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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19925, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394039

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of direct-acting antivirals in a Unified Health System pharmacy of Londrina, Brazil. A descriptive observational study was performed from June 2017 to June 2018. Sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables of patients were collected from secondary data sources. Effectiveness was evaluated by sustained virologic response (SVR) and safety was evaluated by adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions (DIs). The mean population (N=30) was 56.6±11.3 years old and almost all patients had comorbidities (93.3%) and concomitant drugs (96.7%). Effectiveness evaluation was possible in 17 patients, and all of them (100.0%) achieved SVR. Eighteen patients (60.0%) reported 38 AEs, mostly mild, such as stomach symptoms and headache. No statistical relation was found between AE occurrence and treatment duration, Ribavirin use, number of comorbidities or number of concomitant drugs. A total of 48 DIs were reported, 18 being severe, and were managed by the pharmacist. The study indicates that the treatment was effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Efficacy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Insurance/classification , Patients/classification , Pharmacists/classification , Unified Health System , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Interactions , Drug Therapy/methods
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 571-583, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927536

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global health burden. Timely and effective antiviral therapy is beneficial for patients with HBV infection. With existing antiviral drugs, including nucleos(t)ide analogs and interferon-alfa, patients can achieve viral suppression with improved prognosis. However, the rate of hepatitis B surface antigen loss is low. To achieve a functional cure and even complete cure in chronic hepatitis B patients, new antivirals need to be developed. In this review, we summarized the advantages and disadvantages of existing antiviral drugs and focused on new antivirals including direct-acting antiviral drugs and immunotherapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 399-401, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345294

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT According to the World Health Organization, 71 million people live with chronic hepatitis C. The treatment of this disease requires assistance from specialized physicians and a highly complex health care system. The prison population has been recognized as being at a high risk of acquiring confinement-related infections, including viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a primary cause of death owing to liver disease among liberty-deprived individuals. Generally, prisons do not have adequate isolation wards for persons with communicable diseases, and overcrowding is a risk factor for this population. Besides prison overcrowding, violence, poor sanitary conditions, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, and emotional instability are factors that can lead detainees to adopt unhealthy habits that make them more susceptible to infections, including HCV, and complicate effective treatment. The Criminal Execution Law 7, 210 of July 11, 1984, in Article 14, grants preventive and curative medical, dental, and pharmacological healthcare to detainees. However, adequate hepatitis C treatment is rarely provided at prisons owing to social stigma and lack of knowledge on the severity of this condition or because most detainees are unaware of their condition. Given the multiple limitations imposed by the prison system model, implementing measures to treat diseases effectively is challenging. However, it is possible to eliminate hepatitis C in prisons in the long term through the coordinated action of public health institutions and the prison system.


RESUMO De acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde, 71 milhões de pessoas vivem com hepatite C crônica. O tratamento dessa doença requer assistência de médicos especializados e um sistema de saúde de alta complexidade. A população carcerária tem sido reconhecida como sendo de alto risco de adquirir infecções relacionadas às condições de confinamento, incluindo hepatites virais. O vírus da hepatite C (VHC) é uma causa primária de morte por doença hepática em pessoas privadas de liberdade. Geralmente, as prisões não possuem locais adequados para isolamento de pessoas com doenças transmissíveis e a superlotação é um fator de risco para essa população. Além da superlotação das prisões, violência, más condições sanitárias, baixo nível socioeconômico, isolamento social e instabilidade emocional são motivos adicionais que induzem os detidos a praticar hábitos não saudáveis, que os tornam mais suscetíveis a certas infecções (incluindo VHC) e complicam o tratamento específico. A Lei de Execução Penal n. 7.210, de 11 de julho de 1984, em seu artigo 14, garante assistência preventiva e curativa à saúde, incluindo assistência médica, farmacêutica e odontológica aos detidos. No entanto, o tratamento adequado da hepatite C é raramente fornecido nas prisões devido estigma social ou falta de conhecimento de sua condição ou porque a maioria dos detidos não tem conhecimento de sua condição. Devido a múltiplas limitações impostas pelo modelo prisional, a implementação de medidas para o tratamento eficaz de doenças é desafiadora. No entanto, é possível eliminar a hepatite C em um ambiente prisional de longa permanência através de ações coordenadas de instituições de saúde pública e o sistema prisional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prisoners , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Hepacivirus
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e360-e363, agosto 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281901

ABSTRACT

La infección por virus de la hepatitis C en pediatría se produce principalmente por transmisión vertical. La historia natural en niños consiste en alta tasa de eliminación espontánea, infección asintomática o cambios histológicos mínimos. Las complicaciones suelen observarse en la adolescencia o en la edad adulta. El tratamiento clásico con interferón pegilado y ribavirina presenta efectos adversos, es de duración prolongada y logra una respuesta virológica sostenida (RVS) en el 50 % de los pacientes con infección por genotipo 1. Los nuevos antivirales de acción directa se encuentran disponibles para su indicación a partir de los 12 años, con excelente tolerancia y alta tasa de RVS. Se sugiere conducta terapéutica expectante en pacientes asintomáticos hasta acceder a la medicación. Reportamos el caso de un adolescente con hepatitis C crónica sin cirrosis que recibió tratamiento durante 12 semanas con ledipasvir/sofosbuvir y se logró una RVS.


Hepatitis C virus infection in children occurs mainly through vertical transmission. The natural history at this age consists in a high rate of spontaneous clearance, asymptomatic infection, or minimal histological changes. Disease complications are commonly seen in adolescence or adulthood. The classic treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin presents adverse effects, prolonged duration and achieves sustained viral response (SVR) in 50 % of patients with genotype 1 infection (the most frequent). New direct-acting antiviral treatments have been available in recent years for their indication from 12 years of age with excellent tolerance and a high SVR rate. Expectant therapeutic behavior is suggested in asymptomatic patients until they can access to them. We report the case of an adolescent with chronic hepatitis C without cirrhosis who received 12 weeks treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, achieving SVR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Fluorenes/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Sustained Virologic Response
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 252-256, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287277

ABSTRACT

Abstract The clinical management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection presents several challenges today. WHO's goal is to eliminate it by 2030. It is an ambitious goal and difficult to meet given the barriers to care that arise. This is possible today thanks to the discovery of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). This treatment achieves a high cure rate and is virtually free of adverse effects. To try to comply with this, in addition to the use of DAAs, it is necessary to reduce the rate of undiagnosed patients and facilitate the access of those diagnosed to care and treatment. For that, it is proposed to carry out a simplified treatment of HCV. This involves reducing controls during and after treatment. This simplification varies according to whether patients have cirrhosis or not. In this way, it seeks to increase significantly the number of patients treated and cured to reduce the burden on public health of this disease.


Resumen El manejo clínico de la infección por el virus la hepatitis C (HCV) presenta varios desafíos en la actualidad. El objetivo de la OMS es eliminarlo para el 2030. Es un objetivo ambicioso y muy difícil de cumplir dadas las barreras al cuidado que se presentan. Sin embargo, esto es posible hoy gracias al descubrimiento de los antivirales de acción directa (AAD). Este tratamiento logra una alta tasa de curación y prácticamente está libre de efectos adversos. Para tratar de cumplirlo, además del uso de los AAD, es nece sario reducir la tasa de pacientes no diagnosticados y facilitar el acceso de los diagnosticados al cuidado y el tratamiento. Para eso se propone llevar adelante el tratamiento simplificado del HCV. Esto implica reducir los controles durante y después del tratamiento. Esta simplificación varía según los pacientes tengan o no cirrosis. De esta manera se busca aumentar significativamente el número de pacientes tratados y curados para así poder reducir el impacto en la salud pública de esta enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 1-5, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287233

ABSTRACT

Resumen La principal infección viral transmisible por sangre es actualmente la debida al virus de hepatitis C (VHC). Uno de los mayores obstáculos para el logro de su control en la Argentina se relaciona con las dificultades de acceso al diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de las personas infectadas. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar a los pacientes infectados con VHC que iniciaron tratamiento con antivirales de acción directa (AAD) y describir la experiencia vinculada al tratamiento. Se seleccionaron las historias clínicas de 82 pacientes, 44 (53.7%) de sexo masculino, 37 (45.1%) de sexo femenino, y uno (1.2%) transgénero. La media de edad fue de 49 años. Se halló una frecuencia de cirrosis de 39%, 32 pacientes, coinfección con HIV en 48 (58.5%) y con VHB en 27 (32.9%). En 52 (63.4%) no se observó ningún factor de riesgo claramente asociado a infección. Todos completaron la terapia, de ellos 72 (87.8%) efectuaron el control para confirmar respuesta viral sostenida (RVS), que fue de 98.6%. Concluimos que el testeo universal debe implementarse por sobre el testeo con enfoque de riesgo, y que debe promoverse un criterio de atención simplificado y descentralizado, reservando la atención especializada para pacientes con cirrosis descompensada y cáncer de hígado.


Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the main blood-borne viral infection. One of the main obstacles to achieving its control in Argentina is related to difficulties in accessing the diagnosis and timely treatment of infected people. We carried out this study with the aim of characterizing the HCV-infected patients who started treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and to describe the experience related to treatment. The medical records of 82 patients, 44 (53.7%) male, 37 (45.1%) female, and one (1.2%) transgender, were selected. The mean age was 49 years. We report a frequency of cirrhosis, 39%, in 32 patients, coinfection with HIV in 48 (58.5%) and with HBV in 27 (32.9%). In 52 patients (63.4%), no risk factor clearly associated with infection was observed. All completed the therapy, of them 72 (87.8%) carried out the control to confirm sustained viral response (SVR), that attained 98.6%. We conclude that universal testing should be implemented over testing based on a risk approach, and that a simplified and decentralized care criterion should be promoted, reserving specialized care for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(1): 117-120, Jan.-Mar. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154666

ABSTRACT

Abstract In addition to liver disease, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been associated with autoimmune phenomena, such as mixed cryoglobulin and glomerulonephritis (GN). Until recently, both chronic hepatitis and HCV extra-hepatic manifestations were treated with peg-interferon plus ribavirin, however these drugs presented low efficacy and induced severe side effects. Nowadays, the HCV chronic hepatitis has been treated with direct acting antivirals (DAA), but studies on the DAA therapy for HCV-associated glomerulonephritis are scarce. Here, we describe two cases of HCV-associated glomerulonephritis that were treated with DAAs. In these two cases, previously experienced to peg-interferon plus ribavirin, the sofosbuvir plus simeprevir therapy was effective, without significant side effects, and interrupted the evolution of at least 20 years of both hepatic and renal diseases. These cases join the seven previously described cases that were treated with this DAAs association.


Resumo Além da doença hepática, o vírus da hepatite C (HCV) tem sido associado a fenômenos autoimunes, como crioglobulinemia mista (CM) e glomerulonefrite (GN). Até recentemente, a hepatite crônica e as manifestações extra-hepáticas do HCV eram tratadas com peg-interferon com ribavirina; no entanto, essas drogas apresentavam baixa eficácia e induziam efeitos colaterais graves. Atualmente, a hepatite crônica por HCV tem sido tratada com antivirais de ação direta (AAD), mas estudos sobre a terapia com AAD para glomerulonefrite associada ao HCV são escassos. Aqui, descrevemos dois casos de glomerulonefrite associada ao HCV que foram tratados com AAD. Nestes dois casos, previamente tratados com peg-interferon e ribavirina, a terapia com sofosbuvir com simeprevir foi eficaz, sem efeitos colaterais significativos, e interrompeu a evolução de pelo menos 20 anos de doenças hepáticas e renais. Esses casos se juntam aos sete casos descritos anteriormente que foram tratados com essa associação de AAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1987-1990, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922237

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease. HCV is not only related to hepatic malignancies but may also promote lymphoid neoplasms. Currently, research has confirmed HCV-related lymphoma, including marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL), follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and Burkitt lymphoma (BL). Many types of research have shown that antiviral therapy can improve or even remission several HCV-related lymphomas. The direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) (such as NS5A protease inhibitors, NS4/4A protease inhibitors and viral polymerase inhibitors) have shown clinical advantages of high efficacy and low side effects for both virus elimination and tumor regression in several HCV-related lymphomas, which may make the selected HCV-related lymphoma patients treated without chemotherapy. In this review the research progress and development direction of antiviral therapy in treating HCV-related lymphoma has summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy
10.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 319-325, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879638

ABSTRACT

Viral hepatitis C is one of the important causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are approximately 10 million cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in China. However, over 70% of HCV infections of China have not yet been detected. According to the goal of "eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030" of the World Health Organization Viral Hepatitis Strategy, and the fact that medical institutions remain the main places for detecting HCV infections or patients in China at present, we established the " In-hospital process for viral hepatitis C screening and management in China (Draft)", with intention to promote the multidisciplinary collaboration and cooperation among the departments of clinic, laboratory, infection control, management, and etc. in medical institutions, and strengthen consultation and referral of patients with detected HCV antibodies and advance the diagnosis and antiviral treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(2): 101573, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278577

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A retrospective cohort of 11,308 chronic hepatitis C infected patients treated with regimens that included Sofosbuvir (SOF), Daclatasvir (DCV), Simeprevir (SMV), or an association of Ombitasvir, Veruprevir/Ritonavir and Dasabuvir (3D) with or without Ribavirin (RBV) were assessed for sustained virologic response (SVR) or viral cure after a 12-week treatment. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with positive response to direct-acting antivirals (DAA)-based therapies.Overall 57.1% were male; 48.3% self-identified as white; 78.3% were over 50 years old; 44.1% were from the Southeast region; 47.7% had genotype 1b; and 84.5% were treated for 12 weeks. The SVR rates with DAAs ranged from 87% to 100%. Genotypes 1 and 4 had higher SVR rates (96.3-100%), and genotypes 2 and 3 had SVR of 90.6-92.2%, respectively. Treatment durations of 12 and 24 weeks were associated with an average SVR of 95.0% and 95.9%, respectively. Females were half as likely (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.4−0.6) to have a negative response to therapy compared to males, and those with genotypes 2 and 3 were one and half fold more likely (OR 1.5-2.2; 95 CI% 0.7-2.9; 1.2-3.6 and OR 2.7-2.8; 95% CI 2.0-3.8, respectively) to not have SVR compared to genotype 1. Patients in the age-range of 50-69 years old were 1.2-fold (OR 1.2; 95% CI 0.7-1.9) more likely to not have SVR compared to other age groups, although not statistically significant.This study is the first of this magnitude to be held in a Latin-American country with high SVR results, supported by a free-of-charge universal and public health system. The high performance found in this study gives support to the Brazilian public health policy decision of adopting DAA-based therapies as a strategy to eliminate HCV by 2030.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Middle Aged
12.
Clinics ; 76: e3186, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite higher rates of sustained virologic response (SVR), important concerns remain when patients with decompensated cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) are treated with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). Questions include efficacy, safety, and the magnitude of liver function improvement. Here, we aimed to evaluate HCV treatment data in this specific population in Brazil. METHODS: We included 85 patients with decompensated cirrhosis submitted to HCV therapy with DAA followed at two academic tertiary centers in the southeastern region of Brazil. RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients (92.9%) were Child-Pugh (CP) score B, and six (7.1%) were CP score C. The mean MELD score was 12.86. The most common treatment was sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir±ribavirin for 24 weeks. The overall intention-to-treat (ITT) SVR rate was 87.4% (74/85) and modified-ITT 96.1% (74/77). ITT SVR was associated with lower baseline INR values (p=0.029). Adverse events (AE) occurred in 57.9% (44/76) of patients. Serious AE were reported in 12.8% (10/78), and were related to the presence of hepatic encephalopathy (p=0.027). SVR was associated with improvement in CP (p<0.0001) and MELD scores (p=0.021). Among baseline CP score B patients with SVR, 46% (29/63) regressed to CP score A. Ascites was independently associated with no improvement in liver function in patients who achieved SVR (p=0.001; OR:39.285; 95% CI:4.301-258.832). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with decompensated HCV cirrhosis showed a high SVR rate with interferon-free therapy. Early liver function improvement occurred after successful HCV eradication. However, long-term follow-up of these patients after SVR remains strongly advised.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy
13.
Clinics ; 76: e3236, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to prospectively assess the variation in liver stiffness (LS) and the associated factors for LS progression in a cohort of naïve, non-responder (NR), and sustained virological response (SVR) chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study on CHC patients prospectively followed with serial elastography (Fibroscan®). The LS progression rate was determined, and the associated factors for progression were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 406 patients were followed up for 44 (35-53) months [naïve (29%), NR (24%), and SVR (47%)]. At the end of the follow-up period, the SVR group had a significant decrease in LS [11.8 (9.2) vs. 8.8 (8.4) kPa (p<0.001)], the NR group had a significant increase in LS [6.6 (5.2) vs. 7.1 (4.5) kPa (p=0.069)], and the naïve group had no change in LS [6.3 (3.0) vs. 6.0 (3.8) kPa (p=0.22)]. The related factors for LS progression were lack of SVR (p=0.002) and diabetes (p=0.05). In the non-diabetic SVR group, a negative rate of progression (-0.047 kPa/month) was observed, whereas in the diabetic SVR group, a positive rate of progression (+0.037 kPa/month) was observed. The highest rate of progression was observed in NR with diabetes at the rate of +0.044 kPa/month. CONCLUSION: LS in diabetes patients progresses despite SVR, suggesting the need for a close follow-up of this group post-treatment considering the risk of progression of liver disease even after SVR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Longitudinal Studies , Liver/pathology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
14.
Clinics ; 76: e3270, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Co-infection with hepatitis A or B viruses may aggravate liver injury in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, few studies have assessed co-infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) and HCV. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and impact of HEV infection among Brazilian patients with chronic HCV infection. METHODS: This observational study included adult patients with chronic HCV infection who were naive to antiviral therapy from January 2013 to March 2016. A total of 181 patients were enrolled, and HEV serology and PCR were performed for all patients. RESULTS: Seropositivity for anti-HEV IgG was detected in 22 (12.0%) patients and anti-HEV immunoglobulin M in 3 (1.6%). HEV RNA showed inconclusive results in nine (4.9%) patients and was undetectable in the remaining patients. HEV serology positive patients had more severe liver disease, characterized by liver fibrosis ≥3 versus ≤2 (p<0.001), Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index of ≥1.45 (p=0.003), and Fibrosis-4 score of ≥3.25 (p=0.001). Additionally, the odds of HEV-positive patients developing diabetes mellitus were 3.65 (95% CI 1.40-9.52) times the corresponding odds of HEV-negative patients. A case-control-based histological analysis (n=11 HEV-HCV-positive patients and n=22 HCV-positive patients) showed no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This prevalence is higher than that reported in previous studies of the general population in Brazil. Thus, HEV infection may influence the severity of liver disease and may represent an additional risk of developing diabetes mellitus in patients with HCV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Hepatitis E/complications , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Coinfection , RNA, Viral , Hepatitis Antibodies , Prevalence , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics
15.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e584, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156537

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En pacientes infectados con el virus de la hepatitis C se demostró que los polimorfismos de un simple nucleótido del gen de la interleucina 10 (IL10), influyen en la respuesta virológica sostenida al tratamiento con interferón y ribavirina, y en la inmunopatogénesis de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de los polimorfismos de un simple nucleótido de la región promotora del gen de la interleucina 10, según respuesta virológica sostenida y grado de lesión hepática. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal y se determinó la carga del virus de la hepatitis C por RT-PCR en tiempo real. Se estudiaron 25 pacientes cubanos con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana coinfectados con VHC, 24 semanas después del tratamiento con interferón y ribavirina. Para evaluar la variabilidad genética de la interleucina 10, los polimorfismos de un simple nucleótido se identificaron por secuenciación nucleotídica, -592 (A>C) y -819 (T>C). El grado de fibrosis hepática se calculó por el índice aspartato aminotransferasa/plaquetas. Resultados: El 44,0 por ciento (11/25) de los pacientes lograron respuesta virológica sostenida, y en el 56,0 por ciento (14/25) restante no se obtuvo esta. En los individuos en que se dio la respuesta predominaron los genotipos bajos productores de la interleucina 10, -592AA (36,3 por ciento vs. 21,4 por ciento) y -819TT (54,5 por ciento vs. 21,4 por ciento). En estos casos, el análisis de la frecuencia alélica mostró mayor frecuencia del alelo T para el SNP -819 (p= 0,0470). El índice aspartato aminotransferasa/plaquetas fue compatible con fibrosis hepática sin cirrosis en pacientes sin respuesta virológica sostenida, mientras que en los coinfectados que tuvieron respuesta indicó ausencia de lesión hepática. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que las variantes de los polimorfismos de un simple nucleótido del gen de la interleucina 10 evaluados, podrían estar relacionados con la respuesta virológica sostenida y la patogénesis de la hepatitis C en los pacientes estudiados(AU)


Introduction: The study of patients infected with hepatitis C virus revealed that polymorphisms of a single nucleotide of the interleukin-10 (IL10) gene influence the sustained virological response to the treatment with interferon and ribavirin, and the immunopathogenesis of the disease. Objective: Determine the frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the interleukin-10 gene promoter region according to the sustained virological response and the degree of liver injury. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted and hepatitis C viral load was determined by RT-PCR. A sample of 25 Cuban HIV/HCV coinfected patients were studied 24 weeks after treatment with interferon and ribavirin. To evaluate the genetic variability of interleukin 10, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by nucleotide sequencing, -592 (A>C) and -819 (T>C). The degree of liver fibrosis was estimated by the aspartate aminotransferase / platelet index. Results: Of the patients studied, 44.0 percent (11/25) achieved a sustained virological response and 56.0 percent (14/25) did not. In individuals displaying the response, a predominance was found of low interleukin-10 producing genotypes, -592AA (36.3 percent vs. 21.4 percent) and -819TT (54.5 percent vs. 21.4 percent). In those cases, allele frequency analysis showed a greater allele T frequency for SNP -819 (p= 0.0470). The aspartate aminotransferase / platelet index was compatible with kidney fibrosis without cirrhosis in patients without a sustained virological response, and indicated an absence of liver injury in coinfected patients displaying a response. Conclusions: Results suggest that the variants evaluated of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the interleukin-10 gene could be related to the sustained virological response and the pathogenesis of hepatitis C in the patients studied(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Interferons/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Interleukin-10 Receptor beta Subunit , Sustained Virologic Response , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 267-271, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131666

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C still figures as an important cause of morbidity among the Brazilian population, and is closely associated with metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance (IR), which can be evaluated by the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR). IR may entail lower sustained virologic response (SVR) on certain therapeutic regimens and faster progression to advanced hepatic fibrosis. With the arrival of the direct acting agents (DAA) in hepatitis C treatment, there is an increased need in observing the impact in patients' IR profile while using such therapies. OBJECTIVE: - 1) To compare the results of HOMA-IR in patients affected by chronic hepatitis C before treatment with DAA and 12 months after finishing it with SVR. 2) To evaluate the evolution of weight after curing chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: We included patients older than 18 from two tertiary care in Curitiba - PR, of both sexes, with chronic hepatitis C, treated with DAA, from July 2015 to September 2017. We also evaluated the patients' levels of fasting insulin, fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin before starting treatment and 12 months after finishing it. We also used epidemiologic data, such as age, sex, hepatic fibrosis degree, body mass index, abdominal circumference, viral genotype and the presence of diabetes mellitus before and after treatment. IR was assessed before and after treatment and calculated by the HOMA-IR score. Insulin resistance was defined by a HOMA-IR greater than 2.5. We excluded patients who lost follow-up, those who did not achieve SRV and those who did not have a laboratory profile. The results of quantitative variables were described by means, medians, and standard deviations. P values <0.05 indicated statistical significance. RESULTS: We included 75 patients in this study, with a mean age of 55.2 years and 60% of males. Forty-three patients had advanced fibrosis. Twenty one (28%) had a previous diabetes mellitus diagnosis. We identified 31 (41.3%) patients with IR before antiviral treatment, and this number increased to 39 (52%) after 12 months of finishing treatment, according to HOMA-IR. There was no statistic difference between insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR measurements before and after curing hepatitis C. We observed a weight gain in patients shortly after curing hepatitis C, but this did not persist at the end of the study. We also had no significant difference in IR prevalence when viral genotype was concerned. CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no statistically significant difference between HOMA-IR results in patients before and 12 months after treatment for hepatitis C. Even though patients gained weight after the cure, this was not statistically significant after a year (P=0.131).


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite C crônica ainda figura como importante causa de morbimortalidade na população brasileira, e está associada a alterações metabólicas, incluindo a resistência insulínica (RI), que pode ser avaliada pelo índice HOMA-IR. A RI pode inclusive implicar em menores taxas de reposta virológica sustentada (RVS) em certos regimes terapêuticos e à uma mais rápida progressão para fibrose hepática avançada. Com o advento dos novos antivirais de ação direta (DAA) oferecidos para hepatite C, há crescente necessidade de observar o impacto dos mesmos no perfil de RI em pacientes submetidos à tais terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: - 1) Comparar os valores do HOMA-IR dos pacientes com hepatite C crônica antes do tratamento com os DAAS com os valores deste índice após 12 meses do término do tratamento com RVS. 2) Avaliar evolução do peso após obtenção da cura da hepatite C crônica. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes maiores de 18 anos de dois serviços terciários de Curitiba - PR, de ambos os sexos, portadores de hepatite C crônica, com tratamento com os antivirais de ação direta, no período de julho de 2015 a setembro de 2017. Tais pacientes também foram submetidos a dosagem dos níveis de insulina de jejum, glicemia de jejum e hemoglobina glicada antes de iniciar o tratamento da hepatite C e até 12 meses após o término. Também foram utilizados dados como idade, sexo, grau de fibrose hepática, índice de massa corporal, circunferência abdominal, genótipo viral e presença de diabetes mellitus antes e depois do tratamento. A RI foi estimada antes e após 12 meses do término do tratamento e calculada pelo HOMA-IR. Os resultados de variáveis quantitativas foram descritos por médias, medianas, valores mínimos, valores máximos e desvios padrões. Valores de P<0,05 indicaram significância estatística. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 75 pacientes no estudo com média de idade de 55,2 anos, sendo 60% do sexo masculino. Destes pacientes, 43 tinham fibrose avançada. Vinte e um (28%) pacientes tinham o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus. A RI foi observada em 31 (41,3%) pacientes antes do tratamento antiviral, sendo que este número aumentou para 39 (52%) de acordo com a dosagem do HOMA-IR 12 meses após o término do tratamento. Não houve diferença estatística entre os valores de insulina, glicemia e HOMA-IR antes e após a cura da hepatite. Houve um ganho de peso inicial após a obtenção da cura da hepatite C, mas que não se manteve ao final do estudo. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi vista diferença estatística significante entre os valores do HOMA-IR apresentados pelos pacientes portadores de hepatite C crônica antes do tratamento e 12 meses após a cura da doença. Embora tenha ocorrido ganho de peso após obtenção da cura da doença, este não se deu de forma estatisticamente significativa (P=0,131) ao final de um ano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Insulin Resistance , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Middle Aged
19.
Homeopatia Méx ; 89(720): 26-36, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1147662

ABSTRACT

El cáncer es una de las principales causas de mortalidad. Algunos experimentos recientes con preparaciones altamente diluidas han mostrado efectos anticáncer en modelos in vitro e in vivo. Este principio fundamental de la Homeopatía sugiere que las sustancias capaces de ocasionar ciertas enfermedades podrían tener la capacidad de alterar el mismo mal si se utiliza dicha sustancia de forma ultra diluida y potenciada. Esta hipótesis llevó a examinar a ciertos carcinógenos por su potencial eficacia anticáncer. La prueba de sulfurodamina B resulta útil para determinar la citotoxicidad en estudios basados en células para evaluar agentes anticancerosos. En el protocolo estuvieron involucradas la preparación de diluciones homeopáticas, incubación de células con diluciones homeopáticas, unión de SRB y la medición de absorbancia. Las células fueron tratadas con potencias 30C de: nosode de VIH, nosode de hepatitis C, Carcinosinum, nosode de cáncer y etanol, así como un control positivo (adriamicina). Las preparaciones fueron evaluadas en cultivos de células: HeLa, HepG2, A549, MCF, 7 T 24, Jurkat, SCC 40 y también HL-60. La actividad anticáncer de las preparaciones homeopáticas se han medido mediante porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento, y todas mostraron actividad anticáncer en celulas HeLa, HepG2, A 549, T 24 y HL-60. El Carcinosinum mostró actividad anticáncer en las células SCC 40, mientras que el nosode de Hepatitis C, el Carcinosinum y el nosode de cáncer fueron efectivos contra los cultivos de células de cáncer de mama MCF-7. Sin embargo, ninguna de las preparaciones mostró actividad alguna contra los cultivos de célula de leucemia. A manera de conclusión, preparaciones altamente diluidas y potencializadas han demostrado efectos anticáncer y citotóxicos en cultivos celulares, lo cual sustenta el razonamiento del principio homeopático fundamental de la Ley de los Semejantes, y trazando el camino para ampliar su aplicación en los servicios de salud.(AU)


Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. The recent experiments with highdiluted preparations have shown anticancer effects in in vitro and vivo models. The fundamental principle of homeopathy suggests that the substances capable of producing certain diseases may have a capacity to alter the same disease if used in the ultra-dilute-potentized form. This hypothesis led certain carcinogens for examining their potential anti-cancer efficacy. Sulforhodamine B assay is useful in determining the cytotoxicity in cell-based studies in evaluating anticancer agents. The protocol involved preparation of homeopathy dilutions, incubation of cells with homeopathy dilutions, SRB binding, and measurement of absorbance. Cells were treated with 30 potencies of HIV nosode, Hepatitis C nosode, Carcinosin, Cancer nosode, and Ethanol along with positive control (Adriamycin). The preparations were tested in HeLa, HepG2, A549, MCF 7, T 24, Jurkat, SCC 40, and HL-60 cell-lines. The homeopathic preparations have shown the anticancer activity measured as percentage growth inhibition. All the homeopathy preparations studied, exhibited anticancer activity on HeLa, HepG2, A 549, T 24, and HL-60 cells. Carcinosin showed the anticancer activity on the SCC 40 cells. Hepatitis C nosode, Carcinosin, and Cancer nosode have shown the anticancer activity on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. None of the preparations exhibited anticancer activity on Human Leukemia Cell Line. High-dilution, potentized preparations of certain carcinogens have demonstrated anti-cancer, cytotoxic effects in the cell-line model, supporting the rationale of the fundamental homeopathic principle the Law of Similars, opening windows to its wider applications in healthcare. (AU)


Subject(s)
High Potencies , Law of Similars , Nosodes (Homeopathy) , Neoplasms , Anti-HIV Agents , Hepatitis C, Chronic
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 45-49, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098060

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals have revolutionized hepatitis C treatment, also for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some controversy exists regarding the use of sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <30 mL/min. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of these regimens for hepatitis C treatment of patients with CKD and after renal transplantation, as well as the impact of SOF on renal function in non-dialysis patients. METHODS: All patients with hepatitis C and CKD or renal transplant treated with direct-acting antivirals at a referral center in Brazil between January 2016 and August 2017 were included. Efficacy was evaluated based on viral load (HCV RNA) and a sustained virological response (SVR) consisting of undetectable RNA 12 and/or 24 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12 and SVR24) was defined as cure. Safety was determined by adverse events and ribavirin, when combined, was administered in escalating doses to all patients with GFR <60 mL/min. The impact of SOF on renal function was determined by the measurement of baseline creatinine during and after the end of treatment and its increase was evaluated using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients (52.7% females) with a mean age of 60.72±10.47 years were included. The combination of SOF+daclatasvir was the predominant regimen in 75.6% of cases and anemia was present in 28% of patients who used ribavirin (P=0.04). The SVR12 and SVR24 rates were 99.3% and 97.1%, respectively. The treatment was well tolerated and there were no major clinically relevant adverse events, with the most prevalent being asthenia (57.7%), itching (41.1%), headache (40.7%), and irritability (40.2%). Among conservatively treated and renal transplant patients, oscillations of creatinine levels (AKIN I) were observed in 12.5% of cases during treatment and persisted in only 8.5% after the end of treatment. Of these, 2.0% had an initial GFR <30 mL/min and this percentage decreased to 1.1% after SOF use. Only 0.5% and 1.6% of the patients progressed to AKIN II and AKIN III elevation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The direct-acting antivirals were safe and efficacious in CKD patients treated with SOF-containing regimens, with the observation of high SVR rates, good tolerability and few severe adverse events. The combination with ribavirin increased the risk of anemia and the administration of escalating doses seems to be useful in patients with GFR <60 mL/min. In patients with GFR <30 mL/min, SOF had no significant renal impact, with serum creatinine returning to levels close to baseline after treatment.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os antivirais de ação direta revolucionaram o tratamento da hepatite C, inclusive para os pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC), porém ainda há divergências no emprego do sofosbuvir (SOF) quando taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) <30 mL/min. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança desses esquemas no tratamento da hepatite C em pacientes com DRC e pós-transplante renal, além de avaliar o impacto do SOF sobre a função renal dos não-dialíticos. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes com hepatite C e DRC ou transplante renal que realizaram tratamento com antivirais de ação direta em centro referenciado do Brasil no período de janeiro/2016 a agosto/2017 foram incluídos. A eficácia foi avaliada por meio da carga viral (HCV-RNA), considerando-se cura uma resposta virológica sustentada (RVS) com resultado indetectável após 12 e/ou 24 semanas do término do tratamento (RVS12 e RVS24). A segurança foi determinada pelos eventos adversos e a ribavirina, quando associada, foi introduzida de forma escalonada em todos os pacientes com TFG <60 mL/min. Para determinação do impacto do SOF sobre a função renal, foram observadas as dosagens de creatinina basal, durante e após término do tratamento com seu incremento avaliado por meio da classificação de AKIN (acute kidney injury network). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 241 pacientes, sendo 52,7% do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 60,72±10,47 anos. A associação de SOF+daclatasvir predominou em 75,6% dos casos e anemia esteve presente em 28% dos pacientes que utilizaram ribavirina (P=0,040). As taxas de RVS12 e RVS24 foram de 99,3% e 97,1%. O tratamento foi bem tolerado, com eventos adversos pouco relevantes, sendo os mais prevalentes: astenia (57,7%), prurido (41,1%), cefaleia (40,7%) e irritabilidade (40,2%). Entre os pacientes em tratamento conservador e transplantados renais, os valores de creatinina sofreram oscilações AKIN I em 12,5% dos casos, durante o tratamento, persistindo em apenas 8,5% da amostra após o término, dos quais 2,0% apresentavam TFG <30 mL/min inicialmente, com queda para 1,1% após uso do SOF. Apenas 0,5% e 1,6% evoluíram com elevação AKIN II e AKIN III. CONCLUSÃO: Os antivirais de ação direta foram seguros e eficazes em pacientes com DRC tratados com esquemas contendo SOF, apresentando altas taxas de RVS, boa tolerabilidade e poucos eventos adversos graves. A associação com ribavirina aumentou o risco de anemia, portanto sua introdução de forma escalonada parece ser útil nos pacientes com TFG <60 mL/min. Em pacientes com TFG <30 mL/min o SOF não apresentou impacto renal significativo, com creatinina sérica retornando a valores próximos ao basal após o tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Drug Therapy, Combination , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/surgery , Simeprevir/administration & dosage , Sofosbuvir/administration & dosage , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype , Glomerular Filtration Rate/genetics , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
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