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Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 399-401, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345294


ABSTRACT According to the World Health Organization, 71 million people live with chronic hepatitis C. The treatment of this disease requires assistance from specialized physicians and a highly complex health care system. The prison population has been recognized as being at a high risk of acquiring confinement-related infections, including viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a primary cause of death owing to liver disease among liberty-deprived individuals. Generally, prisons do not have adequate isolation wards for persons with communicable diseases, and overcrowding is a risk factor for this population. Besides prison overcrowding, violence, poor sanitary conditions, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, and emotional instability are factors that can lead detainees to adopt unhealthy habits that make them more susceptible to infections, including HCV, and complicate effective treatment. The Criminal Execution Law 7, 210 of July 11, 1984, in Article 14, grants preventive and curative medical, dental, and pharmacological healthcare to detainees. However, adequate hepatitis C treatment is rarely provided at prisons owing to social stigma and lack of knowledge on the severity of this condition or because most detainees are unaware of their condition. Given the multiple limitations imposed by the prison system model, implementing measures to treat diseases effectively is challenging. However, it is possible to eliminate hepatitis C in prisons in the long term through the coordinated action of public health institutions and the prison system.

RESUMO De acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde, 71 milhões de pessoas vivem com hepatite C crônica. O tratamento dessa doença requer assistência de médicos especializados e um sistema de saúde de alta complexidade. A população carcerária tem sido reconhecida como sendo de alto risco de adquirir infecções relacionadas às condições de confinamento, incluindo hepatites virais. O vírus da hepatite C (VHC) é uma causa primária de morte por doença hepática em pessoas privadas de liberdade. Geralmente, as prisões não possuem locais adequados para isolamento de pessoas com doenças transmissíveis e a superlotação é um fator de risco para essa população. Além da superlotação das prisões, violência, más condições sanitárias, baixo nível socioeconômico, isolamento social e instabilidade emocional são motivos adicionais que induzem os detidos a praticar hábitos não saudáveis, que os tornam mais suscetíveis a certas infecções (incluindo VHC) e complicam o tratamento específico. A Lei de Execução Penal n. 7.210, de 11 de julho de 1984, em seu artigo 14, garante assistência preventiva e curativa à saúde, incluindo assistência médica, farmacêutica e odontológica aos detidos. No entanto, o tratamento adequado da hepatite C é raramente fornecido nas prisões devido estigma social ou falta de conhecimento de sua condição ou porque a maioria dos detidos não tem conhecimento de sua condição. Devido a múltiplas limitações impostas pelo modelo prisional, a implementação de medidas para o tratamento eficaz de doenças é desafiadora. No entanto, é possível eliminar a hepatite C em um ambiente prisional de longa permanência através de ações coordenadas de instituições de saúde pública e o sistema prisional.

Humans , Prisoners , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Hepacivirus
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020834, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250844


Abstract This article discusses viral hepatitis, a theme addressed by the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines to Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections and, more precisely, by the Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C and Coinfections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Besides the broad spectrum of health impairment, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses also present different transmission forms, whether parenteral, sexual, vertical, or fecal-oral. Among the strategies suggested for the control of viral hepatitis, in addition to behavioral measures, are expanded diagnosis, early vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses, and access to available therapeutic resources. Considering vertical transmission of the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, screening for pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B and C is an essential perinatal health strategy, indicating with precision those who can benefit from the prophylactic interventions.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 182-190, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019554


ABSTRACT Introduction and aim: Hepatitis C is a key challenge to public health in Brazil. The objective of this paper was to describe the Brazilian strategy for hepatitis C to meet the 2030 elimination goal proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). Methods: A mathematical modeling approach was used to estimate the current HCV-infected Brazilian population, and to evaluate the relative costs of two different scenarios to address HCV disease burden in Brazil: (1) if no further changes are made to the HCV treatment program in Brazil; (2) where the WHO targets for 2030 elimination are met through diagnosis and treatment efforts peaking before 2024. Results: An anti-HCV prevalence of 0.53% was calculated for the total population. It was estimated that the number of HCV-RNA+ individuals in Brazil in 2017 was 632,000 (0.31% of the population). Scale-up of treatment and diagnosis over time will be necessary in order to achieve WHO targets beginning in 2018. Direct costs (diagnostic, treatment and healthcare costs) are projected to increase significantly during the scale-up of treatment and diagnosis in the initial years of the intervention scenario, but then fall below the base case on an annual basis by 2025-2036, once HCV is eliminated, due to health sectors savings from the prevention of HCV liver-related morbidity and mortality. Conclusion: Achieving the WHO targets is technically feasible in Brazil with a scale-up of treatment and diagnosis over time, beginning in 2018. However, elimination of hepatitis C requires policy changes to substantially scale-up prevention, screening and treatment of HCV, together with public health advocacy to raise awareness among affected populations and healthcare providers.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/genetics , Disease Eradication/economics , World Health Organization , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Hepatitis C/economics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Genotype , Models, Theoretical
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 198-202, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041449


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and risk behaviors among 402 female sex workers in Central Brazil were investigated by respondent-driven sampling. METHODS: Blood samples were tested for hepatitis B and C markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hepatitis B vaccination schedules were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections were 9.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Susceptibility to hepatitis B infection was observed in 61.5% of subjects. There was no significant difference in adherence index (p=0.52) between vaccination schedules and all participants had protective antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: This hard-to-reach population requires hepatitis B and C surveillance.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Middle Aged
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 96(1): 51-58, 2018. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1259914


With the introduction of direct-acting antiviral drugs, treatment of hepatitis C is both highly effective and tolerable. Access to treatment for patients, however, remains limited in low- and middle-income countries due to the lack of supportive health infrastructure and the high cost of treatment. Poorer countries are being encouraged by international bodies to organize public health responses that would facilitate the roll-out of care and treatment on a national scale. Yet few countries have documented formal plans and policies. Here, we outline the approach taken in Rwanda to a public health framework for hepatitis C control and care within the World Health Organization hepatitis health sector strategy. This includes the development and implementation of policies and programmes, prevention efforts, screening capacity, treatment services and strategic information systems. We highlight key successes by the national programme for the control and management of hepatitis C: establishment of national governance and planning; development of diagnostic capacity; approval and introduction of direct-acting antiviral treatments; training of key personnel; generation of political will and leadership; and fostering of key strategic partnerships. Existing challenges and next steps for the programme include developing a detailed monitoring and evaluation framework and tools for monitoring of viral hepatitis. The government needs to further decentralize care and integrate hepatitis C management into routine clinical services to provide better access to diagnosis and treatment for patients. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests to public health-care facilities would help to increase case-finding. Increased public and private financing is essential to support care and treatment services

Cost of Illness , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/therapy , Program , Rwanda
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2018. 135 f p. graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008435


As questões que envolvem o lugar que os medicamentos ocupam no âmbito da saúde pública têm sido foco de importantes debates. A partir dos anos 1970, estados terceiro-mundistas levaram a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) a se debruçar sobre o tema, o que deu origem à primeira lista de medicamentos essenciais, num arranjo de governança em saúde marcadamente estadocêntrico e multilateral. Com a assinatura do Acordo TRIPS e a consolidação da epidemia de HIV como um problema de proporções mundiais, nos anos 1990, o conceito de medicamento essencial assume novos contornos, passando a ser disputado na governança da saúde global, sob a égide do multi-institucionalismo. O objetivo desta tese é estudar as trajetórias históricas e geográficas do conceito de medicamentos essenciais (ME), na transição da saúde internacional para a saúde global. Utilizamos os conceitos de "governança" e "governança em saúde", bem como os estudos do chamado campo da "saúde internacional/global" e a Teoria Crítica das Relações Internacionais para delinear os contextos políticos e econômicos que dão sustentação aos processos de deslocamento do conceito em análise. Partimos de literatura especializada, à qual agregamos o resultado de entrevistas informativas com atores chave, além de pesquisa documental nos arquivos da OMS, em Genebra. No primeiro capítulo, caracterizamos a Saúde Internacional, estudamos o nascimento da lista de medicamentos essenciais da OMS, calcada no multilateralismo e no estadocentrismo e apontamos os sinais que indicam a transição para a Saúde Global. No segundo, descrevemos a ascensão do neoliberalismo, a crise do Estado nacional e da própria OMS para caracterizar a Saúde Global como multi-institucional, formada por uma profusão de "atores". Discutimos os diversos sentidos atribuídos ao conceito de medicamentos essenciais e analisamos a atuação de organizações da sociedade civil, num movimento de repolitização do conceito. O terceiro capítulo estuda o caso do sofosbuvir, medicamento para tratar a Hepatite C, com seus desdobramentos para a governança em saúde e para os medicamentos essenciais. O estudo permitiu concluir que a inclusão do sofosbuvir na lista de ME da OMS, em 2015, tem origem nos processos políticos desencadeados em 2001. Argumentamos que o caso em análise determinou deslocamentos históricos e desencadeou rearranjos geográficos na dinâmica Norte-Sul, afetando de maneira emblemática a questão do acesso a medicamentos

The issues surrounding the place of medicines in public health have been the focus of important discussions. Since the 1970s, third-world states have led the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the issue, which has given rise to the first list of essential drugs in a markedly state-centric and multilateral health governance arrangement. With the signing of the TRIPs Agreement and the consolidation of the HIV epidemic as a problem of worldwide proportions, in the 1990s the concept of essential medicine takes on new shapes, and is challenged in global health governance under the aegis of multistakeholderism. The objective of this thesis is to study the historical and geographical trajectories of the essential drugs concept, in the transition from international health to global health. We use the concepts of "governance" and "health governance" as well as studies of the so-called "international / global health" field and the Critical Theory of International Relations to delineate the political and economic contexts that underpin the concept under analysis. We started with specialized literature, to which we aggregated the information withdrawn from interviews with key actors, as well as research in the WHO archives Headquarters in Geneva. In the first chapter, we characterize International Health, we study the birth of the essential medicines list of the WHO, based on multilateralism and the state-centric, and point out the signs that indicate the transition to Global Health. In the second chapter, we describe the rise of neoliberalism, the crisis of the State and of the WHO's itself to characterize Global Health as multistakeholder environment, formed by an assemblage of "actors". We discuss the different meanings attributed to the concept of essential drugs and analyze the performance of civil society organizations in re-politicizing the concept. The third chapter looks at the case of sofosbuvir, a drug to treat Hepatitis C, and its implications for health governance and essential medicines. The study allowed us to conclude that the inclusion of sofosbuvir in the WHO essential medicines list in 2015 derives from the political processes initiated in 2001. We argue that the case in question determined historical displacements and triggered geographic rearrangements in the North-South dynamics, regarding the issue of access to medicines

Humans , Public Health/trends , Global Health/trends , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Drugs, Essential , Sofosbuvir/supply & distribution
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(3): 104-122, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117110


At the 67° World Health Assembly (WHA67.6), member states are encouraged to undertake measures to ensure and strengthen surveillance, prevention, access to treatment and control of viral hepatitis in all countries. In this context- and although in Chile hepatitis C is considered a low endemic pathology- efforts have been made to improve the lives of people infected by this virus. In the process of inclusion of new direct-action therapies such as Explicit Guarantees in Health (GES), it was necessary to know the real demand, as well as some important variables for decision-making. Methodology: In 2016, the Ministry of Health requested to the centers of hepatitis C of the public health system of the country, to report in Excel spreadsheets the list of patients under control, including variables of clinical-epidemiological interest. Sensitive data from these cases guaranteed throughout the process. Descriptive analysis of the profile of the patient, genotype, comorbidities, as well as liver transplantation, the result of previous treatment and candidates for new therapies according to prioritization criteria, established in GES regulation. In the results the characterization of the patients is described: the age is concentrated between 45 and 69 years old, without greater difference by sex, the most common genotype is 1 with 60% and 18% for genotype 3, 35% has cirrhosis, 21% has esophageal varicose veins, 6% HCV/HIV co-infection, 0.8% HCV/HBV co-infection, 7% with hemophilia.

En la 67ª Asamblea Mundial de la Salud (WHA67.6) se recomienda a los estados miembros emprender medidas para garantizar y fortalecer la vigilancia, prevención, acceso al tratamiento y control de las hepatitis virales en todos los países. En este contexto, y pese a que en Chile se considera la hepatitis C como una patología de baja endemia, se han realizado esfuerzos para mejorar la vida de las personas infectadas por este virus. En el proceso de inclusión de las nuevas terapias de acción directa como garantías explícitas en Salud (GES), se requirió conocer la demanda real, así como algunas variables importantes para la toma de decisiones. Metodología: El año 2016 desde el Ministerio de Salud se solicitó a los centros tratantes de hepatitis C del sistema público de salud del país, informar el listado de pacientes bajo control, incluyendo variables de interés clínico epidemiológico requeridas en planillas Excel. Se garantizó en todo el proceso los datos sensibles de estos casos. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo del perfil del paciente, genotipo, comorbilidades, así como trasplante hepático, resultado de tratamiento anterior y candidatos a nuevas terapias según criterios de priorización, establecidos en la norma GES. En los resultados se describe la caracterización de los pacientes: la edad se concentra entre los 45 y 69 años, sin mayor diferencia por sexo, el genotipo más común es el 1 con 60% y 18% para el genotipo 3, 35% presenta cirrosis, 21% presenta várices esofágicas, 6% coinfección VHC/VIH, 0,8% coinfección VHC/VHB, 7% con hemofilia.

Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/genetics , Hepatitis C/therapy , Hepatitis C/transmission , Coinfection
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(supl.1): S32-S35, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117656


The process of evaluation of candidate patients for liver transplantation should include the risk of infectious diseases in order to prevent the drop out of the waiting list due to infections or the occurrence of these in the post-transplant period. Cirrhotic patients in the pre-transplant stage are very ill and usually have severe infections. The most common is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but they can also present urinary infections and pneumonias. Mortality due to infectious causes has been reported up to 40% in patients on the transplant waiting list. The transplanted patients may have a poor immune response to vaccination, so the optimal immunization period is pre-transplant. In the post-transplant period, Gram-negative bacterial infections are one of the main complications. Invasive fungal infections and cytomegalovirus can also have a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Transplanted patients may also have mycobacterial infections in relation to a latent tuberculosis infection. In the following article we present the pre-transplant evaluations, vaccination schemes and antimicrobial prophylaxis that are used in liver transplantation.

El proceso de evaluación de pacientes candidatos para trasplante hepático debe incluir el riesgo de enfermedades infecciosas a fin de prevenir la salida de la lista por infecciones o la ocurrencia de éstas en el período post-trasplante. Los pacientes cirróticos en la etapa pre-trasplante están muy enfermos y suelen presentar infecciones graves. La más común es la peritonitis bacteriana espontánea, pero también pueden presentar infecciones urinarias y neumonías. La mortalidad por causa infecciosa se ha reportado hasta en 40% en pacientes en lista de espera de trasplante. Los pacientes trasplantados pueden tener una pobre respuesta inmune a la vacunación, por lo que el momento óptimo de inmunización es en el período pretrasplante. En el período post-trasplante las infecciones bacterianas por Gram negativos son una de las principales complicaciones. Las infecciones por hongos invasores y el citomegalovirus también pueden tener un alto impacto en morbilidad y mortalidad. Los pacientes trasplantados también pueden presentar infecciones por micobacterias en relación a una infección latente por tuberculosis. En el siguiente artículo se presentan las evaluaciones pre-trasplante, esquemas de vacunación y profilaxis antimicrobiana que se utilizan en trasplante hepático.

Humans , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Transplantation Immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Vaccination , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Patient Selection , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2018; 24 (7): 609-610
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-199142
Rev. med. interna Guatem ; 21(2): 7-13, mayo.-jul. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995799


Antecedentes: Actualmente se estima que a nivel mundial cerca de 150 millones de personas están infectadas con virus de la hepatitis C (HCV) y se encuentran en riesgo de padecer cirrosis hepática y/o cáncer hepático. De estas, aproximadamente 350,000 mueren cada año por las causas antes mencionadas.(1) En Guatemala, los programas de prevención se han concentrado en el tamizaje y detección de la enfermedad en donantes de sangre, madres embarazadas, pacientes con alcoholismo crónico, usuarios de drogas, entre otros. Objetivo: Caracterizar y describir los principales factores asociados a la infección por el VHC. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio ambispectivo, descriptivo y analítico realizado en 138 pacientes con diagnóstico de infección por el HCV que asisten a la Clínica de Enfermedades Infecciosas de Hospital Roosevelt en el período 2007-2016. Se analizaron 29 variables agrupadas en cinco. categorías: características sociodemográficas, características de referencia, factores asociados a la infección por el HCV, características serológicas y virológicas del HCV y criterios para el cumplimiento de tratamiento. Cada una estás fue descrita en base a frecuencias, porcentajes y se calcularon intervalos de confianza al 95% para las variables relacionadas con los factores asociados a la infección por el HCV. También se estudiaron las relaciones entre los factores demográficos y los factores asociados con las pruebas estadísticas Xi cuadrado (a:0.10) y OR. Resultados: 138 pacientes fueron estudiados. 67 hombres y 71 mujeres, con edad promedio de 45 años. El perfil sociodemográfico más común en base a estos pacientes es una persona de 45 años de edad, residente de la ciudad capital, heterosexual, soltero(a), con una profesión u ocupación no relacionada a la salud y con un nivel de escolaridad de diversificado. Los factores asociados a la infección por el VHC que presentaron mayor porcentaje fueron; el antecedente de múltiples parejas sexuales (37%), transfusión de algún hemoderivado (30%) antecedente de alcoholismo (27%) y relaciones sexuales extramaritales sin protección. El 36% de los pacientes cumplió con criterios para inicio de tratamiento. Únicamente el 35% de los pacientes fue referido de otros hospitales nacionales o clínicas particulares. Conclusiones: La hepatitis C en pacientes diagnosticados y en seguimiento en Hospital Roosevelt, corresponden a donantes de sangre referidos, pacientes co-infectados con VIH o de Clínicas privadas u otros centros. Es importante generar programas de detección activa pues con los tratamientos actuales se puede curar a mas del 95% de los pacientes y evitar su progresión a cirrosis o cáncer de hígado...(AU)

Abstract: Currently it is estimated worldwide that about 150 million people are infected with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and are at risk for developing cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. From these, approximately 350,000 people die each year from the conditions described previously (1). In Guatemala, prevention programs have focused on screening persons who donate blood, pregnant women, patients with a history of chronic alcoholism, intravenous drug users, etc. Objective: Characterize and describe the main factors associated with HCV infection. Materials and Methods: This current study is ambispective, descriptive and analytic. It was conducted in 138 patients with a diagnosis of HCV infection attending the Infectious Diseases Clinic, Roosevelt Hospital in 2007-2016. A total of 29 variables were registered and grouped within 5 categories (social and demographic characteristics, characteristics of reference, factors associated with HCV infection, virological and serological characteristics and criteria satisfaction for the initiation of HCV infection treatment). Results: 138 patients were studied: 67 male and 71 female with an average age of 45 years. The most common sociodemographic profile in these patients was a person of 45 years of age, residing within the city, heterosexual, single, with a profession or occupation not related to health services, and with a high school education level. The factors associated with HCV infection with the highest percentage were; history of multiple sexual partners (37%), transfusion of some blood products (30%) alcoholism (27%) and unprotected extramarital sex. Thirty-six percent of the patients met criteria for initiating treatment. Only 35% of the patients were referred from other national hospitals or private clinics. Conclusions: Hepatitis C in patients diagnosed and seconded at Roosevelt Hospital correspond to referred blood donors, patients co-infected with HIV or from private clinics or other centers. It is important to generate active screening programs because with current treatments more than 95% can be cured and therefore prevent their progression to cirrhosis or liver cancer...(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Communicable Diseases/complications , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/microbiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Guatemala
Ann. hepatol ; 16(2): 198-206, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887223


ABSTRACT HBV and HCV reactivation has been widely reported in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for oncohaematological diseases. We aimed to evaluate the HBV and HCV reactivation events in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) underwent cytotoxic chemotherapy containing or not rituximab. This is a retrospective observational study, including all patients with NHL and HL attending an Italian tertiary referral hospital, the University of Naples "Federico II". A total of 322 patients were enrolled. We evaluated serum HBV and HCV markers. A total of 47 (38%) patients with occult HBV infection were enrolled. Seven/47 were treated with therapeutic cytotoxic schedule containing rituximab. Of them, 6/7 received prophylaxis with lamivudine. HBV reactivation was observed in two patients treated with rituximab. A reactivation was observed in the only patient (HBcAb+/HBsAb+) not receiving lamivudine prophylaxis, and the other one was observed in 1 patient with isolated HBcAb positivity during lamivudine prophylaxis. Moreover, 8 patients with HCV-Ab positivity were enrolled. No viral reactivation was observed in these patients. In conclusion, patients with occult HBV infection receiving chemotherapy containing rituximab for lymphoma without antiviral prophylaxis are at risk of viral reactivation. On the contrary, there is no risk of reactivation in patients undergoing rituximab-free schedule. Our findings suggest that there is also very low risk of HCV reactivation. This preliminary report underlines the concept that HBV reactivation is strongly related to the type of immunosuppressive therapy administered and that antiviral prophylaxis needs to be tailored.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Virus Activation , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Hodgkin Disease/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus/pathogenicity , Immunocompromised Host , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Rituximab/adverse effects , Hepatitis B/virology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/immunology , Hodgkin Disease/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepacivirus/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Italy
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2016; 22 (4): 267-273
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-180279


This paper reviews the epidemiology and determinants of hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic as well as their treatment and prevention. A systematic search of Medline, PubMed and Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region was carried out in addition to a review of grey literature and relevant datasets in the Syrian Arab Republic. Low to low-intermediate levels of endemicity of both infections were noted at the national level. However, striking geographic differences and high prevalence among high-risk groups were noticeable. As a result of data limitations, further research is needed, and a national control strategy to combat hepatitis B and C in the Syrian Arab Republic should be developed, especially during the current conflict

Humans , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-758427


O Amapá é uma região hiperendêmica para hepatites virais B (HB) e C (HC), As Políticas Públicas de Saúde garantem o direito dos pacientes ao acesso universal e gratuito à assistência médica e ao tratamento das HB e HC, Neste sentido, o estudo avaliou a assistência à saúde oferecida aos pacientes com HB e HC, atendidos pelo SUS, no Amapá, Os dados foram coletados junto aos prontuários médicos e comparados com os Protocolos Clínicos e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para HB e HC e com a rede assistencial do SUS, Foram identificados e incluídos no estudo 123 pacientes atendidos no Centro de Referência em Doenças Tropicais, dos quais 43 e 85 pacientes apresentaram diagnóstico de HB e HC, respectivamente (cinco coinfectados com HB e HC), O acompanhamento clínico ambulatorial dos pacientes foi inferior a seis meses (período necessário para diagnóstico conclusivo de infecção crônica) para 53,7% dos pacientes devido ao abandono do tratamento, O exame de aminotransferases não foi solicitado à 37,4% dos pacientes e a biópsia hepática foi realizada por 84% dos pacientes com algum grau de severidade da doença, Dezessete pacientes receberam interferon-alfa peguilado como farmacoterapia inicial, mas a escolha inicial do esquema terapêutico mais potente não é recomendada pois não deixa opções para terapia de resgate em casos de resposta negativa à terapia inicial, A assistência à saúde dos pacientes com HB e HC no estado do Amapá apresenta deficiências, tais como o abandono do tratamento, inclusão e exclusão inadequada de pacientes nos protocolos de tratamento, além da dificuldade de acesso aos exames de diagnóstico e ao monitoramento da doença nos pacientes infectados...

Amapá, a Brazilian state, is a hyper endemic area for hepatitis B (HB) and C (HC). The Public Health Policies ensure the right of patients to free access to health care and treatment of HB and HC. Therefore, in this study it was evaluated the health care offered to patients with HB and HC attended by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in Amapá. The data were collected from the medical records and compared to the Therapeutic Guidelines and Clinical Protocols for HB and HC and to the healthcare network of the SUS. One hundred and twenty three patients treated at the Reference Center for Tropical Diseases were identified and included in the study, of which 43 and 85 patients were diagnosed with HB and HC, respectively (five co-infected with HB and HC). Clinical follow-up of patients was less than six months (period required for conclusive diagnosis of chronic infection) to 53.7% of patients due to treatment dropout. Examination of aminotransferases was not prompted to 37.4% of patients and liver biopsy was performed for 84% of patients with any degree of severity. Seventeen patients received pegylated alfainterferon as initial pharmacotherapy, however, the initial choice of the most potent regimen is not always indicated because it does not let options for a rescue therapy in case of a negative response to therapy. The healthcare provided to these patients in the Amapá state has deficiencies noted by the abandonment of treatment, diagnostic testing and unrealized monitoring and patients inadequately included or excluded from pharmacotherapy...

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Delivery of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Unified Health System/economics , Unified Health System/legislation & jurisprudence , Coinfection/epidemiology
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 6(3): 889-896, jul.-set. 2014. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-719734


Objective: describing the epidemiological profile of cases of hepatitis C in a Regional Directorate of Health of the State of Bahia in the period 2007-2011. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional study; there were used secondary information from SINAN data. The data analysis was performed with the SPSS 15.0 software. Results: during the period analyzed, there were reported112 cases of hepatitis C, with 36,3 % in 2011. There was a predominance of individuals aged between 40 and 59 years old (61%) of mixed ethnicity (39,7%), with completed high school (24%). There was no gender difference seen that 50 % of reported cases were in men. Among the likely sources of infection reported, transfusion route was the most frequently reported (18 cases). Conclusion: the knowledge of the epidemiological profile becomes relevant to the health professionals implement actions aimed at the pursuit an early diagnosis and a treatment of hepatitis C

Objetivo: descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos casos de hepatite C em uma Diretoria Regional de Saúde do Estado da Bahia no período de 2007 a 2011. Método: estudo descritivo, transversal, utilizou-se dados secundários a partir de informações do SINAN. A análise dos dados foi feita com o auxílio do software SPSS 15.0. Resultados: no período analisado, 112 casos de hepatite C foram notificados, sendo 36,3% no ano de 2011. Houve predomínio de indivíduos com idade entre 40 e 59 anos (61%), de etnia parda (39,7%), com ensino médio completo (24%). Não houve diferença entre os gêneros visto que 50% dos casos notificados foram em homens. Dentre às prováveis fontes de infecção notificadas, a via transfusional foi a mais notificada (18 casos). Conclusão: o conhecimento do perfil epidemiológico torna-se relevante para que os profissionais de saúde possam implementar ações que visem a busca do diagnóstico e tratamento precoce da hepatite C.

Objetivo: describir el perfil epidemiológico de los casos de hepatitis C en una Dirección Regional de Salud del Estado de Bahía, en el período 2007-2011. Método: es um estudio descriptivo, transversal, se utilizó información secundaria de datos del SINAN. El análisis de datos se realizó con el software SPSS 15.0. Resultados: durante el período analizado, 112 casos de hepatitis C se registraron, con un 36,3 % en 2011. Hubo um predominio de personas de edade comprendida entre 40 y 59 años (61%) de origen étnico mixto (39,7%), se había completado La escuela secundaria (24%). No hubo diferencias de género, se ve que el 50 % de los casos reportados fueron en hombres. Entre las posibles fuentes de infección reportados, la vía de transfusión fue el más frecuentemente notificado (18 casos). Conclusión: el conocimiento del perfil epidemiológico es importante para que los profesionales de la salud puedan implementar acciones orientadas a la búsqueda de un diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento de la hepatitis C.

Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Disease Notification , Health Profile , Brazil
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. xv,89 p. ilus, tab, graf, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-736962


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de testes rápidos para o diagnóstico de anti-HCV em amostras de soro, sangue total e fluido oral em populações com diferentes perfis de endemicidade e comportamento de risco para o HCV. Foram obtidas amostras biológicas de 3 grupos entre fevereiro de 2010 a setembro de 2011: (I) 194 indivíduos atendidos em centros de referência para o diagnóstico das hepatites virais no Rio de Janeiro (IOC/Fiocruz e UFRJ) que forneceram amostras pareadas de soro, sangue total e fluido oral avaliadas pelos testes rápidos WAMA Imuno-Rápido HCV (WAMA Diagnóstica) e Bioeasy HCV Rapid Test (Bioeasy Diagnóstica Ltda) e, 174 amostras de fluido oral avaliadas pelo teste rápido Oraquick HCV (Orasure); (II) indivíduos residentes em áreas remotas [...], onde 430 amostras pareadas de soro, sangue total e fluido oral foram avaliadas pelos testes Wama e Bioeasy e 459 amostras foram avaliadas pelo teste rápido Orasure; (III) indivíduos usuários de crack residentes em duas regiões geográficas do Brasil (Sudeste e Nordeste) e profissionais de beleza residentes na cidade do Rio de Janeiro que forneceram 200 amostras pareadas de soro, sangue total e fluido oral para avaliação nos testes Wama e Bioeasy e 43 amostras de fluido oral para uso no teste rápido Orasure. O anti-HCV foi avaliado em amostras de soro por dois testes imunoenzimáticos [...] e aquelas amostras reagentes foram submetidas ao PCR para detecção do HCV RNA...

The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of rapid tests for the diagnosis of anti-HCV in sera, whole blood and oral fluid samples from populations with different endemicity profiles and risk behavior for HCV. Biological samples were obtained from 3 groups from February 2010 toSeptember 2011: (I) 194 individuals referred to Reference Centers for Viral Hepatitis Diagnosis at Rio de Janeiro (IOC/Fiocruz e UFRJ) who donate paired sera, whole blood and oral fluid samples evaluated by rapid tests WAMA Imuno-Rápido HCV (WAMA Diagnóstica) and Bioeasy HCV Rapid Test (Bioeasy Diagnóstica Ltda) and, 174 oral fluid samples evaluated by rapid test Oraquick HCV (Orasure); (II)individuals residing in remote areas [...], where 430 paired sera, whole blood and oral fluid samples were evaluated by Wama and Bioeasy and 459 samples evaluated by Orasure rapid test; (III) crack users residing in two geographical areas of Brazil (Southeast and Northeast) and beauty professionals residing at Rio de Janeiro city who donated 200 paired sera, whole blood and oral fluid samples for evaluation at Wama and Bioeasytests and 43 oral fluid samples to use in Orasure rapid test. Anti-HCV was evaluated in sera samples by two enzyme immunoassays [...] and those reactive samples were submitted to PCR for HCV RNA detection. [...] Sensitivity and specificity of rapid tests varied respectively from 76.03 percent to 93.84 percent and 93.75percent to 100percent when all anti-HCVreactive individuals by ELISA were included...

Humans , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/transmission , Dengue , HIV , Malaria , Serologic Tests , Syphilis
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 86 f p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756708


A Hepatite C (HC) é um sério problema mundial de saúde pública. Pelas estimativas da Organização Mundial da Saúde, calcula-se que cerca de 3% da população mundial esteja infectada pelo vírus da hepatite C. O tratamento da HC objetiva deter a progressão da doença hepática pela inibição da replicação viral. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o efeito de resposta ao tratamento da Hepatite C entre o interferon peguilado (PEGINF) + ribavirina (RBV) e interferon-alfa (INF) + ribavirina (RBV) além de avaliar a relação de fatores de risco, idade, sexo, genótipo, grau de fibrose hepática, tempo de tratamento e comorbidades associadas. Foi realizado levantamento retrospectivo dos prontuários dos pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de Hepatologia do Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do RJ (HSE), de 2001 a 2009. Modelos de regressão logística bivariadas e multivariadas foram utilizados nas análises. Cerca de 85% dos pacientes que trataram por 48 semanas e 15% dos que trataram por 24 semanas tiveram resposta virológica sustentada (RVS) positiva. Cerca de 65% dos pacientes que receberam PEGINF + RBV e 35% dos que receberam INF + RBV tiveram RVS positiva. Os achados deste estudo apontam que o efeito de resposta do tratamento de hepatite C com PEG-INF + RBV é superior ao tratamento com INF + RBV, e que a maior duração do tempo de tratamento também tem influência positiva na RVS. Em relação à interrupção do tratamento houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre o grau de fibrose hepática e a probabilidade de permanecer no tratamento, o risco de interrupção é seis vezes maior com o grau mais avançado de fibrose (F4) em relação ao menos avançado (F2). Também foi encontrado que o risco de interromper o tratamento após as primeiras 24 semanas para pacientes com genótipo 3 foi 2,5 vezes maior do que àqueles pacientes com genótipo 1...

Hepatitis C (HC) is a serious public health problem worldwide. According to estimates by the World Health Organization, about 3% of the world population is infected with hepatits C virus. The objective of treatment of HC is avoid the progression of liver disease by inhibition of viral replication. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of treatment response of hepatitis C between pegylated interferon (PEGINF) + ribavirin (RBV) and interferon-alpha (INF) + ribavirin (RBV) and evaluate the relationship of risk factors, age, gender, genotype, degree of fibrosis, treatment time and comorbidities. We conducted a retrospective study of medical records of patients seen at the clinic of Hepatology, Servants Hospital of the State of Rio de Janeiro (HSE), 2001 to 2009. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyzes (logistic regression). About 85% of patients treated for 48 weeks, and 15% of those treated for 24 weeks had sustained virologic response (SVR) positive. About 65% of patients receiving PEGINF + RBV and 35% of those who received INF + RBV had positive RVS. In relation to treatment interruption, the association between the degree of liver fibrosis and the probability of remaining treatment was statistically significant . The risk of interruption is six times higher with more advanced fibrosis degree (F4) than compared to the less advanced fibrosis degree (F2). The risk of stopping treatment after the first 24 weeks for patients with genotype 3 was 2.5 times higher than those patients with genotype 1...

Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/prevention & control , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Ribavirin , Risk Assessment , Hepatitis C/therapy , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Liver Cirrhosis , Virus Replication