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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 150-156, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis is a global phenomenon, with the disease burden varying on a daily basis. Amongst chronic infections, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are egregiously linked to severe health-related complications, with a worldwide prevalence of 248 million and 71 million respectively. Amongst the developing world, a hand full of countries are exhibiting a gross decline in chronic viral infection prevalence, like Bangladesh. While countries such as India have a consistent prevalence, Pakistan bears one of the largest proportions of chronic viral hepatitis globally with increasing trends shown year-by-year. Various old literature texts have stated an approximate national prevalence rate around 2.6% and 5.3% of hepatitis B and C respectively. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the current seroprevalence rates of chronic viral hepatitis amongst the general population of rural Sindh using a screening program to determine the current disease burden. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional survey based on a screening program was conducted in 5 districts with a combined population of over 6.5 million. The screening was carried out via the administration of various camps with the assistance of local social workers and welfare organizations. A total of 24,322 individuals met the inclusion criteria and were screened through (HBsAg/HCV) rapid test cassette (WC) Imu-Med one-step diagnostic test. RESULTS: Hepatitis B was found positive in 964 (3.96%) individuals including 421 (43.67%) males and 543 (56.32%) females, while hepatitis C was positive in 2872 (11.80%) individuals including 1474 (51.32%) males and 1398 (48.67%) females. The prevalence amongst the districts varied between 0.97% and 9.06% for hepatitis B, and 1.61% and 29.50% for hepatitis C, respectively. Umerkot was found to be the most prevalent district amongst rural Sindh, while Badin had the least number of seropositive people. The second most prevalent district of the study population was found to be Tando Allahyar followed by Mirpur Khas. The combined seroprevalence of 15.76% was calculated for hepatitis B and C together amongst the five studied districts of rural and peri-urban Sindh. CONCLUSION: The alarmingly high prevalence rates revealed in our study warrant the urgent need to generate multiple effective strategies in the region to enhance awareness amongst the general population regarding screening, prevention, and prompt treatment of the disease.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite viral é um fenômeno global, com a intensidade da doença variando diariamente. Entre as infecções crônicas, o vírus da hepatite B e o vírus da hepatite C (VHC) estão fortemente ligados a complicações graves relacionadas à saúde, com prevalência mundial de 248 milhões e 71 milhões, respectivamente. Entre o mundo em desenvolvimento, uma quantidade de países está exibindo um declínio bruto na prevalência de infecção viral crônica, tal como Bangladesh. Embora países como a Índia tenham uma prevalência consistente, o Paquistão tem uma das maiores proporções globais de hepatite viral crônica, com tendências crescentes mostradas ano a ano. Vários textos da menos recentes têm declarado uma taxa de prevalência nacional aproximada em torno de 2,6% e 5,3% da hepatite B e C, respectivamente. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as atuais taxas de soroprevalência da hepatite viral crônica entre a população geral do Sindh rural utilizando um programa de triagem para determinar a carga atual da doença. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa observacional e transversal baseada em um programa de triagem combinada em cinco distritos com população de mais de 6,5 milhões. A triagem foi realizada por meio da administração de diversos acampamentos com o auxílio de assistentes sociais locais e organizações de assistência social. Um total de 24.322 indivíduos atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e foram examinados através do teste rápido (HBsAg/VHC) Imu-Med em uma etapa. RESULTADOS: Hepatite B positiva foi encontrada em 964 (3,96%) indivíduos incluindo 421 (43,67%) homens e 543 (56,32%) mulheres, enquanto hepatite C foi positiva em 2.872 (11,80%) indivíduos incluindo 1.474 (51,32%) homens e 1.398 (48,67%) mulheres. A prevalência entre os distritos variou entre 0,97% e 9,06% para hepatite B, e 1,61% e 29,50% para hepatite C, respectivamente. Umerkot foi encontrado como o distrito mais prevalente entre Sindh rural, enquanto Badin tinha o menor número de pessoas soropositivas. O segundo distrito mais prevalente da população de estudos foi encontrado como Tando Allahyar, seguido por Mirpur Khas. A soroprevalência combinada de 15,76% foi calculada para hepatite B e C em conjunto entre os cinco distritos estudados do Sindh rural e periurbano. CONCLUSÃO: As taxas de prevalência alarmantemente reveladas em nosso estudo justificam a necessidade urgente de gerar múltiplas estratégias efetivas na região para aumentar a conscientização da população em geral sobre rastreamento, prevenção e tratamento rápido da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 1-5, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287233

ABSTRACT

Resumen La principal infección viral transmisible por sangre es actualmente la debida al virus de hepatitis C (VHC). Uno de los mayores obstáculos para el logro de su control en la Argentina se relaciona con las dificultades de acceso al diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de las personas infectadas. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar a los pacientes infectados con VHC que iniciaron tratamiento con antivirales de acción directa (AAD) y describir la experiencia vinculada al tratamiento. Se seleccionaron las historias clínicas de 82 pacientes, 44 (53.7%) de sexo masculino, 37 (45.1%) de sexo femenino, y uno (1.2%) transgénero. La media de edad fue de 49 años. Se halló una frecuencia de cirrosis de 39%, 32 pacientes, coinfección con HIV en 48 (58.5%) y con VHB en 27 (32.9%). En 52 (63.4%) no se observó ningún factor de riesgo claramente asociado a infección. Todos completaron la terapia, de ellos 72 (87.8%) efectuaron el control para confirmar respuesta viral sostenida (RVS), que fue de 98.6%. Concluimos que el testeo universal debe implementarse por sobre el testeo con enfoque de riesgo, y que debe promoverse un criterio de atención simplificado y descentralizado, reservando la atención especializada para pacientes con cirrosis descompensada y cáncer de hígado.


Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the main blood-borne viral infection. One of the main obstacles to achieving its control in Argentina is related to difficulties in accessing the diagnosis and timely treatment of infected people. We carried out this study with the aim of characterizing the HCV-infected patients who started treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and to describe the experience related to treatment. The medical records of 82 patients, 44 (53.7%) male, 37 (45.1%) female, and one (1.2%) transgender, were selected. The mean age was 49 years. We report a frequency of cirrhosis, 39%, in 32 patients, coinfection with HIV in 48 (58.5%) and with HBV in 27 (32.9%). In 52 patients (63.4%), no risk factor clearly associated with infection was observed. All completed the therapy, of them 72 (87.8%) carried out the control to confirm sustained viral response (SVR), that attained 98.6%. We conclude that universal testing should be implemented over testing based on a risk approach, and that a simplified and decentralized care criterion should be promoted, reserving specialized care for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative sample to plasma.@*Method@#A total of 571 paired DBS/plasma samples were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users (IDUs), and serological and molecular assays were performed. Using plasma results as the reference standard, the performance of DBS tests for HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA was evaluated. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to assess the correlation and concordance between DBS and plasma.@*Results@#Among paired plasma/DBS samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA, five samples (5/32) were not detectable in DBS, while measurable HIV-1 RNA levels were present in plasma (1.44 to 3.99 log @*Conclusion@#The performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one DBS was acceptable. DBS, as an alternative sample to plasma, may be a viable option for the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA in resource-limited settings or for individuals living in areas that are difficult to access.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Syphilis/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020834, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250844

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article discusses viral hepatitis, a theme addressed by the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines to Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and, more precisely, by the Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C and Coinfections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Besides the broad spectrum of health impairment, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses also present different transmission forms, whether parenteral, sexual, vertical, or fecal-oral. Among the strategies suggested for the control of viral hepatitis, in addition to behavioral measures, are expanded diagnosis, early vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses, and access to available therapeutic resources. Considering vertical transmission of the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, screening for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B and C is an essential perinatal health strategy, indicating with precision those who can benefit from the prophylactic interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e02532020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155541

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay to confirm anti-HCV results to determine whether the HCV core antigen test could be used as an alternative confirmatory test to the HCV RNA test. METHODS: Sera from 156 patients were analyzed for anti-HCV and HCV core antigen using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Architect i2000SR) and for HCV RNA using the artus HCV RG RT-PCR Kit (QIAGEN) in a Rotor-Gene Q instrument. RESULTS: The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the HCV core antigen assay compared to the HCV RNA test were 77.35%, 100%, 100%, and 89.38%, respectively. HCV core antigen levels showed a good correlation with those from HCV RNA quantification (r =0.872). However, 13 samples with a viral load of less than 4000 IU/mL were negative in the HCV core antigen assay. All gray-zone reactive samples were also RNA positive and were positive on repeat testing. CONCLUSIONS: The Architect HCV core antigen assay is highly specific and has an excellent positive predictive value. At the present level of sensitivity (77%), the study is still relevant in a low-income setting in which most of the HCV-positive patients would go undiagnosed, since HCV RNA testing is not available and/or not affordable. HCV core antigen testing can also help determine the true burden of infection in a population, considering the fact that almost 50% of the anti-HCV positive cases are negative for HCV RNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/genetics , RNA, Viral , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hepatitis C Antigens , Hepatitis C Antibodies
6.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1850-1861, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127046

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la cirrosis es un proceso dinámico y actualmente se conoce que cuando se elimina el agente primario de agresión que ha producido la cirrosis, se puede llegar a remitir la fibrosis. En Cuba la enfermedad representa la décima causa de muerte, con una tendencia ascendente en los últimos 20 años y una tasa de 13,4 por 100 000 habitantes. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y endoscópicamente a pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Material y método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en el período comprendido entre los años 2017 - 19, donde el universo y la muestra quedaron constituidos por todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años ingresados con diagnóstico de cirrosis hepática. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino en la sexta década de la vida, siento la principal causa el alcoholismo, caracterizado por manifestaciones generales, que en muchos casos debutan por complicaciones, apareciendo várices esofágicas en el 75 % de los casos, aunque gados I y II de Paquet, dependiente a un diagnóstico precoz de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: el alcoholismo crónico es la causa más frecuente de cirrosis hepática, debuta de forma frecuente por sus complicaciones, aunque el diagnóstico se hace en etapas precoces, con varices esofágicas incipientes (AU).


Summary Introduction: liver cirrhosis is a dynamic process and currently it is known that, when the primary agent of aggression that has produced the cirrhosis is eliminated, the fibrosis could remit. In Cuba, this diseases is the tenth cause of death, with an increasing tendency in the last twenty years and a rate of 13.4 per 100 000 inhabitants. Objective: to characterize, clinically and endoscopically, patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosis. Material and methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, in the period 2017 - 2019, where the universe and the sample were formed by all the patients aged more than 18 years who entered the hospital with diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Results: in this paper, male patients in their sixties predominated, being alcoholism the main cause of disease, characterized by general manifestations; patients debuted due to complications, appearing esophageal varices in 75 % of the cases, although Paquet I and II grades, in dependence to a disease precocious diagnosis. Conclusions: the authors concluded that chronic alcoholism is the most frequent cause in hepatic cirrhosis, almost always debuting by its complications, though the diagnosis is made in precocious stages, with emerging esophageal varices (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Ascites/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Alcoholism/complications , Endoscopy , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology
8.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(2): 84-90, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148444

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A hemoterapia consiste no tratamento terapêutico através da transfusão sanguínea. Considerando à vasta quantidade de doenças infecciosas que podem ser transmitidas pelo sangue, se faz necessária a realização de exames laboratoriais de alta sensibilidade para minimizar os riscos transfusionais aos doadores e receptores. Assim, no estudo foi avaliada a prevalência de marcadores sorológicos para Hepatite B e C em um banco de sangue de Porto Alegre- RS, bem como a correlação entre a sorologia e o teste de amplificação de ácido nucléico (NAT). Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, descritivo e retrospectivo que foi realizado através da análise das informações de todos os doadores de sangue contidas em um banco de dados de um Banco de Sangue de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, nos anos de 2017 e 2018, avaliando resultados da sorologia e o teste NAT para hepatite B e Hepatite C. Resultados: Das 17.181 doações de sangue, o total de bolsas sorologicamente reagentes foi 162 (0,94%) reagentes para o Anti-HBc, 20 (0,12%) amostras foram positivas para o HbsAg e 62 (0,36%) reagentes para o Anti-HCV. Apenas 4 (0,02%) amostras foram reagentes simultaneamente para o Anti-HBC e para o HbsAg, as quais foram também positivas no teste NAT. Já o teste NAT nas amostras reagente para Hepatite C, corresponderam a 18 (0,10%). Conclusões: A evolução da biotecnologia vem auxiliando a biossegurança nas transfusões de sangue. Considerando que a implementação do teste NAT é relativamente recente nos bancos de sangue, sugere-se mais estudos com períodos diferentes de tempo para a pesquisa de resultados satisfatórios, além disso, possibilitando elucidar ainda mais os resultados voltados à segurança transfusional e a associação dos testes sorológicos e o teste NAT nos bancos de sangue. (AU)


Introduction: Hemotherapy consists of therapeutic treatment using blood transfusion. Because of the vast amount of bloodborne infectious diseases, highly sensitive laboratory tests must be conducted to minimize the transfusion risks for donors and recipients. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C serological markers in samples from a blood bank in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, as well as the correlation between serology and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, retrospective study was conducted to analyze blood donor information obtained from a blood bank database in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, concerning 2017 and 2018. Serology and NAT results for hepatitis B and C were examined. Results: Of 17,181 blood donations, the total number of serologically reactive samples was 162 (0.94%) for anti-HBc, 20 (0.12%) for HbsAg, and 62 (0.36%) for anti-HCV. Only 4 (0.02%) samples were simultaneously reactive for anti-HBc and HbsAg, being also positive in NAT. The number of samples reactive to hepatitis C in NAT was 18 (0.10%). Conclusions: Biotechnological evolution has contributed to biosafety in blood transfusions. Considering that NAT is relatively recent in blood banks, further studies using different time periods are suggested for yielding satisfactory results for transfusion safety and elucidating the combination of serological testing and NAT at blood banks. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Serology , Blood Banks/methods , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 539-549, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056608

ABSTRACT

Abstract According to data from the last census of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology (SBN), the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Brazilian hemodialysis units (HU) is 3.3%, about three times higher than what is reported for the Brazilian general population. Often, professionals working in HU are faced with clinical situations that require rapid HCV diagnosis in order to avoid horizontal transmission within the units. On the other hand, thanks to the development of new antiviral drugs, the cure of patients with HCV, both in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease and the disease eradication, appear to be very feasible objectives to be achieved in the near future . In this scenario, SBN and the Brazilian Society of Hepatology present in this review article a proposal to approach HCV within HUs.


Resumo De acordo com os dados do último censo da Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia (SBN), a prevalência de portadores do vírus da hepatite C (HCV) nas unidades de hemodiálise (UH) no Brasil é de 3,3%, cerca de três vezes maior do que é observado na população geral brasileira. Muitas vezes, os profissionais que trabalham nas UH deparam-se com situações clínicas que demandam rápido diagnóstico do HCV, a fim de evitar uma transmissão horizontal dentro das unidades. Por outro lado, a cura dos pacientes portadores do HCV, tanto na população geral como na portadora de doença renal crônica e a erradicação da doença, em virtude do desenvolvimento de novas drogas antivirais, parecem ser objetivos bastante factíveis, a ser alcançados em futuro próximo. Nesse cenário, a SBN e a Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia apresentam neste artigo de revisão uma proposta de abordagem do HCV dentro das UH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , RNA Viruses/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Prevalence , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Nephrology/organization & administration , Nephrology/statistics & numerical data
10.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190004, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990748

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Introduction: This paper details the methods used in the second national Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BBSS) of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C among men who have sex with men in Brazil. Methods: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used in 12 cities in 2016. The targeted sample size was initiated with five to six seeds in each city. HIV, syphilis, and Hepatitis B and C rapid tests were offered to participants. RDS Analyst with Gile's successive sampling (SS) estimator was used to adjust results as recommended and a weight for each individual was generated for further analysis. Data for the 12 cities were merged and analyzed using Stata 14.0 complex survey data tools with each city treated as its own stratum. Results: Duration of data collection varied from 5.9 to 17.6 weeks. 4,176 men were recruited in the 12 cities. Two sites failed to achieve targeted sample size due to a six-month delay in local IRB approval. No city failed to reach convergence in our major outcome variable (HIV). Conclusion: The comprehensive BBSS was completed as planned and on budget. The description of methods here is more detailed than usual, due to new diagnostic tools and requirements of the new STROBE-RDS guidelines.


RESUMO: Introdução: Este artigo detalha os métodos utilizados na segunda Pesquisa Nacional de Vigilância Biológica e Comportamental (BBSS) do HIV, sífilis e hepatite B e C entre os homens que fazem sexo com homens no Brasil. Métodos: O método Respondent-driven Sampling (RDS) foi utilizado em 12 cidades em 2016. A amostra foi iniciada com cinco a seis sementes em cada cidade. Testes rápidos para o HIV, sífilis e Hepatite B e C foram oferecidos aos participantes. O software RDS Analyst com o estimador de amostragem sucessiva (SS) de Gile foi utilizado para ajustar os resultados como recomendado, gerando um peso para cada indivíduo para análises. Osdados das 12cidades foram unidos em um único banco e analisados usando as ferramentas de dados complexos do Stata 14.0, com cada cidade sendo tratada como seu próprio estrato. Resultados: A duração da coleta de dados variou de 5,9 a 17,6 semanas e 4.176 homens foram recrutados nas 12 cidades. Dois sites não alcançaram o tamanho da amostra alvo devido a uma demora de seis meses na aprovação local do Comitê de Ética. Todas as cidades atingiram a convergência na principal variável estudada (HIV). Conclusão: O BBSS foi representativo e concluído conforme planejado e dentro do orçamento. A descrição dos métodos aqui é mais detalhada do que o habitual, devido às novas ferramentas e requisitos de diagnóstico das novas diretrizes do STROBE-RDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syphilis/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys/methods , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Self Report , Hepatitis B/epidemiology
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190202, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041534

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is affected by demographic, virological, clinical, and lifestyle-related factors and varies in different regions in Brazil or worldwide. The present study aimed to clarify the epidemiological patterns of HCV infection in the interior region of Brazil. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to the guidelines of the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis. The participants answered a structured questionnaire on social and epidemiological factors. Immunochromatographic rapid tests were used for the qualitative detection of antibodies against HCV in whole blood (Alere HCV® Code 02FK10) in adult subjects by a free-standing method. RESULTS: Of 24,085 tested individuals, 184 (0.76%) were anti-HCV positive. The majority of anti-HCV-positive individuals were born between 1951 and 1980 (n=146 [79.3%]), with 68 women and 116 men. Identified risk factors included syringe and/or needle sharing (p = 0.003), being in prison (p = 0.004), and having tattoos or piercings (p = 0.005) and were significantly associated with the decade of birth. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the importance of testing populations at risk for HCV infection, including incarcerated individuals, those with tattoos or piercings, those who share or have shared syringes or needles, and those in high-risk birth cohorts (1950s, 1960s, and 1970s) in the Southern Triangle Macro-region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Epidemiological Monitoring , Middle Aged
12.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(2): e2018408, 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019842

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar os fatores sociodemográficos relacionados ao não uso do preservativo nas relações sexuais e a prevalência de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) em comunidades rurais de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil, entre 2014 e 2016. Métodos: foram coletados dados de entrevista individual e realizados testes rápidos; as associações foram testadas pelo modelo de regressão de Poisson, com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: foram detectados 3,8 casos/10 mil habitantes de hepatite B e sífilis, e 1,3/10 mil hab. de hepatite C; não foram detectados casos de HIV; na análise multivariada, foram encontradas maiores prevalências de não uso de preservativos entre indivíduos casados/em união estável/viúvos (RP=1,20 - IC95% 1,06;1,36). Conclusão: o grupo com maior prevalência de não uso de preservativo é o de pessoas com relacionamento fixo; novos casos de sífilis e de hepatites virais foram detectados pelo teste rápido, aplicado no inquérito.


Objetivo: investigar el perfil sociodemográfico asociado al no uso del preservativo en las relaciones sexuales y describir la prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en comunidades rurales de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil, entre 2014 y 2016. Métodos: se recolectaron datos en entrevista individual y se realizaron pruebas rápidas; las asociaciones fueron analizadas por la regresión de Poisson, con intervalo de confianza de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: se detectaron 3,8 casos/10 mil habitantes de hepatitis B y sífilis, y 1,3/10 mil habitantes de hepatitis C; no se detectaron casos de VIH; el análisis multivariado mostró mayor prevalencia de no uso del preservativo para personas casadas /en unión estable/viudos (RP=1,20 - IC95% 1,06;1,36). Conclusión: se detectaron nuevos casos de sífilis y hepatitis virales por las pruebas rápidas en esta investigación; el grupo de mayor riesgo de no usar preservativo fue de personas casadas/con relación fija.


Objective: to investigate socio-demographic factors associated with non-use of condoms, and to describe the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in rural communities of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2014 to 2016. Methods: data were gathered from individual interviews and rapid tests were performed; associations were tested using Poisson regression, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: we detected 3.8 cases/10,000 inhabitants for hepatitis B and syphilis, and 1.3 cases/10,000 inhabitants for hepatitis C; no HIV cases were detected; in the multivariate analysis we found higher prevalence rates of condom non-use among the group of individuals who were married, had common law partners or were widowed (PR=1.20 - 95%CI 1.06;1.36). Conclusion: individuals in a stable relationship formed the group with the highest prevalence rate of condom non-use; new syphilis and viral hepatitis cases were detected using rapid tests during the survey.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Syphilis Serodiagnosis , AIDS Serodiagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Serologic Tests/methods , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Condoms/trends
13.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 33(169)2019.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1268566

ABSTRACT

Introduction: le virus de l'hépatite C (VHC) a plusieurs manifestations extra hépatiques parmi lesquelles la cryoglubulinémie. La cryoglobulinémie se définit par la présence anormale dans le sang d'une ou plusieurs protéines (cryoglobuline) pouvant précipiter au froid. Méthodes: nous avons mené une étude transversale et analytique dans le service du laboratoire de biologie et l'unité d'hépatologie de l'Hôpital Général de Douala (HGD) pendant une durée de 6 mois. Etaient inclus dans le travail tous les patients acceptant de participer et porteurs d'un anticorps anti VHC avec ou sans traitement. Les cryoglobulines étaient recherchés par la méthode de Biuret et la classification était réalisée par une immunoélectrophorèse de Brouet. Une analyse multivariée a été réalisée, des facteurs de confusion tels que l'âge, le sexe et la durée après dépistage du VHC ont été ajustés.Résultats: nous avons inclus 116 patients. L'âge moyen était de 58,47 ± 9,95 ans. Le sexe masculin représentait 50,86% des cas. L'arthralgie était présente dans 69,80% des cas. La cryoglubiline était présente chez 63,80% des cas. Apres ajustement, le sexe féminin (ORa =2,18; IC à 95% [0,97-4, 90]; p= 0,059), l'asthénie seule (ORa =2,45; IC à 95% [1,04-5,80]; p= 0,041), l'asthénie couplée à l'arthralgie (ORa =2,84; IC à 95% [1,13-7, 10]; p= 0,026) et la présence de l'ARN du VHC (ORa =2,84; IC à 95% [1,13-7, 10]; p= 0,028) étaient des facteurs indépendamment associés à la présence de cryoglobuline.Conclusion: la prévalence de la cryoglobubine est élevée chez les patients porteurs de l'Ac anti VHC à l'HGD. Elle est recherchée par les méthodes biologiques simples. La recherche de cryoglobuline chez les patients porteurs du VHC est essentielle dans un pays à ressource limité


Subject(s)
Cameroon , Cryoglobulinemia/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/diagnosis
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 737-741, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977103

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have identical transmission routes, explaining the high prevalence of coinfections. The main aim of this study was to detect fluctuations in serological HCV levels in HIV patients. METHODS: We analyzed samples of 147 patients who attended an outpatient service that supports HIV/AIDS patients in São Paulo city. We also recruited 22 HCV-monoinfected patients who attended the Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory in São Paulo city, to compare the test results. Serological testing of the blood samples was performed for the detection of HCV antibodies. The samples were then analyzed using real-time PCR for RNA viral quantification and sequencing. RESULTS We found that 13.6% of the study population was coinfected with HIV and HCV. In 20% of coinfected patients, fluctuations in serology results were detected in samples collected during the follow-up. No changes in anti-HCV serological markers were observed in HCV-monoinfected patients. An HCV viral load was detected in 9,5% of the samples collected from HIV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important clinical data to public health professionals and highlight the importance of periodic monitoring of HCV/HIV coinfected patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , RNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepacivirus/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Coinfection , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 198-202, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041449

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and risk behaviors among 402 female sex workers in Central Brazil were investigated by respondent-driven sampling. METHODS: Blood samples were tested for hepatitis B and C markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hepatitis B vaccination schedules were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections were 9.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Susceptibility to hepatitis B infection was observed in 61.5% of subjects. There was no significant difference in adherence index (p=0.52) between vaccination schedules and all participants had protective antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: This hard-to-reach population requires hepatitis B and C surveillance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Middle Aged
20.
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 96(1): 51-58, 2018. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1259914

ABSTRACT

With the introduction of direct-acting antiviral drugs, treatment of hepatitis C is both highly effective and tolerable. Access to treatment for patients, however, remains limited in low- and middle-income countries due to the lack of supportive health infrastructure and the high cost of treatment. Poorer countries are being encouraged by international bodies to organize public health responses that would facilitate the roll-out of care and treatment on a national scale. Yet few countries have documented formal plans and policies. Here, we outline the approach taken in Rwanda to a public health framework for hepatitis C control and care within the World Health Organization hepatitis health sector strategy. This includes the development and implementation of policies and programmes, prevention efforts, screening capacity, treatment services and strategic information systems. We highlight key successes by the national programme for the control and management of hepatitis C: establishment of national governance and planning; development of diagnostic capacity; approval and introduction of direct-acting antiviral treatments; training of key personnel; generation of political will and leadership; and fostering of key strategic partnerships. Existing challenges and next steps for the programme include developing a detailed monitoring and evaluation framework and tools for monitoring of viral hepatitis. The government needs to further decentralize care and integrate hepatitis C management into routine clinical services to provide better access to diagnosis and treatment for patients. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests to public health-care facilities would help to increase case-finding. Increased public and private financing is essential to support care and treatment services


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/therapy , Program , Rwanda
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