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1.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 24: e20230091, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529390

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to analyze the trend and spatial distribution of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Brazil. Methods: ecological study based on all notified cases of hepatitis B in pregnant women through the Information System for Notifiable Diseases - Sinan between 2009 and 2018. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) detection rates were calculated in all municipalities. Spatial analysis was performed using the Global Moran Index for global data and local indicators of spatial association (Lisa) for the 5,570 municipalities. For trend analysis by State, the Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression model was used. Results: 15,253 pregnant women with HBV were reported. High detection rates were observed in the municipalities of São Miguel da Boa Vista-SC (68.96/1000 live births (LB)), Araguaiana-MT (68.18/1000 LB), Reserva do Cabaçal-MT (80, 00/1,000 LB), São Geraldo da Piedade-MG (75/1000 LB), Porto Mauá-RS (111, 11/1000 LB), in the respective bienniums. Moran (I) (I=0.056) showed a positive spatial association. In Lisa, 78 municipalities were included in the high-high cluster, 51.28% in the South region and 48 in the low-low cluster with 72.91% in the Southeast. There was an increasing trend in Maranhão (p=0.004) and Pernambuco (p=0.007) and a decrease in Mato Grosso (p=0.012), Paraná (p=0.031) and Santa Catarina (p=0.008). Conclusion: the detection of hepatitis B in pregnant women was observed in most Brazilian municipalities, with an increasing trend in two states and a decrease in three others.


Resumo Objetivos: analisar a tendência e distribuição espacial da hepatite B em gestantes no Brasil. Métodos: estudo ecológico a partir de todos os casos notificados de hepatite B em gestantes pelo Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - Sinan entre 2009 e 2018. Foram calculadas as taxas de detecção do vírus da hepatite B (HBV) em todos os municípios. A análise espacial foi realizada por meio do Índice Global de Moran para os dados globais e os indicadores locais de associação espacial (Lisa) para os 5.570 municípios. Para análise de tendências por Estado, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão linear generalizada de Prais-Winsten. Resultados: foram notificadas 15.253 gestantes com HBV. Observou-se altas taxas de detecção nos municípios de São Miguel da Boa Vista-SC (68,96/1000 Nascidos vivos (NV)), Araguaiana-MT (68,18/1000 NV), Reserva do Cabaçal-MT(80,00/1.000 NV), São Geraldo da Piedade-MG (75/1000 NV), Porto Mauá-RS (111,11/1000 NV), nos respectivos biênios. Moran (I) (I=0,056) apresentou associação espacial positiva. No Lisa observou-se 78 municípios inserido no cluster alto-alto, sendo 51,28%na região Sul e 48 no cluster baixo-baixo com 72,91% no Sudeste. Verificou-se tendência crescente no Maranhão (p=0,004) e Pernambuco (p=0,007) e diminuição no Mato Grosso (p=0,012), Paraná (p=0,031) e Santa Catarina (p=0,008). Conclusão: Observou-se a detecção de hepatite B em gestantes na maioria dos municípios brasileiros, com tendência crescente em dois estados e diminuição em outros três.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Demography , Hepatitis B virus , Pregnant Women , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Ecological Studies
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 83: e0003, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529931

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar o perfil dos doadores de tecidos oculares humanos na área de atuação do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba, destacando o impacto da sorologia positiva para hepatite B no descarte dos tecidos para transplante. Métodos: O estudo é transversal e utilizou dados do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2022. Dados sobre procedência, idade, sexo, causa do óbito, tempo entre óbito e enucleação, resultados sorológicos e motivo de descarte das córneas dos doadores foram coletados. Resultados: O maior motivo de descarte foi por sorologia positiva (56,5%), sendo positivadas as sorologias positivas para hepatite B e HBsAg em 11,1% e 4,75% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Conclusão: A sorologia positiva para hepatite B como um critério de descarte absoluto é responsável por grande parcela de descartes, apesar da pouca informação sobre suas repercussões e representação de infectividade nos receptores do transplante.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the profile of human ocular tissue donors in the area covered by the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB), highlighting the impact of positive serology for hepatitis B (anti-HBc) in the disposal of tissues for transplantation. Methods: This is a cross-sectional that uses data from the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB) between January 2013 and December 2022. Data on origin, age, sex, cause of death, time between death and enucleation, serological results, and reason for discarded donor corneas were collected. Results: The main reason for discarding was due to positive serology (56.5%), with positive anti-HBc and HBsAg serology in 11.1% and 4.75% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Anti-HBc positive serology as an absolute disposal criterion is responsible for great part of disposals, despite little information about its repercussions and representation of infectivity in transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Corneal Transplantation/standards , Corneal Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Donor Selection/standards , Eye Banks/standards , Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis , Serologic Tests/standards , Hepatitis B virus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/analysis
3.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(1): 28-37, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1532983

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, 296 million people were infected by hepatitis B in 2019, with 1.1 million deaths. Africa is one of the endemic regions. Good knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B remain pivotal to the biosafety of medical students. This study sought to determine the levels of knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B among students of Pamo University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and the predicting factors associated with this knowledge and awareness. The is with the aim of providing recommendations for improving and sustaining biosafety levels for medical and other health-related students of the University. Methodology: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design conducted amongst 528 randomly selected medical students of PUMS, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were interviewer-administered to collect socio-demographic information and participants' responses to questions on knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B. Data were analysed using SPSS version 26.0 and relationships of socio-demographic characteristics and predictive factors with knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B were tested using binary logistic regression analysis with p value for statistical significance set at <0.05. Results: A total of 528 students participated in the study, 202 (38.3%) males and 326 (61.7%) females. Most participants (296, 56.1%) were between 15-19 years of age with mean age of 19 ±2.43 years. The mean (±SD) of participants responses with good knowledge of hepatitis B was 249±121.5 while for good awareness, it was 181±88.3. The percentage average for good knowledge and good awareness was 47.2% and 34.2% respectively, with positive correlation between knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B (r=0.720, p<0.0001). Age was significantly associated with participants percentage average knowledge (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.84, p<0.0001) and awareness of hepatitis B (OR=0.84, 95%CI 0.78-0.90, p=0.004). No other factor was significantly associated with knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B except Ijaw tribe (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.24-0.66, p=0.034) and attendance of Federal Government College (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.24-0.68, p=0.046). Conclusion: The percentage average good knowledge of 47.2% and awareness of 34.2% for hepatitis B in this study are low, although most participants in the study were between the ages of 15-19 years and in their first and second year of study. This gives room for improvement in knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B with progression in age and year of training. Good knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B are central to the biosafety of medical students. It is recommended that the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria (MDCN) review the current medical school curriculum to increase the teaching of medical and health-related students that will impact more on knowledge and awareness of infectious diseases and infection prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Schools, Medical , Awareness , Hepatitis B , Universities , Knowledge
4.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1551896

ABSTRACT

Introduction: since the introduction of the anti-HBV vaccine into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2005 in Cameroon, vaccination coverage has reached 99.0%. This coverage would indicate an increase the number of children immune to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and a decrease in susceptibility to HBV-infection. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the HBV vaccine on pediatric HBV-infection in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: this school based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2016 among 180 children from Nkomo public school. The study population was stratified into two groups: vaccinated (n=95) versus (vs) unvaccinated (n=85). Screening for HBV biomarkers was done using a rapid panel test for detection (HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBc) and anti-HBs titer using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analyses were done using SPSS v. 22 with p ≥0.05 considered significant. Results: the mean age was 9.65 years. HBsAg (p=0.019) and anti-HBc (p=0.001) rates were detected in children aged ≥10 years and children aged < 10 years (95.95% [71/74]) were vaccinated vs 22.64% (24/106) for those aged ≥10 years (OR: 80.86; 95% CI: 23.36%-279.87%, p < 0.0001). According to anti-HBV vaccination status, HBsAg rate varied from [9.41% (8/85) to 1.05% (1/95), p=0.025], HBeAg rate varied from [2.35% (2/85) to 0% (0/95), p= 0.42] and anti-HBc rate ranged from [12.94% (11/85) to 2.10% (2/95), p= 0.011]. Conclusion: despite the variability of the anti-HBs titer, vaccination against HBV has a positive effect on the reduction of HBV infection in children in tropical settings such as Cameroon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B e Antigens
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3765, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424037

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to identify the vaccination and serological status against hepatitis B among community health workers; to vaccinate against hepatitis B virus and to evaluate the immune response of susceptible workers. Method: phase I, cross-sectional and descriptive study, among community health workers in a capital city of the Midwest region, through a self-administered questionnaire, checking of vaccination cards, and blood collection for testing of serological markers for hepatitis B. Phase II, cohort study carried out in vaccinated non-immune workers identified in phase I. They received one dose of vaccine (challenge dose) and serological testing. Results: a total of 109 workers participated in the study. Most had vaccination record (97; 89.0%) and vaccination completeness (75; 77.3%), while the isolated anti-HBs (Antibodies against hepatitis B virus) marker was detected in 78 (71.6%) workers. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus exposure was 8.2%. Of the ten non-immune vaccinated workers, after challenge dose, one remained susceptible. Conclusion: although most workers are vaccinated and show immunological response to hepatitis B, susceptibility after challenge dose was identified. Therefore, it is necessary to have a surveillance program of the vaccination situation and serological status for this virus, to promote these workers' safety.


Resumo Objetivo: identificar a situação vacinal e sorológica contra hepatite B entre agentes comunitários de saúde; vacinar contra o vírus da hepatite B e avaliar a resposta imunológica dos agentes susceptíveis. Método: fase I, estudo transversal e descritivo, entre agentes comunitários de saúde de uma capital da região Centro-oeste, por meio de questionário autoaplicável, conferência do cartão vacinal e coleta de sangue para testagem dos marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B. Fase II, estudo de coorte realizado em trabalhadores vacinados não imunes e identificados na fase I. Estes receberam uma dose da vacina (dose desafio) e teste sorológico. Resultados: participaram do estudo 109 agentes. A maioria tinha registro de vacinação (97; 89,0%) e completude vacinal (75; 77,3%), já o marcador anti-HBs (anticorpos contra o vírus da hepatite B) isolado foi detectado em 78 (71,6%) agentes. A prevalência de exposição ao vírus da hepatite B foi de 8,2%. Dos dez agentes vacinados não imunes, após a dose desafio, um permaneceu susceptível. Conclusão: apesar da maioria dos trabalhadores estarem vacinados e apresentarem resposta imunológica para hepatite B, a suscetibilidade após a dose desafio foi identificada. Portanto, é necessário que haja um programa de vigilância da situação vacinal e estado sorológico para este vírus, para promover a segurança destes trabalhadores.


Resumen Objetivo: identificar la situación de la vacunación y serología contra la hepatitis B entre agentes comunitarios de la salud, vacunar contra el virus de la hepatitis B y evaluar la respuesta inmunológica de los agentes susceptibles. Método: fase I, estudio transversal y descriptivo, entre agentes comunitarios de la salud de una capital de la región centro oeste, por medio de cuestionario autoadministrado, verificación del carné de vacunación y extracción de sangre para comprobar los marcadores serológicos para la hepatitis B. Fase II, estudio de cohorte realizado en trabajadores vacunados no inmunes e identificados en la Fase I; estos recibieron una dosis de la vacuna (dosis de desafío) y realizaron el test serológico. Resultados: participaron del estudio 109 agentes. La mayoría tenía registro de vacunación (97; 89,0%) y de cobertura de vacunación (75; 77,3%); el marcador anti-HBs (Anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis B) aislado fue detectado en 78 (71,6%) de los agentes. La prevalencia de exposición al virus de la hepatitis B fue de 8,2%. De los diez agentes vacunados no inmunes, después de la dosis desafío, uno permaneció susceptible. Conclusión: a pesar de que la mayoría de los trabajadores estaban vacunados y presentaron respuesta inmunológica para la hepatitis B, la susceptibilidad, después de la dosis desafío, fue identificada. Por tanto, es necesario que exista un programa de vigilancia de la situación de vacunación y estado serológico para este virus, para promover la seguridad de estos trabajadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Community Health Workers , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies
6.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534862

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo retrospectivo con el objetivo de caracterizar la infección por hepatitis B y C en pacientes seropositivos al VIH de la provincia Villa Clara, durante el período del 1 de enero de 1986 al 31 de diciembre de 2021. Esta coinfección se presentó con mayor frecuencia en pacientes adultos del sexo masculino de 60 años en adelante (22 casos, 18,48 %), seguido de pacientes con las edades 50-54 años (21, 17,64 %). Santa Clara fue el municipio de mayor prevalencia (25, 21%). Los factores de riesgo asociados fueron: la conducta sexual de riesgo (81 casos, 68,06%) y estado civil soltero (65, 54,62 %); predominó el nivel de escolaridad secundaria básica (53, 44,53 %); en la ocupación, amas de casa (42, 35,29 %) y desocupados (34, 28,57 %). En el 70,58 % de los casos, les fue diagnosticada la coinfección en el mismo año.


A retrospective, descriptive and observational study was carried out with the aim of characterizing hepatitis B and C infection in HIV seropositive patients in Villa Clara province from January 1, 1986 to December 31, 2021. This coinfection occurred more frequently in adult male patients, between 60 years and older (22 cases, 18.48%), followed by patients aged 50-54 years (21, 17.64%). Santa Clara was the municipality with the highest prevalence (25 cases, 21%). The associated risk factors were risky sexual behaviour (81 cases, 68.06%) and single marital status (65, 54.62%); secondary school level predominated (53, 44.53%); as well as, housewives (42, 35.29%) and unemployed people (34, 28.57%). The coinfection was diagnosed in 70.58% of the cases in the same year.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , HIV , Hepatitis C
7.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 223-231, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532326

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by a virus from the hepadnaviridae family, with worldwide distribution, and represents a serious global health problem. The pathology may have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, making it possible for serious outcomes to occur when overlapping viral types. This study sought to describe the levels of scientific evidence of research carried out on the topic, establishing a relationship between hepatitis B virus infection and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Content: integrative literature review, with searches performed in the databases of the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, and Scientific Electronic Library Online, with analysis centered on the description of the methodological design, and on the classification of the level of evidence. Conclusion: the scientific production on hepatitis B associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection corresponds mostly to studies with a low level of evidence. The selected publications presented limitations such as the occurrence of studies with a small number of samples, lack of subsidiary data of patients in treatment, and occurrence of non-randomized selection. The results suggest the need for further investigations for the purpose of technological improvement, identification of risk factors, therapeutic intervention, and advanced clinical investigation, in order to encourage evidence-based healthcare practices.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: a hepatite B é uma doença infectocontagiosa provocada por um vírus da família hepadnaviridae, com distribuição mundial, e representa um grave problema de saúde global. A patologia pode ter sido afetada pela pandemia de COVID-19, provocada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2, sendo possível a ocorrência de desfechos graves na sobreposição entre os dos tipos virais. Este estudo buscou descrever os níveis de evidências científicas de pesquisas realizadas sobre o tema, estabelecendo relação entre a infecção por vírus da hepatite B e a infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Conteúdo: revisão integrativa da literatura, com buscas realizadas nas bases de dados do Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online e Scientific Electronic Library Online, com análise centrada na descrição do delineamento metodológico e na classificação do nível de evidência. Conclusão: a produção científica sobre hepatite B associada a infecção por SARS-CoV-2 corresponde majoritariamente a pesquisas com baixo nível de evidência. As publicações selecionadas apresentaram limitações, como a ocorrência de estudos com número reduzido de amostras, falta de dados subsidiários de pacientes em tratamento e ocorrência de seleção não randomizada. Os resultados sugerem a necessidade de novas investigações para fins de incrementos tecnológicos, identificação de fatores de risco, intervenção terapêutica e investigação clínica avançada, de forma a fomentar práticas assistenciais em saúde baseadas em evidências.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivo: la hepatitis B es una enfermedad infecciosa contagiosa causada por un virus de la familia hepadnaviridae, de distribución mundial, y representa un grave problema de salud mundial. Su patología puede haberse visto afectada por la pandemia de COVID-19, provocada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, y son posibles desenlaces graves cuando se superponen tipos virales. Este estudio buscó describir los niveles de evidencia científica de las investigaciones realizadas sobre el tema, estableciendo una relación entre la infección por el virus de la hepatitis B y la infección por el SARS-CoV-2. Contenido: revisión integradora de la literatura, con búsquedas realizadas en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online y Scientific Electronic Library Online, con un análisis centrado en la descripción del diseño metodológico y en la clasificación del nivel de evidencia. Conclusión: la producción científica sobre la hepatitis B asociada a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 corresponde, en su mayoría, a investigaciones con bajo nivel de evidencia. Las publicaciones seleccionadas presentaron limitaciones como la ocurrencia de estudios con un número reducido de muestras, la falta de datos subsidiarios de los pacientes en tratamiento y la ocurrencia de selección no aleatoria. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de seguir investigando para mejorar la tecnología, identificar los factores de riesgo, intervenir terapéuticamente y realizar investigación clínica avanzada, con el fin de promover prácticas sanitarias basadas en la evidencia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Coinfection
8.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(112): 27-35, 20230000. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1451761

ABSTRACT

ntroducción: Las infecciones perinatales pueden transmi-tirse al feto y al recién nacido. Sífilis, VIH y hepatitis B deben tamizarse durante la gestación.Objetivo: Conocer la incidencia, prevalencia y manejo de sífilis, VIH y hepatitis B en el binomio madre/hijo. Comparar resultados con estadísticas oficiales.Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico, mediante revisión de historias clínicas del Sana-torio de la Cañada y Hospital Pasteur, Villa María, Córdoba. Período 01/12/2020 al 31/07/2021. Resultados: Se estudiaron 870 embarazos, la incidencia de sífilis materna fue 52,87/1000 embarazos, 76,1% de las gestantes eran menores de 30 años y hubo 41% de diag-nósticos tardíos. La incidencia de sífilis congénita fue de 18,3/1000 RN vivos. La incidencia de VIH materno fue de 6,89/1000 embarazos, 66,7% tenían menos de 30 años y el 77,7% tuvo carga viral indetectable al parto. El 100% de los RN expuestos fueron estudiados, todos con carga viral indetectable al nacimien-to. No hubo casos de hepatitis B.Conclusión: 6,3% de las embarazadas presentaron al me-nos una serología reactiva y el mayor porcentaje diagnós-tico se centró en menores de 30 años. La incidencia de sífilis congénita superó la provincial y nacional (18,3 vs. 1,18 vs. 1,14). El porcentaje de positividad de VIH materno superó al provincial. No hubo transmisión vertical de VIH al nacimiento. La prevalencia de hepatitis B fue menor a las oficiales


Introduction: Perinatal infections can be transmitted to the fetus and new-born. Syphilis, HIV and Hepatitis B must be monitored during pregnancy.Objective: To know incidence, prevalence and management of syphilis, HIV and Hepatitis B in the mother/child binomial. To compare results with official statistics.Materials and methods: Retrospective, descriptive and analytical study, through the review of medical records from Sanatorio La Cañada and Hospital Pasteur in Villa Maria, Cordoba. Period 12/01/2020 to 07/31/2021.Results 870 pregnancies were studied, the incidence of maternal syphilis was 57.87/1000 pregnancies, 76.1% of pregnant women were under 30 years old, and there were 41% late diagnoses. The incidence of congenital syphilis was 18.3/1000 live newborns. The incidence of maternal HIV was 6.89/1000 pregnancies, 66.7% were women under 30 years old and 77.7% had undetectable viral load at birth. 100% of the exposed newborns were studied, all with undetectable viral load at birth. There were no cases of Hepatitis B.Conclusion: 6.3% of pregnant women presented at least one reactive serology and the highest diagnostic percentage was focused on those under 30 years old. The incidence of congenital syphilis exceeded the provincial and national data (18.3 vs 1.18 vs 1.14). The percentage of maternal HIV positivity was superior to the provincial one. There was no vertical transmission of HIV at birth. The prevalence of Hepatitis B was less than the official ones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Syphilis, Congenital/therapy , Prevalence , HIV/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Hepatitis B/therapy
9.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(4): 166-168, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1512372

ABSTRACT

La vasculitis leucocitoclástica, también denominada angeitis cutánea leucocitoclástica, es la forma más común de vasculitis. Si bien la mayoría de los casos son idiopáticos, entre los agentes etiológicos que podemos nombrar se encuentran los agentes infecciosos, las enfermedades del tejido conectivos, las reacciones de hipersensibilidad a medicamentos y las neoplasias solidas o hematológicas. Si bien los procesos infecciosos son una causa conocida de vasculitis leucocitoclástica, la infección por virus de Virus de hepatitis B (VHB) es muy infrecuente. Presentamos una mujer de 47 años, sin antecedentes patológicos previos, que consultó por artralgias en rodillas y tobillos, mialgias en gemelos y rash purpúrico con leve prurito en ambos miembros inferiores, de un mes de evolución. La biopsia cutánea de las lesiones de miembros inferiores fue compatible con vasculitis leucocitoclástica. La serología de hepatitis B fue positiva por lo que inició tratamiento antiviral con Tenofovir y Prednisona con buena evolución de sus lesiones cutáneas


Leukocytoclastic vasculitis, also called leukocytoclastic cutaneous angiitis, is the most common form of vasculitis. Although most cases are idiopathic, etiologic agents include infectious agents, connective tissue diseases, drug hypersensitivity reactions, and solid or hematologic malignancies. Although infectious processes are a known cause of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is very rare. We present a 47-year-old woman, with no previous pathologic history, who consulted for arthralgias in the knees and ankles, myalgia's and purpuric rash with mild pruritus in both lower limbs, of one month evolution. Skin biopsy of lower extremity lesions was compatible with leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Hepatitis B serology was positive, so she started antiviral treatment with tenofovir and prednisone with good evolution of her skin lesions


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vasculitis/therapy , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/therapy , Hepatitis B/therapy
10.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 31(2): 63-66, 10-abr-2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1518815

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en México, las hepatitis virales son de notificación epidemiológica obligatoria, pero no existe un sistema especial de vigilancia. La información disponible se limita a la distribución por edad y sexo. Ante la alerta de casos de hepatitis aguda grave de etiología desconocida, en la Unión Europea el Consejo Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (CONAVE) alertó al Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) para la atención y vigilancia de estos casos. Desarrollo: la hipótesis más convincente sobre la etiología está relacionada con una respuesta inmunitaria exacerbada que es mediada por superantígenos relacionados con la proteína espiga del SARS-CoV-2, activados por una infección por adenovirus que desencadena una respuesta de linfocitos T que provoca apoptosis de hepatocitos. Con base en la presentación clínica (niños menores de 16 años, con diarrea, dolor abdominal, ictericia, vómito e hipertransaminasemia) se han diseñado definiciones operacionales para su identificación y notificación al Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (SINAVE). Hasta junio del 2022, se han identificado 56 casos en México. Conclusiones: este brote de hepatitis representa un reto para el SINAVE. Es necesario incluir la identificación de adenovirus en el algoritmo diagnóstico de enfermedad respiratoria viral, implementar un sistema especial de vigilancia epidemiológica de hepatitis virales y sensibilizar a los profesionales sanitarios en el tema.


Introduction: In Mexico viral hepatitis requires mandatory epidemiological notification, but there is no special surveillance system. Available information is limited to distribution of cases by age and sex. Given the alert of cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in the European Union, the National Council for Epidemiological Surveillance (Consejo Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica) alerted the entire National Health System to care for and monitor these cases in Mexico. Development: The most convincing hypothesis is an exacerbated immune response mediated by superantigens related to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, activated by adenovirus infection that ends in a response of T lymphocytes that causes apoptosis of hepatocytes. Based on clinical presentation (children under 16 years of age, with diarrhoea, abdominal pain, jaundice, vomiting and increase in transaminases) the operational case definitions have been designed for their timely identification and notification to the National System of Epidemiological Surveillance (Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica). Until June 2022, 56 cases have been identified in Mexico. Conclusions: This hepatitis outbreak represents a challenge for the National System of Epidemiological Surveillance. It is necessary to include the identification of adenovirus in the diagnostic algorithm for viral respiratory disease, to implement a special epidemiological surveillance system for viral hepatitis, and to sensitize health professionals on this subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/etiology , Hepatitis A/etiology , Hepatitis B/etiology , Mexico
12.
Hepatología ; 4(2): 131-151, 2023. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1429015

ABSTRACT

A nivel mundial, 300 millones de personas están infectadas por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB). A pesar de que existe una vacuna que previene la infección y se dispone de tratamiento antiviral que suprime la replicación del virus, no hay cura aún. El principal problema que evita la recuperación total del paciente, incluso para aquel que recibe tratamiento, es la persistencia de dos formas del genoma viral en los hepatocitos: el ADN circular covalentemente cerrado (ADNccc), el cual se encuentra en forma de episoma y tiene la capacidad de replicarse, y las secuencias lineales subge-nómicas que se integran en el genoma humano, con potencial oncogénico. Hasta el momento se dispone de unos pocos biomarcadores para monitorear o predecir la progresión de la enfermedad y la respuesta al tratamiento. Estos biomarcadores se detectan durante la infección, y son la base para la monitorización de la enfermedad y hacer un diagnóstico de la fase clínica de la infección. Recientemente han surgido nuevos biomarcadores como el antígeno relacionado con el core del virus de la hepatitis B (HBcrAg) y la detección del ARN del VHB, que parecen correlacionarse con los niveles transcripcionales del ADNccc, además, durante el tratamiento parecen ayudar a predecir la respuesta y podrían identificar aquellos a quienes se les puede suspender la terapia sin riesgo de recaída. En esta revisión, se describe la utilidad de los principales biomarcadores convencionales en hepatitis B, y se abordan los dos biomarcadores emergentes más estudiados que prometen evaluar el curso de la infección, al igual que determinar la progresión de la enfermedad y la respuesta al tratamiento.


Globally, 300 million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Although there is a vaccine that prevents infection and antiviral treatment that suppresses the replication of the virus, there is still no cure. The main problem that prevents the total recovery of the patient, even for those who recei-ve treatment, is the persistence of two forms of the viral genome in hepatocytes: covalently close circular DNA (cccDNA), which is in the form of an episome that has the ability to replicate, and linear subgenomic sequences that are integrated into the human genome, with oncogenic potential. Few biomarkers are currently available to monitor or predict disease progression and response to treatment. These biomarkers are detected during infection and are the basis for monitoring the di-sease and making a diagnosis of the clinical phase of the infection. New biomarkers have recently emerged, such as hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) and HBV RNA detection, which seem to correlate with cccDNA transcriptional levels while during treatment seem to help predict response, and could identify those for whom therapy can be discontinued without risk of relapse. In this review, the usefulness of the main conventional biomarkers in hepatitis B is described, and the two most studied emerging biomarkers are mentioned, which promise to evaluate the course of the infection, as well as to determine disease progression and treatment response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis , Hepatitis B , DNA, Circular , RNA , Risk , Genome , Diagnosis , Antigens
13.
The Filipino Family Physician ; : 252-262, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005174

ABSTRACT

@#In inflammatory arthritis, there is inflammation of one or more joints brought about by immunologic events resulting from complex interactions of environmental trigger(s) in a genetically predisposed individual. The definitive cause of which remains unclear despite substantial research. The purpose of this article is to present a case with the diagnostic challenges associated with the rare coexistence and interplay of probable multiple causative mechanisms/triggers along with hyperuricemia and hepatitis B in the same patient presenting with inflammatory arthritis. It brings to greater attention the potential role of a key diet as an adjunct in the early management of undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis and thus, highlighting the choice of a whole food, plant-based diet (WFPBD) as a single, healthy, cost-effective and well-rounded diet which may be able to target all these different probable causative mechanisms leading to early symptom control and maybe, early disease remission. WFPB diet has been used in the management of differentiated arthritis from psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and other types of inflammatory arthropathy but to date, there is a paucity of available evidence on managing a patient with undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis probably resulting from more than one simultaneous environmental triggers with a single key diet.


Subject(s)
Hyperuricemia , Hepatitis B , Arthritis
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1413-1421, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Large disparities exist in liver cancer burden trends across countries but are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the global trajectories of liver cancer burden, explore the driving forces, and predict future trends.@*METHODS@#Data on the liver cancer burden in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019 were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) trajectories were defined using growth mixture models. Five major risk factors contributing to changes in the ASIR or ASMR and socioeconomic determinants were explored using the identified trajectories. A Bayesian age-period-cohort model was used to predict future trends through 2035.@*RESULTS@#Three trajectories of liver cancer burden were identified: increasing, stable, and decreasing groups. Almost half of the American countries were classified in the decreasing group (48.6% for ASIR and ASMR), and the increasing group was the most common in the European region (ASIR, 49.1%; ASMR, 37.7%). In the decreasing group, the decrease of liver cancer due to hepatitis B contributed 63.4% and 60.4% of the total decreases in ASIR and ASMR, respectively. The increase of liver cancer due to alcohol use, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B contributed the most to the increase in the increasing group (30.8%, 31.1%, and 24.2% for ASIR; 33.7%, 30.2%, and 22.2% for ASMR, respectively). The increasing group was associated with a higher sociodemographic index, gross domestic product per capita, health expenditure per capita, and universal health coverage (all P <0.05). Significant variations in disease burden are predicted to continue through 2035, with a disproportionate burden in the decreasing group.@*CONCLUSION@#Global disparities were observed in liver cancer burden trajectories. Hepatitis B, alcohol use, and hepatitis C were identified as driving forces in different regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bayes Theorem , Liver Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis B , Hepacivirus , Incidence
15.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 698-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986197

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand ten-year changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns of chronic hepatitis B in China. Methods: Patients with chronic HBV infection:demographic, virologic, hematologic, blood biochemistry, and antiviral treatment data were extracted from the China Registry of Hepatitis B (CR-HepB) database between 2012 and 2022 for descriptive statistics and change trend analysis. Multiple group comparisons were conducted using the Kruskal Wallis H test, while counting data was compared between groups using χ (2) test. Results: A total of 180 012 patients with chronic HBV infection were included, with a median age of 40 years old, and a male proportion accounting for 60.2%. The HBeAg positive rate was 43.3%. Over time, the median age of new patients each year increased from 39 to 47 years, while the HBeAg positive rate decreased from 51.3% to 32.8%. The initial diagnosis of patients was mainly CHB (71.4%), followed by hepatitis B cirrhosis (11.8%), inactive HBsAg carrier status (10.6%), and chronic HBV carrier status (6.2%). Among the newly registered patients every year from 2012 to 2022, the proportion of hepatitis B cirrhosis remained stable, but after 2019, the proportion of CHB increased and the proportion of other diagnoses decreased. The proportion of patients with cirrhosis increased with age in different age groups, with 3.5%, 19.3%, and 30.4% in the < 40, 40-69, and≥70 age groups, respectively. The proportion of women in patients with cirrhosis also increased with age, from 16.1% in those < 30 years old to 44.3% in those≥80 years old. From 2012 to 2022, the proportion of patients receiving first-line nucleos(t)ide analog antiviral treatment increased year by year, from 51.0% in 2012-2013 to 99.8% in 2022. Conclusion: The CR-HepB registration data reflect the changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns in patients with chronic HBV infection in China over the past ten years and can thus provide a reference to promote hepatitis B diagnosis and treatment practice, as well as scientific research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis A , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Registries , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , DNA, Viral
16.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 692-697, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986196

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the occurrence of recompensation conditions in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis after entecavir antiviral therapy. Methods: Patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis with ascites as the initial manifestation were prospectively enrolled. Patients who received entecavir treatment for 120 weeks and were followed up every 24 weeks (including clinical endpoint events, hematological and imaging indicators, and others) were calculated for recompensation rates according to the Baveno VII criteria. Measurement data were compared using the Student t-test or Mann-Whitney U test between groups. Categorical data were compared by the χ (2) test or Fisher's exact probability method between groups. Results: 283 of the 320 enrolled cases completed the 120-week follow-up, and 92.2% (261/283) achieved a virological response (HBV DNA 20 IU/ml). Child-Pugh and MELD scores were significantly improved after treatment (8.33 ± 1.90 vs. 5.77 ± 1.37, t = 12.70, P < 0.001; 13.37 ± 4.44 vs. 10.45 ± 4.58, t = 5.963, P < 0.001). During the 120-week follow-up period, 14 cases died, two received liver transplants, 19 developed hepatocellular cancer, 11 developed gastroesophageal variceal bleeding, and four developed hepatic encephalopathy. 60.4% (171/283) (no decompensation events occurred for 12 months) and 56.2% (159/283) (no decompensation events occurred for 12 months and improved liver function) of the patients had achieved clinical recompensation within 120 weeks. Patients with baseline MELD scores > 15 after active antiviral therapy achieved higher recompensation than patients with baseline MELD scores ≤15 [50/74 (67.6%) vs. 109/209 (52.2%), χ (2) = 5.275, P = 0.029]. Conclusion: Antiviral therapy can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis. The majority of patients (56.2%) had achieved recompensation. Patients with severe disease did not have a lower probability of recompensation at baseline than other patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Treatment Outcome , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/complications , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 649-652, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986186

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important public health concern, as approximately 3.5% of the world's population is currently chronically infected. Chronic HBV infection is the primary cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and deaths related to liver disease globally. Studies have found that in HBV infection, viruses can directly or indirectly regulate mitochondrial energy metabolism, oxidative stress, respiratory chain metabolites, and autophagy, thereby altering macrophage activation status, differentiation types, and related cytokine secretion type and quantity regulations. Therefore, mitochondria have become an important signal source for macrophages to participate in the body's immune system during HBV infection, providing a basis for mitochondria to be considered as a potential therapeutic target for chronic hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/physiology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Mitochondria , Liver Neoplasms , Macrophages
18.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 621-626, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986180

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical value of plasma scaffold protein SEC16A level and related models in the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis (HBV-LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC). Methods: Patients with HBV-LC and HBV-HCC and a healthy control group diagnosed by clinical, laboratory examination, imaging, and liver histopathology at the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University between June 2017 and October 2021 were selected. Plasma SEC16A level was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was detected using an electrochemiluminescence instrument. SPSS 26.0 and MedCalc 15.0 statistical software were used to analyze the relationship between plasma SEC16A levels and the occurrence and development of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. A sequential logistic regression model was used to analyze relevant factors. SEC16A was established through a joint diagnostic model. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the model for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to identify the influencing factors of novel diagnostic biomarkers. Results: A total of 60 cases of healthy controls, 60 cases of HBV-LC, and 52 cases of HBV-HCC were included. The average levels of plasma SEC16A were (7.41 ± 1.66) ng/ml, (10.26 ± 1.86) ng/ml, (12.79 ± 1.49) ng /ml, respectively, with P < 0.001. The sensitivity and specificity of SEC16A in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were 69.44% and 71.05%, and 89.36% and 88.89%, respectively. SEC16A, age, and AFP were independent risk factors for the occurrence of HBV-LC and HCC. SAA diagnostic cut-off values, sensitivity, and specificity were 26.21 and 31.46, 77.78% and 81.58%, and 87.23% and 97.22%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for HBV-HCC early diagnosis were 80.95% and 97.22%, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis showed that AFP level was positively correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with P < 0.01, while the serum SEC16A level was only slightly positively correlated with ALT and AST in the liver cirrhosis group (r = 0.268 and 0.260, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma SEC16A can be used as a diagnostic marker for hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. SEC16A, combined with age and the AFP diagnostic model with SAA, can significantly improve the rate of HBV-LC and HBV-HCC early diagnosis. Additionally, its application is helpful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the progression of HBV-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Vesicular Transport Proteins , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Hepatitis B/complications , ROC Curve , Hepatitis B virus/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor
19.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 545-550, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986167

ABSTRACT

The resolution of the hepatitis C issue has raised expectations for a chronic hepatitis B cure, driving the industry to expand investment in research and development efforts to strengthen functional cure strategies. These strategies have a wide variety of types, and the published research findings are heterogeneous. The theoretical analysis of these strategies is of great significance for determining prioritized research orientations as well as sensibly allocating research and development resources. However, due to a paucity of necessary conceptual models, current theoretical analysis has not been able to unify various therapeutic strategies into a proper theoretical framework. In view of the fact that the decrease in the quantity of cccDNA is an inevitable core event accompanied by the process of functional cure, this paper intends to analyze several chronic hepatitis B cure strategies using cccDNA dynamics as a framework. Furthermore, there are currently few studies on the dynamics of the cccDNA field, hoping that this article can promote recognition and research in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Virus Replication , DNA, Circular/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 495-503, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986159

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study using isotope-labeled relative and absolute quantitative proteomics methodologies to screen for salivary biological markers as a simple, non-invasive tool for identifying hepatitis B-related HCC at an early stage. Methods: Saliva samples were collected to extract salivary proteins. Isotope-labeled relative and absolute quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the differentially expressed proteins between the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-HCC groups. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to verify differential proteins and identify markers in liver cancer tissues and saliva. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the diagnostic efficiency of salivary biomarkers. Results: 152 differentially expressed salivary proteins were screened out between the HCC and non-HCC groups. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays validated that the expressions of α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 (ORM1) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were significantly increased in HCC (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between salivary AFP and serum AFP (P < 0.05). HCC was diagnosed when salivary α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 combined with AFP. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.8726 (95% confidence interval: 0.8104 ~ 0.9347), the sensitivity was 78.3%, and the specificity was 88%. Conclusion: Salivary AFP and α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 can serve as potential biomarkers for hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Biomarkers , Hepatitis B , ROC Curve , Glycoproteins , Biomarkers, Tumor
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