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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 1173-1182, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153826

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a distribuição espacial da vacina contra Hepatite B (VCHB) de gestantes. Estudo transversal, realizado com 266 puérperas. O registro da VCHB foi obtido por meio da caderneta de pré-natal. Para a detecção do cluster de risco para presença de registro ou ausência de VCHB foi utilizada a técnica de varredura espacial. Posteriormente a esta identificação do cluster, procedeu-se à comparação das variáveis individuais e ambientais entre as Áreas de Abrangência da Unidade Básica de Saúde (AA-UBS). A prevalência média de não VCHB foi de 88,34%. A análise de varredura espacial Scan observou-se um cluster de alta prevalência de puérperas que apresentava o registro da VCHB em suas cadernetas. Análises comparativas demonstraram que trabalho remunerado e o número de consultas realizadas no pré-natal estão associados positivamente a VCHB. Este trabalho suscita uma reflexão de possíveis disparidades com as demais AA-UBS, além da perspectiva a nível ambiental. Ressalta-se que a situação vacinal sofre influência não somente de fatores intrínsecos aos indivíduos, entretanto, nesse estudo, os resultados apontam que as variáveis individuais são majoritariamente mandatórias na decisão das gestantes em vacinarem.


Abstract The objective of this article is to analyze the spatial distribution of Hepatitis B vaccine (HBVAC) of pregnant women. This is a cross-sectional study carried with 266 puerperae. The HBVAC record was obtained through the prenatal care booklet. The spatial scanning technique was used to detect a cluster of risk for the presence or absence of an HBVAC record. After this cluster identification, the individual and environmental variables were compared between the Coverage Areas of Basic Health Units (CAs-BHUs). The mean prevalence of non-HBVAC was 88.34%. Scan spatial scan analysis observed a cluster of a high prevalence of puerperae with a HBVAC record. Comparative analyses have shown that paid work and the number of prenatal visits are positively associated with an HBVAC record. Given the above, this work brings a reflection on possible disparities with other CAs-BHUs, besides the influence of the environmental perspective. It should be emphasized that the vaccination situation is influenced not only by factors intrinsic to the individuals. However, in this study, the results indicate that individual variables are predominantly mandatory in the decision of HBVAC uptake among pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Spatial Analysis
2.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021219, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343345

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination for health-care workers is essential for World Health Organization's goals achievement of viral hepatitis (VH) elimination. However, recent studies showed low vaccination adherence by these professionals and lack of knowledge about HB vaccination adherence of community health workers (CHW). OBJECTIVE: To identify the adherence of CHW to HB vaccination; to determine the causes of non-adherence; to investigate whether the prevalence of vaccination is different among surveyed towns, and to verify whether years practiced as CHW have any association with vaccination adherence. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included five towns (T) of a Brazilian state. Data were collected at VH educational meetings, in which CHW answered a questionnaire. The proportions Z-test and the likelihood ratio test were used for statistical analysis. Significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The sample included 516 CHW. Most CHW (86.8%) reported to have taken the vaccine, but only 59.7% affirmed having taken all doses, and 28.1% correctly answered the number of doses. 24.4% of CHW pointed the unknowing about HB vaccine importance as the main reason for non-adherence. T4 and T5 showed higher vaccination prevalence than T2 and T1. Vaccination adherence was higher among individuals with more years working as CHW. CONCLUSION: CHW demonstrated low adherence to HB vaccination and pointed the lack of knowledge about HB vaccine importance as the main reason for that. There were differences in vaccination prevalence among the towns and adherence was positively associated with professional experience.


INTRODUÇÃO: A vacinação dos profissionais de saúde contra hepatite B (HB) é fundamental para que sejam atingidas as metas da Organização Mundial de Saúde de eliminação das hepatites virais (HV). Entretanto, estudos recentes mostram baixa aderência desses profissionais à vacinação e falta conhecimento sobre a adesão dos agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS) à vacinação. OBJETIVO: Identificar a adesão dos ACS à vacinação contra HB; determinar as causas da não adesão; investigar se a prevalência de vacinação é diferente entre os municípios (M) pesquisados; e verificar se o tempo de experiência como ACS está associado à adesão. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluindo cinco municípios de um estado brasileiro. Os dados foram coletados em palestras sobre HB, nas quais os ACS responderam um questionário. Foram aplicados o teste de proporções (Z) e a razão de verossimilhança, considerando-se significante p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A amostra incluiu 516 ACS, dos quais 86,8% relataram ter tomado a vacina, 59,7% afirmaram ter tomado todas as doses, 28,1% responderam corretamente o número de doses e 24,4% apontaram o desconhecimento sobre a importância da vacina como o principal motivo de não adesão. M4 e M5 mostraram maior prevalência de vacinação que M2 e M1. Os ACS com maior tempo de experiência profissional apresentaram maior adesão. CONCLUSÃO: Os ACS demonstraram baixa adesão à vacinação contra HB e indicaram a falta de conhecimento sobre a importância da vacina como a principal causa. Houve diferenças na prevalência de vacinação entre os municípios e a aderência foi positivamente associada ao tempo de experiência profissional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccination , Community Health Workers , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020834, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250844

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article discusses viral hepatitis, a theme addressed by the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines to Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and, more precisely, by the Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C and Coinfections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Besides the broad spectrum of health impairment, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses also present different transmission forms, whether parenteral, sexual, vertical, or fecal-oral. Among the strategies suggested for the control of viral hepatitis, in addition to behavioral measures, are expanded diagnosis, early vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses, and access to available therapeutic resources. Considering vertical transmission of the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, screening for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B and C is an essential perinatal health strategy, indicating with precision those who can benefit from the prophylactic interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2818-2824, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921161

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health issue because of its severe sequelae. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV is critical to eliminate chronic HBV infection. Here, we reviewed the progress toward the elimination of HBV infection in children in China in the recent decade. A universal hepatitis B vaccination program started from 2002 has been intensified, with the coverage of timely birth dose >95% of all newborn infants from 2012. Since 2011, China has taken a nationwide program to administer hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) with free of charge in all neonates of HBV-infected mothers, leading to a significant increment of timely use of HBIG. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was declined from around 10% among children in 1980s to 2 × 105 U/mL during the third trimester is increasing, which will further reduce MTCT of HBV. However, there are some challenges in the elimination of HBV infection in children, which need to overcome by the concerted efforts. Nevertheless, it is anticipated that China will achieve the goal set by the World Health Organization that the prevalence of HBsAg in children aged <5 years is ≤0.1% by 2030.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Female , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 313-318, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879637

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a threat to public health by 2030. Blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the key step for eliminating viral hepatitis, at the same time, it is the hotspot in the field of hepatitis B prevention and control as well. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) organized a team of specialists to develop an algorithm for preventing MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and the latest evidence. The algorithm covers 10 continuous steps from pregnant management to follow-up postpartum. Among the 10 steps, screening, antiviral therapy during pregnancy, and infant's immunization are the core components in the algorithm.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , China , Female , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 69-73, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vaccinated for hepatitis B have a low success rate in achieving protective antibody levels. The main factors suggested for this are IBD itself and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concentration of anti-HBs antibodies and to verify factors associated with the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a prospective, consecutive, observational, descriptive and analytical, non-randomized, qualitative study that evaluated the levels of anti-HBs antibodies in IBD patients at the Interdisciplinary Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic of the Family and Community Health Unit of UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV), of which 29 were female. The average age was 46.2 years. Regarding the type of IBD, twenty-four patients had Crohn's disease and the duration of inflammatory bowel disease was 74 months. Fifteen patients were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. The effective response rate to HBV vaccine was 72.2%, verified by anti-HBs titration ≥10 UI/L. Statistical analysis revealed a negative response to vaccination in patients with Crohn's disease and immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: The success rate of HBV immunization in IBD patients is low compared to the general population. Type of disease and use of immunosuppressive drugs appear to influence the vaccine response.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) vacinados para hepatite B possuem baixa taxa de sucesso em alcançar níveis protetores de anticorpos. Os principais fatores sugeridos para isso são a própria DII e o uso de medicamentos imunossupressores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs e verificar fatores associados a efetividade da vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes com DII. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo e consecutivo, de caráter observacional, descritivo e analítico, não-randomizado, qualiquantitativo, que avaliou a titulação de anticorpos anti-HBs em pacientes portadores de DII no Ambulatório Interdisciplinar de Doença Inflamatória Intestinal da Unidade de Saúde da Família e Comunitária da UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram vacinados contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB), destes, 29 eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 46,2 anos. Em relação ao tipo de DII, 24 pacientes eram portadores de doença de Crohn e o tempo médio de doença inflamatória intestinal encontrado foi de 74 meses. Quinze pacientes estavam em uso de terapia imunossupressora concomitante à vacinação. A taxa de resposta à vacina contra o VHB foi de 72,2%, verificada através de titulação de anti-HBs ≥10 UI/L. A análise estatística revelou uma resposta negativa à vacinação em pacientes em uso de medicamentos imunossupressores e portadores de doença de Crohn. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de sucesso na imunização contra o VHB em pacientes com DII é baixo quando comparado à população em geral. Tipo de doença e uso de medicamentos imunossupressores parecem desempenhar influência na resposta vacinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Qualitative Research , Seroconversion , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878291

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Despite the remarkable progress in efforts to control disease spread, the nationwide elimination of hepatitis B in China is still hindered by the persistently high rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Western China. This study aimed to evaluate the strategy of hepatitis B prevention and control in Western China and identify potential areas and strategies for improvement.@*Methods@#Susceptible population vaccination, health education, professional training of doctors, and other prevention and control measures have been implemented in Wuwei city since 2010. Data were obtained from three representative cross-sectional serosurveys conducted in 2010, 2013, and 2015. The serum samples were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect the following seromarkers: HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Estimates of variance were determined using Taylor series linearization methods.@*Results@#The three serosurveys revealed decreases in the prevalence of HBsAg (7.19% in 2010 @*Conclusion@#Although vaccine-based prevention and control measures reduced the rate of HBV infection in Wuwei City over time, the hepatitis B infection rate in children younger than 10 years was still higher than the national average level. Therefore, the prevention and control of mother-to-child transmission and the management of the infected should be the focus of future prevention and control work.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 419-426, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for one of the most common human viral infections. An estimated 257 million people are living with chronic HBV infection worldwide, and mortality has reached 900,000 deaths in recent years. In 2001, the World Health Organization reported a prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in Iran between 2-7%. Objective: To assess the effect of the national HBV mass vaccination program after 25 years. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in vaccinated and unvaccinated people according to the year of birth. Blood samples were obtained from each enrolled person and data about demographic variables, and medical and vaccination history were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Persons were considered uninfected if they were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBc. Also, Vaccine effectiveness was measured by calculating the risk of disease among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons and defining the percentage risk reduction of infection in the vaccinated group. Results: A total of 2720 persons were interviewed. The rate of HBV breakthrough infection among the vaccinated group was significantly lower than in unvaccinated group. One hundred ninety-four cases with positive HBV markers of infection were identified. The risk ratio of HBV infection was 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54-0.94 (vaccinated/unvaccinated). The estimated vaccination effectiveness against Hepatitis B infection was 29% (95% CI: 6%-46%). Conclusions: Iran has successfully combined hepatitis B vaccination into regular immunization programs. The WHO goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to an equivalent of 1% by 2020 has been reached. With respect to vaccination effectiveness and low prevalence of the disease in the country, catch-up hepatitis B vaccination programs for adolescents can guarantee the immunity of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 616-628, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058088

ABSTRACT

Resumen La incorporación de terapias biológicas ha significado un gran avance en el manejo de diversas patologías de origen autoinmune, neoplásico u otros. Si bien su uso ha implicado mejoras significativas en el pronóstico de estas enfermedades, no está exento de complicaciones, entre éstas, las infecciosas. El objetivo de este consenso fue evaluar el perfil de seguridad, desde la mirada infectológica, de las terapias biológicas de uso más frecuente y dar recomendaciones para la prevención de infecciones en pacientes tratados con ellas, basándose en la evidencia de mayor calidad disponible para los biológicos seleccionados. El consenso cuenta de dos manuscritos. Esta segunda parte corresponde a la guía clínica que detalla estas recomendaciones mediante estrategias de cribado, terapias profilácticas e indicación de vacunas, según corresponde, para infecciones bacterianas, y por micobacterias en particular, virus, hongos y parásitos, tanto para adultos como para niños.


The use of biological therapies has meant a great improvement in the management of several conditions like autoimmune, neoplastic or others diseases. Although its use has implied significant improvements in the prognosis of these diseases, it is not exempt from complications: infectious diseases as one of them. The objective of this consensus was to evaluate, from an infectious viewpoint, the safeness of the most frequently used biological therapies and give recommendations for the prevention of infections in patients treated with these drugs. These recommendations were based on the highest quality evidence available for the selected biologics. The consensus counts of 2 manuscripts. This second part is a guideline that details these recommendations through screening strategies, prophylactic therapies and vaccines indications for bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections, both for adults and children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/chemically induced , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Communicable Diseases/chemically induced , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Consensus , Emigrants and Immigrants , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Chile , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Hepatitis B/chemically induced , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 440-446, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055157

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although liver transplantation is considered to be a high-risk procedure, it is well-established as a treatment option for the cure and quality of life enhancement for individuals who suffer from diseases. Preventing an infection by hepatitis B virus through immunization schedules has been the most effective way to reduce complications, since it decreases the number of people who suffer from chronic hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus and eradicates its transmission. OBJECTIVE: 1. Analyzing evidence in the literature on various schedules employed for immunization against hepatitis B in patients who have received a liver transplantation. 2. Suggesting potential immunization schedules against hepatitis B in patients who suffer from liver cirrhosis, without previous verifying documentation, using the Child-Turcotte Pugh score, according to evidences found in the literature. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature, conducted on the data bases MedLine, PubMed, and Lilacs, between September, 2017 and January, 2018, by using the following keywords: "Liver Transplantation, "Immunization Schedule", "Hepatitis B Vaccines". In order to analyze the articles, a summary figure was especially designed and both the results and discussion were presented in a descriptive way. RESULTS: We included 24 studies; among them, eight had accelerated immunization schedules, 13 followed the conventional schedules, and three had super accelerated schedules. Regarding immunization, 21 studies were conducted with patients in the pre-transplant period, one with a transplanted patient, one with a pre-transplant group, and one with a post-transplant group. Found articles suggest that, disregarding the chosen immunization schedule, seroconversion rates tended to be lower as the liver disease advanced, compared to the healthy population. CONCLUSION: The studies did not find seroconversion superiority between the different immunization schedules (conventional and unconventional). However, since candidates to liver transplantation are usually very vulnerable, results show that super accelerated immunization schedules are possibly recommended for such group of patients; serologic test results will be higher when the immunization schedule is completed in the pre-transplant period.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O transplante de fígado, apesar de ser um procedimento de elevado risco, está consolidado como recurso terapêutico para cura e melhoria da qualidade de vida de indivíduos acometidos por doenças. A prevenção da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B através da vacinação tem sido a medida mais efetiva para reduzir complicações, diminuindo o número de pessoas com hepatite crônica pelo vírus da hepatite B e eliminando a transmissão. OBJETIVO: 1. Analisar as evidências na literatura sobre os diferentes esquemas utilizados para a vacina contra a hepatite B em pacientes submetidos a transplante de fígado. 2. Sugerir possíveis esquemas de vacinação contra hepatite B para pacientes com cirrose hepática, sem documentação comprovatória anterior, em relação à classificação de Child-Turcotte Pugh, segundo evidências encontradas na literatura. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada nas bases de dados MedLine, PubMed e Lilacs, no período de setembro/2017 a janeiro/2018, com as seguintes palavras chaves: "Liver Transplantation, "Immunization Schedule", "Hepatitis B Vaccines". Para análise dos artigos foi utilizado um quadro sinóptico especialmente construído para esse fim e a apresentação dos resultados e discussão foi feita de forma descritiva. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 24 estudos, sendo oito com esquemas vacinais acelerados, 13 com esquemas convencionais e três com esquemas super acelerado. Quanto ao período da vacinação, 21 estudos foram realizados com pacientes no período pré-transplante, um em pacientes transplantados e um com um grupo pré e um grupo pós transplante. Os artigos encontrados sugerem que independente do esquema vacinal escolhido, as taxas de soroconversão tendem a ser menores conforme o avançar da doença hepática, em relação à população saudável. CONCLUSÃO: Os estudos não encontraram superioridade de soroconversão entre os diferentes esquemas de vacinação (convencional e não convencional). Entretanto, sabendo da vulnerabilidade que os candidatos a transplante de fígado estão expostos, os resultados demonstram que o esquema de vacinação superacelerado pode ser indicado para este grupo de pacientes, e que os resultados sorológicos são mais elevados quando o esquema de vacinação é completado no período pré-transplante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunization Schedule , Liver Transplantation , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology
11.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 33(310)2019.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268588

ABSTRACT

Introduction: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide owing to its high prevalence and significant morbidity and mortality. There are about 2 billion people living with HBV worldwide and over 360 million chronic carriers. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and practices of pregnant women and health care workers in the ANC and maternity units on HBV infection and its transmission.Methods: about 270 women attending ANC and 31 health care workers were selected by convenience sampling. They were evaluated using a structured questionnaire to assess their knowledge and practices on HBV prevention and transmission. Results: pregnant women in the Limbe Health District demonstrated good knowledge but adopted poor practices whereas in the Muyuka Health District, pregnant women demonstrated poor knowledge and adopted poor practices regarding the mode of transmission and prevention of HBV infection. Health care workers in both the Limbe and Muyuka Health Districts however, demonstrated good knowledge and adopted good practices.Conclusion: there was a significant relationship between the knowledge and practice of pregnant women and health care workers on Hepatitis B prevention in the Muyuka Health District (P = 0.0006)


Subject(s)
Cameroon , Health Personnel , Hepatitis B virus/etiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hospitals, District , Knowledge , Pregnant Women
12.
Rev. ABENO ; 19(1): 58-65, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1022362

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to verify the adherence of undergraduate Dentistry students to the hepatitis B and tetanus vaccination campaign in a private Dental school. The hypothesis tested was that the vaccination campaign would be an effective program in prevention of HBV and tetanus infection. The vaccination's card copies and the Anti-HBs exam were analyzed as main outcome. Data were submitted to bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses (0.05). Age, admission year, studying shift, doses of hepatitis B and tetanus vaccinations were independent variables. Out of the 485 students, 318 delivered the vaccination's card, and 295 presented the Anti-HBs exam. The median age of the students was 21 years (76.1% female and 23.9% male). In the univariate and multivariate Poisson regression model, failure to receive the tetanus vaccination was considered as a risk factor. Undergraduate students enrolled in the initial years were more likely to have not received the vaccination than the senior years (p ≤0.001). Out of the total number of students (318) who submitted the documentation for hepatitis B, 86.1% completed the vaccination protocol (3 doses), while 13.9% the incomplete protocol (1 or 2 doses). Older students were more likely to have refrained from taking the vaccinations compared to younger (p ≤ 0.001). In relation to the Anti-HBs, 73.9% had positive protective titer. Vaccination campaigns for undergraduate students may be effective if adherence of the individuals to the schedule can be ensured. Strategies for greater adherence of students, should be thought and planned by Dental Schools (AU).


O estudo objetivou verificar a adesão dos estudantes de graduação em Odontologia à campanha de vacinação contra hepatite B e tétano em uma escola particular de Odontologia. A hipótese testada foi que a campanha de vacinação seria um programa efetivo na prevenção da infecção pelo HBV e tétano. O cartão de vacinação e o exame anti-HBs foram analisados como desfecho principal. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão de Poisson bivariada e multivariada (0, 5). Idade, ano de admissão, turno de estudos, número de doses de vacinas para hepatite B e vacinação para tétano foram variáveis independentes. Dos 485 estudantes, 318 entregaram a cópia do cartão de vacinação e 295 apresentaram o exame anti-HBs. A mediana de idade dos estudantes foi de 21 anos (76,1% do sexo feminino, 23,9% do sexo masculino). Nos modelos de regressão de Poisson univariada e multivariada, a não vacinação contra o tétano foi considerada fator de risco. Os alunos de graduação matriculados nos anos iniciais foram mais propensos a não receberem a vacinação do que aqueles dos anos finais (p≤0,001). Do total de alunos (318) que entregaram a documentação para hepatite B, 86,1% completaram o protocolo de vacinação (3 doses), enquanto 13,9% o protocolo incompleto (1 ou 2 doses). Os estudantes mais velhos foram mais propensos a não terem tomado as vacinas em comparação com mais jovens (p≤0,001). Em relação ao anti-HBs, 73,9% apresentaram título de proteção positivo. As campanhas de vacinação para estudantes de graduação podem ser efetivas se a adesão dos indivíduos ao calendário vacinal puder ser assegurada. Estratégias para maior adesão dos estudantes, como essa campanha, devem ser pensadas e planejadas pelos cursos de Odontologia (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Students, Dental , Tetanus/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180534, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041588

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Occupational exposure is a major risk factor for hepatitis B (HB) transmission. METHODS: Vaccination coverage and immunity verification from 64 dentists of the Brazilian Unified Health System were investigated. An immunochromatographic method was used to verify immunity against the disease. RESULTS: Overall, 77.77% of participating dentists completed the vaccination schedule; 37.50% had negative anti-HBs test results. Furthermore, 60.93% of participants never underwent anti-HBs tests and 40% did not know how to correctly interpret results. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous dentists were not immune to the disease. Few participants previously performed the test, with many not knowing how to interpret the results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Dentists , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180132, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041500

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Medical students have an occupational risk for hepatitis B (HB). This study sought to determine anti-HBs and anti-HBc IgG levels in vaccinated students, check their seroconversion, and correlate this with vaccination. METHODS One hundred and forty-three students' blood samples and their vaccination schedules were analyzed. RESULTS: 65.7% were positive for anti-HBs; however, anti-HBs was absent in 34.3%. Only two samples were positive for anti-HBc IgG. CONCLUSIONS More than 30% of students did not have minimum protective levels. Comparing HBV vaccination and anti-HBs reactivity, the majority of reactive individuals received their last dose within the past 16 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 198-202, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041449

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and risk behaviors among 402 female sex workers in Central Brazil were investigated by respondent-driven sampling. METHODS: Blood samples were tested for hepatitis B and C markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hepatitis B vaccination schedules were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections were 9.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Susceptibility to hepatitis B infection was observed in 61.5% of subjects. There was no significant difference in adherence index (p=0.52) between vaccination schedules and all participants had protective antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: This hard-to-reach population requires hepatitis B and C surveillance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. bras. med. trab ; 16(1): 36-43, jan.-mar-2018.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882534

ABSTRACT

Contexto: O Programa Nacional de Imunização (PNI), por meio dos calendários vacinais, garante imunização gratuita contra hepatite B para os profissionais de saúde que possuem risco aumentado para infecção relacionada aos processos laborais. Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre a vacinação completa para hepatite B e as variáveis relacionadas à exposição ocupacional. Método: Estudo de corte transversal realizado com 3.084 trabalhadores da atenção primária e média complexidade de cinco municípios da Bahia. Resultados: Os fatores associados à vacinação completa para hepatite B na análise bivariada foram: contato com material biológico, preparo de medicação, utilização de equipamento de proteção individual (EPI), procura de orientação após acidente de trabalho e exigência de habilidade no trabalho. Conclusões: Os trabalhadores do setor da saúde ainda apresentam resistência em aderir a algumas medidas de prevenção. Por isso, estratégias de incentivo à vacinação podem ser potencializadas com a abertura de espaços de discussão no trabalho a respeito das cargas laborais às quais o grupo está exposto. Reais planos e políticas de enfrentamento relacionadas à saúde do trabalhador precisam ser definidos à luz das políticas governamentais que têm sido constituídas para a população geral.


Background: Through its vaccination schedules, the National Immunization Program ensures immunization against hepatitis B gratis to health care professionals at high risk for infection at the workplace. Objective: To analyze the association between variables related to occupational exposure and complete hepatitis B vaccination schedule. Method: Cross-sectional study with 3,084 primary care and medium complexity health care workers from five municipalities in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Results: The factors associated with complete hepatitis B vaccination schedule on bivariate analysis were: contact with biological materials, preparation of medications, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), search for orientation after a work accident and skill demands. Conclusions: Workers in the health sector resist adhering to some preventive measures. Strategies to encourage vaccination might be enhanced by creating room for discussion at work on the burden to which employees are exposed. Plans and policies for workers' health should be formulated in the light of governmental policies set for the overall population.


Subject(s)
Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Immunization Schedule , Health Facility Environment , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Cohort Studies
17.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(supl.1): S32-S35, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117656

ABSTRACT

The process of evaluation of candidate patients for liver transplantation should include the risk of infectious diseases in order to prevent the drop out of the waiting list due to infections or the occurrence of these in the post-transplant period. Cirrhotic patients in the pre-transplant stage are very ill and usually have severe infections. The most common is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but they can also present urinary infections and pneumonias. Mortality due to infectious causes has been reported up to 40% in patients on the transplant waiting list. The transplanted patients may have a poor immune response to vaccination, so the optimal immunization period is pre-transplant. In the post-transplant period, Gram-negative bacterial infections are one of the main complications. Invasive fungal infections and cytomegalovirus can also have a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Transplanted patients may also have mycobacterial infections in relation to a latent tuberculosis infection. In the following article we present the pre-transplant evaluations, vaccination schemes and antimicrobial prophylaxis that are used in liver transplantation.


El proceso de evaluación de pacientes candidatos para trasplante hepático debe incluir el riesgo de enfermedades infecciosas a fin de prevenir la salida de la lista por infecciones o la ocurrencia de éstas en el período post-trasplante. Los pacientes cirróticos en la etapa pre-trasplante están muy enfermos y suelen presentar infecciones graves. La más común es la peritonitis bacteriana espontánea, pero también pueden presentar infecciones urinarias y neumonías. La mortalidad por causa infecciosa se ha reportado hasta en 40% en pacientes en lista de espera de trasplante. Los pacientes trasplantados pueden tener una pobre respuesta inmune a la vacunación, por lo que el momento óptimo de inmunización es en el período pretrasplante. En el período post-trasplante las infecciones bacterianas por Gram negativos son una de las principales complicaciones. Las infecciones por hongos invasores y el citomegalovirus también pueden tener un alto impacto en morbilidad y mortalidad. Los pacientes trasplantados también pueden presentar infecciones por micobacterias en relación a una infección latente por tuberculosis. En el siguiente artículo se presentan las evaluaciones pre-trasplante, esquemas de vacunación y profilaxis antimicrobiana que se utilizan en trasplante hepático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Transplantation Immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Vaccination , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Patient Selection , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 356-358, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients on chronic dialysis present a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. Despite infection-control practices, surveillance of serological markers, and hepatitis B vaccination, there are still outbreaks of the disease in dialysis centers. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the serologic and vaccination status for hepatitis B in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed serologic markers and hepatitis B vaccination status of chronic kidney disease patients on regular dialysis program in São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Patients without information about hepatitis B status (anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs) were referred for testing. Individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunization status and without serological conversion (anti-HBs <10mIU/mL) were referred to vaccination, with adverse effects monitored. RESULTS: The study included 130 from a total of 181 dialysis patients. The majority were male (63.8%), mean age 53.9 years. All patients were already screened and negative for HBsAg, and 73.8% were vaccinated against hepatitis B (59.2% complete and 14.6% incomplete schedule), with a seroconversion rate of 75.3%. Only 11 (8.5%) patients had prior dosage of anti-HBc (negative). Among the 47 patients referred for anti-HBc testing, four were anti-HBc positive and one indeterminate. Of the total of patients referred to immunization, 34 have actually received HBV vaccine; among them five had mild adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Despite the benefit of dosing of anti-HBc and anti-HBs before admission to dialysis, economic constraints have reduced the screening to only HBsAg. Since occult HBV infection has already been demonstrated in hemodialysis patients, the measure of anti-HBc should be encouraged.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Pacientes cronicamente em diálise apresentam alta prevalência de infecção por vírus da hepatite B. Apesar de práticas de controle de infecção, vigilância de marcadores sorológicos e vacinação contra a hepatite B, ainda há surtos da doença em centros de diálise. OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o estado sorológico e a vacinação contra hepatite B em pacientes em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliando marcadores sorológicos e vacinação contra a hepatite B em pacientes com doença renal crônica em programa regular de hemodiálise em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Pacientes sem marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B disponíveis (anti-HBc, HBsAg e anti-HBs) foram encaminhados para testagem. Em caso de situação vacinal desconhecida, incompleta ou sem resposta vacinal (anti-HBs <10mIU/mL), os pacientes foram encaminhados para vacinação, sendo os efeitos adversos monitorados. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 130 de um total de 181 pacientes em diálise. A maioria era do sexo masculino (63,8%), com idade média de 53,9 anos. Todos os pacientes já haviam sido rastreados e eram negativos para HBsAg, e 73,8% foram vacinados contra a hepatite B (59,2% esquema completo e 14,6% esquema incompleto), com uma taxa de soroconversão de 75,3%. Apenas 11 (8,5%) pacientes dispunham de dosagem prévia de anti-HBc (negativo). Entre os 47 pacientes encaminhados para testagem anti-HBc, quatro eram anti-HBc reagentes e um indeterminado. Do total de pacientes encaminhados à imunização, 34 receberam efetivamente a vacina contra o HBV; entre eles, cinco tiveram efeitos adversos leves. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do benefício da dosagem de anti-HBc e anti-HBs antes da admissão à diálise, restrições econômicas reduziram o rastreio apenas à dosagem de HBsAg. Como a infecção oculta por HBV já foi demonstrada em pacientes em hemodiálise, a dosagem de anti-HBc deve ser incentivada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 9(3): 627-633, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-869943

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the socio-demographic profile of reported hepatitis B and immunization against the disease. Methods: Study Hepatitis B notification data in the surveillance of a Minas Gerais’ municipality, from 2007 to 2015, conducted at the Labor Education Program for Health descriptive and analytical statistics, with significance level of p < 0.05. Results: 132 cases and two deaths were notified. The age of the reported cases ranged from zero to 87 years, average 35.8 (± 14.0) years. More frequently for men (52.3%) and with low education (64.8%). Most of them did not vaccinate (81.8%) and had positive result of HSBsAg serology (90.1%); immunization was not linked to the socio-demographic profile (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Age, education and gender were not associated with immunization, vaccination schedule and the HSBsAg test. The absence of vaccination among the notified suggests need for health education among the population, orienting the possibility of protection by immunization.


Objetivo: Analisar o perfil sociodemográfico dos notificados para hepatite B e a imunização contra a doença. Métodos: Estudo com dados de notificação de hepatite B na vigilância epidemiológica do município de Minas Gerais, entre 2007 a 2015, conduzido no Programa de Educação pelo Trabalho para a Saúde. Estatística descritiva e analítica, com nível de significância p < 0,05. Resultados: Notificaram-se 132 casos e dois óbitos. A idade dos notificados variou de zero a 87 anos, média de 35,8 (± 14,0) anos. Maior frequência para homens (52,3%) e baixa escolaridade (64,8%). A maioria não vacinou (81,8%) e teve resultado da sorologia HSBsAg positivo (90,1%); a imunização não se associou ao perfil sociodemográfico (p > 0,05). Conclusão: Idade, escolaridade e sexo não foram associados à imunização, ao esquema vacinal ou ao teste HSBsAg. A ausência de vacinação entre os notificados sugere a necessidade de educação em saúde junto à população, orientando-a sobre possibilidade de proteção pela imunização.


Objetivo: Analizar el perfil sociodemográfico reportado de hepatitis B y la inmunización contra la enfermedad. Métodos: Estudio de datos de notificación de la hepatitis B en la vigilancia del municipio de Minas Gerais, de 2007 a 2015, realizadas en el Programa de Educación para el Trabajo de estadística descriptiva y analítica de la Salud, con un nivel de significación de p<0,05. Resultados: 132 casos fueron notificados; dos muertes. La edad del reportado varió de cero a 87 años, con una media de 35,8 (± 14,0) años. Con mayor frecuencia entre los hombres (52,3%) y baja educación (64,8%). La mayoría no vacunados (81,8%) y tuvo resultado positivo de HSBsAg serología (90,1%); la inmunización no vinculado al perfil sociodemográfico (p > 0,05). Conclusión: La edad, la educación y el sexo no se asociaron con la inmunización, calendario de vacunación y la prueba HSBsAg. La ausencia de vacunación entre los notificados sugiere la necesidad de educación para la salud entre la población, orientando la posibilidad de protección mediante la vacunación.


Subject(s)
Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vaccination Coverage , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/mortality , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Immunotherapy, Active , Health Profile , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Brazil , Epidemiological Monitoring
20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 70(3): 489-494, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-843674

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to assess predictive factors for noncompletion of the hepatitis B vaccination schedule in female sex workers in the city of Teresina, Northeastern Brazil. Method: 402 women were interviewed and, for those who did not wish to visit specialized sites, or did not know their hepatitis B vaccination status, the vaccine was offered at their workplaces. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. Results: of the 284 women eligible for vaccination, 258 (90.8%) received the second dose, 157/258 (60.8%) and 68/258 (26.3%) received the second and third doses, respectively. Working at clubs and consuming illicit drugs were predictors for noncompletion of the vaccination schedule. Conclusion: the high acceptability of the vaccine's first dose, associated with low completion rates of the vaccination schedule in sex workers, shows the need for more persuasive strategies that go beyond offering the vaccine at their workplaces.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar factores predictores del no completamiento del esquema de vacunación contra la hepatitis B en mujeres que se prostituyen en Teresina, noreste de Brasil. Método: Fueron entrevistadas 402 mujeres. Para las que se negaron a ir a lugares especializados o desconocían su situación de vacunación contra la hepatitis B, la vacuna fue ofrecida en lugar de trabajo. Fueron efectuados análisis multivariados para identificar potenciales predictores del no completamiento del esquema de vacunación. Resultados: de las 284 mujeres elegibles para vacunación, 258 (90,8%) recibieron primera dosis, 157/258 (60,8%) y 68/258 (26,3%) recibieron segunda y tercera dosis. Trabajar en burdeles y consumir drogas fueron factores predictores de no completamiento del esquema (p<0,05). Conclusión: La elevada aceptación de la primera dosis, asociada al bajo completamiento del esquema de vacunación en profesionales del sexo, evidencia necesidad de una estrategia más persuasiva, más allá de la oferta de vacunación en el lugar de trabajo.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar fatores preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal contra hepatite B em mulheres que se prostituem em Teresina, Nordeste do Brasil. Método: Um total de 402 mulheres foi entrevistado e, para as que se negaram a irem a lugares especializados, ou desconheciam sua situação vacinal contra hepatite B, a vacina foi oferecida no local do trabalho. Análises bi e multivariadas foram realizadas para identificar potenciais preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal. Resultados: Das 284 mulheres elegíveis para vacinação, 258 (90,8%) receberam a primeira dose, 157/258 (60,8%) e 68/258 (26,3%) receberam a segunda e terceira doses. Trabalhar em boates e consumir drogas ilícitas foram preditores de não completude do esquema vacinal (p<0,05). Conclusão: A elevada aceitabilidade da primeira dose da vacina, associada à baixa completude do esquema vacinal em profissionais do sexo, evidencia a necessidade de estratégia mais persuasiva que vá além da oferta da vacina no local de trabalho.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence/psychology , Sex Workers/psychology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Hepatitis B Vaccines/pharmacology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/psychology
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