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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 399-401, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345294

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT According to the World Health Organization, 71 million people live with chronic hepatitis C. The treatment of this disease requires assistance from specialized physicians and a highly complex health care system. The prison population has been recognized as being at a high risk of acquiring confinement-related infections, including viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a primary cause of death owing to liver disease among liberty-deprived individuals. Generally, prisons do not have adequate isolation wards for persons with communicable diseases, and overcrowding is a risk factor for this population. Besides prison overcrowding, violence, poor sanitary conditions, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, and emotional instability are factors that can lead detainees to adopt unhealthy habits that make them more susceptible to infections, including HCV, and complicate effective treatment. The Criminal Execution Law 7, 210 of July 11, 1984, in Article 14, grants preventive and curative medical, dental, and pharmacological healthcare to detainees. However, adequate hepatitis C treatment is rarely provided at prisons owing to social stigma and lack of knowledge on the severity of this condition or because most detainees are unaware of their condition. Given the multiple limitations imposed by the prison system model, implementing measures to treat diseases effectively is challenging. However, it is possible to eliminate hepatitis C in prisons in the long term through the coordinated action of public health institutions and the prison system.


RESUMO De acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde, 71 milhões de pessoas vivem com hepatite C crônica. O tratamento dessa doença requer assistência de médicos especializados e um sistema de saúde de alta complexidade. A população carcerária tem sido reconhecida como sendo de alto risco de adquirir infecções relacionadas às condições de confinamento, incluindo hepatites virais. O vírus da hepatite C (VHC) é uma causa primária de morte por doença hepática em pessoas privadas de liberdade. Geralmente, as prisões não possuem locais adequados para isolamento de pessoas com doenças transmissíveis e a superlotação é um fator de risco para essa população. Além da superlotação das prisões, violência, más condições sanitárias, baixo nível socioeconômico, isolamento social e instabilidade emocional são motivos adicionais que induzem os detidos a praticar hábitos não saudáveis, que os tornam mais suscetíveis a certas infecções (incluindo VHC) e complicam o tratamento específico. A Lei de Execução Penal n. 7.210, de 11 de julho de 1984, em seu artigo 14, garante assistência preventiva e curativa à saúde, incluindo assistência médica, farmacêutica e odontológica aos detidos. No entanto, o tratamento adequado da hepatite C é raramente fornecido nas prisões devido estigma social ou falta de conhecimento de sua condição ou porque a maioria dos detidos não tem conhecimento de sua condição. Devido a múltiplas limitações impostas pelo modelo prisional, a implementação de medidas para o tratamento eficaz de doenças é desafiadora. No entanto, é possível eliminar a hepatite C em um ambiente prisional de longa permanência através de ações coordenadas de instituições de saúde pública e o sistema prisional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prisoners , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Hepacivirus
2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 319-325, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879638

ABSTRACT

Viral hepatitis C is one of the important causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are approximately 10 million cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in China. However, over 70% of HCV infections of China have not yet been detected. According to the goal of "eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030" of the World Health Organization Viral Hepatitis Strategy, and the fact that medical institutions remain the main places for detecting HCV infections or patients in China at present, we established the " In-hospital process for viral hepatitis C screening and management in China (Draft)", with intention to promote the multidisciplinary collaboration and cooperation among the departments of clinic, laboratory, infection control, management, and etc. in medical institutions, and strengthen consultation and referral of patients with detected HCV antibodies and advance the diagnosis and antiviral treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(1): 80-89, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286463

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por el virus de hepatitis C es un problema global de salud pública; en México aproximadamente 2 % de la población se encuentra infectada. En niños, los datos de prevalencia son variables según la edad, pero se estima que 0.1 a 2 % de los niños presenta infección crónica por virus de hepatitis C, cuya principal vía de transmisión es la perinatal. Actualmente existen antivirales de acción directa aprobados en adultos con una tasa de respuesta viral sostenida superior a 95 %; sin embargo, en niños aún son pocos los estudios que confirman su seguridad y efectividad. Aunque todavía estamos lejos de la meta, avanzamos rápidamente hacia un tratamiento óptimo de curación también para pacientes pediátricos.


Abstract Infection with hepatitis C virus is a global health problem; in Mexico, approximately 2% of the population is infected. In children, data on prevalence are variable according to the age group, but 0.1-2% of children are estimated to have chronic infection with hepatitis C virus, the main way of transmission of which is perinatal. Currently, there are direct-acting antiviral agents approved in adults that offer a sustained viral response rate higher than 95%; however, in children there are still only few studies confirming their safety and effectiveness. Although we are still far from the goal, we are rapidly advancing towards an optimal curative treatment also for pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prevalence , Age Factors , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/transmission , Mexico/epidemiology
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 45-52, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001502

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients with pre-existing liver disease has shown high morbidity and lethality. The consequences of HEV superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the presence of anti-HEV antibodies, liver cirrhosis, and insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 618 patients chronically infected with HCV were included from three reference centers for viral hepatitis in São Paulo, Brazil. Presence of anti-HEV IgG was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WANTAI HEV-IgG ELISA). Results: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV in patients with cirrhosis was significantly higher than in patients without cirrhosis (13.2% vs 8%, OR = 1.74, p = 0.04). Seropositivity for anti-HEV, adjusted for sex, age, and HCV genotype showed an association trend with hepatic cirrhosis (aOR = 1.75, p = 0.059). Presence of HEV antibodies, adjusted for age, body mass index and cirrhosis, was shown to be independently associated with insulin resistance (aOR: 4.39; p = 0.045). Conclusion: Patients with chronic hepatitis C are under risk of hepatitis E virus superinfection in Brazil. The trend toward association between cirrhosis and previous HEV infection suggests that it may accelerate liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In addition, previous infection by HEV is independently associated with insulin resistance in the studied population, which may be an extra-hepatic manifestation of hepatitis E that persists after resolution of the active infection, and may contribute to fibrosis progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Insulin Resistance/immunology , Hepatitis Antibodies/analysis , Hepatitis E/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Liver Cirrhosis/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Genotype , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 34-39, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001496

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Hepatitis C is an important health problem. In Brazil, 1-2 million people are infected. Despite this expressive number, and the availability of very successful treatment, many patients remained undiagnosed mainly because of the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Objectives: To describe epidemiological characteristics of HCV-infected patients seen at referral centers in Brazil, the source of referral, and the time spanned to reach a reference center, in order to improve the identification of undiagnosed patients. Methods: Multicenter observational, cross-sectional study carried out in 15 centers of Brazil, between January/2016 and June/2017. Data of patients with a confirmed diagnosis (anti-HCV and HCV-RNA) were collected by interview using standard questionnaires and by review of charts. Results: Two thousand patients were included; 55.1% were male, mean age 58 ± 11 years. Only 14.9% had higher education and 84.2% received up to five monthly minimum Brazilian wages (approximately US$260.00/month). The time between diagnosis and beginning of follow-up was 22.9 months. The most common reasons for testing were check-up (33.2%) and blood donation (19%). General practitioners diagnosed most of the patients (30.1%). Fibrosis stage was mainly evaluated by liver biopsy (61.5%) and 31.3% of the patients were cirrhotic at diagnosis. Conclusions: This multicenter Brazilian study showed that the mean time to reach a referral center for treatment was almost two years. Primary care physicians diagnoses most hepatitis C cases in the country. Population campaigns and medical education should be encouraged to intensify screening of asymptomatic individuals, considering the efficiency of check-ups in identifying new patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(4): 403-406, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983852

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) can progress to cirrhosis and its complications as hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to morbidity and mortality. To know the profile of patients with CHC virus is fundamental to optimize management. OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of patients with CHC in a public health program in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in patients with CHC who underwent treatment against hepatitis C virus in a dispensation and pharmaceutical assistance center of the Public Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. All medical records of patients attended between December/2015 and December/2016 were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 1,431 records of patients with CHC were evaluated. Males were the most prevalent (802; 56%) patients. The mean age was 58.6±9.9 years, ranging from 18 to 89 years. Genotype 1 was the most frequent (866;60.5%) of the patients. Ninety (6.3%) patients were transplanted from a solid organ, and of these, 73 (5.1%) were transplanted from the liver. The fibrosis evaluation was performed in 1,300 (90.8%) patients. Of these, 566 (39.6%) were evaluated through liver biopsy. Regarding the degree of fibrosis, 779 (54.4%) presented fibrosis grade 4 (cirrhosis). The genotype 3 was the most associated with fibrosis grade 4, and genotype 1 was associated with high viral load. CONCLUSION: The present study made possible the evaluation of the characteristics of patients with CHC in a public health program in South Brazil. There was a predominance of CHC in males, and the mean age was 59 years. They presented a predominance of genotype 1, higher viral load in patients with genotype 1 and greater degree of fibrosis in patients with genotype 3.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite crônica C (HCC) pode evoluir para cirrose e suas complicações como carcinoma hepatocelular, acarretando morbimortalidade. Conhecer o perfil dos pacientes portadores do vírus da HCC é fundamental para o melhor manejo do tratamento. OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil dos pacientes portadores de HCC em um programa de saúde pública do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo onde foram incluídos os pacientes com HCC que realizaram o tratamento contra o vírus C em um polo de dispensação e assistência farmacêutica da Secretaria Estadual da Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram avaliados todos os prontuários dos pacientes tratados entre dezembro/2015 e dezembro/2016. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 1.431 registros de pacientes portadores de HCC. O sexo masculino foi o mais prevalente (802; 56%) pacientes. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 58,6±9,9 anos, com variação de 18 a 89 anos. O genótipo 1 foi o mais frequente, em 866 (60,5%) dos pacientes. Noventa (6,3%) pacientes eram transplantados de órgão sólido, sendo que 73 (5,1%) eram transplantados de fígado. A avaliação de fibrose foi realizada em 1.300 (90,8%) pacientes. Dentre estes, 566 (39,6%) foram avaliados através de biópsia hepática. Em relação ao grau de fibrose, 779 (54,4%) apresentavam fibrose grau 4 (cirrose). Os genótipos foram analisados em relação aos diferentes graus de fibrose, sendo observado que o genótipo 3 está associado com o grau 4 de fibrose. O genótipo 1 está associado com alta carga viral. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo possibilitou a avaliação do perfil dos pacientes portadores de HCC em um programa de saúde pública do Brasil. Houve uma predominância de HCC no sexo masculino, e a média de idade foi de 59 anos. Apresentam um predomínio do genótipo 1, maior carga viral nos pacientes portadores do genótipo 1 e maior grau de fibrose nos portadores de genótipo 3.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Genotype , Middle Aged
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(4): 329-337, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983837

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Infection by hepatitis C virus is one of the leading causes of chronic hepatitis C and cause severe burden for patients, families and the health care system. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this research were to assess the severity of liver fibrosis, comorbidities and complications of hepatitis C virus; to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL), productivity loss and resource use and costs in a sample of Brazilian chronic hepatitis C, genotype 1, patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study performed in genotype-1 chronic hepatitis C patients to assess disease burden in the Brazilian public health care system between November 2014 and March 2015. Patients were submitted to a liver transient elastography (FibroScan) to assess liver fibrosis and answered an interview composed by a questionnaire specifically developed for the study and three standardized questionnaires: EQ-5D-3L, HCV-PRO and WPAI:HepC. RESULTS: There were 313 subjects enrolled, with predominance of women (50.8%), caucasian/white (55.9%) and employed individuals (39.9%). Mean age was 56 (SD=10.4) years old. Moreover, 42.8% of patients who underwent FibroScan were cirrhotic; the most frequent comorbidity was cardiovascular disease (62.6%) and the most frequent complication was esophageal varices (54.5%). The results also showed that "pain and discomfort" was the most affected HRQoL dimension (55.0% of patients reported some problems) and that the mean HCV-PRO overall score was 69.1 (SD=24.2). Regarding productivity loss, the most affected WPAI:HepC component was daily activity (23.5%) and among employed patients, presenteeism was more frequent than absenteeism (18.5% vs 6.5%). The direct medical costs in this chronic hepatitis C sample was 12,305.72USD per patient in the 2 years study period; drug treatment costs represented 95.9% of this total. CONCLUSION: This study showed that most patients are cirrhotic, present high prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases and esophageal varices, reduced HRQoL mainly in terms of pain/discomfort, and work productivity impairment, especially presenteeism. Additionally, we demonstrated that hepatitis C virus imposes an economic burden on Brazilian Health Care System and that most of this cost is due to drug treatment.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é uma das principais causas de hepatite C crônica e provoca implicações graves para pacientes, familiares e sistema de saúde. OBJETIVO: Os objetivos deste estudo foram: analisar a gravidade da fibrose hepática, comorbidades e complicações da hepatite C; examinar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS), a perda de produtividade e o uso de recursos e custos no sistema público por pacientes brasileiros com hepatite C crônica, genótipo tipo 1. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, multicêntrico em pacientes com hepatite C crônica genótipo-1 para avaliar a carga da doença no sistema público de saúde brasileiro entre novembro de 2014 e março de 2015. Os pacientes foram submetidos a uma elastografia hepática transitória (FibroScan) para avaliar a fibrose e a uma entrevista composta por um questionário desenvolvido para o estudo e cinco questionários padronizados: EQ-5D-3L, HCV-PRO, e WPAI:HepC. RESULTADOS: Foram recrutados 313 pacientes. A amostra foi composta predominantemente por mulheres (50,8%), caucasianos/brancos (55,9%) e indivíduos empregados (39,9%). A média de idade foi 56 (DP=10,4) anos. Em média, os pacientes com HCV esperaram 40,6 (DP=49,6) meses entre o diagnóstico e o primeiro tratamento. Ademais, 42,8% dos pacientes que realizaram o FibroScan tinham cirrose; a comorbidade mais frequente foi doença cardiovascular (62,6%) e a complicação mais comum as varizes esofágicas (54,5%). Os resultados também mostraram que "dor e desconforto" foi a dimensão de QVRS mais afetada (55,0% dos pacientes relataram alguns problemas) e que a média do escore do HCV-PRO foi 69,1 (DP=24,2). Em relação à perda de produtividade, o componente do WPAI:HepC mais afetado foi atividade diária (23,5%) e entre os pacientes empregados, presenteísmo foi mais frequente do que absenteísmo (18,5% vs 6,5%). Os custos diretos médicos totais com essa amostra foi de 12.305,72USD por paciente em um período de dois anos; o tratamento medicamentoso representou 95% desse total. CONCLUSÃO Esse estudo mostrou a maioria dos pacientes possui cirrose, apresenta alta prevalência de doenças cardiometabolicas e varizes esofágicas, QVRS reduzida principalmente em termos de dor/desconforto e dano na produtividade, especialmente presenteísmo. Adicionalmente, nós demonstramos que o HCV impõe uma carga econômica no sistema de saúde brasileiro e que os medicamentos correspondem à maioria dos custos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/economics , Quality of Life , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living , Comorbidity , Public Health , Epidemiologic Methods , Health Care Costs , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Middle Aged , National Health Programs/economics
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(4): 412-416, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983838

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cystic lesions of the pancreas represent a group of pancreatic diseases with great histological heterogeneity, varying from benign lesions, some of them with malignant potential, to overt malignant lesions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the cases of cystic lesions of the pancreas which underwent surgical intervention at a tertiary university hospital. METHODS: This is a retrospective population-based study (historical cohort) which was carried out enrolling individuals attended at the Outpatient service of Pancreas Surgery of the Hospital de Clínicas of Unicamp. The individuals underwent surgical procedures performed from January 2012 through December 2016. RESULTS: In the period evaluated, 39 cases of cystic lesions of the pancreas which underwent surgery were identified, 26 (66.6%) of which were female. The average age at diagnosis was 47.4±16.4 years (range, 18-73). In regards to symptoms, 35 (89.7%) were symptomatic. The average length of hospital stay was 10 days (range 4-76). Surgeries performed to treat the lesions depended on the localization and type of the lesions: cystojejunostomy (41%), distal pancreatectomy (36%), pancreaticoduodenectomy (15.4%), drainage of ruptured and/or infected pseudocyst (5.2%) and central pancreatectomy (2.6%). CONCLUSION: Cystic lesions of the pancreas are a group of lesions with a highly varying presentation and diagnostic approach and may require an also highly variable surgical treatment. An appropriate preoperative imaging diagnosis is essential for their management.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: As lesões císticas do pâncreas representam um grupo de doenças pancreáticas com grande heterogeneidade histológica, variando desde lesões benignas, algumas com potencial pré-maligno, até outras degeneradas para formas malignas. OBJETIVO: Descrever os casos de LCPs submetidos à intervenção cirúrgica em um hospital universitário terciário. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo populacional (coorte histórica) realizado com a participação de indivíduos atendidos no Ambulatório de Cirurgia do Pâncreas do Hospital de Clínicas da Unicamp. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos realizados no período de janeiro de 2012 a dezembro de 2016. RESULTADOS: No período avaliado, foram identificados 39 casos de lesões císticas do pâncreas operados, sendo 26 (66,6%) do sexo feminino. A idade média no diagnóstico foi de 47,4±16,4 anos. Em relação aos sintomas, 35 (89,7%) eram sintomáticos. O tempo médio de internação foi de 10 dias (variação de 4-76). As cirurgias realizadas para o tratamento das lesões dependeram da localização e do tipo das lesões: derivação pseudocisto-jejunal (41%), pancreatectomia distal (36%), pancreaticoduodenectomia (15,4%), drenagem de pseudocistos rotos e/ou infectados (5,2%) e pancreatectomia central (2,6%). CONCLUSÃO: As lesões císticas do pâncreas são um grupo de lesões cuja apresentação e abordagem diagnóstica são altamente heterogêneas e que podem requerer um tratamento cirúrgico altamente complexo e variável. Um diagnóstico pré-operatório adequado é essencial para definir o seu tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/economics , Quality of Life , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living , Comorbidity , Public Health , Epidemiologic Methods , Health Care Costs , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Middle Aged , National Health Programs/economics
10.
Rev. cuba. med ; 57(4): e406, oct.-dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093591

ABSTRACT

Escasas áreas geográficas escapan a la pandemia que representa la infección viral por virus C. Los porcentajes de evolución a la cronicidad son altos: entre 20-30 por ciento desarrollan cirrosis hepática y sus complicaciones dentro de 30 años. Se revisa el camino recorrido en la práctica asistencial hasta llegar a la era de los antivirales de acción directa, los pacientes pueden obtener una sustancial erradicación del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) con una combinación de drogas que elevan las tasas de respuesta virológica sostenida (RVS). La erradicación de este virus está asociada a mejor calidad de vida, baja morbilidad y mortalidad(AU)


Few geographical areas escape the pandemic that represents the viral infection by virus C. The percentage of evolution to chronicity are high. Between 20-30 percent develop liver cirrhosis and its complications within 30 years. The foot path traveled in the healthcare practice is reviewed until reaching the era of direct action antivirals, when patients can obtain a substantial eradication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) with a combination of drugs that raises the rates of sustained virological response (RVS). The eradication of this virus is associated with better quality of life, low morbidity and mortality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Hepatitis C, Chronic/mortality , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Cuba
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 508-512, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041479

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION This study reports the genotype prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Pará, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 344 plasma samples sent to the Lacen-Pará for diagnostics by molecular techniques. RESULTS: HCV genotypes identified in the different regions of Pará were 1b (47.7%), 3 (23.3%), 1a (18%), and 2 (4.4%). Genotype 1 occurred in 41.6% of men and 30.8% of women in the 18-86-year-old group. CONCLUSIONS: Genotype 1 is the most predominant in Pará, which reinforces the idea of its relationship with late-diagnosed chronic infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Genotype , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(2): 383-393, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902306

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El virus de la hepatitis C es la principal infección trasmitida por los derivados de la sangre en los Estados Unidos, con 3.2 millones de individuos infectados. El alfa interferón inyectable ha sido históricamente la piedra angular en la terapia del virus de hepatitis C. Se revisaron las publicaciones los trabajos publicados en Medline, Scielo, PubMed, e Hinari, hasta comienzos del año 2016. Las principales palabras clave utilizadas fueron virus de la hepatitis C, hepatitis C crónica, Interferón, antivirales. Recientes adelantos han llevado a la disponibilidad de nuevos medicamentos antivirales, que con el desarrollo de nuevas terapias orales libres de interferón han convertido la terapia del virus de la hepatitis C más eficaz además de simplificar los regímenes del tratamiento. Aunque estos regímenes de tratamiento aún permanecen complicados, las nuevas recomendaciones y guías evolucionan rápidamente. El rápido desarrollo de nuevas terapias para la hepatitis C, han logrado métodos más eficaces con menos reacciones adversas que optimizan el tratamiento de estos enfermos (AU).


ABSTRACT The hepatitis C virus is the main infection transmitted by blood products in the United States, with 3.2 million of infected individuals. The injected alpha interferon has historically been the key stone in the therapy of the hepatitis C virus. The works published in Medline, Scielo, PubMed and Hinary until the beginning of 2016 were reviewed. The main used key words were HVC, cronic hepatitis C, interferon, antivirals. Recent advances have led to the availability on new antiviral drugs, developing new interferon-free oral therapies that make the therapy of hepatitis C virus more efficacious and make easier the treatment regimens. Although these treatment regimens are still complicated, the new recommendations and guidelines evolve quickly. The fast development of new therapies against hepatitis C has led to more efficacious methods with less adverse reactions, optimizing the treatment of these patients (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Virology/methods , Risk Factors , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , United States/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/transmission , Cuba/epidemiology , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 85-91, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951634

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background and aims: Hepatitis E virus infection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease is associated with liver decompensation and increased lethality. The seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Brazil is unknown. This study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C and to describe associated risk factors. Methods: A total of 618 patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus from three reference centers of São Paulo, Brazil were included. Presence of anti-HEV IgG was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WANTAI HEV-IgG ELISA). Results: Out of the 618 patients tested, 10.2% turned out positive for anti-HEV IgG (95% CI 8.0-12.8%). Higher seroprevalence was found independently associated with age over 60 years (OR = 2.04; p = 0.02) and previous contact with pigs (OR = 1.99; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Patients with chronic hepatitis C are under risk of hepatitis E virus superinfection in São Paulo. Contact with pigs is a risk factor for the infection, suggesting a possible zoonosis with oral transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(1): 11-14, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833047

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Conhecer a prevalência dos genótipos do vírus da hepatite C, comparando-a com os dados de trabalhos semelhantes realizados no país. Métodos: Estudo observacional descritivo retrospectivo, no qual foi analisado o banco de dados do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Espírito Santo, para verificação de exames realizados no período de dezembro de 2004 a dezembro de 2012. Resultados: Foram analisados 1.649 registros de pacientes anti-HCV positivos submetidos à detecção da quantificação do RNA do vírus da hepatite C e genotipagem. O RNA viral foi detectado em 72,71% dos pacientes analisados. O genótipo mais prevalente foi o 1, com 79,10%, seguido do 3, com 16,70%, do 2, com 3,24% e do 4, com 0,96%. Não tiveram sua genotipagem descrita 151 portadores do vírus. Os subgenótipos mais frequente dentre os examinados foram os tipos 1a e 1b, apresentando, inclusive, um genótipo duplo 2a/2c. Conclusão: Os dados refletiram a situação epidemiológica em relação aos portadores crônicos e prevalência de genótipos.


Objective: To know the prevalence of genotypes of hepatitis C virus, comparing it with data from similar studies conducted in Brazil. Methods: Retrospective descriptive observational study in which we analyzed the database of the Central Public Health Laboratory of the state of Espirito Santo, to check the exams performed from December 2004 to December 2012. Results: The records of 1649 patients who were anti-HCV-positive and underwent HCV RNA detection and genotypingwere analyzed. The viral RNA was detected in 72.71 % of these patients. The most prevalent genotype was genotype 1 with 79.10 %, followed by 16.70% with genotype 3, 3.24 % with genotype 2, and 0.96 % with genotype 4. The genotyping of 151 carriers of the virus was not described. The most common subgenotypes were types 1a and 1b, even with a double 2a/2c genotype. Conclusions: Data reflect the epidemiological situation regarding chronic carriers and prevalence of genotypes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Genotype , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(6): 390-398, dic. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841617

ABSTRACT

La hepatitis crónica por el virus de la hepatitis C (HCV) es un problema de salud mundial. En el mundo, 170 millones de personas están infectadas. En Latinoamérica la prevalencia se estima entre 1.0 y 2.3% y en Argentina es en promedio 1.0 a 1.5%. La eficacia del tratamiento de esta enfermedad ha mejorado sustancialmente en los últimos 2 a 3 años. Con los nuevos antivirales de acción directa (AAD) disponibles actualmente, pueden lograrse tasas de respuesta viral sostenida (RVS) mayores al 90-95% prácticamente con pocos efectos adversos. Para poder acceder a estos tratamientos con una alta tasa de curación, y así lograr reducir la carga de la enfermedad en la salud pública, es necesario aumentar el número de pacientes diagnosticados y que estos accedan a un cuidado adecuado. El rol de los médicos de atención primaria es fundamental: deben sospechar la infección, diagnosticarla y complementar su atención con la derivación al especialista. El trabajo conjunto de generalistas y especialistas optimizará el manejo de los recursos disponibles, permitiendo que cada vez más personas infectadas con el HCV sean diagnosticadas y tratadas adecuadamente.


Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) is a global health problem. Worldwide, 170 million people are chronically infected. In Latin America its prevalence is estimated between 1.0 and 2.3%, and in Argentina between 1.0 and 1.5%. Treatment efficacy has considerably improved in the last 2 or 3 years. Sustained virological response (SVR) rates around 90-95% can be achieved with the new direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) currently available, with few side effects. It is necessary to increase the number of diagnosed patients, linking them to adequate management and treatment. Raising treatment rates will increase the percentage of cured patients, reducing the burden of disease. Primary care physicians´ role is essential to achieve this goal. They must identify persons at risk, diagnose them and work with specialists to continue their medical care. Team working of generalists and specialists will permit that more HCV infected people can access to adequate care and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina/epidemiology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(4): 330-334, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828129

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Worldwide about 30% of HIV-infected patients are coinfected with HCV or HBV. The HIV/HCV coinfection is more common in individuals who have a history of drug addiction. The aims of this study were to assess the HCV and HBV prevalence in HIV-infected patients and analyze their characteristics. Methods We considered the new HIV diagnoses notified by the regional surveillance system of Tuscany from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the socio-demographic characteristics, routes of transmission, and reason to perform the test. In coinfected patients we assessed the risk for being late presenter (LP) or the risk of having AIDS. Results In 5 years of surveillance a total of 1354 new HIV diagnoses were notified: 1188 (87.7%) were HIV alone, 106 (7.8%) HIV/HCV, 56 (4.1%) HIV/HBV, and 4 (0.33%) HIV/HCV/HBV. The main risk factor was injection drug use in 52.8% of HCV/HIV cases, while in HIV/HBV patients the main risk factor was sexual exposure. HIV/HBV coinfected patients showed worse clinical and immunological features than HIV and HIV/HCV patients: 78.6% had CD4 count less than 350 mm−3 (vs. 54.6% and 62.1%, respectively) and 39.4% had AIDS (vs 20.7% and 7.6%). The risk for being LP triples for HIV/HBV (OR 2.98; 95% IC: 1.56–5.70) than patients with HIV alone. Conclusions We have observed less advanced disease in HIV and HCV-HIV patients compared with HBV–HIV coinfected patients. Moreover, our results show a higher prevalence of HIV/HCV among drug addicts and in the age-group 35–59, corresponding to those born in years considered most at risk for addiction. This study also confirms the finding of a less advanced HIV disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Italy/epidemiology
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(6): 828-835, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769523

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic manifestations are seen in association with chronic infection by hepatitis B or C virus including cutaneous disorders. The frequency of these findings seems to vary among different places and reports. There is a lack of information about this issue in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of cutaneous findings affecting HBV or HCV carriers from a reference outpatient unit in Mato Grosso. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study. RESULTS: 108 patients were studied. 88.9% presented some cutaneous findings but must of them were nonrelated to chronic viral infection. Four patients had cutaneous or autoimmune syndromes that may be HBV or HCV related. CONCLUSION: In our study we found no statistical association between viral hepatitis and skin diseases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Skin Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Skin Diseases, Viral/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Prevalence , Risk Factors
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(4): 363-368, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759278

ABSTRACT

Background: Hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma; and liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to estimate hepatitis C virus disease progression and the burden of disease from a nationwide perspective.Methods: Using a model developed to forecast hepatitis C virus disease progression and the number of cases at each stage of liver disease; hepatitis C virus-infected population and associated disease progression in Brazil were quantified. The impact of two different strategies was compared: higher sustained virological response and treatment eligibility rates (1) or higher diagnosis and treatment rates associated with increased sustained virological response rates (2).Results: The number of infected individuals is estimated to decline by 35% by 2030 (1,255,000 individuals); while the number of cases of compensated (n= 325,900) and decompen- sated (n= 45,000) cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma (n= 19,100); and liver-related deaths (n= 16,700) is supposed to peak between 2028 and 2032. In strategy 2; treated cases increased over tenfold in 2020 (118,800 treated) as compared to 2013 (11,740 treated); with sustained virological response increased to 90% and treatment eligibility to 95%. Under this strategy; the number of infected individuals decreased by 90% between 2013 and 2030. Compared to the base case; liver-related deaths decreased by 70% by 2030; while hepatitis C virus-related liver cancer and decompensated cirrhosis decreased by 75 and 80%; respectively.Conclusions: While the incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus in Brazil are decreasing; cases of advanced liver disease continue to rise. Besides higher sustained virological response rates; new strategies focused on increasing the proportion of diagnosed patients and eligibility to treatment should be adopted in order to reduce the burden of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/virology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Liver Neoplasms/virology , Antiviral Agents , Brazil/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Incidence , Liver Transplantation , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , Risk Factors
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(3): 258-264, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749874

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is considered to be one of the major risks for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis (HD) and patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study compared the prevalence of OBI among these two high-risk groups in the Suez Canal region, Northeastern Egypt, to obtain a better national overview of the magnitude of OBI in this region. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 165 HD patients and 210 chronic HCV-infected patients. Anti-HCV antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HCV RNA was detected using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and HBV was detected using a nested PCR. RESULTS: All patients were negative for HBsAg. A total of 49.1% and 25.2% of the patients in the HD and HCV groups, respectively, were anti-HBc-positive. In addition, more anti-HBs-positive patients were detected in the HD group compared to the HCV group (52.1% and 11.4%, respectively). Three cases were positive for HBV DNA in the HD group, while eighteen positive cases were detected in the HCV group. Both study groups showed significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level as well as anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV-DNA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was more prevalent among chronic HCV patients than HD patients in the Suez Canal region, Egypt, with rates of 8.5% and 1.8%, respectively. However, more precise assessment of this infection requires regular patient follow-up using HBV DNA detection methods. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , DNA, Viral/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Egypt/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
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