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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 399-401, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345294

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT According to the World Health Organization, 71 million people live with chronic hepatitis C. The treatment of this disease requires assistance from specialized physicians and a highly complex health care system. The prison population has been recognized as being at a high risk of acquiring confinement-related infections, including viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a primary cause of death owing to liver disease among liberty-deprived individuals. Generally, prisons do not have adequate isolation wards for persons with communicable diseases, and overcrowding is a risk factor for this population. Besides prison overcrowding, violence, poor sanitary conditions, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, and emotional instability are factors that can lead detainees to adopt unhealthy habits that make them more susceptible to infections, including HCV, and complicate effective treatment. The Criminal Execution Law 7, 210 of July 11, 1984, in Article 14, grants preventive and curative medical, dental, and pharmacological healthcare to detainees. However, adequate hepatitis C treatment is rarely provided at prisons owing to social stigma and lack of knowledge on the severity of this condition or because most detainees are unaware of their condition. Given the multiple limitations imposed by the prison system model, implementing measures to treat diseases effectively is challenging. However, it is possible to eliminate hepatitis C in prisons in the long term through the coordinated action of public health institutions and the prison system.


RESUMO De acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde, 71 milhões de pessoas vivem com hepatite C crônica. O tratamento dessa doença requer assistência de médicos especializados e um sistema de saúde de alta complexidade. A população carcerária tem sido reconhecida como sendo de alto risco de adquirir infecções relacionadas às condições de confinamento, incluindo hepatites virais. O vírus da hepatite C (VHC) é uma causa primária de morte por doença hepática em pessoas privadas de liberdade. Geralmente, as prisões não possuem locais adequados para isolamento de pessoas com doenças transmissíveis e a superlotação é um fator de risco para essa população. Além da superlotação das prisões, violência, más condições sanitárias, baixo nível socioeconômico, isolamento social e instabilidade emocional são motivos adicionais que induzem os detidos a praticar hábitos não saudáveis, que os tornam mais suscetíveis a certas infecções (incluindo VHC) e complicam o tratamento específico. A Lei de Execução Penal n. 7.210, de 11 de julho de 1984, em seu artigo 14, garante assistência preventiva e curativa à saúde, incluindo assistência médica, farmacêutica e odontológica aos detidos. No entanto, o tratamento adequado da hepatite C é raramente fornecido nas prisões devido estigma social ou falta de conhecimento de sua condição ou porque a maioria dos detidos não tem conhecimento de sua condição. Devido a múltiplas limitações impostas pelo modelo prisional, a implementação de medidas para o tratamento eficaz de doenças é desafiadora. No entanto, é possível eliminar a hepatite C em um ambiente prisional de longa permanência através de ações coordenadas de instituições de saúde pública e o sistema prisional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prisoners , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Hepacivirus
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e360-e363, agosto 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281901

ABSTRACT

La infección por virus de la hepatitis C en pediatría se produce principalmente por transmisión vertical. La historia natural en niños consiste en alta tasa de eliminación espontánea, infección asintomática o cambios histológicos mínimos. Las complicaciones suelen observarse en la adolescencia o en la edad adulta. El tratamiento clásico con interferón pegilado y ribavirina presenta efectos adversos, es de duración prolongada y logra una respuesta virológica sostenida (RVS) en el 50 % de los pacientes con infección por genotipo 1. Los nuevos antivirales de acción directa se encuentran disponibles para su indicación a partir de los 12 años, con excelente tolerancia y alta tasa de RVS. Se sugiere conducta terapéutica expectante en pacientes asintomáticos hasta acceder a la medicación. Reportamos el caso de un adolescente con hepatitis C crónica sin cirrosis que recibió tratamiento durante 12 semanas con ledipasvir/sofosbuvir y se logró una RVS.


Hepatitis C virus infection in children occurs mainly through vertical transmission. The natural history at this age consists in a high rate of spontaneous clearance, asymptomatic infection, or minimal histological changes. Disease complications are commonly seen in adolescence or adulthood. The classic treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin presents adverse effects, prolonged duration and achieves sustained viral response (SVR) in 50 % of patients with genotype 1 infection (the most frequent). New direct-acting antiviral treatments have been available in recent years for their indication from 12 years of age with excellent tolerance and a high SVR rate. Expectant therapeutic behavior is suggested in asymptomatic patients until they can access to them. We report the case of an adolescent with chronic hepatitis C without cirrhosis who received 12 weeks treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, achieving SVR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Fluorenes/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Sustained Virologic Response
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 252-256, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287277

ABSTRACT

Abstract The clinical management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection presents several challenges today. WHO's goal is to eliminate it by 2030. It is an ambitious goal and difficult to meet given the barriers to care that arise. This is possible today thanks to the discovery of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). This treatment achieves a high cure rate and is virtually free of adverse effects. To try to comply with this, in addition to the use of DAAs, it is necessary to reduce the rate of undiagnosed patients and facilitate the access of those diagnosed to care and treatment. For that, it is proposed to carry out a simplified treatment of HCV. This involves reducing controls during and after treatment. This simplification varies according to whether patients have cirrhosis or not. In this way, it seeks to increase significantly the number of patients treated and cured to reduce the burden on public health of this disease.


Resumen El manejo clínico de la infección por el virus la hepatitis C (HCV) presenta varios desafíos en la actualidad. El objetivo de la OMS es eliminarlo para el 2030. Es un objetivo ambicioso y muy difícil de cumplir dadas las barreras al cuidado que se presentan. Sin embargo, esto es posible hoy gracias al descubrimiento de los antivirales de acción directa (AAD). Este tratamiento logra una alta tasa de curación y prácticamente está libre de efectos adversos. Para tratar de cumplirlo, además del uso de los AAD, es nece sario reducir la tasa de pacientes no diagnosticados y facilitar el acceso de los diagnosticados al cuidado y el tratamiento. Para eso se propone llevar adelante el tratamiento simplificado del HCV. Esto implica reducir los controles durante y después del tratamiento. Esta simplificación varía según los pacientes tengan o no cirrosis. De esta manera se busca aumentar significativamente el número de pacientes tratados y curados para así poder reducir el impacto en la salud pública de esta enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 1-5, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287233

ABSTRACT

Resumen La principal infección viral transmisible por sangre es actualmente la debida al virus de hepatitis C (VHC). Uno de los mayores obstáculos para el logro de su control en la Argentina se relaciona con las dificultades de acceso al diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de las personas infectadas. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar a los pacientes infectados con VHC que iniciaron tratamiento con antivirales de acción directa (AAD) y describir la experiencia vinculada al tratamiento. Se seleccionaron las historias clínicas de 82 pacientes, 44 (53.7%) de sexo masculino, 37 (45.1%) de sexo femenino, y uno (1.2%) transgénero. La media de edad fue de 49 años. Se halló una frecuencia de cirrosis de 39%, 32 pacientes, coinfección con HIV en 48 (58.5%) y con VHB en 27 (32.9%). En 52 (63.4%) no se observó ningún factor de riesgo claramente asociado a infección. Todos completaron la terapia, de ellos 72 (87.8%) efectuaron el control para confirmar respuesta viral sostenida (RVS), que fue de 98.6%. Concluimos que el testeo universal debe implementarse por sobre el testeo con enfoque de riesgo, y que debe promoverse un criterio de atención simplificado y descentralizado, reservando la atención especializada para pacientes con cirrosis descompensada y cáncer de hígado.


Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the main blood-borne viral infection. One of the main obstacles to achieving its control in Argentina is related to difficulties in accessing the diagnosis and timely treatment of infected people. We carried out this study with the aim of characterizing the HCV-infected patients who started treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and to describe the experience related to treatment. The medical records of 82 patients, 44 (53.7%) male, 37 (45.1%) female, and one (1.2%) transgender, were selected. The mean age was 49 years. We report a frequency of cirrhosis, 39%, in 32 patients, coinfection with HIV in 48 (58.5%) and with HBV in 27 (32.9%). In 52 patients (63.4%), no risk factor clearly associated with infection was observed. All completed the therapy, of them 72 (87.8%) carried out the control to confirm sustained viral response (SVR), that attained 98.6%. We conclude that universal testing should be implemented over testing based on a risk approach, and that a simplified and decentralized care criterion should be promoted, reserving specialized care for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
5.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e584, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156537

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En pacientes infectados con el virus de la hepatitis C se demostró que los polimorfismos de un simple nucleótido del gen de la interleucina 10 (IL10), influyen en la respuesta virológica sostenida al tratamiento con interferón y ribavirina, y en la inmunopatogénesis de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de los polimorfismos de un simple nucleótido de la región promotora del gen de la interleucina 10, según respuesta virológica sostenida y grado de lesión hepática. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal y se determinó la carga del virus de la hepatitis C por RT-PCR en tiempo real. Se estudiaron 25 pacientes cubanos con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana coinfectados con VHC, 24 semanas después del tratamiento con interferón y ribavirina. Para evaluar la variabilidad genética de la interleucina 10, los polimorfismos de un simple nucleótido se identificaron por secuenciación nucleotídica, -592 (A>C) y -819 (T>C). El grado de fibrosis hepática se calculó por el índice aspartato aminotransferasa/plaquetas. Resultados: El 44,0 por ciento (11/25) de los pacientes lograron respuesta virológica sostenida, y en el 56,0 por ciento (14/25) restante no se obtuvo esta. En los individuos en que se dio la respuesta predominaron los genotipos bajos productores de la interleucina 10, -592AA (36,3 por ciento vs. 21,4 por ciento) y -819TT (54,5 por ciento vs. 21,4 por ciento). En estos casos, el análisis de la frecuencia alélica mostró mayor frecuencia del alelo T para el SNP -819 (p= 0,0470). El índice aspartato aminotransferasa/plaquetas fue compatible con fibrosis hepática sin cirrosis en pacientes sin respuesta virológica sostenida, mientras que en los coinfectados que tuvieron respuesta indicó ausencia de lesión hepática. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que las variantes de los polimorfismos de un simple nucleótido del gen de la interleucina 10 evaluados, podrían estar relacionados con la respuesta virológica sostenida y la patogénesis de la hepatitis C en los pacientes estudiados(AU)


Introduction: The study of patients infected with hepatitis C virus revealed that polymorphisms of a single nucleotide of the interleukin-10 (IL10) gene influence the sustained virological response to the treatment with interferon and ribavirin, and the immunopathogenesis of the disease. Objective: Determine the frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the interleukin-10 gene promoter region according to the sustained virological response and the degree of liver injury. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted and hepatitis C viral load was determined by RT-PCR. A sample of 25 Cuban HIV/HCV coinfected patients were studied 24 weeks after treatment with interferon and ribavirin. To evaluate the genetic variability of interleukin 10, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by nucleotide sequencing, -592 (A>C) and -819 (T>C). The degree of liver fibrosis was estimated by the aspartate aminotransferase / platelet index. Results: Of the patients studied, 44.0 percent (11/25) achieved a sustained virological response and 56.0 percent (14/25) did not. In individuals displaying the response, a predominance was found of low interleukin-10 producing genotypes, -592AA (36.3 percent vs. 21.4 percent) and -819TT (54.5 percent vs. 21.4 percent). In those cases, allele frequency analysis showed a greater allele T frequency for SNP -819 (p= 0.0470). The aspartate aminotransferase / platelet index was compatible with kidney fibrosis without cirrhosis in patients without a sustained virological response, and indicated an absence of liver injury in coinfected patients displaying a response. Conclusions: Results suggest that the variants evaluated of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the interleukin-10 gene could be related to the sustained virological response and the pathogenesis of hepatitis C in the patients studied(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Interferons/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Interleukin-10 Receptor beta Subunit , Sustained Virologic Response , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 267-271, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131666

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C still figures as an important cause of morbidity among the Brazilian population, and is closely associated with metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance (IR), which can be evaluated by the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR). IR may entail lower sustained virologic response (SVR) on certain therapeutic regimens and faster progression to advanced hepatic fibrosis. With the arrival of the direct acting agents (DAA) in hepatitis C treatment, there is an increased need in observing the impact in patients' IR profile while using such therapies. OBJECTIVE: - 1) To compare the results of HOMA-IR in patients affected by chronic hepatitis C before treatment with DAA and 12 months after finishing it with SVR. 2) To evaluate the evolution of weight after curing chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: We included patients older than 18 from two tertiary care in Curitiba - PR, of both sexes, with chronic hepatitis C, treated with DAA, from July 2015 to September 2017. We also evaluated the patients' levels of fasting insulin, fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin before starting treatment and 12 months after finishing it. We also used epidemiologic data, such as age, sex, hepatic fibrosis degree, body mass index, abdominal circumference, viral genotype and the presence of diabetes mellitus before and after treatment. IR was assessed before and after treatment and calculated by the HOMA-IR score. Insulin resistance was defined by a HOMA-IR greater than 2.5. We excluded patients who lost follow-up, those who did not achieve SRV and those who did not have a laboratory profile. The results of quantitative variables were described by means, medians, and standard deviations. P values <0.05 indicated statistical significance. RESULTS: We included 75 patients in this study, with a mean age of 55.2 years and 60% of males. Forty-three patients had advanced fibrosis. Twenty one (28%) had a previous diabetes mellitus diagnosis. We identified 31 (41.3%) patients with IR before antiviral treatment, and this number increased to 39 (52%) after 12 months of finishing treatment, according to HOMA-IR. There was no statistic difference between insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR measurements before and after curing hepatitis C. We observed a weight gain in patients shortly after curing hepatitis C, but this did not persist at the end of the study. We also had no significant difference in IR prevalence when viral genotype was concerned. CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no statistically significant difference between HOMA-IR results in patients before and 12 months after treatment for hepatitis C. Even though patients gained weight after the cure, this was not statistically significant after a year (P=0.131).


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite C crônica ainda figura como importante causa de morbimortalidade na população brasileira, e está associada a alterações metabólicas, incluindo a resistência insulínica (RI), que pode ser avaliada pelo índice HOMA-IR. A RI pode inclusive implicar em menores taxas de reposta virológica sustentada (RVS) em certos regimes terapêuticos e à uma mais rápida progressão para fibrose hepática avançada. Com o advento dos novos antivirais de ação direta (DAA) oferecidos para hepatite C, há crescente necessidade de observar o impacto dos mesmos no perfil de RI em pacientes submetidos à tais terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: - 1) Comparar os valores do HOMA-IR dos pacientes com hepatite C crônica antes do tratamento com os DAAS com os valores deste índice após 12 meses do término do tratamento com RVS. 2) Avaliar evolução do peso após obtenção da cura da hepatite C crônica. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes maiores de 18 anos de dois serviços terciários de Curitiba - PR, de ambos os sexos, portadores de hepatite C crônica, com tratamento com os antivirais de ação direta, no período de julho de 2015 a setembro de 2017. Tais pacientes também foram submetidos a dosagem dos níveis de insulina de jejum, glicemia de jejum e hemoglobina glicada antes de iniciar o tratamento da hepatite C e até 12 meses após o término. Também foram utilizados dados como idade, sexo, grau de fibrose hepática, índice de massa corporal, circunferência abdominal, genótipo viral e presença de diabetes mellitus antes e depois do tratamento. A RI foi estimada antes e após 12 meses do término do tratamento e calculada pelo HOMA-IR. Os resultados de variáveis quantitativas foram descritos por médias, medianas, valores mínimos, valores máximos e desvios padrões. Valores de P<0,05 indicaram significância estatística. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 75 pacientes no estudo com média de idade de 55,2 anos, sendo 60% do sexo masculino. Destes pacientes, 43 tinham fibrose avançada. Vinte e um (28%) pacientes tinham o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus. A RI foi observada em 31 (41,3%) pacientes antes do tratamento antiviral, sendo que este número aumentou para 39 (52%) de acordo com a dosagem do HOMA-IR 12 meses após o término do tratamento. Não houve diferença estatística entre os valores de insulina, glicemia e HOMA-IR antes e após a cura da hepatite. Houve um ganho de peso inicial após a obtenção da cura da hepatite C, mas que não se manteve ao final do estudo. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi vista diferença estatística significante entre os valores do HOMA-IR apresentados pelos pacientes portadores de hepatite C crônica antes do tratamento e 12 meses após a cura da doença. Embora tenha ocorrido ganho de peso após obtenção da cura da doença, este não se deu de forma estatisticamente significativa (P=0,131) ao final de um ano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Insulin Resistance , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Middle Aged
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 25-29, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: To analyze the effectiveness and the safety of Sofosbuvir-based regimens to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A retrospective, observational study in patients with chronic HCV infection and CKD treated with Sofosbuvir-based regimens was performed. Liver fibrosis, comorbidities, HCV genotype and sustained virological resposnse (SVR) at 12th week post-treatment were evaluated. Kidney function was accessed by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The assumed level of significance was 5 %. Results: Thirty-five patients were treated. The mean age was 52.1 ± 10.9 years, 19 (54.3 %) were women, 32 (91.4 %) were already kidney transplanted and 3 (8.6 %) were on hemodialysis. The SVR by intention to treat was 88.6 %. The mean GFR was 65.8 ± 28.6 and 63.7 ± 28.3 ml/min pre- and post-treatment respectively (p > 0.05). Treatment was interrupted in 1 (2.85 %) patient due to anemia and in 2 (5.7 %) due to loss of kidney function. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir-based regimens are effective to treat HCV in patients with CKD. In patients with mild CKD this type of therapy seems to be safe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Kidney Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Sustained Virologic Response , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 45-49, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098060

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals have revolutionized hepatitis C treatment, also for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some controversy exists regarding the use of sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <30 mL/min. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of these regimens for hepatitis C treatment of patients with CKD and after renal transplantation, as well as the impact of SOF on renal function in non-dialysis patients. METHODS: All patients with hepatitis C and CKD or renal transplant treated with direct-acting antivirals at a referral center in Brazil between January 2016 and August 2017 were included. Efficacy was evaluated based on viral load (HCV RNA) and a sustained virological response (SVR) consisting of undetectable RNA 12 and/or 24 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12 and SVR24) was defined as cure. Safety was determined by adverse events and ribavirin, when combined, was administered in escalating doses to all patients with GFR <60 mL/min. The impact of SOF on renal function was determined by the measurement of baseline creatinine during and after the end of treatment and its increase was evaluated using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients (52.7% females) with a mean age of 60.72±10.47 years were included. The combination of SOF+daclatasvir was the predominant regimen in 75.6% of cases and anemia was present in 28% of patients who used ribavirin (P=0.04). The SVR12 and SVR24 rates were 99.3% and 97.1%, respectively. The treatment was well tolerated and there were no major clinically relevant adverse events, with the most prevalent being asthenia (57.7%), itching (41.1%), headache (40.7%), and irritability (40.2%). Among conservatively treated and renal transplant patients, oscillations of creatinine levels (AKIN I) were observed in 12.5% of cases during treatment and persisted in only 8.5% after the end of treatment. Of these, 2.0% had an initial GFR <30 mL/min and this percentage decreased to 1.1% after SOF use. Only 0.5% and 1.6% of the patients progressed to AKIN II and AKIN III elevation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The direct-acting antivirals were safe and efficacious in CKD patients treated with SOF-containing regimens, with the observation of high SVR rates, good tolerability and few severe adverse events. The combination with ribavirin increased the risk of anemia and the administration of escalating doses seems to be useful in patients with GFR <60 mL/min. In patients with GFR <30 mL/min, SOF had no significant renal impact, with serum creatinine returning to levels close to baseline after treatment.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os antivirais de ação direta revolucionaram o tratamento da hepatite C, inclusive para os pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC), porém ainda há divergências no emprego do sofosbuvir (SOF) quando taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) <30 mL/min. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança desses esquemas no tratamento da hepatite C em pacientes com DRC e pós-transplante renal, além de avaliar o impacto do SOF sobre a função renal dos não-dialíticos. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes com hepatite C e DRC ou transplante renal que realizaram tratamento com antivirais de ação direta em centro referenciado do Brasil no período de janeiro/2016 a agosto/2017 foram incluídos. A eficácia foi avaliada por meio da carga viral (HCV-RNA), considerando-se cura uma resposta virológica sustentada (RVS) com resultado indetectável após 12 e/ou 24 semanas do término do tratamento (RVS12 e RVS24). A segurança foi determinada pelos eventos adversos e a ribavirina, quando associada, foi introduzida de forma escalonada em todos os pacientes com TFG <60 mL/min. Para determinação do impacto do SOF sobre a função renal, foram observadas as dosagens de creatinina basal, durante e após término do tratamento com seu incremento avaliado por meio da classificação de AKIN (acute kidney injury network). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 241 pacientes, sendo 52,7% do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 60,72±10,47 anos. A associação de SOF+daclatasvir predominou em 75,6% dos casos e anemia esteve presente em 28% dos pacientes que utilizaram ribavirina (P=0,040). As taxas de RVS12 e RVS24 foram de 99,3% e 97,1%. O tratamento foi bem tolerado, com eventos adversos pouco relevantes, sendo os mais prevalentes: astenia (57,7%), prurido (41,1%), cefaleia (40,7%) e irritabilidade (40,2%). Entre os pacientes em tratamento conservador e transplantados renais, os valores de creatinina sofreram oscilações AKIN I em 12,5% dos casos, durante o tratamento, persistindo em apenas 8,5% da amostra após o término, dos quais 2,0% apresentavam TFG <30 mL/min inicialmente, com queda para 1,1% após uso do SOF. Apenas 0,5% e 1,6% evoluíram com elevação AKIN II e AKIN III. CONCLUSÃO: Os antivirais de ação direta foram seguros e eficazes em pacientes com DRC tratados com esquemas contendo SOF, apresentando altas taxas de RVS, boa tolerabilidade e poucos eventos adversos graves. A associação com ribavirina aumentou o risco de anemia, portanto sua introdução de forma escalonada parece ser útil nos pacientes com TFG <60 mL/min. Em pacientes com TFG <30 mL/min o SOF não apresentou impacto renal significativo, com creatinina sérica retornando a valores próximos ao basal após o tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Drug Therapy, Combination , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/surgery , Simeprevir/administration & dosage , Sofosbuvir/administration & dosage , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype , Glomerular Filtration Rate/genetics , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 39-44, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098056

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common hepatotropic viral infection affecting the patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Treatment of chronic HCV infection in stage 4 and 5 CKD includes a combination of elbasvir/grazoprevir and glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, which are not available in many countries. OBJECTIVE: Hence, we have conducted this study to look for the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir combination therapy in this difficult to treat population. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, prospective, open-label study in which Stage 5 CKD patients on maintenance hemodialysis with HCV infection. Total of 18 patients was included. sofosbuvir with daclatasvir or ledipasvir was used according to genotype for 12 weeks. HCV RNA, genotype, transient elastography (TE) was considered for every patient. HCV RNA was quantified at 4th week, 12th week and 12 weeks post-treatment to look for sustained virologic response (SVR 12). RESULTS: Infection due to genotype 1 was seen in 12 (66.7%) patients followed by genotype 3 in 4 (22.3%) with each patient of genotype 2 and 5. The median value of HCV RNA was 2,35,000 IU/mL. On TE, all had liver stiffness of <9.4 KPa. All patients had HCV RNA of <15 IU/mL at 4th and 12th week of treatment and 12 weeks post-treatment. No significant change in hemoglobin, eGFR and liver stiffness was observed. CONCLUSION: Full dose sofosbuvir i.e. 400 mg, in combination with NS5A inhibitors daclatasvir or ledipasvir is found to be safe and effective in patients with end stage renal disease, who are on maintenance hemodialysis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é a infecção viral hepática mais comum que afeta pacientes em hemodiálise de manutenção. O tratamento da infecção crônica por HCV no estágio 4 e 5 da doença renal crônica inclui uma combinação de elbasvir/grazoprevir e glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, que não estão disponíveis em muitos países. OBJETIVO: Portanto, realizamos este estudo para procurar a segurança e eficácia da terapia combinada de sofosbuvir nesta população de difícil tratamento. MÉTODOS: Realizamos um estudo de centro único, prospectivo e aberto, no qual pacientes com doença renal crônica em estágio 5 em hemodiálise de manutenção com infecção por HCV. Um total de 18 pacientes foi incluído. Sofosbuvir com daclatasvir ou ledipasvir foi usado de acordo com o genótipo por 12 semanas. O HCV RNA, genótipo, elastografia transitória foi considerado para cada paciente. O HCV RNA foi quantificado na 4ª semana, 12ª semana e 12 semanas após o tratamento para procurar uma resposta virológica sustentada. RESULTADOS: A infecção por genótipo 1 foi observada em 12 (66,7%) pacientes, seguido pelo genótipo 3 em 4 (22,3%), em um paciente do genótipo 2 e em outro, 5. O valor mediano do HCV RNA foi de 2.35.000 IU/mL. Na elastografia transitória, todos tinham rigidez hepática de <9.4 KPa. Todos os pacientes tinham RNA HCV <15 IU/mL na 4ª e 12ª semana de tratamento e 12 semanas após o tratamento. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa na hemoglobina, eGFR e rigidez hepática. CONCLUSÃO: A dose completa sofosbuvir ou seja, 400 mg, em combinação com inibidores NS5A daclatasvir ou ledipasvir foi considerada segura e eficaz em pacientes com doença renal em estágio final, que estão em manutenção hemodiálise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Fluorenes/administration & dosage , Sofosbuvir/administration & dosage , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , RNA, Viral , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190594, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136866

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We conducted a cost-utility analysis of available interferon-free treatments for patients with early-stage genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C based on a Brazilian public health system perspective. METHODS A Markov model was derived using a cohort of stage F0-F2 patients treated as recommended by the Brazilian national guidelines. RESULTS: Glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir was superior to all other treatments, followed by sofosbuvir plus velpatasvir. Sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir was identified as the least cost-effective option. CONCLUSIONS: The above findings were confirmed via probabilistic sensitivity analysis and the tested scenarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/economics , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/economics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/economics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Genotype
11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(2): e00036619, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055632

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Cost-effectiveness analysis is essential in health decision making. Several countries use it as synthesis of evidence to incorporate health technologies. The protease inhibitors (PI) boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TVR) are indicated for chronic hepatitis C treatment and were incorporated in guidelines worldwide. Pre-marketing clinical trials showed higher sustained virological response rates in relation to previous therapies, but the incorporation of PIs generated a significant financial impact. The aim of this study was to discuss the relevance of cost-effectiveness analysis through a study that involved the inclusion of PIs in a clinical protocol. The analysis was part of a real-life study that included patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 treated in a tertiary university hospital in Brazil. Triple therapies (TT) with ribavirin (RBV), peginterferon α-2a (Peg-INF α-2a) and BOC or TVR were compared to dual therapy with RBV and Peg-INF α-2a. Sensitivity analysis of the cost-effectiveness ratio indicated an 88.2% chance of TTs presenting a higher cost per cure. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) exceeded the Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by three times in all proposed scenarios. The sensitivity of ICER showed an 88.4% chance of TT not being cost-effective. The impact of PI incorporation was negative and the conduct about this could have been different if a previous cost-effectiveness analysis had been conducted.


Resumo: A análise de custo-efetividade tem sido essencial para a tomada de decisões em saúde. Diversos países utilizam esse tipo de análise como síntese das evidências para incorporar as tecnologias em saúde. Os inibidores de protease (IPs) boceprevir (BOC) e telaprevir (TVR) são indicados para o tratamento da hepatite C crônica e foram incorporados nas diretrizes internacionais. Os ensaios clínicos pré-marketing demonstraram taxas mais altas de resposta virológica sustentada em relação às terapias anteriores, mas a incorporação dos IPs gerou um impacto financeiro significativo. O estudo teve como objetivo discutir a relevância da análise de custo-efetividade, através de um estudo que envolveu a inclusão de IPs em um protocolo clínico. A análise fez parte de um estudo de vida real que incluiu pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C, genótipo 1, tratados em um hospital universitário terciário no Brasil. As terapias triplas (TTs) com ribavirina (RBV), peg-interferon α-2a (Peg-INF α-2a) e BOC ou TVR foram comparadas às terapias duplas com RBV e Peg-INF α-2a. A análise de sensibilidade da custo-efetividade indicou odds de 88,2% de TTs apresentarem custo mais elevado por paciente curado. Em todos os cenários propostos, as razões de custo-efetividade incremental (ICERs) superaram em três vezes o produto interno bruto (PIB) per capita brasileiro. A sensibilidade da ICER mostrou probabilidade de 88,4% das TTs não serem custo-efetivas. O impacto da incorporação dos IPs foi negativo, e a conduta teria sido diferente se tivesse sido realizada uma análise prévia de custo-efetividade.


Resumen: El análisis de coste-efectividad ha sido esencial para la toma de decisiones en salud. Diversos países utilizan este tipo de análisis como síntesis de evidencias para incorporar tecnologías en salud. Los inhibidores de proteasa (IPs) boceprevir (BOC) y telaprevir (TVR) se indican para el tratamiento de la hepatitis C crónica y fueron incorporados en directrices internacionales. Los ensayos clínicos pre-marketing demostraron tasas más altas de respuesta virológica sostenida, respecto a las terapias anteriores, pero la incorporación de los IPs generó un impacto financiero significativo. El objetivo del estudio fue discutir la relevancia del análisis de coste-efectividad, a través de un estudio que implicó la inclusión de IPs en un protocolo clínico. El análisis formó parte de un estudio de vida real que incluyó a pacientes con infección por el virus de la hepatitis C, genotipo 1, tratados en un hospital universitario terciario en Brasil. Las terapias triples (TTs) con ribavirina (RBV), peg-interferon α-2a (Peg-INF α-2a) y BOC o TVR se compararon con las terapias dobles con RBV y Peg-INF α-2a. El análisis de sensibilidad del coste-efectividad indicó odds de 88,2% de que las TTs presentaran un coste más elevado por paciente curado. En todos los escenarios propuestos, las razones de coste-efectividad incremental (ICERs) superaron tres veces el producto interno bruto (PIB) per cápita brasileño. La sensibilidad de la ICER mostró una probabilidad de que un 88,4% de las TTs no eran costo-efectivas. El impacto de la incorporación de los IPs fue negativo, y el resultado habría sido diferente si se hubiese realizado un análisis previo de coste-efectividad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Oligopeptides , Antiviral Agents/economics , Polyethylene Glycols , Ribavirin , Recombinant Proteins , Brazil , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Interferon-alpha , Hepacivirus , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Hepatitis C, Chronic/economics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Interferon alpha-2 , Genotype
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1470-1475, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057090

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The recent development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically changed the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, and interferon-based regimes have become a poor treatment choice in clinical practice. Today DAAs offer shorter, well-tolerated, highly effective curative therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DAAs in patients with end-stage renal disease and HCV genotype 1 infection in real clinical practice. METHODS Thirty-six patients who attended our clinic, were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), undergoing hemodialysis, and fulfilled the criteria of age >18 years, genotype 1 infection, with a detectable HCV RNA level were considered for the study. Patients with GT1a infection received OBV/PTV/r plus DSV plus RBV for 12 weeks; GT1b infected patients received this regimen without RBV for 12 weeks. RESULTS The study was conducted on 33 patients. The mean age was 52.30 ±13.77 years, and 70 % of them were male. By the fourth week of treatment, HCV RNA levels decreased below 15 IU/ml in all patients. Sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 rate was 100%. Nine patients had side effects during treatment. Of the patients with side effects, 89.9% were in group 1a and 11.1% in group 1b. CONCLUSION In this study, treatment with OBV/PTV/r and DSV with or without RBV resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response in HCV GT1-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SVR was achieved in all patients with few side effects.


RESUMO O recente desenvolvimento de agentes antivirais de ação direta (DAAs) mudou drasticamente o tratamento da hepatite C crônica, e os regimes livres de interferon tornaram-se pobres escolhas para tratamento na prática clínica. Hoje os DAAs oferecem terapias curativas mais curtas, bem toleradas e altamente eficazes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e segurança dos DAAs em pacientes com doença renal em estágio terminal e infecção pelo genótipo 1 do HCV na prática clínica real. MÉTODOS Trinta e seis pacientes, que se inscreveram em nossa clínica com diagnóstico de hepatite C crônica (CHC), inclusive no programa de hemodiálise, e preencheram os critérios de idade >18 anos, foram considerados para infecção pelo genótipo 1 com nível detectável de RNA do HCV. Os pacientes com infecção por GT1a receberam OBV/PTV/r mais DSV mais RBV por 12 semanas. Os pacientes infectados com GT1b receberam este regime sem RBV por 12 semanas. RESULTADOS O estudo foi realizado em 33 pacientes. A idade média foi de 52,30±13,77 anos e 70% deles eram do sexo masculino. Na semana 4 do tratamento, os níveis de ARN do VHC diminuíram para menos de 15 UI/ml em todos os pacientes. A taxa de resposta virológica sustentada (RVS) 12 foi de 100%. Nove pacientes apresentaram efeitos colaterais durante o tratamento. Dos pacientes com efeitos colaterais, 89,9% estavam no grupo 1a e 11,1% no grupo 1b. CONCLUSÃO Neste estudo, o tratamento com OBV/PTV/r e DSV com ou sem RBV resultou em altas taxas de resposta virológica sustentada em pacientes infectados pelo VGC GT1 com doença renal em estágio final (ESRD). A RVS foi alcançada em todos os pacientes com poucos efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Uracil/analogs & derivatives , Uracil/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/blood , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Macrocyclic Compounds/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype , Anilides/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 394-398, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055164

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: In recent years the management of hepatitis C virus infection and the possibility of its eradication have been researched due to the importance that they represent in the health of the world population. Obtaining data that help to cope with this pathology improves the quality of life of those affected by it. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral therapies provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in accordance to the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines of 2015. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients with chronic hepatitis C and the rate of sustained virologic response using direct-acting antivirals of all individuals that attended the referral service for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C at the Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective/prospective study with all patients with chronic hepatitis C who had their treatments available from December 2015 to August 2017 according to the criteria of the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines of 2015. In the first phase, the clinical and demographic variables of all individuals enrolled in a treatment for hepatitis C were selected and collected from the Reference Service database. In the second phase, treatment data were collected. The outcome variable, sustained virologic response, was defined as an undetectable viral load on the blood test three months after the end of treatment. The descriptive and bivariate analyzes were performed with Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's Exact test, adopting a P value ≤0.05 in the SPSS 20 software. RESULTS: Of the 252 participants in the study, 228 (90.5%) had a sustained virologic response, 55.2% were male with an average age of 58.6 years (SD±9.1). Genotype 1 was the most prevalent, observed in 54.4% of the participants, and 87.4% of the patients had moderate/advanced hepatic fibrosis. After the statistical analysis, it was observed that the individuals with genotype 3 and moderate/advanced hepatic fibrosis had lower sustained virologic response rate (P=0.05 and P=0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: It was observed that the use of direct-acting antivirals, in comparison to previous therapeutic regimens, increases the sustained virologic response, reaching all patients with mild fibrosis. This study provides information that helps in the hepatitis C treatment by showing that prescribing early treatment for patients without hepatic fibrosis and/or genotype 3 virus could increase therapeutic effectiveness.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O manejo e a possibilidade de erradicação da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C têm sido muito pesquisados nos últimos anos pela importância que representam na saúde pública para a população mundial. A obtenção de dados que auxiliem o enfrentamento dessa patologia resulta na melhor qualidade de vida dos seus portadores. O presente estudo avaliou a efetividade da terapêutica com os antivirais de ação direta, fornecida pelo Ministério da Saúde, através do Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas de 2015. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil epidemiológico dos portadores de hepatite C crônica e a taxa de resposta viral sustentada com o uso dos antivirais de ação direta em todos os indivíduos atendidos no Centro de Referência no tratamento da hepatite C crônica do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional retrospectivo/prospectivo com todos os portadores de hepatite C crônica que tiveram seus tratamentos disponibilizados no período de dezembro de 2015 a agosto de 2017 segundo os critérios do Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas de 2015. Na primeira fase foram selecionadas e coletadas as variáveis demográficas e clínicas, no banco de dados do centro de referência de todos os indivíduos cadastrados para tratamento para hepatite C e na segunda fase foram coletados dados referentes ao tratamento. A variável desfecho, resposta viral sustentada, foi definida pela carga viral indetectável no exame sanguíneo três meses após o término do tratamento. Foram realizadas as análises descritivas e bivariadas com cálculo do qui quadrado de Pearson e Exato de Fisher, adotando um valor P≤0,05, no programa SPSS 20. RESULTADOS: Dos 252 participantes do estudo 228 (90,5%) obtiveram resposta viral sustentada, sendo 55,2% do sexo masculino com média de idade de 58,6 anos (DP±9,1). O genótipo 1 foi o mais prevalente, presente em 54,4% dos participantes, 87,4% dos estudados apresentavam grau de fibrose hepática moderada/avançada. Após a análise estatística observou-se que os indivíduos com genótipo 3 e fibrose hepática moderada/avançada, tiveram menor taxa de resposta viral sustentada (P=0,05 e P=0,04 respectivamente). CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que com o uso dos antivirais de ação direta as taxas de resposta viral sustentada foram altas, em relação aos esquemas terapêuticos anteriores, podendo chegar à totalidade nos pacientes com fibrose leve. Este estudo mostra que a realização do tratamento precoce, ou seja, de forma antecipada em pacientes sem fibrose hepática e genótipo 3 pode aumentar a taxa de sucesso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Sustained Virologic Response , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Drug Therapy, Combination , Middle Aged
14.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S49-S51, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116517

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a disease of low endemicity in Chile, but with high personal and health costs due to its associated complications. A radical change during the last decades in the treatment of this disease has been the appearance of direct action antivirals that changed the history of the disease, reducing the progression to liver cirrhosis, complications, need for liver transplantation or death. This review describes the general indications for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection, contraindications and the different special scenarios.


La infección crónica por virus hepatitis C es una enfermedad de baja endemicidad en Chile, pero que ocasiona altos costos personales y sanitarios por sus complicaciones asociadas. Un cambio radical durante las últimas décadas en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad ha sido la aparición de los antivirales de acción directa que han cambiado la historia de la enfermedad, reduciendo la progresión a cirrosis hepática, complicaciones, necesidad de trasplante hepático o muerte. En esta revisión se describirán las indicaciones generales de tratamiento de la infección por virus hepatitis C, contraindicaciones y los diferentes escenarios especiales presentes en la práctica clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 731-736, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977101

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver disease. Infection triggers an immediate immune response in the host that is mediated by humoral/cellular mechanisms. T cells respond to infection via secretion of cytokines, which inhibit or stimulate one another, leading to cytokine imbalance and ultimately affecting treatment. Studies using interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) showed that TCD8+ cells and cytokine levels are associated with sustainable virological response (SVR). However, studies that investigated the effects of triple therapy (TT) are limited. METHODS: The study included hepatitis C virus (HCV)+ RNA, naives, genotype 1, ≥18 years, and advanced fibrosis (F≥3) patients. Samples were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks (W12) of TT. Six cytokines were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Of 31 patients, four were excluded (two deaths, one interrupted TT, and one F2 patient). Of the 27 remaining patients, 21 (78%) were cirrhotic. SVR was achieved in 63% of the patients. The patients had a mean age of 55.11 ± 10.03 years. Analyses at baseline showed that the chemokine CCL5/Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) (p=0.04) and interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.02), which was associated with SVR. RANTES (p=0.04) and IL-8 (p=0.01) levels were associated with SVR at W12. CONCLUSIONS Similar to patterns observed during double therapy, IL-6, IL-8, and RANTES levels were associated with SVR in TT, indicating the potential role of interferon in immune response to hepatitis C virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oligopeptides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Cytokines/blood , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Proline/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Flow Cytometry , Genotype , Middle Aged
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 274-278, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973897

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem, that affects approximately 170 million people worldwide. Chronic HCV infection is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and an increased risk of diabetes HCV-infected patients has been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in patients treated with direct acting antiviral (DAAs) medication in the sustained virological response (SVR), categorized by the presence or absence of cirrhosis. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. Data were collected at the beginning of treatment (t-base) and in the twelfth week after the completion of treatment (t-SVR12). The inclusion criteria were presence of: HCV infection (RNA-HCV positive), age ≥18 years, completion of DAAs' therapy, and presence of diabetes with use of oral hypoglycemic agents. All samples were collected during the study period. The exclusion criteria were: presence of HBV/HIV co-infection, hepatocellular carcinoma at baseline, diabetic patients taking insulin and transplanted patients (liver/kidney). Fibrosis was assessed by hepatic elastography or biopsy (METAVIR). Cirrhosis was determined by clinical results or imaging. HOMA-IR was calculated as fasting insulin (μU/mL) × fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5) The patients were divided into two groups: the general study population (all patients, including the diabetic patients) and the special population (patients with normal values of HOMA-IR, which is >2.5, and without diabetes). The delta HOMA-IR value was calculated as: HOMA-IR at t-base - HOMA-IR at t-SVR12. For the descriptive statistical analysis, the paired t-test and generalized linear model assuming the log binding function were performed. A P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We included 150 patients, and 75 were cirrhotic. The mean age was 55.3±9.97 and body mass index was 27.4±5.18. Twenty-two (14.67%) were diabetic patients using oral hypoglycemic agents, and 17 (11%) were cirrhotic. In the general study population, the mean glucose and HOMA-IR values increased at t-SVR12, but insulin decreased. Delta HOMA-IR was negative at t-SVR12, but there was no significant difference. Excluding diabetic patients and those with normal HOMA-IR values (<2.5), mean glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR decreased at t-SVR12. Delta HOMA-IR decreased significantly at t-SVR12 (P: 0.02). CONCLUSION: In the general population, glucose and HOMA-IR values increased at t-SVR12, but insulin decreased. In the special population, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and Delta HOMA-IR decreased at t-SVR12.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC) é um grave problema de saúde pública, que afeta aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo. A infecção crônica pelo VHC está associada à resistência à insulina hepática e a um risco aumentado de diabetes. Os doentes infetados pelo VHC foram bem documentados. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o modelo de avaliação da homeostase do índice de resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR) em pacientes tratados com medicação antiviral de ação direta na resposta virológica sustentada (RVS), categorizada pela presença ou ausência de cirrose. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo. Os dados foram coletados no início do tratamento (t-base) e na décima segunda semana após o término do tratamento (t-RVS12). Os critérios de inclusão foram presença de: infecção pelo VHC (RNA-VHC positivo), idade ≥18 anos, conclusão da terapia de antivirais de ação direta e presença de diabetes com uso de hipoglicemiantes orais. Todas as amostras foram coletadas durante o período do estudo. Os critérios de exclusão foram: presença de coinfecção VHB/HIV, carcinoma hepatocelular no início do estudo, pacientes diabéticos em uso de insulina e pacientes transplantados (fígado/rim). A fibrose foi avaliada por elastografia hepática ou biópsia (METAVIR). A cirrose foi determinada por resultados clínicos ou exames de imagem. O HOMA-IR foi calculado como insulinemia de jejum (μU/mL) x glicemia de jejum (mmol/L) /22,5). Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: a população geral do estudo (todos os pacientes, incluindo os diabéticos) e a população especial (pacientes com valores normais de HOMA-IR, que é <2,5 e sem diabetes). O valor do delta HOMA-IR foi calculado como: HOMA-IR no t-base - HOMA-IR no t-RVS12. Para a análise estatística descritiva, foram utilizados o teste t pareado e o modelo linear generalizado, assumindo a função de ligação logarítmica. Um valor de P<0,05 foi considerado significativo. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 150 pacientes e 75 eram cirróticos. A idade média foi de 55,3±9,97 e o índice de massa corpórea foi de 27,4±5,18. Vinte e dois (14,67%) eram pacientes diabéticos em uso de hipoglicemiantes orais e 17 (11%) eram cirróticos. Na população geral do estudo, os valores médios de glicose e HOMA-IR aumentaram na t-SVR12, mas a insulina diminuiu. O delta HOMA-IR foi negativo em t-SVR12, mas não houve diferença significativa. Excluindo pacientes diabéticos e aqueles com valores normais de HOMA-IR (<2,5), a média de glicose, insulina e HOMA-IR diminuiu no t-RVS12. O delta HOMA-IR diminuiu significativamente em t-RVS12 (P: 0,02). CONCLUSÃO: Na população geral, os valores de glicose e HOMA-IR aumentaram no t-RVS12, mas a insulina diminuiu. Na população especial, glicose, insulina, HOMA-IR e delta HOMA-IR diminuíram no t-RVS12.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/metabolism , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Insulin/blood , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Fasting/blood , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Middle Aged
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 317-322, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974227

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is one of the major causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. Treatment using direct-acting antivirals has revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus, increasing long-term prognosis after cure. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals in a Public Health System in southern Brazil. Methods A retrospective study evaluated all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who underwent treatment at one center of the Public Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, according to the Brazilian Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines. The effectiveness was assessed in terms sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment. Results A total of 1002 patients who were treated for chronic hepatitis C virus infection were evaluated. The mean age was 58.6 years, 557 patients (55.6%) were male and 550 (54.9%) were cirrhotic. Overall sustained virological response was observed in 936 (93.4%) patients. There was a difference in sustained virological response rate varied according to sex, 91.6% in men and 95.7% in women (p= 0.009), length of treatment in genotype 1, 92.7% with 12 weeks and 99.1 with 24 weeks (p= 0.040), and genotype, 94.7% in genotype 1, 91.7% in genotype 2, and 91.4% in genotype 3 (p= 0.047). Conclusion The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection for genotypes 1, 2 or 3 with the therapeutic regimens established by the Brazilian guidelines showed high rates of SVR, even in cirrhotic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Sustained Virologic Response , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Hepacivirus/genetics , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Simeprevir/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Genotype , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Liver Cirrhosis
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(7): 823-829, jul. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961467

ABSTRACT

Background. Host genetic predispositions may be important determinants of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The association between Interferon-L 4 (IFNL4) rs12979860 C>T polymorphism and risk of liver fibrosis in CHC is contradictory. Aim: To evaluate the impact of IFNL4 rs12979860 polymorphism on the risk of fibrosis in patients with CHC. Material and Methods: One hundred fifty patients with CHC aged 50 ± 11 years (89 females) were genotyped for IFNL4 rs12979860 using real time PCR. Fibrosis present in liver biopsies was assessed using the METAVIR score, comparing patients with either no fibrosis, mild fibrosis, or intermediate fibrosis (F0+F1+F2, n = 96), with patients with severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3+F4, n = 54). Results: In F0-F2 patients the distribution of rs12979860 genotypes was 22 CC, 57 CT and 17 TT, whereas in patients F3-F4 the distribution was 10, 29 and 15, respectively. No association between IFNL4 rs12979860 genotype and risk of fibrosis was observed in uni or multivariate analyses. Conclusions: IFNL4 rs12979860 C>T polymorphism is not associated with risk of liver fibrosis in this group of patients with CHC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Interleukins/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Interferons/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/blood , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genotype , Liver Cirrhosis/blood
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(2): 143-150, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954541

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Currently, there is no specific immunosuppressive protocol for hepatitis C (HCV)-positive renal transplants recipients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the conversion effect to everolimus (EVR) on HCV in adult kidney recipients. Method: This is an exploratory single-center, prospective, randomized, open label controlled trial with renal allograft recipients with HCV-positive serology. Participants were randomized for conversion to EVR or maintenance of calcineurin inhibitors. Results: Thirty patients were randomized and 28 were followed-up for 12 months (conversion group, Group 1 =15 and control group, Group 2 =13). RT-PCR HCV levels reported in log values were comparable in both groups and among patients in the same group. The statistical analysis showed no interaction effect between time and group (p value G*M= 0.852), overtime intra-groups (p-value M=0.889) and between group (p-value G=0.286). Group 1 showed a higher incidence of dyslipidemia (p=0.03) and proteinuria events (p=0.01), while no difference was observed in the incidence of anemia (p=0.17), new onset of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (p=1.00) or urinary tract infection (p=0.60). The mean eGFR was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study did not show viral load decrease after conversion to EVR with maintenance of antiproliferative therapy.


RESUMO Introdução: Atualmente não há um protocolo imunossupressor específico para os receptores de transplantes renais portadores de hepatite C (HCV). Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da conversão a Everolimo (EVR) na HCV em receptores adultos de transplantes renais. Método: Trata-se de um estudo unicêntrico, prospectivo, randomizado, exploratório, controlado, aberto em receptores de aloenxertos renais com sorologia positiva para HCV. Os participantes foram randomizados para conversão a EVR ou manutenção dos inibidores da calcineurina. Resultados: Trinta pacientes foram randomizados e 28 foram acompanhados por um período de 12 meses (grupo de conversão, Grupo 1 = 15 e grupo controle, Grupo 2 =13). Níveis de RT-PCR HCV descritos em valores logarítmicos foram comparáveis entre os grupos e entre pacientes em um mesmo grupo. A análise estatística não mostrou efeitos de interação entre tempo e grupo (valor p G*M= 0,852), ao longo do tempo em cada grupo (valor p M=0,889) e entre grupos (valor p G=0,286). O Grupo 1 apresentou uma maior incidência de eventos de dislipidemia (p=0,03) e proteinúria (p=0,01); não houve diferença na incidência de anemia (p=0,17), diabetes mellitus de início pós-transplante (p=1,00) ou infecção do trato urinário (p=0,60). A TFGe média foi semelhante nos dois grupos. Conclusão: Nosso estudo não mostrou redução da carga viral após conversão a EVR com manutenção do tratamento antiproliferativo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Kidney Transplantation , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Everolimus/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications/virology , Viremia/drug therapy , Prospective Studies
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 186-192, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974205

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness in terms of sustained virological response and tolerability of available second generation direct-acting antivirals in Brazilian patients. Methods This was a retrospective observational study conducted in six centers in Southern Brazil. The sample comprised adult patients who were chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, regardless of virus genotype, fibrosis stage, or prior treatment. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effectiveness among the treatments, and also to uncover the factors influencing the achievement of sustained virological response. Results A total of 296 patients were included in the study, with the majority receiving sofosbuvir with daclatasvir (59%) or sofosbuvir with simeprevir (26%). Overall sustained virological response rates were approximately 91.6%. For genotype 1, sofosbuvir with daclatasvir had an sustained virological response rate of approximately 95%, while the sustained virological response rate of sofosbuvir with simeprevir was 92%; this difference was statistically significant only for subtype 1b. The only treatment used for genotype 3 patients was sofosbuvir with daclatasvir, and lower rates of sustained virological response were observed for this group, compared to genotype 1 (84% versus 95%, p < 0.05). Apart from this difference between genotypes, and a difference between patients who achieved rapid virologic response compared with those who did not, there were no other statistically significant factors associated with sustained virological response. Conclusions The results point to the effectiveness of second-generation direct-acting antivirals in hepatitis C virus Brazilian patients, especially those with genotype 1. Furthermore, that patients with genotype 3 need more attention and adjustments in available treatment options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Reference Values , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Time Factors , Brazil , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Simeprevir/pharmacology , Sofosbuvir/pharmacology , Sustained Virologic Response , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis/virology
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