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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 293-295, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286725

ABSTRACT

Resumen La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) es una presentación clínica poco común del tromboembolismo venoso caracterizada por cefalea, crisis convulsivas, déficits neurológicos focales y papiledema. El diagnóstico es confirmado con Tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) de cráneo y Resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral. La TVC tiene una relación importante con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), ya que los pacientes VIH positivos cursan con hiperviscosidad san guínea, alteraciones de factores anticoagulantes endógenos y riesgo de sobreinfección, entre otros; que predisponen a estados protrombóticos y lesión vascular como lo es la TVC. El tratamiento de la TVC es terapia anticoagulante, por lo general se utiliza heparina no fraccionada o heparina de bajo peso molecular para la fase aguda y anticoagulantes orales como la warfarina para el mantenimiento posterior. Reportamos el primer caso documentado de TVC en un paciente VIH positivo en Colombia.


Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism characterized by headache, seizures, neurological deficits and papi lledema. The diagnosis is confirmed using computed tomography scan (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. CVT has an important relationship with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) given that HIV-positive patients may present with blood hyperviscosity, irregular levels of endogenous anticoagulation factors and risk of sepsis among others, that predispose to prothrombotic states and vascular injury such as CVT. The treatment of CVT is anticoagulant therapy, generally unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin for the early phase and oral anticoagulants such as warfarin for the late phase. This case reports the first documented case of CVT in an HIV positive patient in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Venous Thromboembolism , Skull , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , HIV , Headache , Hepatitis B
2.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252328

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B infection is one of the most important health problems around the world. The high mortality rate of the hepatitis B encouraged research that led to the finding of an effective vaccine against it. The aim of the present study was to find out the use of the Euvax-B vaccine in sectors of Nineveh province. According to the results obtained in this study, in the next five years, the vaccination coverage for the second and third doses needs to improve(AU)


La infección por hepatitis B es uno de los más importantes problemas de salud del mundo. La alta tasa de mortalidad de la hepatitis B impulsó las investigaciones que llevaron a encontrar una vacuna eficaz contra la misma. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer el uso de la vacuna Euvax-B en sectores de la provincia de Nínive. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, en los próximos cinco años, se debe incrementar la cobertura de inmunización de la segunda y tercera dosis de la vacuna(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepadnaviridae Infections , Hepatitis B/mortality , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Iraq
3.
Infectio ; 25(2): 114-119, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250077

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de sífilis, hepatitis B y virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en una población privada de la libertad de un establecimiento carcelario masculino de Bogotá D.C.-Colombia en 2019. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en un establecimiento carcelario masculino de Bogotá, se incluyeron personas privadas de la libertad, mayores de 18 años. Los sujetos fueron sometidos a pruebas de detección de anticuerpos contra el Treponema pallidum, Antígenos de Superficie contra hepatitis B (HBsAg) y Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) y respondieron un cuestionario estructurado para la descripción de conductas de riesgo. Resultados: Participaron 447 sujetos, ubicados en 7 pabellones del establecimiento carcelario. La prevalencia de sífilis fue del 5.8% (IC95% 3.8 - 8.4), del 1.1% para VIH (IC95% 0.4 - 2.6), y del 0.45% para hepatitis B crónica (IC95% 0.05 - 1.6). Discusión: A pesar de que la prevalencia documentada para estas patologías es más alta que en la población general, los resultados son más bajos que los reporta dos en instituciones de condiciones similares en otras latitudes. Se recomienda que el establecimiento continúe desarrollando políticas de promoción y prevención de estas patologías dentro de su población.


Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of syphilis, hepatitis B and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the male prison population in Bogotá, Colombia in 2019. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a male prison center in Bogotá, in which sequential sampling, stratified by ward, included people deprived of liberty, over 18 years of age and who voluntarily agreed to participate in the investigation. Subjects underwent tests for antibodies to Treponema pallidum, Surface Antigens against hepatitis B (HBsAg) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and they answered a structured questionnaire for the description of risk behaviors. Results: A total of 447 subjects were included, belonging to 7 prison wards. The prevalence of syphilis was 5.8% (95% CI 3.8 - 8.4), 0.5% for chronic hepatitis B (95% CI 0.05 - 1.6) and 1.1% for HIV (95% CI 0.4 - 2.6). Discussion: Although the documented prevalence for these pathologies is higher than in the general population, the results are lower than those reported in other institutions with similar conditions in other latitudes. It is recommended that the institution continue to strengthen its policies for the promotion and prevention of these pathologies within its population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Syphilis , Prevalence , HIV , Hepatitis B , Prisons , Colombia , Policy , Antibodies , Antigens, Surface
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 150-156, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis is a global phenomenon, with the disease burden varying on a daily basis. Amongst chronic infections, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are egregiously linked to severe health-related complications, with a worldwide prevalence of 248 million and 71 million respectively. Amongst the developing world, a hand full of countries are exhibiting a gross decline in chronic viral infection prevalence, like Bangladesh. While countries such as India have a consistent prevalence, Pakistan bears one of the largest proportions of chronic viral hepatitis globally with increasing trends shown year-by-year. Various old literature texts have stated an approximate national prevalence rate around 2.6% and 5.3% of hepatitis B and C respectively. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the current seroprevalence rates of chronic viral hepatitis amongst the general population of rural Sindh using a screening program to determine the current disease burden. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional survey based on a screening program was conducted in 5 districts with a combined population of over 6.5 million. The screening was carried out via the administration of various camps with the assistance of local social workers and welfare organizations. A total of 24,322 individuals met the inclusion criteria and were screened through (HBsAg/HCV) rapid test cassette (WC) Imu-Med one-step diagnostic test. RESULTS: Hepatitis B was found positive in 964 (3.96%) individuals including 421 (43.67%) males and 543 (56.32%) females, while hepatitis C was positive in 2872 (11.80%) individuals including 1474 (51.32%) males and 1398 (48.67%) females. The prevalence amongst the districts varied between 0.97% and 9.06% for hepatitis B, and 1.61% and 29.50% for hepatitis C, respectively. Umerkot was found to be the most prevalent district amongst rural Sindh, while Badin had the least number of seropositive people. The second most prevalent district of the study population was found to be Tando Allahyar followed by Mirpur Khas. The combined seroprevalence of 15.76% was calculated for hepatitis B and C together amongst the five studied districts of rural and peri-urban Sindh. CONCLUSION: The alarmingly high prevalence rates revealed in our study warrant the urgent need to generate multiple effective strategies in the region to enhance awareness amongst the general population regarding screening, prevention, and prompt treatment of the disease.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite viral é um fenômeno global, com a intensidade da doença variando diariamente. Entre as infecções crônicas, o vírus da hepatite B e o vírus da hepatite C (VHC) estão fortemente ligados a complicações graves relacionadas à saúde, com prevalência mundial de 248 milhões e 71 milhões, respectivamente. Entre o mundo em desenvolvimento, uma quantidade de países está exibindo um declínio bruto na prevalência de infecção viral crônica, tal como Bangladesh. Embora países como a Índia tenham uma prevalência consistente, o Paquistão tem uma das maiores proporções globais de hepatite viral crônica, com tendências crescentes mostradas ano a ano. Vários textos da menos recentes têm declarado uma taxa de prevalência nacional aproximada em torno de 2,6% e 5,3% da hepatite B e C, respectivamente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as atuais taxas de soroprevalência da hepatite viral crônica entre a população geral do Sindh rural utilizando um programa de triagem para determinar a carga atual da doença. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa observacional e transversal baseada em um programa de triagem combinada em cinco distritos com população de mais de 6,5 milhões. A triagem foi realizada por meio da administração de diversos acampamentos com o auxílio de assistentes sociais locais e organizações de assistência social. Um total de 24.322 indivíduos atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e foram examinados através do teste rápido (HBsAg/VHC) Imu-Med em uma etapa. RESULTADOS: Hepatite B positiva foi encontrada em 964 (3,96%) indivíduos incluindo 421 (43,67%) homens e 543 (56,32%) mulheres, enquanto hepatite C foi positiva em 2.872 (11,80%) indivíduos incluindo 1.474 (51,32%) homens e 1.398 (48,67%) mulheres. A prevalência entre os distritos variou entre 0,97% e 9,06% para hepatite B, e 1,61% e 29,50% para hepatite C, respectivamente. Umerkot foi encontrado como o distrito mais prevalente entre Sindh rural, enquanto Badin tinha o menor número de pessoas soropositivas. O segundo distrito mais prevalente da população de estudos foi encontrado como Tando Allahyar, seguido por Mirpur Khas. A soroprevalência combinada de 15,76% foi calculada para hepatite B e C em conjunto entre os cinco distritos estudados do Sindh rural e periurbano. CONCLUSÃO: As taxas de prevalência alarmantemente reveladas em nosso estudo justificam a necessidade urgente de gerar múltiplas estratégias efetivas na região para aumentar a conscientização da população em geral sobre rastreamento, prevenção e tratamento rápido da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020834, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250844

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article discusses viral hepatitis, a theme addressed by the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines to Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and, more precisely, by the Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C and Coinfections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Besides the broad spectrum of health impairment, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses also present different transmission forms, whether parenteral, sexual, vertical, or fecal-oral. Among the strategies suggested for the control of viral hepatitis, in addition to behavioral measures, are expanded diagnosis, early vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses, and access to available therapeutic resources. Considering vertical transmission of the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, screening for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B and C is an essential perinatal health strategy, indicating with precision those who can benefit from the prophylactic interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
6.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e60690, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1250672

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo estimar a adesão à vacina contra a hepatite B em pessoas que vivem em situação de rua. Métodos estudo transversal com 90 pessoas que vivem em situação de rua com a coleta de 5ml de sangue para a detecção do anticorpo contra o antígeno de superfície do vírus da hepatite B. Resultados do total, 89 (98,9%) foram vacinados com a primeira dose; desses, 45 (50,7%) apresentaram anticorpo contra o antígeno de superfície do vírus da hepatite B inferior a 10 UI/mL; 25 (53,3%) receberam a segunda dose da vacina contra a hepatite B e nove (45,8%) participantes receberam a terceira dose de vacina. Indivíduos que mantinham relação com ambos os gêneros tiveram maior chance de aderir ao esquema completo da vacina contra a hepatite B. Conclusão evidenciaram-se a baixa adesão à vacina contra a hepatite B e o número reduzido de participantes com anticorpos que conferem imunidade contra essa infecção.


ABSTRACT Objective to estimate the adherence to hepatitis B vaccine in homeless people. Methods a cross-sectional study with 90 homeless people, with the collection of 5 ml of blood for the detection of antibody against the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus. Results of the total, 89 (98.9%) were vaccinated with the first dose; of these, 45 (50.7%) had antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen lower than 10 IU/L; 25 (53.3%) received the second dose of hepatitis B vaccine, and nine (45.8%) participants received the third dose of vaccine. Individuals who were related to both genders were more likely to adhere to the full hepatitis B vaccine schedule. Conclusion the low adherence to hepatitis B vaccination and the small number of participants with antibodies that confer immunity against this infection were evidenced.


Subject(s)
Homeless Persons , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination , Hepatitis B
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00892020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143879

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem. It is necessary to understand the epidemic, verifying the combination of biological and demographic characteristics. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological and epidemiological study. Confirmed case data from the Notification Disease Information System (SINAN) were used. RESULTS: From 2009-2018, SINAN confirmed 404,003 viral hepatitis cases in Brazil, with 12.49%, 37.06%, and 48.28% cases of hepatitis A, B, and C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, 4,296 deaths were associated with viral hepatitis, of which 36.66% were associated with acute hepatitis B. The proportional distribution of cases varied among the five Brazilian regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Incidence
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 313-318, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879637

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a threat to public health by 2030. Blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the key step for eliminating viral hepatitis, at the same time, it is the hotspot in the field of hepatitis B prevention and control as well. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) organized a team of specialists to develop an algorithm for preventing MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and the latest evidence. The algorithm covers 10 continuous steps from pregnant management to follow-up postpartum. Among the 10 steps, screening, antiviral therapy during pregnancy, and infant's immunization are the core components in the algorithm.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , China , Female , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879952

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is complicated with the crosstalk of multiple factors and the multi-step processes. The main mechanisms underlying the HBV-induced HCC include:①integration of HBV DNA into the host hepatocyte genome to alter gene function at the insertion site,resulting in host genome instability and expression of carcinogenic truncated proteins;②HBV gene mutations at S,C,and X coding regions in the genome;③HBV X gene-encoded HBx protein activates proto-oncogenes and inhibits tumor suppressor genes,leading to the HCC occurrence. In this article,the recent research progress on the molecular mechanism of HBV-induced HCC is comprehensively reviewed,so as to provide insights into the prevention,early prediction and postoperative adjuvant therapy of HCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatocytes , Humans , Liver Neoplasms
10.
Babcock Univ. Med. J ; 4(1): 14-22, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1291976

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examined the perception and practices relating to Hepatitis B infection among In-school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 300 in-school adolescents selected by a multi-stage sampling method. Data were elicited using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions relating to respondents' risky practices, and a 35-point Hepatitis B perception scale. Descriptive statistics, as well as Chi-square statistics, were generated using IBM SPSS Version 23, and the significance level was set at 0.05.Results: The mean age of the respondents was14.31 ± 1.73years and slightly over half (51.7%) were females. Less than half (45%) of the adolescents perceived themselves to be susceptible to Hepatitis B infection, while 31% perceived Hepatitis B infection to be a serious disease. Almost half (49%) of the adolescents had unfavorable perceptions. The most common risky practices among the respondents were sharing skin-piercing instruments with their family members (79%) and friends (68.7%). There are significant associations between sex (gender) and risky practices such as the practices of unsafe sex (X2= 9.11; p=0.10); having multiple sexual partners (X2= 12.08;p =0.02); and sharing skin-piercing instruments (X2= 5.52;p=0.01) with more males reporting the above practices than females. Conclusion/Recommendation: To minimize the identified risky practices and unfavorable perception, educational intervention programs aimed at promoting Hepatitis B virus preventive behaviors and increasing the level of perception of vulnerability and seriousness of HBV infection among in-school adolescents should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Perception , Public Health Practice , Hepatitis B , Adolescent , Nigeria
11.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1292757

ABSTRACT

Lassa fever (LF) coinfection with hepatitis B and HIV has been reported among hospitalized patients in Southwest Nigeria and HIV patients coinfected with COVID-19 have been described among hospitalized patients in North Central Nigeria, no study has reported cases of coinfection of Lassa disease and COVID-19 among health care workers (HCWs) worldwide. A case report of two HCWs who were infected with both LF virus and SARS-CoV-2 virus at same time and were successfully managed without any sequelae. Both cases presented with typical signs of LF with COVID-19 suspected, they were promptly diagnosezd with positive outcomes after treatment. While case 1 became negative for LF virus and SARS-CoV-2 after 6 and 30 days, respectively, case 2 became negative for both viruses after 14 and 32 days, respectively. The diagnosis of LF-COVID-19 coinfection in HCWs is a frightening dimension to the health risks faced by HCWs, therefore, HCWs now more than ever before want to know what comes next and how safe is the practice of medicine


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Lassa Fever
12.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1850-1861, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127046

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la cirrosis es un proceso dinámico y actualmente se conoce que cuando se elimina el agente primario de agresión que ha producido la cirrosis, se puede llegar a remitir la fibrosis. En Cuba la enfermedad representa la décima causa de muerte, con una tendencia ascendente en los últimos 20 años y una tasa de 13,4 por 100 000 habitantes. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y endoscópicamente a pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en el período comprendido entre los años 2017 - 19, donde el universo y la muestra quedaron constituidos por todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años ingresados con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino en la sexta década de la vida, siento la principal causa el alcoholismo, caracterizado por manifestaciones generales, que en muchos casos debutan por complicaciones, apareciendo várices esofágicas en el 75 % de los casos, aunque gados I y II de Paquet, dependiente a un diagnóstico precoz de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: el alcoholismo crónico es la causa más frecuente de cirrosis hepática, debuta de forma frecuente por sus complicaciones, aunque el diagnóstico se hace en etapas precoces, con varices esofágicas incipientes (AU).


Summary Introduction: liver cirrhosis is a dynamic process and currently it is known that, when the primary agent of aggression that has produced the cirrhosis is eliminated, the fibrosis could remit. In Cuba, this diseases is the tenth cause of death, with an increasing tendency in the last twenty years and a rate of 13.4 per 100 000 inhabitants. Objective: to characterize, clinically and endoscopically, patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosis. Material and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, in the period 2017 - 2019, where the universe and the sample were formed by all the patients aged more than 18 years who entered the hospital with diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Results: in this paper, male patients in their sixties predominated, being alcoholism the main cause of disease, characterized by general manifestations; patients debuted due to complications, appearing esophageal varices in 75 % of the cases, although Paquet I and II grades, in dependence to a disease precocious diagnosis. Conclusions: the authors concluded that chronic alcoholism is the most frequent cause in hepatic cirrhosis, almost always debuting by its complications, though the diagnosis is made in precocious stages, with emerging esophageal varices (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Ascites/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Alcoholism/complications , Endoscopy , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology
13.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 100-105, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222344

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: A biossegurança é de extrema importância para os profissionais de enfermagem, principalmente em áreas de elevado padrão endêmico para agravos como a infecção por vírus da hepatite B. Nesse sentido, o estudo teve como objetivo descrever aspectos relacionados às medidas de biossegurança e à infecção por vírus da hepatite B entre profissionais de enfermagem na Amazônia ocidental brasileira. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado com profissionais de enfermagem atuantes no centro obstétrico de um hospital materno infantil. Resultados: 30 profissionais participaram da pesquisa, sendo 33,3% enfermeiros e 66,7% técnicos de enfermagem. A maioria foi do sexo feminino (70%) com média de idade de 40,9 anos. Para toda a amostra, 86,7% dos profissionais declararam esquema vacinal completo contra a hepatite B. Entre os técnicos de enfermagem, 15% declararam não ter realizado o anti-HBs. Quanto ao uso de equipamentos de proteção individual, 60% dos profissionais declararam uso esporádico. Para 80% dos enfermeiros e 60% dos técnicos de enfermagem, não houve oferta de treinamento em biossegurança. Sobre acidentes, 70% dos enfermeiros e 35% dos técnicos de enfermagem declararam ter sofrido algum tipo de exposição. Entre os enfermeiros, 85,7% afirmaram não ter notificado o evento. Entre os que sofreram acidente, 42,9% o relacionaram à carga horária excessiva. Conclusão: Os profissionais de enfermagem reconhecem a hepatite B como uma condição de alta incidência na região amazônica, o que exige medidas mais rígidas de biossegurança devido aos riscos. No entanto, apesar dos grupos investigados, em sua maioria, declararem um esquema completo de vacinação para a doença, foi observado relatos de falta de treinamento, uso esporádico de equipamentos de proteção individual, limitações nos testes de imunização (anti-HBs) e subnotificação de acidentes com risco biológico.(AU)


Background and objectives: Biosafety is extremely important for nursing professionals, especially in areas presenting high endemic pattern for certain diseases, such as the hepatitis B virus. In this sense, this study aimed to describe aspects related to biosecurity measures and infection by the hepatitis B virus among nursing professionals working in the western Brazilian Amazon. Methods: this is a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted with nursing professionals working in the obstetric center of a maternal and children's hospital in the western Brazilian Amazon. Results: a total of 30 professionals participated in the research, 33.3% nurses and 66.7% nursing technicians. The professionals were mostly female, 70%, with a mean age of 40.9 years. A total of 86.7% of the professionals reported a complete hepatitis B vaccination scheme. Among nursing technicians, 15% stated that they had not received anti-HBs. Regarding the use of personal protective equipment, 60% of the professionals reported sporadic use. No biosafety training was offered for 80% of the nurses and 60% of the nursing technicians. Concerning accidents, 70% of the nurses and 35% of the nursing technicians reported having suffered some type of exposure. Among nurses, 85.7% said they had not notified. Among those who suffered an accident, 42.9% referred the event to an excessive workload. Conclusion: nursing professionals recognize hepatitis b as a condition of high incidence in the Amazon region, which requires stricter biosafety measures due to the risks. However, despite the fact that most of the investigated groups declare a complete vaccination schedule for the disease, there were reports of lack of training, sporadic use of personal protective equipment, limitations on immunization tests (anti-HBs) and underreporting of accidents with biological risk.(AU)


Justificativa y objetivo: la bioseguridad es de extrema importancia para los profesionales de enfermería, principalmente em las áreas de padrón endémico elevado para agravios como la infección por virus de la hepatitis B (VHB). El estudio tuvo como objetivo describir aspectos relacionados a las medidas de bioseguridad y la infección por VHB entre los profesionales de enfermería actuantes en la Amazonía occidental brasileña. Métodos: estudio transversal, descriptivo, realizado con profesionales de enfermería actuantes en un hospital materno infantil. Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 30 profesionales, 33.3% enfermeras y 66.7% técnicos de enfermería. los profesionales eran mayoritariamente del sexo femenino, 70%, con media de edad de 40,9 años. 86,7% de los profesionales declararon esquema vacunal completo contra VHB. Entre los técnicos de enfermería 15% declararon no haber realizado el anti-HBs. En relación al uso de equipo de protección individual 60% de los profesionales declararon el uso esporádico. Para 80% de los enfermeros y 60% de los técnicos no fueron ofertados entrenamientos en bioseguridad. Sobre accidentes, 70% de los enfermeros y 35% de los técnicos de enfermería declararon haber sufrido algún tipo de exposición. Entre los enfermeros 85,7% afirmaron que no notificaron los casos. Entre los que sufrieron accidentes 42,9% relacionaron con a la carga horaria excesiva. Conclusión: los profesionales de enfermería reconocen la hepatitis b como una condición de alta incidencia en la región amazónica, que requiere medidas de bioseguridad más estrictas debido a los riesgos. Sin embargo, a pesar del hecho de que la mayoría de los grupos investigados declaran un calendario completo de vacunación para la enfermedad, hubo informes de falta de capacitación, uso esporádico de equipos de protección personal, limitaciones en las pruebas de inmunización (anti-HBs) y subregistro de accidentes con riesgo biológico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Containment of Biohazards , Hepatitis B , Nurse Practitioners , Nursing
14.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200300. 96 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1050085

ABSTRACT

La norma contiene la finalidad, objetivos, ámbito de aplicación, base legal y disposiciones generales y específicas para la prevención de la transmisión materno infantil del VIH, Sífilis y Hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Syphilis , HIV Infections , Communicable Disease Control , Maternal and Child Health , Technical Standards , Hepatitis B
15.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(1): 38-45, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177777

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivo: O vírus da hepatite B tem alta prevalência mundial, com forte impacto na saúde pública, o que justifica as estratégias de vigilância e prevenção dos possíveis agravos. O risco da exposição ao vírus entre os estudantes e profissionais de saúde constitui uma grande preocupação mostrando-se baixa a adesão desse público as medidas de biossegurança. O objetivo foi avaliar o conhecimento, imunização contra hepatite B e uso das medidas de biossegurança por estudantes da área da saúde em uma universidade no interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo, com aplicação de questionário, de autopreenchimento, a estudantes da área da saúde composto por variáveis sociodemográficas e referentes ao tema biossegurança. Resultados: Dentre os 540 estudantes que participaram do estudo, 37,2% declararam não ter conhecimento sobre biossegurança, e desse total, 28,9% não foram vacinados contra a hepatite B, 32,4% dos estudantes consideraram que não estavam expostos ao vírus da hepatite B, e desses 25,7% não eram vacinados. Ainda o estudo mostrou que 13,3% dos estudantes não usavam luvas e destes 41,7% não eram vacinados. Conclusão: Verificou-se que existem lacunas em relação ao conhecimento e uso das medidas de biossegurança, entre estas, a falha da imunização contra hepatite B. Neste sentido, faz-se necessária a adoção de políticas de educação permanente com inclusão sistemática do tema biossegurança e adoção de mecanismos que garantirão a imunização desses estudantes.(AU)


Rationale and Objective: The hepatitis B virus has a high global prevalence, with a strong impact on public health, which justifies strategies for surveillance and prevention of possible diseases. The risk of exposure to the virus among students and health professionals is a major concern showing that public adherence to biosafety measures is low. The objective was to evaluate knowledge, immunization against hepatitis B and use of biosafety measures by students of the health area at a university in the interior of Minas Gerais. Methods: Cross - sectional, descriptive study with self - filling questionnaires to health students composed of sociodemographic variables and about biosafety. Results: Of the 540 students who participated in the study, 37.2% declared that they did not know about biosafety, and of that total, 28.9% were not vaccinated against hepatitis B, 32.4% of the students considered that they were not exposed to biosafety hepatitis B virus, and of these 25.7% were not vaccinated. Still the study showed that 13.3% of the students did not use gloves and of these 41.7% were not vaccinated. Conclusion: It was verified that there are gaps in the knowledge and use of biosafety measures, among them, the failure of immunization against hepatitis B. In this sense, it is necessary to adopt policies of permanent education with systematic inclusion of biosafety and the adoption of mechanisms that will guarantee the immunization of these students.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: El virus de la hepatitis B tiene alta prevalencia mundial, con fuerte impacto en la salud pública, lo que justifica las estrategias de vigilancia y prevención de los posibles agravios. El riesgo de exposición al virus entre los estudiantes y los profesionales de la salud constituye una gran preocupación por la baja de la adhesión de este público a las medidas de bioseguridad. El objetivo fue evaluar el conocimiento, inmunización contra hepatitis B y el uso de las medidas de bioseguridad por estudiantes del área de la salud en una universidad en el interior de Minas Gerais. Métodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, con aplicación de cuestionario, de auto-relleno, a estudiantes del área de salud compuesto por variables sociodemográficas y sobre el tema bioseguridad. Resultados: Entre los 540 estudiantes que participaron en el estudio, el 37,2% declaró no tener conocimiento sobre bioseguridad, y de ese total, el 28,9% no fueron vacunados contra la hepatitis B, el 32,4% de los estudiantes consideró que no estaban expuestos al riesgo, virus de la hepatitis B, y de ese 25,7% no eran vacunados. Aún el estudio mostró que el 13,3% de los estudiantes no usaban guantes y de los 41,7% no eran vacunados. Conclusión: Se verificó que existen lagunas en relación al conocimiento y uso de las medidas de bioseguridad, entre éstas, el fallo de la inmunización contra hepatitis B. En este sentido, se hace necesaria la adopción de políticas de educación permanente con inclusión sistemática del tema bioseguridad y la adopción de mecanismos que garantizarán la inmunización de esos estudiantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations , Immunization , Containment of Biohazards , Education, Continuing , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus , Public Health , Disease Prevention
16.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-4, 01/01/2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103710

ABSTRACT

Introduction: IL-6 is a cytokine that participates in the systemic inflammatory process in Kala-azar, its plasma levels are high during active disease and especially in patients with severe clinical condition. Case reports: Three patients from different age groups, clinical score of severe disease and different plasma levels of IL-6 were reported. Conclusion: The results suggest that only the clinical severity score does not present sensitivity to classify, among critically ill patients, those with imminent risk of death. The IL-6 concentration seems to allow this differentiation, considering that the only fatal case, HBV/Leishmania coinfection, presented an expressively higher plasma level.


Introdução: IL-6 é uma citocina que participa do processo inflamatório sistêmico no calazar. Seus níveis plasmáticos estão elevados durante doença ativa e, principalmente, em pacientes com quadro clínico grave. Relato de casos: foram reportados três pacientes em diferentes faixas etárias, escore clínico de doença grave e diferentes níveis plasmáticos de IL-6. Conclusão: os resultados sugerem que apenas o escore clínico não apresenta sensibilidade para classificar, entre os doentes graves, aquele com risco iminente de óbito. A concentração de IL-6 parece permitir essa diferenciação, considerando que o único caso fatal, coinfecção HBV/Leishmania, mostrou nível plasmático expressivamente mais elevado.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Interleukin-6 , Hepatitis B , Leishmaniasis, Visceral
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190378, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1092220

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Human retroviruses and the hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively) share routes of transmission; thus, coinfections occur and could alter subsequent disease outcomes. A preliminary study on human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) in serum samples from HBV- and HCV-infected individuals in São Paulo revealed 1.3% and 5.3% rates of coinfection, respectively. These percentages were of concern since they were detected in HTLV-endemic regions and in high-risk individuals in Brazil. The present study was conducted to extend and confirm these data. METHODS HTLV-1/2 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status were identified in 1,984 sera for HBV and HCV viral load quantification - 1,290 samples from HBV-infected individuals (53.3% men, mean age: 47.1 years) and 694 samples from HCV-infected individuals (56.3% men, mean age: 50.1 years). HTLV-1/2 antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassay, followed by western blotting and line immunoassay; HIV infection was detected by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS HTLV-1/-2 infection was detected in 1.9% HBV-infected individuals (0.7% HTLV-1 and 1.2% HTLV-2) and in 4.0% (2.4% HTLV-1 and 1.6% HTLV-2) HCV-infected individuals; HIV infection was detected in 9.2% and 14.5%, respectively. Strong associations with HTLV and HIV, male sex, and older age were found in HBV/HTLV and HCV/HTLV-coinfected individuals (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were confirmed to be prevalent in individuals with HBV and HCV in São Paulo; coinfected individuals deserve further clinical and laboratory investigation.


Subject(s)
Sex , HIV , Viral Load , Hepatitis B , Infections , Methods
18.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130030

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been declining nationwide throughout Brazil since the introduction of universal child vaccination. The vaccine is currently available for all ages. However, most of the adult population has not been vaccinated and may still be susceptible to it. Most of the cases reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN) are chronic, a consequence of early exposure in life. However, acute cases are the result of current transmission and may reveal the current dynamics of HBV circulation. Objective: To evaluate whether there is a change in the age distribution of acute hepatitis B in Brazil. Methods: To analyze the historical series of reported cases and incidence rates of acute hepatitis B by age group between 2007 and 2018, based on data reported to SINAN. Temporal trend was tested with non-parametric Cusick test. Results: The incidence rate fell from 1.02 (/ 100,000 inhabitants) in 2007 to 0.67 in 2018 (p=0.01). The drop was significant at all ages, except under 15 and over 60. The highest incidences (@1.0 / 100,000 inhab.) occurred between 20 and 59 years old. Conclusion: There is a progressive "aging" of acute hepatitis B cases in the country, probably due to the vaccine protection of younger people. A considerable portion of the older population is susceptible to HBV and may be exposed, especially by sexual route. Control measures such as vaccination and guidance for safe sex are needed.


Introdução: A prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B (HBV) vem diminuindo em todo o Brasil desde a introdução da vacinação universal de crianças. Atualmente a vacina está disponível para todas as idades, porém a maior parte da população brasileira não foi vacinada e pode ainda ser suscetível. A maioria dos casos notificados ao Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) é crônica, consequência de contágio antigo. Contudo os casos agudos são fruto de transmissão atual e podem revelar-nos a dinâmica atual da circulação do HBV. Objetivo: Avaliar se há mudança na distribuição etária da incidência da hepatite B aguda no Brasil. Métodos: Analisar a série histórica de casos notificados e as taxas de incidência de hepatite B aguda por faixa etária entre 2007 e 2018, tendo como base os dados notificados ao SINAN. Testar tendência temporal pelo teste não paramétrico de Cusick. Resultados: Houve queda da taxa de incidência de 1,02 (/100.000 hab.), em 2007, para 0,67, em 2018 (p=0,01). A queda foi significativa em todas as idades, exceto abaixo dos 15 e acima dos 60 anos. As maiores incidências (@1,0/100.000 hab.) ocorreram entre 20 e 59 anos. Conclusão: Há progressivo "envelhecimento" dos casos agudos de hepatite B no país, provavelmente pela proteção dos mais jovens por vacina. Parcela considerável da população mais idosa é suscetível ao HBV e continua exposta, principalmente por via sexual. São necessárias medidas de controle, como vacinação e orientação para prática de sexo seguro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Acute Disease , Hepatitis B , Vaccination , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Infections
19.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130053

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Syphilis is a major public health problem. Its incidence has increased in Brazil, particularly in the Southern Region. New tools are available, and immediate action is necessary. Objective: To describe the pilot study of an investigation aimed to assess the prevalence of syphilis, hepatitis B and C, and HIV and evaluate three strategies for adherence to syphilis treatment. Methods: A spontaneous sample of participants was evaluated with a structured questionnaire and underwent rapid tests for syphilis, HIV, and hepatitis B and C after signing an informed consent form (ICF). Rapid tests reagent for syphilis were confirmed by quantitative venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). Participants with confirmation of syphilis were randomized into three groups for follow-up: telephone calls, SIM app, and usual care at the health unit. Results: During a two-day pilot, 68 participants were included. Fourteen (20.6%) had tests reagent for syphilis, 1 (1.5%) for hepatitis B, 3 (4.4%) for hepatitis C, and 1 (1.5%) for HIV. Eight (57.1%) of the initial 14 individuals with rapid tests reagent for syphilis agreed to participate in the study. Out of the 8 rapid tests for syphilis, 2 (25%) were confirmed as active syphilis (>1/8). Conclusion: The prevalence of active syphilis estimated in this population was 3.5%. The demand for tests was high. The COVID-19 epidemic had a negative impact on the development of the study, which is ready for implementation. Discussions on the role of such a testing unit and the coverage of the research project in a context that requires increasing COVID-19-focused testing are fundamental for the future development of the project.


Introdução: A sífilis é um importante problema de saúde pública. A incidência tem aumentado no Brasil, principalmente na Região Sul. Novas ferramentas estão disponíveis e uma ação imediata é necessária. Objetivo: Descrever o estudo piloto de uma pesquisa que avalia a prevalência de sífilis, hepatites B e C e HIV e três estratégias de aderência ao seguimento do tratamento. Métodos: Uma amostra espontânea de participantes foi avaliada com um questionário estruturado e testes rápidos para sífilis, HIV e hepatites B e C foram realizados após assinatura do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido (TCLE). Os testes rápidos reagentes para sífilis foram confirmados por VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory) quantitativo e hemaglutinação para sífilis (Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay ­ TPHA). Os participantes com confirmação de sífilis foram randomizados em três grupos para acompanhamento: ligações telefônicas, aplicativo do SIM e cuidados habituais na unidade de saúde. Resultados: Durante um piloto de dois dias, 68 participantes foram incluídos. Quatorze (20,6%) tiveram testes reagentes para sífilis, 1 (1,5%) para hepatite B, 3 (4,4%) para hepatite C e 1 (1,5%) para HIV. Oito (57,1%) dos 14 casos iniciais com teste rápido reagente para sífilis aceitaram participar do estudo. Dos 8 testes rápidos para sífilis, 2 (25%) foram confirmados como sífilis ativa (>1/8). Conclusão: A prevalência de sífilis ativa estimada nesta população foi de 3,5%. A demanda por exames foi alta. A epidemia de COVID-19 impactou negativamente o desenvolvimento do estudo, que está pronto para implementação. A discussão sobre o papel desta espécie de unidade de teste e a abrangência do projeto de pesquisa em um contexto que pede a expansão de testes focados na COVID-19 são fundamentais para o desenvolvimento futuro do projeto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Syphilis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Public Health , HIV , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis B
20.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 6(3): 35-52, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1128058

ABSTRACT

Introdução:Considerado um grave problema de saúde pública, a Hepatite é uma doença que se destaca por ser silenciosa e nem sempre apresentar sinais e sintomas, favorecendo assim o atraso no seu diagnóstico.Objetivo:Diante de um crescimento contínuo no estado do Rio Grande do Norte (RN) de casos de Hepatite B e C, o presentetrabalho objetivouidentificar o perfil epidemiológico da população do RN diagnosticada e notificada com hepatites B e/ou C entre os anos de 2007 a 2015, segundo as regionais de saúde. Método:Trata-se de um estudo observacional, descritivo, do tipo transversal, que utilizou uma consulta ao DATASUS para a obtenção dos dados. Resultados:Verificou-se que houve predominância do sexo masculino dentre os casos de hepatite B e C, assim como a faixa etária de 20 a 39 anos, considerando-se hepatite B e 40 a 59 para a hepatite C. Ademais, a raça parda foi a predominante em ambos os tipos virais; a 7ª região de saúde foi a regional que mais possuiu notificação e houve uma maior prevalência dos casos de hepatite B e C em pessoas com menores níveis de escolaridade. Conclusões:Concluiu-se que o perfil das hepatites B e C no estado do Rio Grande do Norte tem se mostrado semelhante aos dados do Brasil, com uma alta prevalência, sugerindo assim a necessidade de se ter uma maior articulação entre os setores e departamentos responsáveis pelo registro e controle das hepatites virais do tipo B e C e a importância do gestor em saúde frente a essas situações para a realização de medidas preventivas (AU).


Introduction:Considered a serious public health problem, Hepatitis is a disease that stands out for being silent and not always showing signs and symptoms, thus favoring the delay in its diagnosis.Objective:Faced with a continuous growth in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) of cases of Hepatitis B and C, the present study aimed to identify the epidemiological profile of the population of the RN diagnosed and notified with hepatitis B and / or C between the years 2007 to 2015, according to regional health.Methods:This is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study that used a consultation with DATASUS to obtain the data.Results:It was found that there was a male predominance among the cases of hepatitis B and C, as well as the age group of 20 to 39 years, considering hepatitis B and 40 to 59 for hepatitis C. Furthermore, the brown race was the predominant in both viral types; the 7th health region was the region with the most reports and there was a higher prevalence of cases of hepatitis B and C in people with lower levels of education.Conclusions:It was concluded that the profile of hepatitis B and C in the state of Rio Grande do Norte has shown to be similar to the data from Brazil, with a high prevalence, thus suggesting the need to have a greater articulation between the sectors and departments responsible for the registry and control of type B and C viral hepatitis and the importance of the health manager in face of these situations for carrying out preventive measures (AU).


Introducción:considerada como un grave problema de salud pública, la hepatitis es una enfermedad que destaca por ser silenciosa y no siempre muestra signos y síntomas, favoreciendo así el retraso en su diagnóstico. Objetivo:Frente aun crecimiento continuo en el estado de Rio Grande do Norte (RN) de casos de hepatitis B y C, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar el perfil epidemiológico de la población de NB diagnosticada y notificada con hepatitis B y / o C entre los años de 2007 a 2015, según la salud regional. Método:Este es un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal que utilizó una consulta con DATASUS para obtener los datos. Resultados:se encontró que había un predominio de hombres entre los casos de hepatitis B y C, así como el grupo de edad de 20 a 39 años, considerando la hepatitis B y 40 a 59 para la hepatitis C. Además, la raza marrón predominaba en ambos tipos virales; la séptima región de salud fue la región con más informes y hubo una mayor prevalencia de casos de hepatitis B y C en personas con niveles más bajos de educación. Conclusiones:Se concluyó que el perfil de hepatitis B y C en el estado de Rio Grande do Norte ha demostrado ser similar a los datos de Brasil, con una alta prevalencia, lo que sugiere la necesidad de una mayor articulación entre los sectores y departamentos responsables. para el registro y control de la hepatitis viral tipo B y C y la importancia del gerente de salud ante estas situaciones para llevar a cabo medidas preventivas (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Public Policy , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Hepatitis C/pathology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Observational Studies as Topic/methods
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