72.25). Approximately four out of 10 unvaccinated adolescents reported that they had not received counselling to vaccinate, and two out of 10 proved vaccination. Identified factors associated to vaccination: age (PR 0.38; CI 95% 0.26 - 0.57) and religion (PR 1.36; CI 95% 1.01 - 1.83). Conclusion: The coverage of hepatitis B and HPV vaccines are below the targets, set by the Ministry of Health, for the population of vaccination (95% for hepatitis B vaccine and 80% for HPV vaccine). To know in detail the contemporary barriers to vaccination, apply strategies that facilitate access to vaccines, such as vaccination in schools, creative and specific communication for adolescents and professionals about the importance of vaccines, are relevant for the expansion of vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Immunization Programs , Adolescent Health , Vaccination Coverage , Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18 , Papillomaviridae , Hepatitis B
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180132, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041500

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Medical students have an occupational risk for hepatitis B (HB). This study sought to determine anti-HBs and anti-HBc IgG levels in vaccinated students, check their seroconversion, and correlate this with vaccination. METHODS One hundred and forty-three students' blood samples and their vaccination schedules were analyzed. RESULTS: 65.7% were positive for anti-HBs; however, anti-HBs was absent in 34.3%. Only two samples were positive for anti-HBc IgG. CONCLUSIONS More than 30% of students did not have minimum protective levels. Comparing HBV vaccination and anti-HBs reactivity, the majority of reactive individuals received their last dose within the past 16 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180534, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041588

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Occupational exposure is a major risk factor for hepatitis B (HB) transmission. METHODS: Vaccination coverage and immunity verification from 64 dentists of the Brazilian Unified Health System were investigated. An immunochromatographic method was used to verify immunity against the disease. RESULTS: Overall, 77.77% of participating dentists completed the vaccination schedule; 37.50% had negative anti-HBs test results. Furthermore, 60.93% of participants never underwent anti-HBs tests and 40% did not know how to correctly interpret results. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous dentists were not immune to the disease. Few participants previously performed the test, with many not knowing how to interpret the results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Dentists , Middle Aged
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(2): 76-82, abr. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954953

ABSTRACT

La vacunación es una de las estrategias más efectivas para la prevención de enfermedades. Argentina inició la transición de la vacunación del niño a la de la familia, incorporando la vacunación del adulto. Una de las dificultades con este último grupo es determinar el porcentaje de utilización (PU) de las vacunas. Con el objetivo de caracterizar el PU de las vacunas en adultos en Argentina, la Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo que realizó el Ministerio de Salud de la Nación en 2013 incluyó un módulo de vacunación. El diseño muestral fue estratificado y multietápico. Fueron encuestadas 32 365 personas >18 años sobre el uso de cuatro vacunas incluidas en el Calendario Nacional de Vacunación: hepatitis B, tétanos, influenza y neumococo. Se consideró toda la población encuestada para tétanos y hepatitis B y ciertos grupos en riesgo para influenza y neumococo, de acuerdo con las recomendaciones. El PU varió según las vacunas analizadas: tétanos 49.8%, hepatitis B 21.7%, influenza 51.6% y neumococo 16.2%. Las principales fuentes de información sobre vacunas del adulto fueron, en primer lugar los medios públicos de comunicación (televisión, internet, etc.), y en segundo lugar el personal de salud (70.8% y 27.9%, respectivamente). Se concluye que la encuesta es una herramienta útil para evaluar el uso de vacunas por adultos, identificar poblaciones con baja cobertura, así como para planificar e implementar estrategias para mejorar la cobertura.


Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies for disease prevention. Argentina initiated the transition from child vaccination to family vaccination through the incorporation of an adult schedule. One of the difficulties with this last group is to assess the percentage of use (PU) of the vaccines. With the aim of determining the PU of adult vaccines in Argentina, a vaccination module was included in the National Survey of Risk Factors carried out in 2013 by the National Ministry of Health. The sampling had a stratified multistage design. A total of 32 365 people = 18 year-old were surveyed about the use of four vaccines included in the National Vaccination Calendar: hepatitis B, tetanus, influenza, and pneumococcus. The entire population was surveyed for tetanus and hepatitis B while certain groups at risk were evaluated for influenza and pneumococcus, according to current recommendations. PU varied according to the vaccine analyzed: tetanus 49.8%, hepatitis B 21.7%, influenza 51.6% and pneumococcus 16.2%. The main information sources on adult vaccination were media (television, internet, etc.) followed by health personnel (70.8% and 27.9%, respectively). The survey is a suitable tool to assess the use of vaccines by adults, identify low coverage populations, and to plan and implement strategies to improve coverage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Tetanus Toxoid/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Population Surveillance , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Transitional Care
13.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2018; 24 (8): 736-744
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-199161

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2010, Qatar adopted the target of reducing hepatitis B prevalence to < 1% in children by 2015. The World Health Organization Region for the Eastern Mediterranean is identified with intermediate hepatitis B virus [HBV] endemicity, ranging from 2% to 7%. It is estimated that 4.3 million individuals are living with HBV infection in the Region.


Aims: This study was conducted to assess hepatitis B seroprevalence in children, hepatitis B vaccination coverage, potential exposure to risk factors, and knowledge among parents/guardians about hepatitis B infection.


Methods: We carried out this cross-sectional study in Qatar during the academic year 2015/16. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select a nationally representative sample of 2735 grade 1 school students aged . 5 years. Blood was collected by finger prick and tested using the point-of-care test/rapid test. A self-administered, precoded questionnaire was used to assess parent/guardian knowledge about HBV and collect information on the childfs HBV vaccination coverage.


Results: All blood samples were HBsAg negative. Qataris had a vaccination card and were totally vaccinated but 17.7% of non-Qataris did not hold a vaccination card and most parents/guardians were not aware of the vaccination status of their children. Children were exposed to various hepatitis B risk practices. Knowledge about hepatitis B among parents/ guardians was low.


Conclusions: Qatar has averted the hepatitis B threat and maintained high vaccination coverage for children


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Immunization , Schools , Students , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Child
14.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2018. 100 p. tab, ilus, mapa, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-981769

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A vacina contra hepatite B (recombinante) (VCHB) configura-se como a maneira mais eficaz na prevenção da infecção do vírus da Hepatite B (VHB). A situação vacinal sofre influência de fatores intrínsecos aos indivíduos e, também, dos fatores contextuais. Objetivo: Analisar os fatores ambientais e individuais associados à vacinação contra Hepatite B em gestantes. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de literatura e meta-análise e estudo epidemiológico com delineamento transversal. Em relação à revisão sistemática, a estratégia de busca foi realizada no EMBASE e MEDLINE. A seleção abrangeu: mulheres grávidas; estudos de coorte ou transversais; estudos com dados sobre a taxa de vacinação contra hepatite B e fatores de risco relacionados. Os modelos de efeitos fixos e os de efeitos aleatórios foram aplicados, utilizando o modelo de acordo com a heterogeneidade metodológica entre os estudos. A heterogeneidade entre os estudos foi avaliada usando a estatística Q e o teste do I-quadrado. Para o estudo epidemiológico, utilizaram-se dados de 266 puérperas que participaram da pesquisa: "Nascer em Belo Horizonte: Inquérito sobre o parto e nascimento". A coleta de dados ocorreu em 11 maternidades de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. A presença de registro da VCHB presente na caderneta de pré-natal foi utilizada como medida indireta da imunização da gestante e considerada como desfecho. Para a detecção do cluster de risco para presença de registro ou ausência de VCHB, foi utilizada a técnica de varredura espacial. Posteriormente, procedeu-se à comparação das variáveis individuais e ambientais entre as Áreas de Abrangência da Unidade Básica de Saúde (AA-UBS). Para avaliar a associação entre os fatores que influenciam a VCHB de gestantes realizou-se a regressão logística multinível. Resultados: A revisão sistemática evidenciou 7 estudos que preencheram todos os critérios de inclusão e 4 foram incluídos na meta-análise. A análise conjunta demonstrou uma associação positiva com um maior nível de escolaridade e VCHB (OR: 1,46; IC 95% 1,12-1,92). Não houve heterogeneidade significativa entre os estudos (I2 = 18%). No estudo epidemiológico, a prevalência de não registro nas cadernetas das gestantes para VCHB foi de 88,34%. Na análise de varredura espacial Scan, observou-se um cluster de alta prevalência para registro de VCHB, sendo que a probabilidade de encontrar uma puérpera com registro VCHB no cluster foi 8,33 vezes comparada com as demais AAUBS. Análises comparativas demonstraram que o trabalho remunerado e o número de consultas realizadas no pré-natal associaram-se positivamente ao registro para VCHB. No modelo logístico multinível final, gestantes que residiam em AA-UBS com maior taxa de criminalidade apresentaram maior chance de não registro para VCHB. Conclusão: Fatores ambientais, como residir em área de altas taxas de criminalidade, e fatores individuais, como maior nível educacional, exercer trabalho remunerado e realizar maior número de consulta de pré-natal, foram determinantes para as taxas de registros de VCHB nas cadernetas das gestantes.(AU)


Introduction: Hepatitis B vaccine (recombinant) (HBV) is the most effective way to prevent hepatitis B virus infection. Vaccination status is influenced by intrinsic individual factors and contextual factors. Objective: To analyze the environmental and individual factors associated with hepatitis B vaccination in pregnant women. Methods: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, and epidemiological study with a cross-sectional design. Regarding the systematic review, the search strategy was performed in EMBASE and MEDLINE. The selection included: pregnant women; cohort or cross-sectional studies; studies with data on the vaccination rate against hepatitis B and related risk factors. Fixed and random effects models were applied, according to the methodological heterogeneity between the studies. Heterogeneity between the studies was evaluated using the Q statistic and I-square tests. For the epidemiological study, we used the data of 266 postpartum women who participated in the study: "Birth in Belo Horizonte: Birth and Birth Survey". Data were collected in 11 maternity hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The presence of HBV registry in the prenatal care booklet was used as an indirect measure of a pregnant woman´s immunization and was considered as an outcome. For the detection of risk cluster for the presence or absence of HBV registry , spatial scanning technique was used. Subsequently, individual and environmental variables were compared between the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (CAs - BHUs). In order to evaluate the association between the factors influencing HBV vaccination of pregnant women, multilevel logistic regression was performed. Results: The systematic review evidenced 7 studies that met all the inclusion criteria and 4 were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed a positive association between higher education level and hepatitis B vaccination rate (OR: 1.46, 95% CI 1.12­1.92). There was no significant heterogeneity between the studies (I2 = 18%). In the epidemiological study, the prevalence of non- HBV was 88.34%. In the spatial scan analysis, a cluster of high prevalence of HBV was observed, and the probability of finding a puerperium with HBV registration in the cluster was 8.33 times compared to other CAs - BHUs. Comparative analysis showed that the paid work and the number of consultations during prenatal care were positively associated with HBV. In the final multilevel logistic model, pregnant women residing in CAs - BHUs with higher crime rate presented a greater chance of non- HBV. Conclusion: Environmental factors, such as residing in an area of high crime rates, and individual factors, such as higher education level, paid work and greater number of prenatal consultations, were determinant for HBV rates in pregnant women.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Pregnant Women , Socioeconomic Factors , Academic Dissertation , Multilevel Analysis , Spatial Analysis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 550-557, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690567

ABSTRACT

Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. The major risk factors are chronic infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), high exposure to aflatoxins. In addition, exposure to cyanotoxins and some preventable health behaviors are also recognized to contribute to liver cancer development. To relieve the disease burden, primary prevention of etiological interventions is an important strategy. Based on the liver cancer epidemiology in China and the effective evidences and results from the etiological interventions conduced in Chinese population domestically, the following strategies are recommended in the "Strategies of primary prevention of liver cancer: Expert Consensus (2018)" to promote the effective prevention of liver cancer in general population. Immunization with HBV vaccines, including the immune programs to neonates, infants and children born to mothers with different status of HBV infection. Antiviral therapies to the patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Avoiding or reducing the exposure to aflatoxins as well as the cyanotoxins. Changing harmful life style, including quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption etc.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , Toxicity , Alcohol Drinking , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , China , Consensus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Drug Therapy , Hepatitis C , Drug Therapy , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Primary Prevention , Methods , Risk Factors , Smoking Cessation
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 356-358, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients on chronic dialysis present a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. Despite infection-control practices, surveillance of serological markers, and hepatitis B vaccination, there are still outbreaks of the disease in dialysis centers. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the serologic and vaccination status for hepatitis B in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed serologic markers and hepatitis B vaccination status of chronic kidney disease patients on regular dialysis program in São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Patients without information about hepatitis B status (anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs) were referred for testing. Individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunization status and without serological conversion (anti-HBs <10mIU/mL) were referred to vaccination, with adverse effects monitored. RESULTS: The study included 130 from a total of 181 dialysis patients. The majority were male (63.8%), mean age 53.9 years. All patients were already screened and negative for HBsAg, and 73.8% were vaccinated against hepatitis B (59.2% complete and 14.6% incomplete schedule), with a seroconversion rate of 75.3%. Only 11 (8.5%) patients had prior dosage of anti-HBc (negative). Among the 47 patients referred for anti-HBc testing, four were anti-HBc positive and one indeterminate. Of the total of patients referred to immunization, 34 have actually received HBV vaccine; among them five had mild adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Despite the benefit of dosing of anti-HBc and anti-HBs before admission to dialysis, economic constraints have reduced the screening to only HBsAg. Since occult HBV infection has already been demonstrated in hemodialysis patients, the measure of anti-HBc should be encouraged.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Pacientes cronicamente em diálise apresentam alta prevalência de infecção por vírus da hepatite B. Apesar de práticas de controle de infecção, vigilância de marcadores sorológicos e vacinação contra a hepatite B, ainda há surtos da doença em centros de diálise. OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o estado sorológico e a vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando marcadores sorológicos e vacinação contra a hepatite B em pacientes com doença renal crônica em programa regular de hemodiálise em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Pacientes sem marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B disponíveis (anti-HBc, HBsAg e anti-HBs) foram encaminhados para testagem. Em caso de situação vacinal desconhecida, incompleta ou sem resposta vacinal (anti-HBs <10mIU/mL), os pacientes foram encaminhados para vacinação, sendo os efeitos adversos monitorados. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 130 de um total de 181 pacientes em diálise. A maioria era do sexo masculino (63,8%), com idade média de 53,9 anos. Todos os pacientes já haviam sido rastreados e eram negativos para HBsAg, e 73,8% foram vacinados contra a hepatite B (59,2% esquema completo e 14,6% esquema incompleto), com uma taxa de soroconversão de 75,3%. Apenas 11 (8,5%) pacientes dispunham de dosagem prévia de anti-HBc (negativo). Entre os 47 pacientes encaminhados para testagem anti-HBc, quatro eram anti-HBc reagentes e um indeterminado. Do total de pacientes encaminhados à imunização, 34 receberam efetivamente a vacina contra o HBV; entre eles, cinco tiveram efeitos adversos leves. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do benefício da dosagem de anti-HBc e anti-HBs antes da admissão à diálise, restrições econômicas reduziram o rastreio apenas à dosagem de HBsAg. Como a infecção oculta por HBV já foi demonstrada em pacientes em hemodiálise, a dosagem de anti-HBc deve ser incentivada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Middle Aged
17.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 8(4): 31-36, dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1028329

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a situação vacinal contra os vírus da hepatite A e B em crianças da educação infantil. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico, quantitativo, baseado em cópias dos cartões de vacinas de 1.434 crianças da educação infantil. Os dados foram em dados coletados por meio de checklist, e sua análise deu-se mediante a estatística descritiva e os dados foram apresentados em tabela e figura. Resultados: Para a vacina contra o vírus da hepatite B, 73,7% dos cartões das crianças foram classificados com esquema vacinal completo e 25,1% com esquema incompleto. Já para a vacina contra o vírus da hepatite A, 72,2% dos cartões foram classificados com esquema vacinal completo em das crianças com faixa etária entre um ano e um ano 11 meses e 29 dias. Conclusão: O quantitativo de doses administradas ainda não corresponde ao que é preconizado e foram observados doses administradas fora do período recomendado e erros nos registros das vacinas.


Objective: To analyze the vaccination situation against hepatitis A and B viruses in pre-school children. Methodology: Epidemiological, quantitative study, based on copies of vaccination cards of 1,434 children in early childhood education. The data were collected through a checklist, and their analysis was based on descriptive statistics and the data were presented in table and figure. Results: For the vaccine against hepatitis B virus, 73.7% of the children’s cards were classified as complete vaccine scheme and 25.1% were incomplete. In the case of the hepatitis A virus vaccine, 72.2% of the cards were classified with complete vaccination schedule in children aged between one year and one year 11 months and 29 days. Conclusion: Doses administered do not yet correspond to what is recommended and doses administered outside the recommended period and errors in vaccine records have been observed.


Objetivo: Analizar la situación vacunal contra los virus de la hepatitis A y B en niños de la educación infantil. Metodología: Estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo, basado en copias de las tarjetas de vacunas de 1.434 niños de la educación infantil. Los datos fueron en datos recolectados por medio de checklist, y su análisis se dio mediante la estadística descriptiva y los datos fueron presentados en tabla y figura. Resultados: Para la vacuna contra el virus de la hepatitis B, el 73,7% de las tarjetas de los niños fueron clasificados con esquema vacunal completo y el 25,1% con esquema incompleto. Para la vacuna contra el virus de la hepatitis A, el 72,2% de las tarjetas fueron clasificadas con esquema vacunal completo en los niños con edades entre un año y un año 11 meses y 29 días. Conclusión: El cuantitativo de dosis administradas aún no corresponde a lo que se preconiza y se observaron dosis administradas fuera del período recomendado y errores en los registros de las vacunas.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Nursing , Immunization Schedule , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis B Vaccines
18.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 25: [e18856], jan.-dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-947343

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar a cobertura vacinal contra Hepatite B dos profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital universitário e investigar os fatores associados à vacinação contra HB entre tais profissionais. Método: estudo transversal e analítico com abordagem quantitativa, conduzido entre agosto e novembro de 2013, em Montes Claros - Minas Gerais. Aplicou-se questionário abordando variáveis sociodemográficas e ocupacionais. As associações foram investigadas por meio da análise múltipla (regressão de Poisson), no Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 18.0. Projeto aprovado no Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, Parecer Consubstanciado 2882/2011. Resultados: participaram 399 profissionais, destes 71% relataram ter tomado três doses da vacina. Houve associações entre prevalência de vacinação e idade, categoria profissional, carga horária semanal, turno de trabalho, satisfação com o trabalho e capacitação. Conclusão: a prevalência de vacinação contra hepatite b não atingiu as metas preconizadas e este associada a importantes fatores sociodemográficos e ocupacionais.


Objective: to identify Hepatitis B vaccination coverage of nursing personnel at a university hospital and investigate the factors associated with HB vaccination among them. Method: this quantitative cross-sectional analytical study was conducted between August and November 2013 in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. A questionnaire addressing sociodemographic and occupational variables was applied. Associations were investigated by multivariate analysis (Poisson regression), using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 18.0. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (Documented Opinion 2882/2011). Results: participants were 399 nursing personnel, 71% of whom reported having taken three doses of the vaccine. Associations were found between vaccination prevalence and age, professional category, weekly workload, work shift, job satisfaction and training. Conclusion: hepatitis B vaccination prevalence did not meet recommended goals and was associated with important sociodemographic and occupational factors.


Objetivo: identificar la cobertura vacunal contra la Hepatitis B de los profesionales de enfermería de un hospital universitario e investigar los factores asociados a la vacunación contra HB entre dichos profesionales. Método: estudio transversal analítico, con enfoque cuantitativo, realizado entre agosto y noviembre de 2013, en Montes Claros - Minas Gerais. Se aplicó un cuestionario sobre las variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales. Se investigaron las asociaciones por medio del análisis múltiple (regresión de Poisson), en el Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 18.0. Proyecto aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación, Dictamen consolidado 2882/2011. Resultados: participaron 399 profesionales, de éstos un 71% relató haber tomado tres dosis de la vacuna. Hubo asociaciones entre prevalencia de vacunación y edad, categoría profesional, tiempo de trabajo semanal, turno de trabajo, satisfacción con el trabajo y capacitación. Conclusión: la prevalencia de vacunación contra hepatitis B no alcanzó las metas preconizadas y está asociada a importantes factores sociodemográficos y ocupacionales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Occupational Health , Nursing , Vaccination , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B , Occupational Risks , Containment of Biohazards , Vaccination Coverage
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 296-304, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893771

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Bacterial or viral diseases are one of the major causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These patients show a quantitative reduction of levels of antibodies over time. Among the infectious diseases that affect CKD patients, stands out hepatitis B (HB). Immunization and control of antibodies levels against the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are ways to prevent the HB infection in this population. Patients with anti-HBs levels ≥10 IU/ml are considered adequate responders, whereas those with anti-HBs levels ≥ 100 IU/ml are considered excellent responders. Objective: To analyze the variation of the anti-HBs levels obtained after vaccination against HB in children and adolescents in the pre-dialysis stage of CKD. Methods: A retrospective cohort study on anti-HBs levels of children and adolescents in the pre-dialysis stage of CKD. Correlation between levels of anti-HBs titers and time since the vaccination were estimated. Results: From the total of 116 studied patients most of the studied patients were considered excellent responders, obtaining in the three anti-HBs titers percentages of 70.7%, 62.1% and 54.9% respectively. The anti-HBs titer levels showed a negative correlation with the time since vaccination (Kendall Tau-b = -0.16; p = 0.02). Conclusion: The majority of the studied population was vaccinated by PNI and showed excellent anti-HBs titer levels, even experiencing a progressive reduced response over the time.


Resumo Introdução: As doenças infecciosas, bacterianas ou virais, são uma das principais causas de morte dos pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC), que apresentam um decréscimo na duração da imunidade em comparação às pessoas saudáveis. Entre as doenças infecciosas que acometem os portadores de DRC, destaca-se a hepatite B (HB). A imunização e o controle dos níveis de anticorpos contra o antígeno da superfície da hepatite B (anti-HBs) são formas de evitar a contaminação da HB nessa população. Pacientes com o nível de anti-HBs ≥ 10 UI/ml são considerados adequados respondedores, enquanto aqueles com níveis de anti-HBs ≥ 100 UI/ml são considerados excelentes respondedores. Objetivo: Analisar a variação dos níveis de anti-HBs adquiridos após a vacinação contra a HB em crianças e adolescentes na fase pré-dialítica da DRC. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo dos níveis de anti-HBs de crianças e adolescentes na fase pré-dialítica da DRC. Resultados: Dos 116 pacientes do estudo, a maior parte foi considerada respondedores excelentes, obtendo nas três titulagens percentuais de 70,7%, 62,1% e 54,9%, respectivamente. Os níveis de anti-HBs apresentaram uma correlação negativa com o tempo de vacinação (Kendall Tau-b = - 0,16; p = 0,02). Conclusão: Conclui-se que a maior parte da população do estudo apresenta níveis de anti-HBs excelentes, ocorrendo uma queda progressiva da titulagem ao longo do tempo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Monitoring, Physiologic
20.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 9(3): 627-633, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-869943

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the socio-demographic profile of reported hepatitis B and immunization against the disease. Methods: Study Hepatitis B notification data in the surveillance of a Minas Gerais’ municipality, from 2007 to 2015, conducted at the Labor Education Program for Health descriptive and analytical statistics, with significance level of p < 0.05. Results: 132 cases and two deaths were notified. The age of the reported cases ranged from zero to 87 years, average 35.8 (± 14.0) years. More frequently for men (52.3%) and with low education (64.8%). Most of them did not vaccinate (81.8%) and had positive result of HSBsAg serology (90.1%); immunization was not linked to the socio-demographic profile (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Age, education and gender were not associated with immunization, vaccination schedule and the HSBsAg test. The absence of vaccination among the notified suggests need for health education among the population, orienting the possibility of protection by immunization.


Objetivo: Analisar o perfil sociodemográfico dos notificados para hepatite B e a imunização contra a doença. Métodos: Estudo com dados de notificação de hepatite B na vigilância epidemiológica do município de Minas Gerais, entre 2007 a 2015, conduzido no Programa de Educação pelo Trabalho para a Saúde. Estatística descritiva e analítica, com nível de significância p < 0,05. Resultados: Notificaram-se 132 casos e dois óbitos. A idade dos notificados variou de zero a 87 anos, média de 35,8 (± 14,0) anos. Maior frequência para homens (52,3%) e baixa escolaridade (64,8%). A maioria não vacinou (81,8%) e teve resultado da sorologia HSBsAg positivo (90,1%); a imunização não se associou ao perfil sociodemográfico (p > 0,05). Conclusão: Idade, escolaridade e sexo não foram associados à imunização, ao esquema vacinal ou ao teste HSBsAg. A ausência de vacinação entre os notificados sugere a necessidade de educação em saúde junto à população, orientando-a sobre possibilidade de proteção pela imunização.


Objetivo: Analizar el perfil sociodemográfico reportado de hepatitis B y la inmunización contra la enfermedad. Métodos: Estudio de datos de notificación de la hepatitis B en la vigilancia del municipio de Minas Gerais, de 2007 a 2015, realizadas en el Programa de Educación para el Trabajo de estadística descriptiva y analítica de la Salud, con un nivel de significación de p<0,05. Resultados: 132 casos fueron notificados; dos muertes. La edad del reportado varió de cero a 87 años, con una media de 35,8 (± 14,0) años. Con mayor frecuencia entre los hombres (52,3%) y baja educación (64,8%). La mayoría no vacunados (81,8%) y tuvo resultado positivo de HSBsAg serología (90,1%); la inmunización no vinculado al perfil sociodemográfico (p > 0,05). Conclusión: La edad, la educación y el sexo no se asociaron con la inmunización, calendario de vacunación y la prueba HSBsAg. La ausencia de vacunación entre los notificados sugiere la necesidad de educación para la salud entre la población, orientando la posibilidad de protección mediante la vacunación.


Subject(s)
Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vaccination Coverage , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/mortality , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Immunotherapy, Active , Health Profile , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Brazil , Epidemiological Monitoring
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