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1.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(1): e1076, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126544

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La incidencia de la hepatitis B en Cuba se redujo notablemente desde la incorporación de la vacuna cubana Heberbiovac HB. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de marcadores del virus de la hepatitis B en donantes de sangre de tres provincias y la persistencia de los anticuerpos contra el antígeno de superficie de este virus en donantes nacidos posterior a la introducción de la vacuna cubana en el Programa Nacional de Inmunización. Métodos: Se aplicó el diseño de un estudio de prevalencia. Se incluyeron 433 donantes que acudieron a los bancos de sangre de las provincias La Habana, Villa Clara y Santiago de Cuba, entre enero y diciembre de 2018. Se detectaron los marcadores HBsAg, anti-HBc y anti-HBs; este último en donantes con edades entre 18 a 26 años. Se realizó la proteína C reactiva (PCR) en tiempo real para identificar la replicación viral en individuos positivos al HBsAgo al anti-HBc. Resultados: La prevalencia de HBsAg y de anti-HBc fue de 1,15 por ciento (5/433) y 7,85 por ciento (38/433), respectivamente. En los individuos nacidos después de la introducción de la vacuna, la prevalencia de HBsAg y anti-HBc fue 0 por ciento y 0,95 por ciento, respectivamente. El 36,1 9 por ciento (38/105) de estos donantes tenían niveles protectores de anti-HBs (≥ 10 UI/L). El ADN viral se detectó en un donante positivo al HBsAg y anti-HBc; no se identificó infección oculta por el virus de la hepatitis B. Conclusiones: La prevalencia del HBsAg es baja en donantes de sangre cubanos, con tendencia a ser nula en donantes nacidos después de la aplicación de la vacuna cubana Heberbiovac HB(AU)


Introduction: The incidence of hepatitis B in Cuba has decreased significantly since incorporation of Cuban vaccine Heberbiovac HB. Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in blood donors from three provinces and the persistence of antibodies against surface antigen of this virus in blood donors born after introduction of Cuban vaccine in the National Immunization Program. Methods: The design of a prevalence study was applied. We included 433 donors who attended the blood banks of the provinces of Havana, Villa Clara and Santiago de Cuba, between January and December 2018.The HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs markers were detected; the latter was detected in donors aged 18-26 years. The real-time analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) was performed to identify viral replication in individuals positive to HBsAg-positive and to anti-HBc. Results: The prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc was 1.15 percen t (5/433) and 7.85 percent (38/433), respectively. In individuals born after introduction of the vaccine, the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc was 0 percent and 0.95 percent, respectively. 36.19 percent (38/105) of these donors had protective levels of anti-HBs (≥10UI/L). Viral DNA was detected in a donor positive to HBsAg and to anti-HBc. Hidden infection with the hepatitis B virus was not identified. Conclusions: The prevalence of HBsAg is low among Cuban blood donors, with a tendency to be null in donors born after application of Cuban vaccine Heberbiovac HB(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Donors , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Cuba
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 69-73, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vaccinated for hepatitis B have a low success rate in achieving protective antibody levels. The main factors suggested for this are IBD itself and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concentration of anti-HBs antibodies and to verify factors associated with the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a prospective, consecutive, observational, descriptive and analytical, non-randomized, qualitative study that evaluated the levels of anti-HBs antibodies in IBD patients at the Interdisciplinary Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic of the Family and Community Health Unit of UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV), of which 29 were female. The average age was 46.2 years. Regarding the type of IBD, twenty-four patients had Crohn's disease and the duration of inflammatory bowel disease was 74 months. Fifteen patients were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. The effective response rate to HBV vaccine was 72.2%, verified by anti-HBs titration ≥10 UI/L. Statistical analysis revealed a negative response to vaccination in patients with Crohn's disease and immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: The success rate of HBV immunization in IBD patients is low compared to the general population. Type of disease and use of immunosuppressive drugs appear to influence the vaccine response.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) vacinados para hepatite B possuem baixa taxa de sucesso em alcançar níveis protetores de anticorpos. Os principais fatores sugeridos para isso são a própria DII e o uso de medicamentos imunossupressores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs e verificar fatores associados a efetividade da vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes com DII. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo e consecutivo, de caráter observacional, descritivo e analítico, não-randomizado, qualiquantitativo, que avaliou a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs em pacientes portadores de DII no Ambulatório Interdisciplinar de Doença Inflamatória Intestinal da Unidade de Saúde da Família e Comunitária da UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram vacinados contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB), destes, 29 eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 46,2 anos. Em relação ao tipo de DII, 24 pacientes eram portadores de doença de Crohn e o tempo médio de doença inflamatória intestinal encontrado foi de 74 meses. Quinze pacientes estavam em uso de terapia imunossupressora concomitante à vacinação. A taxa de resposta à vacina contra o VHB foi de 72,2%, verificada através de titulação de anti-HBs ≥10 UI/L. A análise estatística revelou uma resposta negativa à vacinação em pacientes em uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e portadores de doença de Crohn. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de sucesso na imunização contra o VHB em pacientes com DII é baixo quando comparado à população em geral. Tipo de doença e uso de medicamentos imunossupressores parecem desempenhar influência na resposta vacinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Qualitative Research , Seroconversion , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190559, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136898

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil's western Amazon basin has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the country. Coinfection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) is also endemic. To estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV markers in a population inhabiting the northwest portion of Mato Grosso state in the western Amazon. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) in the Três Fronteiras District northwest of Mato Grosso. Anti-HBc-positive subjects were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Those positive for this marker were tested for HDV antibodies. Anti-HBc-negative participants were tested for anti-HBsAg. All tests were performed by EIA. RESULTS: A total of 623 individuals in the community were assessed; the majority (67.6%) were male, with a mean age of 30.8 ± 15.4 years. Two hundred and fourteen individuals (34.3%) were anti-HBc-positive, and 47 (7.5%) were HBsAg carriers. Only one individual was anti-HDV-positive. Among the 409 individuals without HBV infection, 18.3% were anti-HBsAg-positive. There was no association between HBV infection and known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study area had intermediate-to-high endemicity for HBV infection, but a low prevalence of HDV. Our serological results suggesting low vaccination-induced protection indicate a need for reinforced immunization programs in the populations of northwest Mato Grosso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis D/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3278, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101736

ABSTRACT

Objective: to compare the direct cost, from the perspective of the Unified Health System, of assessing the post-vaccination serological status with post-exposure management for hepatitis B among health care workers exposed to biological material. Method: cross-sectional study and cost-related, based on accident data recorded in the System of Information on Disease Notification between 2006 and 2016, where three post-exposure and one pre-exposure management scenarios were evaluated: A) accidents among vaccinated workers with positive and negative serological status tests for hepatitis B, exposed to known and unknown source-person; B) handling unvaccinated workers exposed to a known and unknown source-person; C) managing vaccinated workers and unknown serological status for hepatitis B and D) cost of the pre-exposure post-vaccination test. Accidents were assessed and the direct cost was calculated using the decision tree model. Results: scenarios where workers did not have protective titles after vaccination or were unaware of the serological status and were exposed to a positive or unknown source-person for hepatitis B. Conclusion: the direct cost of hepatitis B prophylaxis, including confirmation of serological status after vaccination would be more economical for the health system.


Objetivo: comparar o custo direto, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde, da avaliação do status sorológico pós-vacinação com o manejo pós-exposição para hepatite B entre trabalhadores da área da saúde expostos ao material biológico. Método: estudo transversal e de custo, realizado a partir dos dados de acidentes registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação entre 2006 e 2016, em que foram avaliados três cenários de manejo pós-exposição e um de pré-exposição: A) acidentes entre trabalhadores vacinados com status sorológico positivo e negativo para hepatite B, expostos à pessoa-fonte conhecida e desconhecida; B) manejo dos trabalhadores não vacinados expostos à pessoa-fonte conhecida e desconhecida; C) manejo dos trabalhadores vacinados e status sorológico desconhecido para hepatite B e D) custo do teste pós vacinação pré-exposição. Os acidentes foram avaliados e o custo direto foi calculado utilizando o modelo árvore de decisão. Resultados: apresentaram maior custo os cenários em que os trabalhadores não possuíam títulos protetores após a vacinação ou desconheciam o status sorológico e foram expostos à pessoa-fonte positivo ou desconhecida para hepatite B. Conclusão: o custo direto da profilaxia para hepatite B, incluindo a confirmação do status sorológico após vacinação seria mais econômico para o sistema de saúde.


Objetivo: comparar el costo directo, desde la perspectiva del Sistema Único de Salud, de la evaluación del status serológico post-vacunación con el manejo post-exposición para la hepatitis B entre los trabajadores de la salud expuestos a material biológico. Método: estudio transversal y de costos, basado en datos de accidentes registrados en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables entre 2006 y 2016, en el que se evaluaron tres escenarios de gestión posteriores a la exposición y uno previo a la exposición: A) accidentes entre trabajadores vacunados con status serológico positivo y negativo para hepatitis B, expuestos a una fuente de origen conocida y desconocida; B) manejo de trabajadores no vacunados expuestos a una fuente conocida y desconocida; C) manejo de trabajadores vacunados y estado serológico desconocido para hepatitis B y D) costo de la prueba de pre-exposición post-vacunación. Se evaluaron los accidentes y se calculó el costo directo utilizando el modelo de árbol de decisión. Resultados: los escenarios en los que los trabajadores no tenían títulos de protección después de la vacunación o desconocían el status serológico y estaban expuestos a una persona fuente positiva o desconocida para la hepatitis B reflejaron un costo más alto. Conclusión: el costo directo de la profilaxis para la hepatitis B, incluida la confirmación del status serológico después de la vacunación sería más económico para el sistema de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Occupational Exposure , Vaccination/economics , Health Care Costs , Health Personnel , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Costs and Cost Analysis , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral/blood
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180533, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057270

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: HBV and HIV have identical transmission routes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV in HIV patients and to detect the presence of occult HBV infection. METHODS: All samples were tested for serology markers and using qPCR. RESULTS: This study included 232 individuals, out of which 36.6% presented with HBV markers and 11.8% presented with HBsAg or HBV-DNA, including 3 patients that showed OBI. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HBV among HIV patients. In addition, the results suggest that OBI can occur in patients with serological profiles that are indicative of past infection. Therefore, the application of molecular tests may enable the identification of infections that are not evident solely based on serology.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180132, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041500

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Medical students have an occupational risk for hepatitis B (HB). This study sought to determine anti-HBs and anti-HBc IgG levels in vaccinated students, check their seroconversion, and correlate this with vaccination. METHODS One hundred and forty-three students' blood samples and their vaccination schedules were analyzed. RESULTS: 65.7% were positive for anti-HBs; however, anti-HBs was absent in 34.3%. Only two samples were positive for anti-HBc IgG. CONCLUSIONS More than 30% of students did not have minimum protective levels. Comparing HBV vaccination and anti-HBs reactivity, the majority of reactive individuals received their last dose within the past 16 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 198-202, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041449

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and risk behaviors among 402 female sex workers in Central Brazil were investigated by respondent-driven sampling. METHODS: Blood samples were tested for hepatitis B and C markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hepatitis B vaccination schedules were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections were 9.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Susceptibility to hepatitis B infection was observed in 61.5% of subjects. There was no significant difference in adherence index (p=0.52) between vaccination schedules and all participants had protective antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: This hard-to-reach population requires hepatitis B and C surveillance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Middle Aged
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 356-358, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients on chronic dialysis present a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. Despite infection-control practices, surveillance of serological markers, and hepatitis B vaccination, there are still outbreaks of the disease in dialysis centers. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the serologic and vaccination status for hepatitis B in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed serologic markers and hepatitis B vaccination status of chronic kidney disease patients on regular dialysis program in São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Patients without information about hepatitis B status (anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs) were referred for testing. Individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunization status and without serological conversion (anti-HBs <10mIU/mL) were referred to vaccination, with adverse effects monitored. RESULTS: The study included 130 from a total of 181 dialysis patients. The majority were male (63.8%), mean age 53.9 years. All patients were already screened and negative for HBsAg, and 73.8% were vaccinated against hepatitis B (59.2% complete and 14.6% incomplete schedule), with a seroconversion rate of 75.3%. Only 11 (8.5%) patients had prior dosage of anti-HBc (negative). Among the 47 patients referred for anti-HBc testing, four were anti-HBc positive and one indeterminate. Of the total of patients referred to immunization, 34 have actually received HBV vaccine; among them five had mild adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Despite the benefit of dosing of anti-HBc and anti-HBs before admission to dialysis, economic constraints have reduced the screening to only HBsAg. Since occult HBV infection has already been demonstrated in hemodialysis patients, the measure of anti-HBc should be encouraged.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Pacientes cronicamente em diálise apresentam alta prevalência de infecção por vírus da hepatite B. Apesar de práticas de controle de infecção, vigilância de marcadores sorológicos e vacinação contra a hepatite B, ainda há surtos da doença em centros de diálise. OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o estado sorológico e a vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando marcadores sorológicos e vacinação contra a hepatite B em pacientes com doença renal crônica em programa regular de hemodiálise em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Pacientes sem marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B disponíveis (anti-HBc, HBsAg e anti-HBs) foram encaminhados para testagem. Em caso de situação vacinal desconhecida, incompleta ou sem resposta vacinal (anti-HBs <10mIU/mL), os pacientes foram encaminhados para vacinação, sendo os efeitos adversos monitorados. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 130 de um total de 181 pacientes em diálise. A maioria era do sexo masculino (63,8%), com idade média de 53,9 anos. Todos os pacientes já haviam sido rastreados e eram negativos para HBsAg, e 73,8% foram vacinados contra a hepatite B (59,2% esquema completo e 14,6% esquema incompleto), com uma taxa de soroconversão de 75,3%. Apenas 11 (8,5%) pacientes dispunham de dosagem prévia de anti-HBc (negativo). Entre os 47 pacientes encaminhados para testagem anti-HBc, quatro eram anti-HBc reagentes e um indeterminado. Do total de pacientes encaminhados à imunização, 34 receberam efetivamente a vacina contra o HBV; entre eles, cinco tiveram efeitos adversos leves. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do benefício da dosagem de anti-HBc e anti-HBs antes da admissão à diálise, restrições econômicas reduziram o rastreio apenas à dosagem de HBsAg. Como a infecção oculta por HBV já foi demonstrada em pacientes em hemodiálise, a dosagem de anti-HBc deve ser incentivada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Middle Aged
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(8): 544-550, Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in Brazil. Several risk factors are involved in HBV infection and their identification by a rational and essential approach is required to prevent the transmission of this infection in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To evaluate risk factors associated with HBV infection in South Brazil. METHODS A total of 260 patients with HBV and 260 controls from Caxias do Sul (state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) participated in this study. All participants were given a standard questionnaire to yield the sociodemographic information and to identify HBV risk factors. HBV infection was detected by HBsAg test in all participants. FINDINGS HBV infection in these cases was strongly associated with history of a family member HBV-infected, mainly mother [odds ratio (OR) = 4.86; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.69-13.91], father (OR = 5.28; 95% CI: 1.58-17.71), and/or siblings (OR = 22.16; 95% CI: 9.39-52.25); sharing personal objects (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.37-2.38); and having history of blood transfusion (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.10-2.84). CONCLUSIONS HBV infection was strongly associated with having a family member infected with hepatitis B, sharing personal objects, and having history of blood transfusion.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/transmission , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Family Health , Transfusion Reaction
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 441-447, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888892

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Chronic hepatitis B is a major cause of cirrhosis, and the natural history of the disease has several clinical stages that should be thoroughly understood for the implementation of proper treatment. Nonetheless, curing the disease with antiviral treatment remains a challenge. Aims: To describe the clinical course, response to treatment, and poor prognostic factors in 247 hepatitis B virus chronic infection patients treated in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective and observational study, by analyzing the medical records of HBV infected patients between January 2000 and January 2015. Results: Most patients were male (67.2%) and 74.1% were HBeAg negative. Approximately 41% had cirrhosis and 8.5% were hepatitis C virus coinfected. The viral load was negative after two years on lamivudine, entecavir and tenofovir in 86%, 90.6%, and 92.9% of the patients, respectively. The five-year resistance rates for lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and tenofovir were 57.5%, 51.8%, 1.9%, and 0%, respectively. The overall seroconversion rates were 31.2% for HBeAg and 9.4% for HBsAg. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 9.7% of patients, liver transplantation was performed in 9.7%, and overall mortality was 10.5%. Elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.0059) and viral load (p < 0.0001) were associated with progression to liver cirrhosis. High viral load was associated with progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (p < 0.0001). Significant risk factors associated with death were elevated alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.0039), liver cirrhosis (p < 0.0001), high viral load (p = 0.007), and hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.0008). HBeAg positive status was not associated with worse outcomes, and treatment may have been largely responsible. Conclusions: Elevations of viral load and serum alanine aminotransferase may select patients with worse prognosis, especially progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which were strongly association with death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/virology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Liver Neoplasms/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Disease Progression , Viral Load , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/mortality
11.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(3): 412-420, May.-Jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887253

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the effect of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level on prognosis in low viral load (< 2000 lU/mL) patients with hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Material and methods. A total of 192 patients with low viral load who had received curative resection of pathologically confirmed HCC were analyzed to determine the factors affecting prognosis. The risk factors for survival, early and late recurrence (2 years as a cut-off) were studied. Results. The median follow-up time was 38.5 months. The overall survival rates at 1-, 3-, and 5-year after curative resection were 94.2%, 64.0%, and 45.2%, respectively. The cumulative recurrence rates at 1-, 3-, and 5-year after curative resection were 22.4%, 46.5%, and 67.0%, respectively. Patients with high serum HBsAg levels (> 250 lU/mL) had significantly lower survival rates than those with low HBsAg levels (HR: 1.517,95% Cl: 1.005-2.292, P = 0.047). Stratified analysis showed that patients with high HBsAg levels had a significantly higher late recurrence incidence than those with low HBsAg levels (HR: 2.155, 95% Cl: 1.094-4.248, P = 0.026), but did not have a significantly higher risk of early recurrence postoperatively (HR: 1.320,95% Cl: 0. 837-2.082, P = 0.233). Multivariate analysis revealed that HBsAg > 250 lU/mL was an independent risk factor associated with late recurrence (HR: 2.109, 95% Cl: 1.068-4.165, P = 0.032). Conclusions. HBsAg > 250 lU/mL at the time of tumor resection was an independent risk factor for late recurrence in low viral load HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/virology , Hepatectomy/adverse effects , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Proportional Hazards Models , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Disease-Free Survival , Disease Progression , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/virology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
12.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(2): 198-206, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887223

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT HBV and HCV reactivation has been widely reported in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for oncohaematological diseases. We aimed to evaluate the HBV and HCV reactivation events in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) underwent cytotoxic chemotherapy containing or not rituximab. This is a retrospective observational study, including all patients with NHL and HL attending an Italian tertiary referral hospital, the University of Naples "Federico II". A total of 322 patients were enrolled. We evaluated serum HBV and HCV markers. A total of 47 (38%) patients with occult HBV infection were enrolled. Seven/47 were treated with therapeutic cytotoxic schedule containing rituximab. Of them, 6/7 received prophylaxis with lamivudine. HBV reactivation was observed in two patients treated with rituximab. A reactivation was observed in the only patient (HBcAb+/HBsAb+) not receiving lamivudine prophylaxis, and the other one was observed in 1 patient with isolated HBcAb positivity during lamivudine prophylaxis. Moreover, 8 patients with HCV-Ab positivity were enrolled. No viral reactivation was observed in these patients. In conclusion, patients with occult HBV infection receiving chemotherapy containing rituximab for lymphoma without antiviral prophylaxis are at risk of viral reactivation. On the contrary, there is no risk of reactivation in patients undergoing rituximab-free schedule. Our findings suggest that there is also very low risk of HCV reactivation. This preliminary report underlines the concept that HBV reactivation is strongly related to the type of immunosuppressive therapy administered and that antiviral prophylaxis needs to be tailored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Virus Activation , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Hodgkin Disease/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus/pathogenicity , Immunocompromised Host , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Rituximab/adverse effects , Hepatitis B/virology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/immunology , Hodgkin Disease/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Italy
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 209-213, Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040567

ABSTRACT

Rapid tests (RTs) can be used as an alternative method for the conventional diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aims to evaluate antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibodies to HBeAg (anti-HBe) RTs under different Brazilian settings. The following three groups were included: GI: viral hepatitis outpatient services; GII: low resource areas; and GIII: crack users and beauticians. Imuno-rápido anti-HBsAg™ and Imuno-rápido anti-HBeAg™ RTs were evaluated and showed specificities greater than 95% in all groups. The sensitivity values to anti-HBs were 50.38%, 51.05% and 46.73% and the sensitivity values to anti-HBe were 76.99%, 10.34% and 11.76% in the GI, GII and GIII groups, respectively. The assays had a low sensitivity and high specificity, which indicated their use for screening in regions endemic for HBV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5796, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839267

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the influence of regulatory T cells including CD4+CD25+, CD8+CD28- and hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype on sustained virological response and tolerance of nucleoside drugs. One hundred and thirty-seven patients were enrolled. Lamivudine was administered to 84 patients. Entecavir was administered to the other 53 patients. Before treatment, biochemical tests, HBV DNA load, HBV serum level, HBV genotype, PB CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+/CD3+, and CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequencies were measured. Based on HBV DNA loads after 4 weeks of therapy, patients were divided into response group and suboptimal response group. The lamivudine group received treatment continuously, and then patients were categorized into non-resistance group and resistance group. Compared with the suboptimal response and resistance groups for lamivudine, CD4+CD25+/CD3+ levels were higher in the response and non-resistance groups (t=4.372, P=0.046; t=7.262, P=0.017). In the non-resistance group, CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequency was lower than in the resistance group (t=5.527, P=0.037). Virus load and hepatitis B E antigen (HBeAg)-positive rate were significantly lower than in the response and resistance group (t=2.164, P=0.038; X2=4.239, P=0.040; t=2.015, P=0.044; X2=16.2, P=0.000). Incidence of drug resistance was high in patients with virogene type C. For the virological response to entecavir, CD8+CD28-/CD3+ level was significantly lower than that of the suboptimal response group (t=6.283, P=0.036). Response and suboptimal response groups were compared in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD25+/CD3+ and virus genotype, and differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Baseline regulatory T cells including CD4+CD25+/CD3+ and CD8+CD28-/CD3+ frequencies have a relationship with the incidence of rapid virological response and the resistance to nucleoside drugs. Patients with HBV genotype C receiving lamivudine more often underwent drug resistance. Antiviral efficacy and the resistance to lamivudine were closely correlated with baseline factors; the same cannot be found for entecavir.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Drug Resistance , Genotype , Guanine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B virus/drug effects , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Sustained Virologic Response , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Time Factors
15.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 24, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the evolution of serological markers among HIV and hepatitis B coinfected patients, with emphasis on evaluating the reactivation or seroreversion of these markers. METHODS The study population consisted of patients met in an AIDS Outpatient Clinic in São Paulo State, Brazil. We included in the analysis all HIV-infected and who underwent at least two positive hepatitis B surface antigen serological testing during clinical follow up, with tests taken six months apart. Patients were tested with commercial kits available for hepatitis B serological markers by microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Clinical variables were collected: age, sex, CD4+ T-cell count, HIV viral load, alanine aminotransferase level, exposure to antiretroviral drugs including lamivudine and/or tenofovir. RESULTS Among 2,242 HIV positive patients, we identified 105 (4.7%) patients with chronic hepatitis B. Follow up time for these patients varied from six months to 20.5 years. All patients underwent antiretroviral therapy during follow-up. Among patients with chronic hepatitis B, 58% were hepatitis B “e” antigen positive at the first assessment. Clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen occurred in 15% (16/105) of patients with chronic hepatitis B, and 50% (8/16) of these patients presented subsequent reactivation or seroreversion of hepatitis B surface antigen. Among hepatitis B “e” antigen positive patients, 57% (35/61) presented clearance of this serologic marker. During clinical follow up, 28.5% (10/35) of those who initially cleared hepatitis B “e” antigen presented seroreversion or reactivation of this marker. CONCLUSIONS Among HIV coinfected patients under antiretroviral therapy, changes of HBV serological markers were frequently observed. These results suggest that frequent monitoring of these serum markers should be recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Biomarkers/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Viral Load , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Coinfection , Seroconversion , Hepatitis B e Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(3): 175-179, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787352

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Occult hepatitis B infection is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and also detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) -DNA, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). HBV reactivation in individuals under immunosuppressive therapy is critical, occurring in occult HBV. Objective In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection among hepatitis B surface antigen negative in cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy. Methods Sera from 204 cancer patients who were negative for HBsAg, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc also examined for HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Of the 204 HBsAg negative blood samples, 11 (5.4%) samples were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 9/11 (81%) of anti-HBc positive samples. Occult HBV infection in hematological cancers was more than solid cancers, 4.8% and 4.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in HBc antibody positivity based on vaccination, previous blood transfusions, history of familial hepatitis or biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, total and direct bilirubin levels) (P>0.05). Conclusion Screening of occult HBV infection by HBsAg, HBV DNA and anti HB core antibody should be suggested as a routine investigation in cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy.


RESUMO Contexto A infecção oculta da hepatite B caracteriza-se por antígeno de superfície da hepatite B (AgHBs) negativo com vírus detectável da hepatite B (HBV) -DNA, com ou sem anticorpo de núcleo da hepatite B (anti-HBc). A reativação do HBV em indivíduos sob terapia imunossupressora é crítica, originando a infecção oculta pelo VHB. Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de infecção oculta pelo VHB entre em pacientes com câncer e com antígeno de superfície da hepatite B negativo antes de receber quimioterapia. Métodos Soro de 204 pacientes com câncer que foram negativos para AgHBs, foram testados para anticorpos anti-HBc. As amostras que foram negativos para AgHBs, mas positivo para anti-HBc foram também examinadas para HBV-DNA, por reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados Entre 204 amostras de sangue AgHBs negativas, 11 (5,4%) foram positivos para anticorpos anti-HBc. HBV-DNA foi detectado em 9/11 (81%) das amostras positivas de anti-HBc. Infecção oculta de VHB em câncer hematológico foi maior que em cânceres sólidos, 4,8% e 4,3% respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa na positividade anti-HBc, com base na vacinação, transfusões de sangue anteriores, história de hepatite familiar ou parâmetros bioquímicos (ALT, AST, total e níveis de bilirrubina total) (P & gt; 0,05). Conclusão A triagem de infecção oculta por AgHBs, HBV-DNA e anti-anticorpo de núcleo HB deve ser sugerida como uma investigação de rotina em pacientes com câncer antes de receber a quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(4): 252-257, Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778998

ABSTRACT

There are about 350 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide and chronic HBV is considered a major public health problem. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the nucleos(t)ide analogues tenofovir (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) in the treatment of chronic HBV. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March-December 2013, including all patients with chronic HBV, over 18 years of age, undergoing therapy through the public health system in southern Brazil. Only the data relating to the first treatments performed with TDF or ETV were considered. Retreatment, co-infection, transplanted or immunosuppressed patients were excluded. Six hundred and forty patients were evaluated, of which 336 (52.5%) received TDF and 165 (25.8%) ETV. The other 139 (21.7%) used various combinations of nucleos(t)ide analogues and were excluded. The negativation of viral load was observed in 87.3% and 78.8% and the negativation of hepatitis B e antigen was achieved in 79% and 72% of those treated with ETV or TDF, respectively. Negativation of hepatitis B surface antigen was not observed. There was no occurrence of adverse effects. This is a real-life study demonstrating that long-term treatment with ETV and TDF is both safe and effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Viral , Guanine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B e Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Public Health , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 1-7, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776471

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The mechanism underlying the coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HBsAg in chronic hepatitis B patients remains unknown. Aims This research aimed to determine the clinical and virological features of the rare pattern. Methods A total of 32 chronic hepatitis B patients infected by HBV genotype C were included: 15 carrying both HBsAg and anti-HBs (group I) and 17 solely positive for HBsAg (group II). S gene and reverse transcriptase region sequences were amplified, sequenced and compared with the reference sequences. Results The amino acid variability within major hydrophilic region, especially the “a” determinant region, and within reverse transcriptase for regions overlapping the major hydrophilic region in group I is significantly higher than those in group II. Mutation sI126S/T within the “a” determinant was the most frequent change, and only patients from group I had the sQ129R, sG130N, sF134I, sG145R amino acid changes, which are known to alter immunogenicity. Conclusions In chronic patients, the concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs serological profile is associated with an increased aa variability in several key areas of HBV genome. Additional research on these genetic mutants are needed to clarify their biological significance for viral persistence.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , China , DNA, Viral , Genotype , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
Salvador; s.n; 2016. 150 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870324

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A hepatite B (VHB) é uma infecção dinâmica crônica, que apesar de existir programas de imunização e tratamento antiviral disponível, existe o risco de emergência de mutações de resistência aos análogos de núcleos(t)ídeos (AN) que devem ser rastreadas, devido as suas implicações clínicas. O Brasil disponibiliza pelo SUS cinco drogas para o tratamento antiviral: IFN, LAM, ADF, ETV e TDF e um guia de conduta clínica para orientar o tratamento no território nacional, o Protocolo de Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Hepatite B e co-infecções. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as mutações de resistência aos AN, mutações de escape vacinal e genótipos circulantes em pacientes com hepatite B crônica em dois centros de referencia em Hepatites, na Bahia (região Nordeste) e no Acre (região Norte) do Brasil. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foi utilizadas ferramentas de biologia molecular e bioinformática, através de nested PCR e sequenciamento direto das amostras, para rastrear as mutações de resistência, a região alvo foi a transcriptase reversa (RT) do gene P e as mutações de escape vacinal foi a região do gene S do VHB, como também os genótipos e subgenotipos do VHB. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 527 pacientes durante o período de 2011-2015, sendo 320 pacientes do HUPES/BA e 207 do FUNDHACRE/AC. Os pacientes que representam a região Nordeste foram 59,3 % do sexo masculino e uma média de idade de 44,75±12,4 DP, os pacientes da região Norte 42% foram do sexo masculino e a média de idade foi de 40,36±13,9 DP. Todos os pacientes incluídos apresentaram AgHBs persistente por mais de seis meses e 86,1% apresentaram AgHBe negativo. Foram sequenciadas 296 amostras dos pacientes com VHB crônica. Foram encontradas mutações de resistência aos AN na Região Norte 1,2% (2), Região Nordeste 7,4%(8) e no global 3,8%(20). Os padrões de mutações de resistência primária encontrados foram: rtA194T, (3) rtL180M+M204V, rtL180M+M204I, rtS202I, rtM204I, rtA181S, rtA181E e rtA184S. Em relação ao escape vacinal a frequencia para a Região Norte foi de 7,1% (11), Região Nordeste 8,4% (9) e no global 7,6% (20). Nos pacientes virgens de tratamento (n=189), a frequência de mutações de resistência foi de 6%, somente nas amostras da região Nordeste. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre o grupo com ou sem mutação dos pacientes virgens de tratamento. Não foram encontradas mutações de resistência nas amostras da região Norte. Os genótipos circulantes nas duas regiões foram A, D e F, e a região Nordeste foi encontrada o genótipo C (C2). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram a importância de rastrear e monitorar as mutações de resistência aos AN e de escape vacinal devido a importância epidemiológica e clínica na conduta terapêutica.


INTRODUTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a chronic dynamic infection, which although there immunization programs and antiviral therapy available, there is a risk of emergence of resistance mutations cores analogs (t) ide to be screened, because of their implications clinics. The Brazil offers the SUS five drugs for antiviral treatment: IFN, LAM, ADF, ETV and TDF and clinical guide of conduct to guide treatment in the country, the Therapeutic Guidelines Protocol for Hepatitis B and coinfections. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance mutations core analogues (t) ide, vaccine escape mutations and circulating genotypes in patients with chronic hepatitis B in two reference centers in Hepatitis, Bahia (Northeast) and Acre (Northern region) of Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Was used tools of molecular biology and bioinformatics by nested PCR and direct sequencing of samples to track resistance changes, the target region is the reverse transcriptase (RT) P gene and vaccine escape mutations was region of the gene S of HBV, as well as the HBV genotypes and subgenotipos. RESULTS: 527 patients were included during the period 2011-2015, with 320 patients HUPES / BA and 207 FUNDHACRE / AC. Patients representing the Northeast were 59.3% male and an average age of 44.75 ± 12.4 PD patients in the northern region 42% were male and the average age was 40, 36 ± 13.9 DP. All patients had persistent HBsAg for more than six months and 86.1% were HBeAg negative. We were sequenced 296 samples from patients with chronic HBV. the cores of similar resistance mutations were found (t) ide in the North 1.2% (2), Northeast 7.4% (8) and 3.8% overall (20). The patterns of primary resistance mutations were: rtA194T (3) rtL180M + M204V, M204I + rtL180M, rtS202I, rtM204I, rtA181S, and rtA181E rtA184S. Regarding vaccine escape the frequency for the Northern Region was 7.1% (11), Northeast 8.4% (9) and the global 7.6% (20). In treatment-naïve patients (n = 189), the frequency of resistance mutations was 6%, only the samples in the Northeast. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with or without mutation of naive patients. There were no resistance mutations in samples from the North. Circulating genotypes in the two regions A, D and F, and the Northeast found the C genotype (C2). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the importance of tracking and monitoring the resistance mutations similar cores (t) ide and vaccine escape due to epidemiological and clinical importance in the therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , R Factors/pharmacology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/pathogenicity
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