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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 250-255, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286718

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las alteraciones de la bioquímica hepática son frecuentes en los pacientes con infección por VIH, la etiología es variada, la esteatosis hepática es frecuente con una prevalencia estimada del 60% Objetivos: Caracterizar las alteraciones hepáticas en una serie de pacientes con infección por VIH en un centro de investigación de Bogotá Colombia durante el periodo 2009 - 2019. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, observacional de pacientes con infección por VIH que asistieron a un centro de investigación durante los años 2009-2019. Resultados: 94% fueron hombres y 6% mujeres con edad promedio de 44 años, 92,5% de los pacientes presentaba uso de terapia antiretroviral. Las principales hepatopatías fueron la coinfección VIH-Hepatitis C y el hígado graso en iguales porcentajes, 31,3%. El promedio del indice HOMA fue de 2,58. Discusión: Las enfermedades hepáticas son una causa importante de morbimortalidad en pacientes con infección por VIH, las coinfecciones virales y el hígado graso pueden ser muy frecuentes en nuestro medio a diferencia de otros estudios Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio a nivel local en describir las alteraciones hepáticas en pacientes con VIH, las comorbilidades no SIDA, juegan un papel importante dentro de la enfermedad. La hepatitis C continúa siendo una coinfección frecuente en la población VIH.


Abstract Introduction: Alterations in liver biochemistry are frequent in patients with HIV infection, the etiology is varied and includes multiple causes, liver steatosis is one of the most frequent with an estimated prevalence of 60% after the appearance of antiretroviral treatment Objectives: To characterize liver disorders in a series of patients with HIV infection at a research center in Bogotá Colombia during the period 2009-2019. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, retrospective, observational study of patients with HIV infection who attended a disease research center during the years 2009-2019. Results: 67 clinical histories were reviewed, 94% were men and 6% women with an average age of 44 years, 92.5% of the patients had use of anti-retroviral therapy and the diagnosis of HIV was known 11.7 years ago on average. The main liver diseases were HIV-Hepatitis C coinfection and fatty liver in equal percentages, 31.3%. The average HOMA index was 2.58. Discussion: Liver diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Viral coinfections and fatty liver can be very frequent in our setting, unlike other studies. Conclusions: This is the first study locally to describe the liver disorders in patients with HIV, non-AIDS comorbidities, including fatty liver, play an important role in the disease and could behave like the general population. Hepatitis C continues to be a frequent coinfection in the HIV population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections , Liver Diseases , Therapeutics , Prevalence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Hepatitis C , Colombia , Fatty Liver , Liver
2.
Infectio ; 25(4): 241-249, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286717

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infection through the Hepatitis C virus does not have a vaccine and treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin can fail; which is why it may cause chronic infection and, consequently, could develop liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been described that virus-cell recognition occurs between the E2 viral envelope protein and diverse cell receptors, with this interaction being critical in viral infection. which is why the study sought to identify inhibitory peptides of the interaction between viral E2 protein and the CD81 and CD209 receptors. Methodology: Through the RCSB protein database, crystals from the CD81 and CD209 receptors were selected, CD81/E2-HCV, CD209/E2-HCV complexes were carried out by SWISS-MODEL to generate inhibitory peptides of protein interaction through the Rosetta web server, this interaction was validated through ClusPro and finally, determined the theoretical physicochemical and cytotoxic properties of these peptides. Results: two peptides were obtained, without predicted toxicity, with a theoretical capacity of blocking the protein interaction between the E2 protein of the virus and CD81 and CD209.


Resumen La infección por el virus de la hepatitis C, no cuenta con vacuna y el tratamiento con interferón pegilado y ribavirina puede fallar; por lo que puede causar infec ción crónica y como consecuencia podría desarrollarse falla hepática o carcinoma hepatocelular. Se ha descrito que el reconocimiento virus-célula, se da entre la proteína de envoltura viral E2 y diversos receptores celulares, siendo esta interacción crítica en la infección viral. Razón por la cual este estudio buscó identificar péptidos inhibidores de la interacción entre la proteína E2 viral y los receptores CD81 y CD209. Metodología: A través de la base de datos de proteínas RCSB, se seleccionaron cristales de los receptores CD81 y CD209, se realizaron complejos CD81/E2-HCV, CD209/E2-HCV para generar péptidos inhibidores de interacción proteica a través del servidor web Rosetta, esta interacción fue validada a través de ClusPro y finalmente se evaluaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas y citotóxicas teóricas para estos péptidos. Resultados: se obtuvo dos péptidos, sin toxicidad predicha, con capacidad teórica de bloquear la interacción proteica entre la proteína E2 del virus y CD81 y CD209.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis Viruses , Peptides , Vaccines , Proteins , Hepatitis C , Liver Failure , Hepacivirus , Infections
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 399-401, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345294

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT According to the World Health Organization, 71 million people live with chronic hepatitis C. The treatment of this disease requires assistance from specialized physicians and a highly complex health care system. The prison population has been recognized as being at a high risk of acquiring confinement-related infections, including viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a primary cause of death owing to liver disease among liberty-deprived individuals. Generally, prisons do not have adequate isolation wards for persons with communicable diseases, and overcrowding is a risk factor for this population. Besides prison overcrowding, violence, poor sanitary conditions, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, and emotional instability are factors that can lead detainees to adopt unhealthy habits that make them more susceptible to infections, including HCV, and complicate effective treatment. The Criminal Execution Law 7, 210 of July 11, 1984, in Article 14, grants preventive and curative medical, dental, and pharmacological healthcare to detainees. However, adequate hepatitis C treatment is rarely provided at prisons owing to social stigma and lack of knowledge on the severity of this condition or because most detainees are unaware of their condition. Given the multiple limitations imposed by the prison system model, implementing measures to treat diseases effectively is challenging. However, it is possible to eliminate hepatitis C in prisons in the long term through the coordinated action of public health institutions and the prison system.


RESUMO De acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde, 71 milhões de pessoas vivem com hepatite C crônica. O tratamento dessa doença requer assistência de médicos especializados e um sistema de saúde de alta complexidade. A população carcerária tem sido reconhecida como sendo de alto risco de adquirir infecções relacionadas às condições de confinamento, incluindo hepatites virais. O vírus da hepatite C (VHC) é uma causa primária de morte por doença hepática em pessoas privadas de liberdade. Geralmente, as prisões não possuem locais adequados para isolamento de pessoas com doenças transmissíveis e a superlotação é um fator de risco para essa população. Além da superlotação das prisões, violência, más condições sanitárias, baixo nível socioeconômico, isolamento social e instabilidade emocional são motivos adicionais que induzem os detidos a praticar hábitos não saudáveis, que os tornam mais suscetíveis a certas infecções (incluindo VHC) e complicam o tratamento específico. A Lei de Execução Penal n. 7.210, de 11 de julho de 1984, em seu artigo 14, garante assistência preventiva e curativa à saúde, incluindo assistência médica, farmacêutica e odontológica aos detidos. No entanto, o tratamento adequado da hepatite C é raramente fornecido nas prisões devido estigma social ou falta de conhecimento de sua condição ou porque a maioria dos detidos não tem conhecimento de sua condição. Devido a múltiplas limitações impostas pelo modelo prisional, a implementação de medidas para o tratamento eficaz de doenças é desafiadora. No entanto, é possível eliminar a hepatite C em um ambiente prisional de longa permanência através de ações coordenadas de instituições de saúde pública e o sistema prisional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prisoners , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Hepacivirus
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 150-156, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis is a global phenomenon, with the disease burden varying on a daily basis. Amongst chronic infections, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are egregiously linked to severe health-related complications, with a worldwide prevalence of 248 million and 71 million respectively. Amongst the developing world, a hand full of countries are exhibiting a gross decline in chronic viral infection prevalence, like Bangladesh. While countries such as India have a consistent prevalence, Pakistan bears one of the largest proportions of chronic viral hepatitis globally with increasing trends shown year-by-year. Various old literature texts have stated an approximate national prevalence rate around 2.6% and 5.3% of hepatitis B and C respectively. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the current seroprevalence rates of chronic viral hepatitis amongst the general population of rural Sindh using a screening program to determine the current disease burden. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional survey based on a screening program was conducted in 5 districts with a combined population of over 6.5 million. The screening was carried out via the administration of various camps with the assistance of local social workers and welfare organizations. A total of 24,322 individuals met the inclusion criteria and were screened through (HBsAg/HCV) rapid test cassette (WC) Imu-Med one-step diagnostic test. RESULTS: Hepatitis B was found positive in 964 (3.96%) individuals including 421 (43.67%) males and 543 (56.32%) females, while hepatitis C was positive in 2872 (11.80%) individuals including 1474 (51.32%) males and 1398 (48.67%) females. The prevalence amongst the districts varied between 0.97% and 9.06% for hepatitis B, and 1.61% and 29.50% for hepatitis C, respectively. Umerkot was found to be the most prevalent district amongst rural Sindh, while Badin had the least number of seropositive people. The second most prevalent district of the study population was found to be Tando Allahyar followed by Mirpur Khas. The combined seroprevalence of 15.76% was calculated for hepatitis B and C together amongst the five studied districts of rural and peri-urban Sindh. CONCLUSION: The alarmingly high prevalence rates revealed in our study warrant the urgent need to generate multiple effective strategies in the region to enhance awareness amongst the general population regarding screening, prevention, and prompt treatment of the disease.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite viral é um fenômeno global, com a intensidade da doença variando diariamente. Entre as infecções crônicas, o vírus da hepatite B e o vírus da hepatite C (VHC) estão fortemente ligados a complicações graves relacionadas à saúde, com prevalência mundial de 248 milhões e 71 milhões, respectivamente. Entre o mundo em desenvolvimento, uma quantidade de países está exibindo um declínio bruto na prevalência de infecção viral crônica, tal como Bangladesh. Embora países como a Índia tenham uma prevalência consistente, o Paquistão tem uma das maiores proporções globais de hepatite viral crônica, com tendências crescentes mostradas ano a ano. Vários textos da menos recentes têm declarado uma taxa de prevalência nacional aproximada em torno de 2,6% e 5,3% da hepatite B e C, respectivamente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as atuais taxas de soroprevalência da hepatite viral crônica entre a população geral do Sindh rural utilizando um programa de triagem para determinar a carga atual da doença. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa observacional e transversal baseada em um programa de triagem combinada em cinco distritos com população de mais de 6,5 milhões. A triagem foi realizada por meio da administração de diversos acampamentos com o auxílio de assistentes sociais locais e organizações de assistência social. Um total de 24.322 indivíduos atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e foram examinados através do teste rápido (HBsAg/VHC) Imu-Med em uma etapa. RESULTADOS: Hepatite B positiva foi encontrada em 964 (3,96%) indivíduos incluindo 421 (43,67%) homens e 543 (56,32%) mulheres, enquanto hepatite C foi positiva em 2.872 (11,80%) indivíduos incluindo 1.474 (51,32%) homens e 1.398 (48,67%) mulheres. A prevalência entre os distritos variou entre 0,97% e 9,06% para hepatite B, e 1,61% e 29,50% para hepatite C, respectivamente. Umerkot foi encontrado como o distrito mais prevalente entre Sindh rural, enquanto Badin tinha o menor número de pessoas soropositivas. O segundo distrito mais prevalente da população de estudos foi encontrado como Tando Allahyar, seguido por Mirpur Khas. A soroprevalência combinada de 15,76% foi calculada para hepatite B e C em conjunto entre os cinco distritos estudados do Sindh rural e periurbano. CONCLUSÃO: As taxas de prevalência alarmantemente reveladas em nosso estudo justificam a necessidade urgente de gerar múltiplas estratégias efetivas na região para aumentar a conscientização da população em geral sobre rastreamento, prevenção e tratamento rápido da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 252-256, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287277

ABSTRACT

Abstract The clinical management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection presents several challenges today. WHO's goal is to eliminate it by 2030. It is an ambitious goal and difficult to meet given the barriers to care that arise. This is possible today thanks to the discovery of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). This treatment achieves a high cure rate and is virtually free of adverse effects. To try to comply with this, in addition to the use of DAAs, it is necessary to reduce the rate of undiagnosed patients and facilitate the access of those diagnosed to care and treatment. For that, it is proposed to carry out a simplified treatment of HCV. This involves reducing controls during and after treatment. This simplification varies according to whether patients have cirrhosis or not. In this way, it seeks to increase significantly the number of patients treated and cured to reduce the burden on public health of this disease.


Resumen El manejo clínico de la infección por el virus la hepatitis C (HCV) presenta varios desafíos en la actualidad. El objetivo de la OMS es eliminarlo para el 2030. Es un objetivo ambicioso y muy difícil de cumplir dadas las barreras al cuidado que se presentan. Sin embargo, esto es posible hoy gracias al descubrimiento de los antivirales de acción directa (AAD). Este tratamiento logra una alta tasa de curación y prácticamente está libre de efectos adversos. Para tratar de cumplirlo, además del uso de los AAD, es nece sario reducir la tasa de pacientes no diagnosticados y facilitar el acceso de los diagnosticados al cuidado y el tratamiento. Para eso se propone llevar adelante el tratamiento simplificado del HCV. Esto implica reducir los controles durante y después del tratamiento. Esta simplificación varía según los pacientes tengan o no cirrosis. De esta manera se busca aumentar significativamente el número de pacientes tratados y curados para así poder reducir el impacto en la salud pública de esta enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 208-212, Junio 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1223006

ABSTRACT

La infección crónica con el virus C de la hepatitis constituye un problema de salud a nivel mundial, tanto en niños como en adultos. Su eliminación espontánea puede ocurrir durante la infancia temprana, y luego es infrecuente. Aunque la mayoría de los casos son asintomáticos en la infancia y adolescencia, al llegar a la edad adulta, los pacientes pueden evolucionar a la cirrosis y presentar complicaciones, que incluyen el carcinoma hepatocelular. Un tratamiento eficaz debe tener como meta la eliminación del virus, lo que significaría la curación de la enfermedad. Recientemente, el advenimiento de varios agentes antivirales de acción directa ha posibilitado una alta resolución de la infección, del 97-100 % de los casos. Para lograr este objetivo costo-efectivo, es fundamental la concientización de los pediatras en la detección de los pacientes infectados y su derivación al especialista hepatólogo pediatra para la implementación del tratamiento adecuado.


Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a health problem worldwide, both in children and adults. Its spontaneous resolution may occur during early childhood, and then it becomes uncommon. Although most cases are asymptomatic during childhood and adolescence, as adults, patients may progress to cirrhosis and develop complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The goal of an effective treatment should be virus elimination, i.e., disease cure. Recently, the emergence of several direct-acting antivirals has enabled a high rate of infection resolution in 97-100 % of cases. To achieve this cost-effective objective, it is critical to raise awareness among pediatricians so that they can detect infected patients and refer them to a pediatric liver specialist for an adequate management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Hepatitis C/therapy , Hepatitis C/transmission , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/etiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
7.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 45-49, 20210330. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291375

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência sorológica de pacientes portadores do HCV na Região Carbonífera do Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos: Foram coletados 1.136 dados de pacien- tes que realizaram exame sorológico para HCV em um laboratório localizado na Região Carbonífera do Rio Grande do Sul durante o período de janeiro de 2017 a julho de 2018. Resultados: Identificaram-se 29 (2,6%) pacientes com o HCV, sendo que o maior número de infectados são do sexo masculino, com uma prevalência maior na cidade de Arroio dos Ratos. Conclusão: Os resultados podem servir de base para se desenvolverem ações de promoção da saúde, prevenção e assistência aos pacientes com HCV, reforçando a vigilância epidemiológica e sanitária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Serology , Prevalence , Hepatitis C
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 1-5, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287233

ABSTRACT

Resumen La principal infección viral transmisible por sangre es actualmente la debida al virus de hepatitis C (VHC). Uno de los mayores obstáculos para el logro de su control en la Argentina se relaciona con las dificultades de acceso al diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de las personas infectadas. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar a los pacientes infectados con VHC que iniciaron tratamiento con antivirales de acción directa (AAD) y describir la experiencia vinculada al tratamiento. Se seleccionaron las historias clínicas de 82 pacientes, 44 (53.7%) de sexo masculino, 37 (45.1%) de sexo femenino, y uno (1.2%) transgénero. La media de edad fue de 49 años. Se halló una frecuencia de cirrosis de 39%, 32 pacientes, coinfección con HIV en 48 (58.5%) y con VHB en 27 (32.9%). En 52 (63.4%) no se observó ningún factor de riesgo claramente asociado a infección. Todos completaron la terapia, de ellos 72 (87.8%) efectuaron el control para confirmar respuesta viral sostenida (RVS), que fue de 98.6%. Concluimos que el testeo universal debe implementarse por sobre el testeo con enfoque de riesgo, y que debe promoverse un criterio de atención simplificado y descentralizado, reservando la atención especializada para pacientes con cirrosis descompensada y cáncer de hígado.


Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the main blood-borne viral infection. One of the main obstacles to achieving its control in Argentina is related to difficulties in accessing the diagnosis and timely treatment of infected people. We carried out this study with the aim of characterizing the HCV-infected patients who started treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and to describe the experience related to treatment. The medical records of 82 patients, 44 (53.7%) male, 37 (45.1%) female, and one (1.2%) transgender, were selected. The mean age was 49 years. We report a frequency of cirrhosis, 39%, in 32 patients, coinfection with HIV in 48 (58.5%) and with HBV in 27 (32.9%). In 52 patients (63.4%), no risk factor clearly associated with infection was observed. All completed the therapy, of them 72 (87.8%) carried out the control to confirm sustained viral response (SVR), that attained 98.6%. We conclude that universal testing should be implemented over testing based on a risk approach, and that a simplified and decentralized care criterion should be promoted, reserving specialized care for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 319-325, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879638

ABSTRACT

Viral hepatitis C is one of the important causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are approximately 10 million cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in China. However, over 70% of HCV infections of China have not yet been detected. According to the goal of "eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030" of the World Health Organization Viral Hepatitis Strategy, and the fact that medical institutions remain the main places for detecting HCV infections or patients in China at present, we established the " In-hospital process for viral hepatitis C screening and management in China (Draft)", with intention to promote the multidisciplinary collaboration and cooperation among the departments of clinic, laboratory, infection control, management, and etc. in medical institutions, and strengthen consultation and referral of patients with detected HCV antibodies and advance the diagnosis and antiviral treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy
10.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(1): 1-5, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280782

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Epidemiological studies on hemophilia in the Brazilian population are historically scarce. Despite the continuous effort made by the National Program of Inherited Bleeding Disorders to map this condition, little information is available, especially on the period prior to program conception. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the epidemiological, serological, and clinical characteristics of patients with hemophilia in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: A total of 455 patients had their medical records reviewed from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. Results: We observed a remarkable prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with both hemophilia A and B, and this prevalence significantly increased along with age (p < 0.001). No positive anti-HCV results were observed among children younger than 5 years old. There was a significant correlation between the severity of hemophilia and the number of arthropathies in all age categories. Considering the presence of inhibitors, a significant difference was observed between age groups, as older patients had higher inhibitor titers. There was a significant correlation between mean coagulation factor consumption and the number of arthropathies in patients over 5 years old. Conclusions: This profile analysis of patients with hemophilia reflects a gradual improvement in treatment safety and efficiency, as well as the need for continued investment in this population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hemophilia A/epidemiology , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Hemophilia B/epidemiology
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020834, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250844

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article discusses viral hepatitis, a theme addressed by the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines to Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and, more precisely, by the Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C and Coinfections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Besides the broad spectrum of health impairment, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses also present different transmission forms, whether parenteral, sexual, vertical, or fecal-oral. Among the strategies suggested for the control of viral hepatitis, in addition to behavioral measures, are expanded diagnosis, early vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses, and access to available therapeutic resources. Considering vertical transmission of the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, screening for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B and C is an essential perinatal health strategy, indicating with precision those who can benefit from the prophylactic interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
12.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-121220, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254344

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A hepatite C está associada ao desenvolvimento do carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC). O regime terapêutico baseado em interferon vem sendo substituído pelos antivirais de ação direta (AAD) para tratamento da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV). Contudo, estudos recentes evidenciaram um aumento inesperado da recorrência do CHC em pacientes tratados com AAD para resolução da hepatite C. Objetivo: Avaliar o risco de recorrência de hepatocarcinoma após uso de AAD em pacientes com infecção por HCV. Método: Realizou-se um levantamento nas bases de dados PubMed, MEDLINE e LILACS de acordo com os descritores DeCS/MeSH ((hepatocellular carcinoma) AND recurrence) AND Direct-acting antiviral. A revisão obedeceu ao protocolo PRISMA e está cadastrada na plataforma PROSPERO. A análise estatística dos dados foi realizada no software RStudio. Resultados: Sete artigos foram selecionados resultando em 847 pacientes. Entre os tratados com AAD, a taxa de recorrência variou entre 11,1% e 42,1% e, no grupo controle, ocorreu em 5% a 65,6% dos pacientes. O risco relativo (RR) de recorrência do CHC no grupo de pacientes que recebeu AAD foi menor do que o risco evidenciado no grupo controle, apesar de não haver significância estatística (RR 0,71 95% IC [0,55;0,93] I²=38%, p=0,14). O tempo até o diagnóstico da recorrência teve uma média de 9,35 meses no grupo exposto à terapia e 13,42 meses no grupo controle. Conclusão: Sugere-se que a terapia com AAD não aumenta o risco de recorrência do CHC em comparação com grupos controle. Nos pacientes que desenvolveram recorrência, ocorreu com maior frequência dentro do primeiro ano após introdução dos AAD.


Introduction: Hepatitis C is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The interferon-based therapeutic regimen has been replaced by direct-acting antivirals (AAD) to treat HCV virus infection. However, recent studies have shown an unexpected increase in HCC recurrence in patients treated with AAD to resolve hepatitis C. Objective: To assess the risk of hepatocarcinoma recurrence after using AAD in patients with HCV infection. Method: A survey was carried out in PubMed, MEDLINE, and LILACS databases according to the descriptors DeCS/MeSH ((hepatocellular carcinoma) AND recurrence) AND Direct-acting antiviral. The review followed the PRISMA protocol and is registered on the PROSPERO platform. The data statistical analysis was performed through RStudio software. Results: Seven articles were selected resulting in 847 patients. Among those treated with AAD, the recurrence rate varied between 11.1% to 42.1% and, in the control group, it occurred in 5% to 65.6% of the patients. The relative risk (RR) of recurrence of HCC in the group of patients who received AAD was less than the risk evidenced in the control group, although there is no statistical significance (RR 0.71 95% CI [0.55; 0.93] I²=38%, p=0.14). The mean time until the diagnosis of recurrence was 9.35 months in the group exposed to therapy and 13.42 months in the control group. Conclusion: It is suggested that therapy with AAD does not increase the risk of HCC recurrence compared to control groups. In patients who developed recurrence, it occurred more frequently within the first year after the introduction of AAD.


Introducción: La hepatitis C está asociada con el desarrollo de carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC). El régimen terapéutico basado en interferón ha sido reemplazado por antivirales de acción directa (AAD) para tratar la infección por VHC. Sin embargo, estudios recientes han mostrado un incremento inesperado en la recurrencia del CHC en pacientes tratados con AAD para resolución de la hepatitis C. Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo de recurrencia del hepatocarcinoma después de usar AAD en pacientes con infección por VHC. Método: Se realizó una pesquisa en las bases de datos PubMed, MEDLINE y LILACS según los descriptores DeCS/MeSH ((carcinoma hepatocelular) AND recurrencia) AND antiviral de acción directa. La revisión siguió el protocolo PRISMA y está registrada en la plataforma PROSPERO. El análisis estadístico de los datos se realizó mediante el software RStudio. Resultados: Fueron seleccionados 7 artículos resultando en 847 pacientes. Entre los tratados con AAD, la tasa de recurrencia varió entre el 11,1% y el 42,1% y, en el grupo de control, ocurrió entre el 5% y el 65,6% de los pacientes. El riesgo relativo (RR) de recurrencia del CHC en el grupo de pacientes que recibieron AAD fue inferior que el riesgo evidenciado en el grupo control, aunque no hay significación estadística (RR 0,71; IC del 95% [0,55; 0,93] I²=38%, p=0,14). El tiempo hasta el diagnóstico de recidiva fue de 9,35 meses en el grupo expuesto a terapia y de 13,42 meses en el grupo control. Conclusión: Se sugiere que la terapia con AAD no aumenta el riesgo de recurrencia del CHC en comparación con los grupos control. En los pacientes que desarrollaron recurrencia, esta ocurrió con mayor frecuencia durante el primer año después de la introducción de los AAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
13.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-121220, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254542

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A hepatite C está associada ao desenvolvimento do carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC). O regime terapêutico baseado em interferon vem sendo substituído pelos antivirais de ação direta (AAD) para tratamento da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV). Contudo, estudos recentes evidenciaram um aumento inesperado da recorrência do CHC em pacientes tratados com AAD para resolução da hepatite C. Objetivo: Avaliar o risco de recorrência de hepatocarcinoma após uso de AAD em pacientes com infecção por HCV. Método: Realizou-se um levantamento nas bases de dados PubMed, MEDLINE e LILACS de acordo com os descritores DeCS/MeSH ((hepatocellular carcinoma) AND recurrence) AND Direct-acting antiviral. A revisão obedeceu ao protocolo PRISMA e está cadastrada na plataforma PROSPERO. A análise estatística dos dados foi realizada no software RStudio. Resultados: Sete artigos foram selecionados resultando em 847 pacientes. Entre os tratados com AAD, a taxa de recorrência variou entre 11,1% e 42,1% e, no grupo controle, ocorreu em 5% a 65,6% dos pacientes. O risco relativo (RR) de recorrência do CHC no grupo de pacientes que recebeu AAD foi menor do que o risco evidenciado no grupo controle, apesar de não haver significância estatística (RR 0,71 95% IC [0,55;0,93] I²=38%, p=0,14). O tempo até o diagnóstico da recorrência teve uma média de 9,35 meses no grupo exposto à terapia e 13,42 meses no grupo controle. Conclusão: Sugere-se que a terapia com AAD não aumenta o risco de recorrência do CHC em comparação com grupos controle. Nos pacientes que desenvolveram recorrência, ocorreu com maior frequência dentro do primeiro ano após introdução dos AAD.


Introduction: Hepatitis C is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The interferon-based therapeutic regimen has been replaced by direct-acting antivirals (AAD) to treat HCV virus infection. However, recent studies have shown an unexpected increase in HCC recurrence in patients treated with AAD to resolve hepatitis C. Objective: To assess the risk of hepatocarcinoma recurrence after using AAD in patients with HCV infection. Method: A survey was carried out in PubMed, MEDLINE, and LILACS databases according to the descriptors DeCS/MeSH ((hepatocellular carcinoma) AND recurrence) AND Direct-acting antiviral. The review followed the PRISMA protocol and is registered on the PROSPERO platform. The data statistical analysis was performed through RStudio software. Results: Seven articles were selected resulting in 847 patients. Among those treated with AAD, the recurrence rate varied between 11.1% to 42.1% and, in the control group, it occurred in 5% to 65.6% of the patients. The relative risk (RR) of recurrence of HCC in the group of patients who received AAD was less than the risk evidenced in the control group, although there is no statistical significance (RR 0.71 95% CI [0.55; 0.93] I²=38%, p=0.14). The mean time until the diagnosis of recurrence was 9.35 months in the group exposed to therapy and 13.42 months in the control group. Conclusion: It is suggested that therapy with AAD does not increase the risk of HCC recurrence compared to control groups. In patients who developed recurrence, it occurred more frequently within the first year after the introduction of AAD.


Introducción: La hepatitis C está asociada con el desarrollo de carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC). El régimen terapéutico basado en interferón ha sido reemplazado por antivirales de acción directa (AAD) para tratar la infección por VHC. Sin embargo, estudios recientes han mostrado un incremento inesperado en la recurrencia del CHC en pacientes tratados con AAD para resolución de la hepatitis C. Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo de recurrencia del hepatocarcinoma después de usar AAD en pacientes con infección por VHC. Método: Se realizó una pesquisa en las bases de datos PubMed, MEDLINE y LILACS según los descriptores DeCS/MeSH ((carcinoma hepatocelular) AND recurrencia) AND antiviral de acción directa. La revisión siguió el protocolo PRISMA y está registrada en la plataforma PROSPERO. El análisis estadístico de los datos se realizó mediante el software RStudio. Resultados: Fueron seleccionados 7 artículos resultando en 847 pacientes. Entre los tratados con AAD, la tasa de recurrencia varió entre el 11,1% y el 42,1% y, en el grupo de control, ocurrió entre el 5% y el 65,6% de los pacientes. El riesgo relativo (RR) de recurrencia del CHC en el grupo de pacientes que recibieron AAD fue inferior que el riesgo evidenciado en el grupo control, aunque no hay significación estadística (RR 0,71; IC del 95% [0,55; 0,93] I²=38%, p=0,14). El tiempo hasta el diagnóstico de recidiva fue de 9,35 meses en el grupo expuesto a terapia y de 13,42 meses en el grupo control. Conclusión: Se sugiere que la terapia con AAD no aumenta el riesgo de recurrencia del CHC en comparación con los grupos control. En los pacientes que desarrollaron recurrencia, esta ocurrió con mayor frecuencia durante el primer año después de la introducción de los AAD.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Liver Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e02532020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155541

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay to confirm anti-HCV results to determine whether the HCV core antigen test could be used as an alternative confirmatory test to the HCV RNA test. METHODS: Sera from 156 patients were analyzed for anti-HCV and HCV core antigen using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Architect i2000SR) and for HCV RNA using the artus HCV RG RT-PCR Kit (QIAGEN) in a Rotor-Gene Q instrument. RESULTS: The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the HCV core antigen assay compared to the HCV RNA test were 77.35%, 100%, 100%, and 89.38%, respectively. HCV core antigen levels showed a good correlation with those from HCV RNA quantification (r =0.872). However, 13 samples with a viral load of less than 4000 IU/mL were negative in the HCV core antigen assay. All gray-zone reactive samples were also RNA positive and were positive on repeat testing. CONCLUSIONS: The Architect HCV core antigen assay is highly specific and has an excellent positive predictive value. At the present level of sensitivity (77%), the study is still relevant in a low-income setting in which most of the HCV-positive patients would go undiagnosed, since HCV RNA testing is not available and/or not affordable. HCV core antigen testing can also help determine the true burden of infection in a population, considering the fact that almost 50% of the anti-HCV positive cases are negative for HCV RNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/genetics , RNA, Viral , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hepatitis C Antigens , Hepatitis C Antibodies
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative sample to plasma.@*Method@#A total of 571 paired DBS/plasma samples were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users (IDUs), and serological and molecular assays were performed. Using plasma results as the reference standard, the performance of DBS tests for HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA was evaluated. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to assess the correlation and concordance between DBS and plasma.@*Results@#Among paired plasma/DBS samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA, five samples (5/32) were not detectable in DBS, while measurable HIV-1 RNA levels were present in plasma (1.44 to 3.99 log @*Conclusion@#The performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one DBS was acceptable. DBS, as an alternative sample to plasma, may be a viable option for the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA in resource-limited settings or for individuals living in areas that are difficult to access.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Syphilis/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
17.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 485-505, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156331

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: identificar y caracterizar las acciones/intervenciones realizadas desde los servicios farmacéuticos en el abordaje de pacientes con hepatitis C y proponer una vía clínica para la gestión de la enfermedad que incluya la participación del farmacéutico. Método: revisión sistemática en PubMed y EMBASE empleando los términos "Hepatitis C", "Pharmaceutical Services", "Community Pharmacy Services", y "Pharmacies"; artículos publicados hasta el 31 de marzo de 2019, cuyo tema central fueran las actividades realizadas por los servicios farmacéuticos en la atención a pacientes con hepatitis C. Se recopiló información sobre la actividad realizada, responsable, si la intervención era individual o colectiva y el entorno de aplicación. Las actividades se agruparon en promoción y prevención, gestión administrativa, atención farmacéutica, investigación y otros servicios de apoyo. De acuerdo con esto, se propuso una vía clínica para el manejo de la hepatitis C con participación del farmacéutico. Resultados: se incluyeron 60 artículos, principalmente de estudios descriptivos. La mayoría de las publicaciones reportó intervenciones realizadas en Estados Unidos y España. Se identificó la participación del personal farmacéutico en cada una de las etapas del proceso de atención, que incluye la provisión de servicios de reducción del daño, tamizaje del virus de la hepatitis C, vinculación de los pacientes al tratamiento, prescripción de medicamentos y órdenes de laboratorio. Conclusiones: se identifican y caracterizan las acciones/intervenciones realizadas desde el servicio farmacéutico para el manejo de la hepatitis C y se propone una vía clínica en la que se integran los servicios profesionales farmacéuticos a las demás actividades de la atención del paciente.


Abstract Objective: To identify and characterize the actions/interventions carried out by pharmaceutical services to approach patients with Hepatitis C and propose a clinical pathway for managing the disease that involves pharmacists. Methodology: A systematic review was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE using the terms "Hepatitis C," "Pharmaceutical Services," "Community Pharmacy Services," and "Pharmacies." Articles published until March 31, 2019, whose central topic was the activities carried out by the pharmaceutical services in the care of patients with Hepatitis C, were included. Information on the activity performed, the person in charge, whether the intervention was individual or collective, and the implementation environment was collected. The activities were grouped into promotion and prevention, administrative management, pharmaceutical care, research, and other support services. Based on the above, a clinical pathway for the management of Hepatitis C involving pharmacists was proposed. Results: Sixty articles were included, mainly descriptive studies. Most publications reported interventions in the United States and Spain. Pharmaceutical staff involvement was identified at each stage of the care process, including the provision of harm reduction services, Hepatitis C virus screening, enrolling patients to treatment, medication prescription, and laboratory orders. Conclusions: The actions/interventions carried out by the pharmaceutical service for Hepatitis C management were identified and characterized. A clinical pathway has been proposed to integrate professional pharmaceutical services with other patient care activities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacists , Role , Hepatitis C , Patient Care , Pharmaceutical Services , Therapeutics
18.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1850-1861, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127046

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la cirrosis es un proceso dinámico y actualmente se conoce que cuando se elimina el agente primario de agresión que ha producido la cirrosis, se puede llegar a remitir la fibrosis. En Cuba la enfermedad representa la décima causa de muerte, con una tendencia ascendente en los últimos 20 años y una tasa de 13,4 por 100 000 habitantes. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y endoscópicamente a pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en el período comprendido entre los años 2017 - 19, donde el universo y la muestra quedaron constituidos por todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años ingresados con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino en la sexta década de la vida, siento la principal causa el alcoholismo, caracterizado por manifestaciones generales, que en muchos casos debutan por complicaciones, apareciendo várices esofágicas en el 75 % de los casos, aunque gados I y II de Paquet, dependiente a un diagnóstico precoz de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: el alcoholismo crónico es la causa más frecuente de cirrosis hepática, debuta de forma frecuente por sus complicaciones, aunque el diagnóstico se hace en etapas precoces, con varices esofágicas incipientes (AU).


Summary Introduction: liver cirrhosis is a dynamic process and currently it is known that, when the primary agent of aggression that has produced the cirrhosis is eliminated, the fibrosis could remit. In Cuba, this diseases is the tenth cause of death, with an increasing tendency in the last twenty years and a rate of 13.4 per 100 000 inhabitants. Objective: to characterize, clinically and endoscopically, patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosis. Material and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, in the period 2017 - 2019, where the universe and the sample were formed by all the patients aged more than 18 years who entered the hospital with diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Results: in this paper, male patients in their sixties predominated, being alcoholism the main cause of disease, characterized by general manifestations; patients debuted due to complications, appearing esophageal varices in 75 % of the cases, although Paquet I and II grades, in dependence to a disease precocious diagnosis. Conclusions: the authors concluded that chronic alcoholism is the most frequent cause in hepatic cirrhosis, almost always debuting by its complications, though the diagnosis is made in precocious stages, with emerging esophageal varices (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Ascites/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Alcoholism/complications , Endoscopy , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1882-1888, mayo.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127048

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se supone que aproximadamente 80 millones de personas a nivel mundial están infectadas con el virus de la hepatitis C. Un aproximado del 60 % de dichos pacientes aqueja síndrome de fatiga crónica. Se presentó un paciente portador de hepatitis crónica de tipo C, con manifestaciones clínicas de síndrome de fatiga crónica por más de dos años. Se han reportado estudios internacionales que han demostrado la relación existente entre el desarrollo de la respuesta inmune y el daño que ocasiona en el tejido cerebral la infección por virus de hepatitis C. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación del primer caso que se tiene referencia (AU).


ABSTRACT It is believed that almost 80 million persons are infected with the Hepatitis C virus around the world, and 60 % of them suffer the chronic fatigue syndrome. For that reason we present the case of a patient who is a carrier of the chronic fatigue syndrome for more than two years. Reports of international research have showed the relation between the immune answer and the damage caused by the infection of the hepatitis C virus in the brain tissues. The aim of this work is presenting the first case reported in Cuba (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/drug therapy , Interferons/adverse effects , Interferons/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Antibody Formation
20.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(2): 181-185, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126306

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: diversos estudios han buscado factores asociados con el contagio de hepatitis C. La realización de tatuajes ha ganado importancia. Los estudios en los que se ha vinculado el riesgo de hepatitis C con tatuajes no han controlado las condiciones en que se realizó ni medidas de bioseguridad, por lo cual es difícil establecer una relación causal. Objetivo: Evaluar la seroprevalencia de hepatitis C en pacientes adultos con tatuajes realizados en los últimos dos años en el departamento de Risaralda, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal en una muestra por conveniencia de 65 individuos, con uno o más tatuajes realizados entre 8 semanas a 2 años, sin otros factores de riesgo para hepatitis C, mediante una prueba rápida de anticuerpos por inmunocromatografía. Resultados: 57 de 86 sujetos cumplieron los criterios de selección. La prueba rápida de anticuerpos contra hepatitis C fue negativa en todos los participantes. La mayoría de los pacientes era de sexo femenino (59,6 %), con edad promedio de 25 años, 30 estudiantes universitarios, 46 provenientes de Pereira y 40 eran de estrato económico 3 o superior. 46 personas solo tuvieron una sesión de tatuaje. La mayoría tenía 2 a 3 tatuajes y 52 fueron realizados en establecimientos autorizados. 50 participantes refirieron que sus tatuadores cumplían las normas de bioseguridad. Conclusión: los tatuajes realizados bajo condiciones de bioseguridad en establecimientos autorizados y pocas sesiones parecen no aumentar el riesgo de infección por hepatitis C en personas sin otros factores de riesgo. Se requieren estudios adicionales para confirmar dicha hipótesis.


Abstract Introduction: In several studies of factors associated with the spread of hepatitis C, tattooing has gained importance. Studies that link tattooing with a risk of hepatitis C have not controlled for conditions under which it was done nor considered biosecurity measures. This makes it difficult to establish a causal relationship. Objective: This study assessed the seroprevalence of hepatitis C in adult patients who were tattooed within the last two years in the department of Risaralda, Colombia. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 65 individuals with one or more tattoos that had been done 8 weeks to 2 years prior to the study and who had no other risk factors for hepatitis C. A rapid antibody immunochromatography test was used. Results: Out of 86 subjects, 57 met the selection criteria. The rapid hepatitis C antibody test was negative for all participants. Most were women (59.6%), their average age was 25 years, 30 were university students, 46 came from Pereira, and 40 were from economic stratum 3 or higher. Forty-six had had only one tattoo session. Most had two to three tattoos. Fifty-two had been done in authorized establishments. Fifty participants reported that their tattoo artists met biosafety standards. Conclusion: Tattoos made under biosafety conditions in authorized establishments do not seem to increase the risk of hepatitis C infections in people without other risk factors, especially when there have only been a few sessions. Additional studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients , Tattooing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis C , Antibodies , Risk
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