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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(10): 1480-1484, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351429

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the serum samples found reactive (≥1-≤20 signal-to-cutoff ratio) with Elecsys antibodies to hepatitis C virus screening test with innogenetics-line immunassay hepatitis C Virus Score test and to determine the most appropriate threshold value for our country, since positive results close to the cutoff value cause serious problems in routine diagnostic laboratories. METHODS: Antibodies to hepatitis C virus-positive samples from 687 different patients were included in the study. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus antibody detection was performed using Elecsys antibodies to hepatitis C virus II kits (Roche Diagnostics, Germany), an electrochemiluminescence method based on the double-antigen sandwich principle, on the Cobas e601 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics) in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer. Samples that were initially identified as reactive were studied again. Samples with ≥1-≤20 signal-to-cutoff ratio reagents as a result of retest were included in the study to be validated with the third-Generation Line immunassay kit (innogenetics-line immunassay hepatitis C Virus, Belgium). RESULTS: A total of 687 samples with antibodies to hepatitis C virus positive and levels between 1-20 S/Co were found to be 56.1% negative, 14.8% indeterminate, and 29.1% positive by innogenetics-line immunassay hepatitis C Virus confirmation test. When the cases with indeterminate innogenetics-line immunassay hepatitis C Virus test results were accepted as positive, the signal-to-cutoff ratio value for antibodies to hepatitis C virus was determined as 5.8 (95% confidence interval) in distinguishing the innogenetics-line immunassay hepatitis C Virus negative and positive groups. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that with further studies on this subject, each country should determine the most appropriate S/Co value for its population, and thus it would be beneficial to reduce the problems such as test repetition and cost increase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Immunoassay , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hepacivirus/genetics
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e02532020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155541

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay to confirm anti-HCV results to determine whether the HCV core antigen test could be used as an alternative confirmatory test to the HCV RNA test. METHODS: Sera from 156 patients were analyzed for anti-HCV and HCV core antigen using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Architect i2000SR) and for HCV RNA using the artus HCV RG RT-PCR Kit (QIAGEN) in a Rotor-Gene Q instrument. RESULTS: The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the HCV core antigen assay compared to the HCV RNA test were 77.35%, 100%, 100%, and 89.38%, respectively. HCV core antigen levels showed a good correlation with those from HCV RNA quantification (r =0.872). However, 13 samples with a viral load of less than 4000 IU/mL were negative in the HCV core antigen assay. All gray-zone reactive samples were also RNA positive and were positive on repeat testing. CONCLUSIONS: The Architect HCV core antigen assay is highly specific and has an excellent positive predictive value. At the present level of sensitivity (77%), the study is still relevant in a low-income setting in which most of the HCV-positive patients would go undiagnosed, since HCV RNA testing is not available and/or not affordable. HCV core antigen testing can also help determine the true burden of infection in a population, considering the fact that almost 50% of the anti-HCV positive cases are negative for HCV RNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/genetics , RNA, Viral , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hepatitis C Antigens , Hepatitis C Antibodies
3.
Medisan ; 24(4)jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1125138

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hepatitis C es una infección viral que puede presentarse como una afección leve, de pocas semanas de duración, o evolucionar hasta una enfermedad hepática crónica. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis C según variables clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e histológicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de serie de casos, de 150 pacientes con anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis C, atendidos en la consulta de Hepatología del Hospital General Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba desde diciembre de 2017 hasta igual mes de 2019, a los cuales se les realizó una biopsia hepática por laparoscopia. Como medida de resumen se utilizó el porcentaje. Resultados: Predominaron el grupo etario de 61-70 años y el sexo femenino. La vía sanguínea resultó ser la de mayor riesgo para la transmisión del virus de la hepatitis C. A pesar de estar infectados, 45,3 % de los pacientes evolucionaron en algunos momentos de la enfermedad con valores de alanina aminotransferasa normales. Conclusiones: En los estudios laparoscópicos fueron más frecuentes el hígado normal y la hepatitis crónica, a la vez que primaron estas últimas con lesiones leves y moderadas. Se constató la presencia de lesiones hísticas tanto en los pacientes sintomáticos como asintomáticos.


Introduction: Hepatitis C is a viral infection that can be presented as a light disorder, during few weeks, or become into a chronic hepatic disease. Objective: To characterize patients with antibodies against the hepatitis C virus according to clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and histological variables. Methods: An observational, descriptive, serial cases study, of 150 patients with antibodies against the hepatitis C virus was carried out, they were assisted in the hepatology service of Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba from December, 2017 to the same month in 2019, to whom a hepatic biopsy by laparoscopy was carried out. The percentage was used as summary measure. Results: There was a prevalence of the 61-70 age group and the female sex. The higher risk for the transmission of hepatitis C virus was by blood. In spite of being infected, the 45.3 % of patients had a clinical course in some moments of the disease with normal alanine aminotransferase values. Conclusions: In the laparoscopic studies the normal liver and chronic hepatitis were more frequent, at the same time that these last ones prevailed with light and moderate lesions. The presence of tissue lesions was verified either in the symptomatic or asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Biopsy/methods , Liver Diseases
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 173-181, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019559

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The prison system in Paraná, Brazil, is experiencing serious problems related to the increasing number of prisoners. Control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become more intense because the incarcerated population is considered a high-risk group for contagious diseases due to the favorable conditions found in prisons for the spread of these morbidities. The objective of this study was to identify features associated with hepatitis C infection among male prisoners in correctional institutions of Paraná state, Brazil. Methods: This was a case-control study (27 cases and 54 controls) of men incarcerated in 11 penitentiaries in Paraná, Brazil. Information was obtained through a questionnaire in a cross-sectional epidemiological survey on HCV infection during the period from May 2015 to December 2016. Eligible men were recruited after testing positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Cases and controls were selected based on serological results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and were matched by age, location of the penitentiary, and time in prison. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for HCV seropositivity. Results: The main significant independent risk factor for the acquisition of HCV infection was the use of injectable drugs (OR = 4.00; 95%CI:1.41-11.35; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that HCV infection is associated with drug use by this population. This information is pivotal for tailoring prevention programs and guiding specific socioeducational measures that aim to reduce or prevent HCV transmission within the prison setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Epidemiologic Methods
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190202, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041534

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is affected by demographic, virological, clinical, and lifestyle-related factors and varies in different regions in Brazil or worldwide. The present study aimed to clarify the epidemiological patterns of HCV infection in the interior region of Brazil. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to the guidelines of the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis. The participants answered a structured questionnaire on social and epidemiological factors. Immunochromatographic rapid tests were used for the qualitative detection of antibodies against HCV in whole blood (Alere HCV® Code 02FK10) in adult subjects by a free-standing method. RESULTS: Of 24,085 tested individuals, 184 (0.76%) were anti-HCV positive. The majority of anti-HCV-positive individuals were born between 1951 and 1980 (n=146 [79.3%]), with 68 women and 116 men. Identified risk factors included syringe and/or needle sharing (p = 0.003), being in prison (p = 0.004), and having tattoos or piercings (p = 0.005) and were significantly associated with the decade of birth. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the importance of testing populations at risk for HCV infection, including incarcerated individuals, those with tattoos or piercings, those who share or have shared syringes or needles, and those in high-risk birth cohorts (1950s, 1960s, and 1970s) in the Southern Triangle Macro-region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Epidemiological Monitoring , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190143, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041530

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a prison population. METHODS: A total of 147 individuals were interviewed and subjected to venipuncture for collection of blood sample. The study population consisted of male individuals who attended the health unit of the state penitentiary of Florianópolis. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV infection was 5.4%. Regarding behavioral variables, 95 (64.6%, p<0.0507) subjects reported consuming alcohol and 7 (4.8%, p<0.0476) reported having already used injectable drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HCV infection in the studied population was higher than that in the general populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prisoners , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Brazil , Alcohol Drinking , Prevalence , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Qualitative Research , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180491, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990444

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: IgG subclasses involved in the immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens have been rarely studied. We investigated the immune response mediated by IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against the recombinant core and NS3 antigens in patients with chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: Sixty patients infected with HCV genotype 1 without antiviral treatment and 60 healthy subjects participated in the study. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, HCV viremia, and the presence of cryoglobulinemia and liver fibrosis were determined. We investigated the serum IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against recombinant HCV core and NS3 non-structural protein antigens using amplified indirect ELISA. RESULTS: Anti-core and anti-NS3 IgG1 antibodies were detected in 33/60 (55%) and 46/60 (77%) patients, respectively, whereas only two healthy control samples reacted with an antigen (NS3). Anti-core IgG4 antibodies were not detected in either group, while 30/60 (50%) patients had anti-NS3 IgG4 antibodies. Even though there were higher levels of anti-NS3 IgG4 antibodies in patients with low viremia (< 8 × 105 IU/mL), IgG1 and IgG4 antibody levels did not correlate with ALT levels, the presence of cryoglobulinemia, or degree of hepatic fibrosis. High production of anti-core and anti-NS3 IgG1 antibodies was observed in chronic hepatitis C patients. In contrast, IgG4 antibodies seemed to only be produced against the NS3 non-structural antigen and appeared to be involved in viremia control. CONCLUSIONS: IgG1 antibodies against structural and non-structural antigens can be detected in chronic hepatitis C, while IgG4 antibodies seem to be selectively stimulated by non-structural HCV proteins, such as the NS3 antigen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/blood , Reference Values , Viremia , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hepatitis C Antigens/blood , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Viral Load , Cryoglobulinemia , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Middle Aged
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774327

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the necessity and suitability of the anti-HCV ELISA teot gray zone setted up by 7 blood station laboratories.@*METHODS@#7 blood station laboratories were coded as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 respectively; 8 kinds of ELISA reagents were coded as A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H respectively. 1 or 2 of 8 ELISA reagents produced by different manufactories were used to detect the anti-HCV in specimens of same group by 7 blood station laboratories; the Westen blot was used to detect the specimens with difference of detected results so as to difine the serological status of specimens. The true positive rate of specimens detected by laboratories and gray zone-comfirined positive rate of specimens were accounted so as to analyze the necessity of setting up the gray zone for anti-HCV ELISA test of 7 blood station laboratories; the optimal cut-off value for anti-HCV ELISA test was determined in 7 blood station laborafories by ROC curve and the changes of sensitivity and specificity of 3 different cut-off value(laboratory work cut-off value, manifactory-recommended cun-off value and optimal cut-off value) were compared so as to analyze the suitability of gray zone for anti-HCV ELISA test in 7 blood station laboratories.@*RESULTS@#The true positive rate detected by 7 blood station laboratories, out of which coded 1 laboratory used 2 kinds of coded A, B reagents was 95.40%(1A), 99.23% (1B), 94.25% (2C), 96.17% (3D), 98.08% (4E), 96.93% (5F), 97.32%(6G) and 93.10%(7H). Except for 2C(94.25%) and 7H(93.10%), the true positive rate detected by laboratoies which not sutted up gray zone, the gray zone-con-firmed positive rate in 6 blood station laboratories setted up gray zone: was 0.00%, 0.00%, 21.43%, 0.00%, 0.00%, 0.00% and 38.89%. The comparison of 3 different cut-off valuces by ROC curve showed that the anti-HCV cut-off values in 5 laboratories(1B, 2C, 4E, 5F and 6G) were as follows: optimal cut-off value>manufactory recommeded cut-off value>laboratory work cut-off value, thus use of manufactory-recommeded cut-off value abreadly has reached the high sensitivity requinements for laboratory screening; however, the optimal cut-off value in laboratories 1A, 3B and 7H, thas the appropriate gray zone should be used. In 6 laboratories setting up gray zone, the gensitivity in 3D, 7H laboratories only a little improved (1.60% and 2.70% raspectively) in Eamparison between laboratory work cut-off value and manufactorg-recommeded cut-off value; moreover, the sensitivity in other laboratories not is changed, but the specificity decreased (0.20%-0.50%).@*CONCLUSION@#In addition to setting up the appropriate gray zone in laboratories 1A, 3D and 5H, the gray zone in other laboratories may be cancelled. Even in the same laboratory, the setting up the gray zone also should be scientifically assessed, the same scale cannot be blindly used, thus appropniate strategies should be established.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Humans , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 737-741, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977103

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have identical transmission routes, explaining the high prevalence of coinfections. The main aim of this study was to detect fluctuations in serological HCV levels in HIV patients. METHODS: We analyzed samples of 147 patients who attended an outpatient service that supports HIV/AIDS patients in São Paulo city. We also recruited 22 HCV-monoinfected patients who attended the Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory in São Paulo city, to compare the test results. Serological testing of the blood samples was performed for the detection of HCV antibodies. The samples were then analyzed using real-time PCR for RNA viral quantification and sequencing. RESULTS We found that 13.6% of the study population was coinfected with HIV and HCV. In 20% of coinfected patients, fluctuations in serology results were detected in samples collected during the follow-up. No changes in anti-HCV serological markers were observed in HCV-monoinfected patients. An HCV viral load was detected in 9,5% of the samples collected from HIV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important clinical data to public health professionals and highlight the importance of periodic monitoring of HCV/HIV coinfected patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , RNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepacivirus/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Coinfection , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Middle Aged
12.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 267-273, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973883

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C are diseases with high morbimortality and constitute a global public health problem. In Brazil, the prevalence is not homogeneous, oscillating among different regions, but it is estimated that currently about 1% of the population present chronic disease related to the B virus and that there are 1.5 million infected with the C virus. Despite the development of hepatitis B vaccine, improvement in diagnostic methods and therapeutic advances in the field of viral hepatitis, there is still a large number of people who continues to be infected by these viruses, especially in populations at risk and also due to several factors, including vaccination and migration policies. Vertical and perinatal transmissions are of great importance in the epidemiology of viral hepatitis and the blood tests performed during prenatal care constitute a great opportunity for screening and identifying these viruses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the seroprevalence of markers for B and C viruses in women who underwent prenatal care at the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro (Antonio Pedro University Hospital) from 2006 to 2013 and to compare the results found with regional data and those described in the specific literature. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study with retrospective data collected from 635 records of pregnant women attended at the Prenatal Service of the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, from March 2006 until December 2013. The database was built in the Microsoft Office Access program and was later exported to Microsoft Office Excel. For the processing and analysis of the data, it was used the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science, IBM) version 22.0, for Windows. RESULTS: Twelve cases with positive HBsAg (1.9%), 189 cases with positive anti-HBs (35.9%) and seven positive anti-HCV patients (1.3%) were observed. There was no significant association between age and positivity for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HCV (P =0.205, 0.872 and 0.676, respectively). There was a direct relationship between the anti-HBs positivity and the last four years of the study (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of HBsAg was observed, higher than the expected for the evaluated region; there was a prevalence of anti-HCV, consistent with the current Brazilian reality; and a likely low rate of hepatitis B immunization, with a relatively high rate of susceptibility to this infection and no case of co-infection between B and C viruses and HIV. It is emphasized not only the need to trace hepatitis B and C, without exceptions, during prenatal care, since even though the current advances in therapy may not cure, at least they may allow a better quality of life for patients with chronic disease and the mandatory completion of immunoprophylaxis in all newborns. Special attention should be given to those patients susceptible to HBV, with prompt diagnosis and referral for specific vaccination.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: As hepatites pelo vírus B e C são doenças com elevada morbimortalidade e um problema de saúde pública global. No Brasil a prevalência não é homogênea, variando entre as diferentes regiões, mas estima-se que atualmente cerca de 1% da população apresente doença crônica relacionada ao vírus B e que haja 1,5 milhões de infectados pelo vírus C. Apesar do desenvolvimento da vacina contra a hepatite B, da melhoria nos métodos diagnósticos e dos avanços terapêuticos no campo das hepatites virais, ainda é grande o número de pessoas que continuam sendo infectadas por esses vírus, principalmente nas populações sob algum tipo de risco e devido a vários fatores incluindo políticas de vacinação e migração. A transmissão vertical e também a perinatal têm grande importância na epidemiologia das hepatites virais e os exames realizados durante o pré-natal constituem uma oportunidade única de rastreio e identificação destes vírus. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a soroprevalência de marcadores para os vírus B e C em mulheres que realizaram a assistência pré-natal no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro no período de 2006 a 2013 e comparar os resultados encontrados com os dados regionais e os descritos na literatura específica. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo, do tipo quantitativo, com coleta retrospectiva de dados em 635 prontuários de gestantes atendidas no Serviço de pré-natal do Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Niterói, estado do Rio de Janeiro no período de março de 2006 a dezembro de 2013. O banco de dados foi construído no programa Microsoft Office Access, sendo posteriormente exportado para Microsoft Office Excel. Para o processamento e análise dos dados, foi utilizado o pacote estatístico SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science, IBM) versão 22.0, para Windows. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 12 casos com HBsAg positivo (1,9%), 189 casos com anti-HBs positivo (35,9%) e sete pacientes positivas para o anti-HCV (1,3%). Não foi observada associação significativa entre a faixa etária e a positividade do HBsAg, anti-HBs e anti-HCV (P=0, 205, 0,872 e 0,676 respectivamente). Houve relação direta entre a positividade do anti-HBs e os últimos quatro anos da pesquisa (P<0,0001). CONCLUSÃO: Foi observada uma prevalência alta do HBsAg, acima daquela esperada para a região avaliada; uma prevalência para o anti-HCV concordante com a realidade brasileira atual; um índice provavelmente baixo de imunização contra a hepatite B, com índice relativamente alto de susceptibilidade para esta infecção e nenhum caso de coinfecção entre o vírus B, C e o HIV. Enfatiza-se não só a necessidade da triagem das hepatites B e C, sem exceções, durante o pré-natal, já que os avanços atuais na terapêutica poderão se não curar, pelo menos possibilitar uma melhor qualidade de vida para as pacientes com doença crônica e da realização mandatória da imunoprofilaxia em todos os recém-natos. Atenção especial deverá ser dada àquelas pacientes susceptíveis ao HBV, com pronto diagnóstico e encaminhamento para a realização da vacinação específica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/blood , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hospitals, University , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 33(4)oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901188

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las pruebas de detección de anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis C en donantes de sangre han servido para la identificación de enfermos y son un elemento importante para interrumpir la transmisión por esta vía. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de la detección de anti-HVC en el municipio de Artemisa entre los años 2006-2010 e identificar las principales alteraciones clínicas en los pacientes con prueba de detección de ARN positiva. Métodos: se realizó un estudio ecológico de series temporales. El universo estuvo conformado por los 162 pacientes pertenecientes al municipio Artemisa a los cuales, en las donaciones de sangre, se les detectó positividad para en anti-VHC según método de ELISA (UMELISA). La información se obtuvo a través de la base de datos del Banco de Sangre Territorial de San Antonio de los Baños entre el 1º de enero de 2006 y el 31 de diciembre de 2010. Resultados: de las 8 057 donaciones de sangre realizadas en el período; el 2,01 por ciento resultaron positivas. Se demostró el comportamiento estacional, la variación cíclica de la serie cronológica y una tendencia creciente. Se identificaron los meses de septiembre, junio y noviembre como los de mayor incidencia. La relación hombre/mujer fue de 13:1, predominando el sexo masculino entre los donantes anti-HVC positivos con el 94,7 por ciento. Se detectó el ácido nucleico del virus C por biopsia hepática en 41 casos comprendidos entre los 41 y 45 años predominantemente. El 95,1 por ciento de los enfermos presentaron transaminasas normales, antecedentes de instrumentaciones percutáneas y cambios histológicos compatibles con una hepatitis crónica en el momento del diagnóstico. Conclusiones: se confirma la utilidad del pesquisaje del anti-HVC para la planificación de los recursos de salud en el territorio y para la identificación de enfermos con distintos grados de lesión hepática, a pesar de estar asintomáticos y con transaminasas normales(AU)


Introduction: Tests for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus in blood donors have been used to identify patients and it is an important element in disrupting transmission by this route. Objective: The objective of the present investigation was to describe the behavior of the detection of anti-HVC in Artemisa municipality between 2006-2010 years and to identify the main clinical alterations in the patients with positive RNA detection test. Methods: An ecological study of time series was carried out. The universe was 162 patients resident in Artemisa municipality, to whom, in blood donations, they were detected positivity for anti-HCV according to the ELISA method (UMELISA). The information was obtained through the database of the Territorial Blood Bank of San Antonio de los Baños between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010. Results: In this period 8057 blood donations were made; 2.01 percent were positive. The seasonal behavior, the cyclical variation of the chronological series and an increasing tendency were demonstrated. The months of September, June and November were identified as months with highest incidence. The male-to-female ratio was 13: 1, with male sex predominating among anti-HVC positive donors with 94.7 percent. Nucleic acid of C virus was detected by liver biopsy in 41 cases between 41 and 45 years old predominantly. The 95.1 percent of the patients presented normal transaminases, a history of percutaneous instrumentation and histological changes compatible with chronic hepatitis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions: The usefulness of anti-HVC screening for the planning of health resources in the territory and for the identification of patients with different degrees of liver injury, despite being asymptomatic and with normal transaminases, is confirmed(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Donors , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Ecological Studies
15.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(2): 198-206, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887223

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT HBV and HCV reactivation has been widely reported in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for oncohaematological diseases. We aimed to evaluate the HBV and HCV reactivation events in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) underwent cytotoxic chemotherapy containing or not rituximab. This is a retrospective observational study, including all patients with NHL and HL attending an Italian tertiary referral hospital, the University of Naples "Federico II". A total of 322 patients were enrolled. We evaluated serum HBV and HCV markers. A total of 47 (38%) patients with occult HBV infection were enrolled. Seven/47 were treated with therapeutic cytotoxic schedule containing rituximab. Of them, 6/7 received prophylaxis with lamivudine. HBV reactivation was observed in two patients treated with rituximab. A reactivation was observed in the only patient (HBcAb+/HBsAb+) not receiving lamivudine prophylaxis, and the other one was observed in 1 patient with isolated HBcAb positivity during lamivudine prophylaxis. Moreover, 8 patients with HCV-Ab positivity were enrolled. No viral reactivation was observed in these patients. In conclusion, patients with occult HBV infection receiving chemotherapy containing rituximab for lymphoma without antiviral prophylaxis are at risk of viral reactivation. On the contrary, there is no risk of reactivation in patients undergoing rituximab-free schedule. Our findings suggest that there is also very low risk of HCV reactivation. This preliminary report underlines the concept that HBV reactivation is strongly related to the type of immunosuppressive therapy administered and that antiviral prophylaxis needs to be tailored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Virus Activation , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Hodgkin Disease/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus/pathogenicity , Immunocompromised Host , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Rituximab/adverse effects , Hepatitis B/virology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/immunology , Hodgkin Disease/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Italy
16.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 40, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the HCV cascade of care and to identify the factors associated with loss or absence to follow-up of patients identified as infected with hepatitis C through blood donation. METHODS Blood donors from 1994 to 2012, identified with positive anti- HCV by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot tests were invited to participate in the study, through letters or phone calls. Patients who agreed to participate were interviewed and their blood samples were collected for further testing. The following variables were investigated: demographic data, data on comorbidities and history concerning monitoring of hepatitis C. Multiple regression analysis by Poisson regression model was used to investigate the factors associated with non-referral for consultation or loss of follow-up. RESULTS Of the 2,952 HCV-infected blood donors, 22.8% agreed to participate: 394 (58.2%) male, median age 48 years old and 364 (53.8%) Caucasian. Of the 676 participants, 39.7% did not receive proper follow-up or treatment after diagnosis: 45 patients referred not to be aware they were infected, 61 did not seek medical attention and 163 started a follow-up program, but were non-adherent. The main reasons for inadequate follow-up were not understanding the need for medical care (71%) and health care access difficulties (14%). The variables showing a significant association with inadequate follow-up after multiple regression analysis were male gender (PR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.15–1.71), age under or equal to 50 years (PR = 1.36; 95%CI 1.12–1.65) and non-Caucasians (PR = 1.53; 95%CI 1.27–1.84). CONCLUSIONS About 40.0% of patients did not receive appropriate follow-up. These data reinforce the need to establish strong links between primary care and reference centers and the need to improve access to specialists and treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/therapy , Risk Factors
17.
Intestinal Research ; : 97-102, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often require immunosuppressive therapy and blood transfusions and therefore are at a high risk of contracting infections due to hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the present study, we assessed the prevalence of these infections in patients with IBD. METHODS: This retrospective study included 908 consecutive patients with IBD (ulcerative colitis [UC], n=581; Crohn's disease [CD], n=327) who were receiving care at a tertiary care center. Ninety-five patients with intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) were recruited as disease controls. Prospectively maintained patient databases were reviewed for the prevalence of HBV surface antigen, anti-HCV antibodies, and HIV (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method). HCV RNA was examined in patients who tested positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Prevalence data of the study were compared with that of the general Indian population (HBV, 3.7%; HCV, 1%; HIV, 0.3%). RESULTS: The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV was 2.4%, 1.4%, and 0.1%, respectively, in the 908 patients with IBD. Among the 581 patients with UC, 2.2% (12/541) had HBV, 1.7% (9/517) had HCV, and 0.2% (1/499) had HIV. Among the 327 patients with CD, 2.8% (8/288) had HBV, 0.7% (2/273) had HCV, and 0% (0/277) had HIV. One patient with CD had HBV and HCV coinfection. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in patients with ITB was 5.9% (4/67), 1.8% (1/57), and 1.2% (1/84), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in north Indian patients with IBD is similar to the prevalence of these viruses in the general community. Nonetheless, the high risk of flare after immunosuppressive therapy mandates routine screening of patients with IBD for viral markers.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Surface , Biomarkers , Blood Transfusion , Coinfection , Colitis , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , HIV , Humans , India , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , RNA , Tertiary Care Centers , Tuberculosis
18.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2017; 23 (4): 280-286
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-186906

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection is widespread in Egypt. This study compared HCV RNA with HCVcAg for the detection and quantification of viraemia among a sample of Egyptians. Sera from 80 suspected HCV-positive individuals were tested simultaneously for HCV-RNA load using real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and HCVcAg level using ELISA. Of the 80 samples, 25% were HCV-RNA-negative. HCVcAg was detected in all samples: range 0.4-2462 ng/mL, mean 460 [SD 506] ng/mL. The sensitivity and specificity of HCVcAg were 96.7% and 90.9%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between serum HCV-RNA and HCVcAg levels [r = 0.4, P < 0.0001]. HCV-RNA remains the gold standard for diagnosis of active HCV infection but HCVcAg can be used where PCR is not available


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis C Antigens/physiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/immunology
19.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2017; 23 (5): 329-334
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187345

ABSTRACT

We tested the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection [OBI] among Egyptian healthcare workers [HCWs]. We tested 132 HCWs for hepatitis B virus [HBV] DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR], and hepatitis C virus antibody [anti-HCV] by ELISA. HCV RNA was measured by nested PCR in anti-HCV-positive HCWs. HBV-DNA-positive HCWs were subjected to HBV genotyping. We included 132 HCWs who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and positive for hepatitis B core antibody [anti-HBc]. OBI was detected in 7 male HCWs, and HBV E genotype was detected in 3, HBV D in 2 and HBV D and E in 2. Two OBI-positive HCWs had a history of neonatal hepatitis B vaccination. Anti-HCV seropositivity was detected in 17 HCWs who were positive for anti-HBc; 15 of whom were positive for HCV RNA by nested PCR. HCV infection was confirmed by anti-HCV and HCV RNA in 1 of 7 HCWs with OBI. In conclusion, Egyptian HCWs have a significant rate of OBI and HBV E genotype is prevalent


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Hepatitis B virus/pathogenicity , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepatitis C Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 980-986, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828201

ABSTRACT

Abstract The presented study had two objectives. The first was to examine distributions of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotypes in Sindh, Pakistan, where HCV is prevalent. The other was to explore clinically relevant relationships between the genotypes, viral load (measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction assays) and biochemical markers. For this, 1471 HCV-infected patients in six cities in Sindh were recruited and sampled. HCV genotype distributions varied among the cities, but genotype 3a was most prevalent, followed by 3b, 1a and 1b (detected in 51.5, 22.7. 9.25 and 3.2% of the cases, respectively). No type-specific sequences were detected in serum samples from 189 (12.8%) of the 1471 patients. Frequencies of low (<200,000 IU/mL serum), intermediate (200,000-600,000 IU/mL serum) and high (>600,000 IU/mL serum) viral loads were respectively 45.4, 16.5 and 38.1% for patients infected with genotype 3, and 16.9, 36.9 and 46.2%, respectively, for patients with other genotypes. Infection with genotype 1a was associated with significantly higher (p < 0.005) alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase titers than infection with genotype 3a. The results will help in the formulation of treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hepatitis C/metabolism , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Viral Load , Genotype , Pakistan/epidemiology , Biomarkers , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood
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