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Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 24(1): 7-15, 21 de abril 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433992


Introducción: El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad autoinmune que puede afectar a múltiples órganos. Las patologías asociadas como: la hepatitis y la nefritis lúpica no son frecuentes en la población infantil, pero conllevan a consecuencias graves con riesgo de insuficiencia hepática y enfermedad renal crónica, aumentando la mor-bimortalidad en los pacientes pediátricos. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 11 años con cuadro clínico caracterizado por: astenia, hiporexia, epistaxis, prurito e ictericia marcada, de cuatro meses de evolución, sin diagnóstico establecido. Se solicitó estudios de laboratorio que reportaron aumento de transaminasas, proteinuria, ANAS y AC. DNA positivo, además se realizaron estudios de imagen, biopsia renal y hepática, con la finalidad de esclarecer el diagnóstico. Evolución: A través de un abordaje clínico multidisciplinar, exámenes paraclínicos y anatomopatológicos se estableció el diagnóstico de LES asociado a Hepatitis Autoinmune y Nefritis Lúpica. Paciente permaneció en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos con evolución favorable a tratamiento. Conclusiones: El LES Pediátrico asociado a hepatitis autoinmune y nefritis lúpica es una rara presentación clínica de la cual existen muy pocos casos reportados a nivel mundial. En su diagnóstico se debe resaltar la perspicacia clínica multi-disciplinar, laboratorio, imagenología y datos histopatológicos clave para establecer un diagnóstico oportuno con mejor pronóstico y tratamiento y así evitar desenlaces mortales en los pacientes pediátricos.

Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Associated pathologies such as hepatitis and lupus nephritis are not frequent in the child population. Still, they lead to serious consequences with the risk of liver failure and chronic kidney disease, increasing morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Clinical case: An 11-year-old male patient with a clinical picture characterized by: asthenia, hypoxia, epistaxis, pruritus, and marked jaundice, of four months of evolution, without an established diagnosis. Laboratory studies were requested that reported increased transaminases, proteinuria, ANAS, and AC. Positive DNA, imaging studies, and kidney and liver biopsy were also performed to clarify the diagnosis. Evolution: Through a multidisciplinary clinical approach, and paraclinical and pathological examinations, the diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus associated with Autoimmune Hepatitis and Lupus Nephritis was established. The patient remained in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with favorable evolution to treatment. Conclusions: Pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus associated with autoimmune hepatitis and lupus nephritis is a rare clinical presentation of which very few cases are reported worldwide. In its diagnosis, multidisciplinary clinical acumen, laboratory, imaging, and critical histopathological data should be highlighted to establish an opportune diagnosis with better prognosis and treatment and thus avoid fatal outcomes in pediatric patients.

Humans , Male , Child , Lupus Nephritis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 637-641, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985922


Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics and treatments of chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis with autoimmune hepatitis in children. Methods: A child who had chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis with autoimmune hepatitis was admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of the Children's Hospital Capital Institute of Pediatrics at April 2022. The clinical data was retrospectively analyzed. Using the keywords of "chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis""autoimmune hepatitis" in Chinese and English, the literature from database establishment to December 2022 in CNKI, Wanfang, China Biomedical Literature Database and Pubmed was searched. Combined with this case, the clinical characteristics and treatment of chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis combined with autoimmune hepatitis were analyzed. Results: A 5 years and 3 months girl was admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics for "transaminase elevated for 1 year and swelling of right maxillofacial area for half a year". The physical examinations at admission found a 4.0 cm × 4.0 cm swelling area with tenderness before the right ear, abdominal distention with visible abdominal wall vein, firm and enlarged liver (10.0 cm below the xiphoid and 4.5 cm below the right ribs), and splenomegaly (Line Ⅰ 10.0 cm, Line Ⅱ 11.5 cm, and Line Ⅲ 25.0 cm). There was no redness, swelling or restriction of the limbs. Laboratory examination found abnormal liver function with alanine aminotransferase 118 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 227 U/L, γ-glutamyltransferase 360 U/L, and positive direct anti-human globulin test; immunology test found immunoglobulin G 41.60 g/L and a homogeneous type of antinuclear antibody of 1∶1 000; the autoimmune hepatitis antibody test found a positive anti-smooth muscle antibody (1∶100). Liver biopsy showed moderate interfacial inflammation and the patient was diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis (International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group 19). The imaging findings showed extensive involvement of the bilateral mandible, while the right side was severe. There were expansile bone changes, thinning of the bone cortex, and significant swelling of the surrounding soft tissue in the mandibular body, mandibular angle, and mandibular ramus. After treatment of glucocorticoid, the swelling of the right maxillofacial region disappeared and the transaminase returned to normal. Only one case was reported before in English and none in Chinese. The two cases were both girls whose main clinical features were joint pain and swelling. The previous case started with pain in both knee joints, and developed liver injury during treatment while this case had liver injury as the initial clinical presentation. Besides, the affected sites and degrees of arthritis in the 2 cases were different. After glucocorticoid treatment, the clinical symptoms were alleviated, and transaminases returned to normal. Conclusions: Chronic non bacterial osteomyelitis may involve the liver and manifest as autoimmune hepatitis. Glucocorticoids therapy is effective.

Female , Humans , Child , Glucocorticoids , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Alanine Transaminase , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 534-548, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982580


Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe globally distributed liver disease that could occur at any age. Human menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) have shown therapeutic effect in acute lung injury and liver failure. However, their role in the curative effect of AIH remains unclear. Here, a classic AIH mouse model was constructed through intravenous injection with concanavalin A (Con A). MenSCs were intravenously injected while Con A injection in the treatment groups. The results showed that the mortality by Con A injection was significantly decreased by MenSCs treatment and liver function tests and histological analysis were also ameliorated. The results of phosphoproteomic analysis and RNA-seq revealed that MenSCs improved AIH, mainly by apoptosis and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/mitogen-activated protein signaling pathways. Apoptosis analysis demonstrated that the protein expression of cleaved caspase 3 was increased by Con A injection and reduced by MenSCs transplantation, consistent with the TUNEL staining results. An AML12 co-culture system and JNK inhibitor (SP600125) were used to verify the JNK/MAPK and apoptosis signaling pathways. These findings suggested that MenSCs could be a promising strategy for AIH.

Mice , Animals , Humans , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/pathology , Signal Transduction , Disease Models, Animal , Stem Cells
Sudan j. med. sci ; 18(3): 305-310, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1510894


This case report describes a 27-year-old housewife who presented with a progressive and insidious onset of abdominal distension, loss of appetite, and fatigue which started 3 months before her presentation. The physical assessment showed moderate ascites and small liver size, and no other peripheral evidence of chronic liver disease was observed. A diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and was confirmed by investigations and imaging, where ascites responded well to therapy with diuretics. Investigations for the cause of cirrhosis was established through the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis, and she was started on steroids and azathioprine with partial improvement in liver biochemistry. She presented 8 months later with neuropsychiatric symptoms in the form of slurred speech and difficulty walking. Accordingly, Wilson's disease was suspected to be the cause and further investigations confirmed this. A chelating agent, D penicillamine, was added to her immunosuppressive treatment. Nine months later she showed slow improvement in her neurological symptoms and was referred for assessment for liver transplantation. Wilson's disease, although rare, should be suspected in patients with decompensated liver disease. The dominance of clinical and epidemiological features of autoimmune hepatitis as a common causative pathology for chronic liver disease in young and middle-aged ladies may hide the presence of other serious different pathologies such as Wilson's disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Hepatolenticular Degeneration
Philippine Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 11-18, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984316


Background@#There is a dearth of data on Filipino patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We aimed to describe the demographic and clinical profiles of patients with AIH and to characterize clinical outcomes and treatment responses.@*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study involving patients from two tertiary centers diagnosed with AIH from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2019, was included. Disease remission was defined as the normalization of ALT levels, while failure was defined as an increase in ALT levels over baseline or clinical deterioration.@*Results@#A total of 48 patients were identified between 2007 to 2019. The median age at presentation was 51 (27-79 yrs.). Liver cirrhosis was already present in 37.5% (27.1% decompensated) on diagnosis. Aside from a higher histologic activity index in females (p=0.047), there were no gender-specific differences. Disease remission was achieved in 41.9% of patients at 6 months, while only 9.3% failed. At the final disposition, remission rates had slightly increased to 58%, but failure rates had risen to 12%. Treatment responses at both 6 and 12 months and MELD and Child-Pugh class influenced treatment responses at final disposition. Median overall survival was 102 weeks and was influenced by the presence of liver dysfunction and 12 months and final treatment responses.@*Conclusion@#Autoimmune hepatitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The results of the study highlight the need for immunosuppressive therapy to induce early remission for a higher likelihood of subsequent biochemical remission to reduce the risk of liver-related mortality.

Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Liver Cirrhosis , Steroids , Azathioprine
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 281-287, Agosto 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373110


La hepatitis autoinmunitaria es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica del hígado caracterizada por una interacción compleja entre factores genéticos, respuesta inmunitaria a antígenos presentes en los hepatocitos y alteraciones de la regulación inmunitaria. Presenta una distribución global, con predominio en individuos de sexo femenino. Se clasifica en dos grupos, según el tipo de autoanticuerpos séricos detectados. La forma de presentación más frecuente es la hepatitis aguda (40 %), con síntomas inespecíficos, elevación de aminotransferasas e hipergammaglobulinemia. El tratamiento estándar consiste en la administración de fármacos inmunosupresores. Es una patología compleja, a veces difícil de diagnosticar. Si no se trata de manera adecuada, la mortalidad puede alcanzar el 75 % a los 5 años de evolución.

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the liver characterized by a complex interaction among genetic factors, immune response to antigens present in hepatocytes, and immune regulation alterations. Its distribution is global and there is a female predominance. AIH is divided into 2 groups, depending on the type of serum autoantibodies detected. The most common presentation is acute hepatitis (40%), with nonspecific symptoms, high aminotransferase levels, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Standard treatment consists of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs. It is a complex condition, often difficult to diagnose. If not managed adequately, the 5-year mortality rate may reach 75%.

Humans , Child , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/therapy , Gastroenterology , Autoantibodies , Latin America
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e17-e20, feb 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353739


La hipertensión portopulmonar (HTPP) es una complicación infrecuente de la hipertensión portal, que sigue un curso progresivo con un pronóstico sombrío. Los reportes en pacientes pediátricos son escasos y con períodos de seguimiento cortos. Se describe una paciente con cirrosis descompensada que desarrolló HTPP resuelta mediante trasplante hepático, que permanece asintomática tras diez años de seguimiento.

Portopulmonary hypertension is an uncommon complication of portal hypertension, running a progressive course with a negative prognosis. Reports in pediatric patients are scarce with short follow up. We describe the case of decompensated cirrhosis who developed PoPH and resolved with liver transplantation, remaining asymptomatic after ten years of follow up.

Humans , Female , Child , Liver Transplantation , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/complications , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
Hepatología ; 3(2): 176-190, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396099


Los niveles de bilirrubina sérica normal en el adulto varían entre 0,3 mg/dL y 1,2 mg/dL, y su valor está determinado por la tasa de captación hepática, conjugación y excreción. La ictericia se hace evidente cuando los niveles de bilirrubina sérica se elevan por encima de 2,5 mg/dL a 3 mg/dL, siendo un indicador de enfermedad subyacente. La bilis es producida por los hepatocitos y fluye desde los canalículos, canales de Hering, conductos biliares intrahepáticos, conductos hepáticos derechos e izquierdos hasta llegar al duodeno. A nivel histopatológico, cualquier entidad que lleve a la acumulación intrahepática de bilis por disfunción hepatocelular u obstrucción biliar genera colestasis, que se observa en la biopsia hepática como la acumulación de tapones de color marrón verdoso de pigmento biliar en los hepatocitos, y secundariamente se observan los canalículos dilatados. Las causas de colestasis intrahepática son diversas e incluyen enfermedades como colangitis biliar primaria, colangitis esclerosante primaria, hepatitis autoinmune, hepatitis virales y toxicidad medicamentosa. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo analizar algunos tipos de hiperbilirrubinemia, resaltando sus características histopatológicas.

Normal serum bilirubin levels in adults range from 0.3 mg/dL to 1.2 mg/dL, and its value is determined by the rate of hepatic uptake, conjugation, and excretion. Jaundice becomes apparent when serum bilirubin levels rise above 2.5 mg/dL to 3.5 mg/dL and is an indicator of underlying disease. Bile is produced by hepatocytes and flows from the canaliculi, Hering's canals, intrahepatic bile ducts, and right and left hepatic ducts to the duodenum. Pathologically, any condition that leadsto intrahepatic accumulation of bile due to hepatocellular dysfunction or biliary obstruction, generates cholestasis, which is observed in liver biopsy as the accumulation of greenish-brown deposits of bile pigment in hepatocytes, with dilated canaliculi. The causes of intrahepatic cholestasis are diverse and include diseases such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and drug toxicity. This review aims to analyze some types of hyperbilirubinemia, highlighting their histopathological characteristics.

Humans , Pathologists , Hyperbilirubinemia , Jaundice , Bile , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Bile Pigments , Bilirubin , Biopsy , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Cholestasis , Cholestasis, Intrahepatic , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Hepatitis , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
Hepatología ; 3(2): 203-217, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396104


Introducción. La colangitis biliar primaria (CBP) es una enfermedad hepática crónica de origen autoinmune, caracterizada por inflamación y destrucción progresiva de las células epiteliales de los conductos biliares intralobulillares, que causa de manera secundaria colestasis, fibrosis, cirrosis e insuficiencia hepática. La historia natural de la enfermedad ha cambiado en los últimos años debido a la mejoría en los métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. Metodología. Estudio observacional descriptivo de cohorte retrospectivo, en el cual se efectuó la revisión y análisis de las historias clínicas de los pacientes mayores de 16 años con diagnóstico de CBP, atendidos en la Unidad de Hepatología y Trasplante Hepático del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, entre los años 2013 a 2021, con el fin de obtener información sobre las características de esta patología a nivel local. Resultados. Se evaluó un total de 239 pacientes, con un promedio de edad de 61,6±12,31 años, el 97,07% fue del sexo femenino, con criterios serológicos como anticuerpos antimitocondriales (AMA) positivos en un 76,89%, el 66,95% de los pacientes presentaban alguna enfermedad autoinmune concomitante y el 31,60% tuvieron sobreposición con hepatitis autoinmune. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue el prurito en un 61,92% de los pacientes, seguido por la astenia en un 51,88%. La presencia de hipertensión portal al diagnóstico fue del 29,29%. La colangitis no supurativa y la ductopenia en la biopsia de hígado se documentó en un 43,79% de los casos. El ácido ursodesoxicólico (UDCA) fue la terapia de primera línea en el 100% de los pacientes, se identificó refractariedad del 16,36% según criterios de París II y del 31,79% con los criterios de Toronto. La no respuesta al UDCA, se asoció de manera significativa con mayor mortalidad (p=0,039) y presencia de hepatocarcinoma (p=0,042). Conclusión. Se caracterizó la CBP en nuestra población. El diagnóstico serológico por AMA fue bajo, con altos requerimientos de biopsia hepática en el contexto de síndromes de sobreposición. Los signos de hipertensión portal al momento del diagnóstico fueron prevalentes. La refractariedad bioquímica a la terapiafue descrita en relación con mayor progresión de fibrosis, aumento de mortalidad y presencia de hepatocarcinoma.

ntroduction. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease of autoimmune origin, characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of the epithelial cells of the intralobular bile ducts, causing secondary cholestasis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. The natural history of the disease has changed in recent years due to the improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Methodology. Cross-sectional descriptive observational study, where the medical records of patients older than 16 years with a diagnosis of PBC, treated at the Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit of the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital, between the years 2013 to 2021, were reviewed and analyzed in order to obtain information on the characteristics of this pathology at a local level. Results. A total of 239 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 61.6±12.31 years, 97.07% were females, with serological criteria such as positive antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in 76.89%. Of all included patients, 66.95% had some concomitant autoimmune disease and 31.60% had an overlap with autoimmune hepatitis. The most frequent clinical manifestation was pruritus in 61.92% of the patients, followed by asthenia in 51.88%. The presence of portal hypertension at diagnosis was 29.29%. Non-suppurative cholangitis and ductopenia on liver biopsy were documented in 43.79% of the cases. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was the first line therapy in 100% of patients, 16.36% were refractory to treatment according to the Paris II criteria and 31.79% according to the Toronto criteria. Non-response to UDCA was significantly associated with higher mortality (p=0.039) and presence of hepatocarcinoma (p=0.042). Conclusion. PBC was characterized in our population. Serological diagnosis by AMA was low, with high requirements for liver biopsy in the context of overlap syndromes. Signs of portal hypertension at diagnosis were prevalent. Biochemical refractoriness to therapy was described in relation to greater progression of fibrosis, increased mortality, and the presence of hepatocarcinoma.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Liver Transplantation , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Autoimmune Diseases , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Cholangitis , Cholestasis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 352-356, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935953


As a secondary endocrine organ, the liver is closely related to the endocrine system. Liver involvement is not uncommon in endocrine diseases, such as hyper/hypothyroidism, diabetes, dysfunction of adrenal and gonadal. It can be manifested in a variety of forms, including hepatocyte injury (elevated transaminase), bile duct injury (cholestasis), hepatocyte steatosis, vascular injury and liver tumor. Direct and indirect liver injury caused by abnormal hormone levels and side effects of drugs for the treatment of endocrine diseases are common pathogenesis. In addition, endocrine diseases can be concomitant with liver diseases, such as autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune hepatitis. Systemic diseases can also involve the endocrine system and liver at the same time, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and IgG4 related diseases. For patients with unexplained liver injury, endocrine system diseases should be considered as the differential diagnosis.

Humans , Cholestasis/pathology , Endocrine System Diseases/pathology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/pathology , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 335-339, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935949


In recent years, the number of autoimmune hepatitis cases in the world has shown a significant upward trend, but its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. At present, it is generally considered to be caused by abnormal immune regulation mechanism of the body, especially the lymphocytes and their cytokines, which has attracted widespread concern and thus is reviewed here.

Humans , Cytokines , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Lymphocytes
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 69-73, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935910


Objective: To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of acute severe autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of patients with acute severe AIH admitted to our hospital from 2008 to 2019 was divided into acute AIH (A-AIH) and chronic acute AIH (AC-AIH) according to the presence or absence of liver diseases. Patients' general condition, liver biochemistry, immunology, histological features of liver, hormonal therapies prognosis and related factors were analyzed. Results: A total of 41 cases [39 females, age (54.24 ± 10.55) years] were collected. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (TBil) were significantly increased, and the international normalized ratio (INR) was > 1.5. Acute lobular inflammation was the feature of acute and severe AIH in the histology of liver. The serum IgG level was (28.36 ± 8.35) g / L. The positive rate of antinuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA) was 82.9%, and 17.1%, respectively. Over 70% of acute severe AIHs were AC-AIH. The duration of onset of AC-AIH was > 8 weeks, while most A-AIHs < 8 weeks, and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P = 0.001). The mortality rate within 30 days after hormonal treatment was 19.5%. There were statistically significant differences in TBil, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and leukocyte count between the death and survival group. Conclusion: The mortality rate in acute severe AIH is high, and most of them have the basis of chronic liver disease. Serum IgG level, autoantibodies and acute lobular inflammation are important factors for diagnosis. The prognosis of hormonal therapy is related to the patients' condition and course of disease.

Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies , End Stage Liver Disease , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
Hepatología ; 2(2): 355-371, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396510


Introducción. Las enfermedades autoinmunes del hígado son un grupo de patologías caracterizadas por una respuesta autoinmune contra los hepatocitos y/o el epitelio biliar. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son variadas, con alteraciones en las pruebas de función hepática y presencia de autoanticuerpos. Metodología. Estudio observacional descriptivo con 101 pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario de La Samaritana de Bogotá D.C., entre enero a diciembre de 2019, con los diagnósticos de hepatitis autoinmune, colangitis biliar primaria, colangitis esclerosante primaria y síndrome de sobreposición. Se evaluaron los parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio, con el fin de caracterizar su frecuencia en estas patologías, debido a la importancia de un diagnóstico precoz. Resultados. Se encontraron 54 casos de hepatitis autoinmune, 19 casos de colangitis biliar primaria, 4 casos de colangitis esclerosante primaria y 24 casos de síndrome de sobreposición. El 81% fueron mujeres y la edad promedio fue de 55 años. El 39% de los pacientes tenían cirrosis. En general, los resultados se ajustaron a lo descrito internacionalmente, como es el predominio en mujeres y la comorbilidad autoinmune. Conclusión. Los hallazgos indican que cualquier alteración del perfil bioquímico hepático debe ser considerado, y se debe descartar la presencia de hepatopatías autoinmunes para diagnosticarlas de manera precoz, evitando que lleguen a cirrosis y sus complicaciones, con la necesidad de un trasplante hepático como única alternativa terapéutica.

Introduction. Autoimmune liver diseases are a group of pathologies characterized by an autoimmune response against hepatocytes and/or the biliary epithelium. Their clinical manifestations are varied, with alterations in liver function tests and the presence of autoantibodies. Methodology. Descriptive study with 101 patients who attended at the Hospital Universitario de La Samaritana in Bogota D.C., between January and December 2019, with the diagnoses of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and overlap syndrome. Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated in order to characterize their frequency in these pathologies, due to the importance of an early diagnosis. Results. There were 54 cases of autoimmune hepatitis, 19 cases of primary biliary cholangitis, 4 cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and 24 cases of overlap syndrome. Of all patients, 81% were women, the average age was 55 years, and 39% had cirrhosis. In general, the findings were consistent with what has been described worldwide, such as a higher prevalence in women and autoimmune comorbidity. Conclusion. The findings indicate that any alteration in the liver biochemical profile should be considered to rule out an autoimmune liver disease for an early diagnosis, avoiding the possibility of cirrhosis and its complications, with the need for a liver transplant as the only therapeutic alternative.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmunity , Liver Diseases/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Syndrome , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/diagnosis , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Octogenarians , Transaminases/blood , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/immunology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis
Clinics ; 76: e2228, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153999


OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), antiproteinase-3 and antimyeloperoxidase, in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) with or without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD+ or IBD-) and in different types of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Additionally, to verify the agreement between ANCA patterns by indirect immunofluorescence and their antigenic specificities by ELISA. METHODS: For this study, 249 patients were enrolled (42 PSC/IBD+; 33 PSC/IBD-; 31 AIH type-1; 30 AIH type-2; 31 AIH type-3; 52 primary biliary cirrhosis; 30 healthy controls) whose serum samples were tested for ANCA autoantibodies. RESULTS: There were fewer female subjects in the PSC/IBD- group (p=0.034). Atypical perinuclear-ANCA was detected more frequently in PSC/IBD+ patients than in PSC/IBD- patients (p=0.005), and was significantly more frequent in type-1 (p<0.001) and type-3 AIH (p=0.012) than in type-2 AIH. Proteinase-3-ANCA was detected in 25 samples (only one with cytoplasmic-ANCA pattern), and more frequently in PSC/IBD+ than in PSC/IBD- patients (p=0.025). Myeloperoxidase-ANCA was identified in eight samples (none with the perinuclear-ANCA pattern). Among the 62 reactive samples for atypical perinuclear-ANCA, 13 had antigenic specific reactions for proteinase-3 and myeloperoxidase. CONCLUSIONS: PSC/IBD+ differed from PSC/IBD- in terms of sex and proteinase 3-ANCA and atypical perinuclear-ANCA reactivity, the latter of which was more frequently detected in type-1 and type-3 AIH than in type-2 AIH. There was no agreement between ANCA patterns and antigenic specificities in IBD and autoimmune liver diseases, which reinforces the need for proteinase-3 and myeloperoxidase antibody testing.

Humans , Male , Female , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Autoantibodies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 361-365, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142340


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease, characterized by necroinflammation and autoimmune etiology. Studies evaluating the characteristics of patients with AIH are scarce in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the profile of patients with AIH in a specialized center in Southern Brazil and to verify factors related to treatment response. METHODS: this was a retrospective cohort study, which analyzed demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and histologic data. Patients with AIH diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) were included. In liver biopsies, the degree of fibrosis, histological activity, presence of hepatocyte rosettes, plasma cell infiltrates, and confluent necrosis were evaluated. In the statistical analysis, the significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Forty adults patients diagnosed with AIH were included. The evaluated population predominantly consisted of women (75.0%) and the average age at diagnosis was 44.2 years. The association with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases occurred in 20.0% of cases. Clinically, 35.0% of patients presented with acute onset hepatitis, 37.5% with cirrhosis, and 27.5% with other forms of presentation. The most common clinical manifestation was jaundice (47.5%). Thirty-five patients were treated, and of these, 97.1% used prednisone combined with azathioprine. The average treatment time was 2.7 years. Response to treatment was complete or partial in 30 (85.7%) and absent in 5 (14.3%) patients. There was no statistically significant difference when evaluating response to treatment in relation to forms of presentation, histological findings, and the presence of autoantibodies. Regarding fibrosis, regression was observed in 18.75% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Most patients with AIH were young at presentation and of female sex. The association with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases and cirrhosis at presentation was seen in a considerable proportion of patients. Treatment was effective, but there were no clinical, histological or serological parameters capable of predicting treatment response.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite autoimune (HAI) é uma doença hepática crônica, de caráter necroinflamatório e etiologia autoimune. Os estudos que avaliam as características de pacientes com HAI são escassos no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o perfil dos pacientes com HAI atendidos em um centro de referência do sul do Brasil e verificar fatores relacionados à resposta ao tratamento. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, que analisou dados demográficos, epidemiológicos e clínicos. Nas biópsias hepáticas, foram avaliados o grau de fibrose, a atividade histológica, a presença de rosetas, de infiltrado plasmocitário e de necrose confluente. Na análise estatística, o nível de significância foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 40 pacientes adultos com diagnóstico de HAI. Houve predomínio do sexo feminino (75,0%), e a média de idade no diagnóstico foi de 44,2 anos. A associação com doenças autoimunes extra-hepáticas ocorreu em 20,0% dos casos. Clinicamente, 35,0% dos pacientes se apresentaram sob forma de hepatite aguda, 37,5% com cirrose e 27,5% com outras formas de apresentação. A manifestação clínica mais comum na apresentação foi a icterícia (47,5%). Trinta e cinco pacientes foram tratados, sendo que destes, 97,1% utilizaram prednisona associada com azatioprina. A média do tempo de tratamento foi 2,7 anos. A resposta ao tratamento foi completa ou parcial em 30 (85,7%) e ausente em 5 (14,3%) pacientes. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quando avaliada a resposta ao tratamento em relação à forma de apresentação, aos achados histológicos e à presença de autoanticorpos. Em relação à fibrose, foi observada regressão em 18,75% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes era jovem no momento do diagnóstico e do sexo feminino. A associação com doenças autoimunes extra-hepáticas e com cirrose na apresentação foi vista em uma parcela considerável dos casos. O tratamento foi eficaz, mas não houve parâmetros clínicos, histológicos ou sorológicos capazes de prever a resposta ao tratamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Liver/pathology , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Jaundice/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Middle Aged
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 40(2): 149-154, abr-jun 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144653


ABSTARCT Background : Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an auto-inflammatory liver disease of children and adults, affecting patients of any age, sex, race or ethnicity, with more prevalence in females. Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and outcome of children with autoimmune hepatitis. Materials and methods : We evaluated 86 patients treated and followed with final diagnosis of AIH between years 2010 to 2018. Physical findings (including jaundice, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and encephalopathy), liver enzymes, liver histology and autoantibodies (including ANA, Anti LKM-1 and ASMA) were extracted from medical files. Then the patients were followed for their final outcome (including response to medical treatment or successful treatment withdrawal, liver transplantation or death). Results : Among 86 patients with AIH with mean age 9.10±4.36 years old, 66.27% were females. Jaundice (75.6%) and hepatomegaly (46.5%) were the most frequent physical findings, followed by splenomegaly (32.6%) and encephalopathy (17.4%). Aminotransferases including AST and ALT were elevated at least 3 times more than upper limit of normal in most of the patients (61.6% and 55.81%, respectively). Autoantibodies were available in 53 of 86 patients, 24.5% had AIH-1, 3.8% had AIH-II and 67.9% were seronegative. Medical treatment including prednisolone and azathioprine was started for patients, 53 of 86 cases (61.6%) had remission and 11 of 86 (13.7%) tolerated medication withdrawal successfully. Among all cases, 26 (30.2%) patients needed liver transplantation. Mortality rate was 9 among 86 cases (10.5%). Conclusion : Jaundice and hepatomegaly was the most frequent clinical findings. Mortality rate was 10.5%.

RESUMEN Antecedentes : La hepatitis autoinmune (AIH) es una enfermedad hepática autoinflamatoria de niños y adultos, que afecta a pacientes de cualquier edad, sexo, raza u origen étnico, con mayor prevalencia en las mujeres. Objetivo : El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la manifestación clínica, los hallazgos de laboratorio y el resultado de los niños con hepatitis autoinmune. Materiales y métodos : Evaluamos 86 pacientes tratados y seguidos con el diagnóstico final de AIH entre los años 2010 a 2018. Los hallazgos físicos (incluyendo ictericia, hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia y encefalopatía), enzimas hepáticas, histología hepática y autoanticuerpos (incluidos ANA, Anti LKM-1 y ASMA) se extrajeron de las historias médicas. Luego, los pacientes fueron seguidos para su resultado final (incluida la respuesta al tratamiento médico o la retirada exitosa del tratamiento, el trasplante de hígado o la muerte). Resultados : Entre 86 pacientes con AIH con una edad media de 9,10 ± 4,36 años, el 66,27% eran mujeres. La ictericia (75,6%) y la hepatomegalia (46,5%) fueron los hallazgos físicos más frecuentes, seguidos de esplenomegalia (32,6%) y encefalopatía (17,4%). Las aminotransferasas que incluyen AST y ALT se elevaron al menos 3 veces más que el límite superior de la normalidad en la mayoría de los pacientes (61,6% y 55,81%, respectivamente). Los autoanticuerpos estaban disponibles en 53 de 86 pacientes, 24,5% tenían AIH-1, 3,8% tenían AIH-II y 67,9% eran seronegativos. Se inició tratamiento médico que incluyó prednisolona y azatioprina, 53 de 86 casos (61,6%) tuvieron remisión y 11 de 86 (13,7%) toleraron el retiro de medicamentos con éxito. Entre todos los casos, 26 (30,2%) pacientes necesitaron un trasplante de hígado. La tasa de mortalidad fue de 9 entre 86 casos (10,5%). Conclusión : la ictericia y la hepatomegalia fueron los hallazgos clínicos más frecuentes. La tasa de mortalidad fue del 10,5%.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Prognosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/therapy , Iran
Hepatología ; 1(1): 25-35, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396648


La hepatitis autoinmune es una enfermedad inflamatoria del hígado de etiología desconocida, que se caracteriza por la presencia de autoanticuerpos y niveles altos de globulinas séricas. Afecta a ambos sexos, a todos los grupos de edad, y se ha descrito en todas las razas. Tiene una amplia variedad de presentación clínica, lo que la convierte en un reto diagnóstico para el médico. La forma de presentación más común es la hepatitis aguda; sin embargo, un porcentaje no despreciable de pacientes es asintomático y hasta el 40% de los casos tiene cirrosis al momento del diagnóstico. El diagnóstico se basa en: 1) la medición de autoanticuerpos, como los antinucleares (ANA), los antimúsculo liso (ASMA), y los antimicrosomales de hígado y riñón (anti-LKM-1); 2) la detección de niveles séricos elevados de globulinas (especialmente IgG); 3) descartar otras etiologías de hepatitis crónica; y, 4) los hallazgos histológicos, los cuales además de confirmar el diagnóstico, ayudan a establecer la severidad. Se han desarrollado escalas y puntajes diagnósticos que permiten una mejor aproximación a dicha patología sin reemplazar el juicio del médico, por lo que deben ser interpretados bajo un adecuado contexto clínico. Un diagnóstico apropiado puede permitir el inicio oportuno de tratamiento con el fin de disminuir la progresión y el desarrollo de complicaciones.

Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammatory disease of the liver of unknown etiology. It is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies and elevated levels of serum globulins. It affects both genders, all age groups and has been described in all races. It has a wide variety of clinical manifestations, so it remains a diagnostic challenge for physicians. The most common form of manifestation is acute hepatitis, however a non-negligible percentage of patients is asymptomatic, and up to 40% of cases have cirrhosis at the time of diagnosis. The diagnosis is based on: 1) measurement of autoantibodies, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), and liver/kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies (anti-LKM-1); 2) detection of elevated serum levels of globulins (especially IgG); 3) exclusion of other causes of chronic hepatitis; and, 4) histological findings, which also confirm the diagnosis and help determine its severity. Diagnostic scales and scores have been developed to allow a better approach to this pathology without replacing the clinical judgment, so they must be interpreted under an adequate clinical context. A proper diagnosis can allow a timely initiation of treatment in order to decrease the progression and the development of complications.

Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Autoantibodies/isolation & purification , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e023419, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138062


Abstract In experimental autoimmune hepatitis (EAH) of Th1 profile, an extract of adult Ascaris suum worms (ASC) was previously found to deviate the immune response to a Th2/IL-10 pattern. Here, the effects of treatment with ASC on production of TGF-β and the anti-Ascaris isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a in EAH were evaluated. EAH was induced in BALB/c mice, intravenously with concanavalin A. Two hours later, these animals received ASC (EAH+ASC group) or PBS vehicle (EAH group). IgG1 and IgG2a were evaluated 8 h, 24 h and 7 d after induction. TGF-β was measured in a splenocyte culture at this last time. The isotype levels in the EAH group were low throughout the kinetics. In the EAH+ASC group, there was significant production of IgG1 at 24 h and 7 d, but of IgG2a only at 7 d. There was statistically greater production of TGF-β in the EAH+ASC group. The higher levels of IgG1 and TGF-β in this group suggest that an additional Th1 response control route exists in EAH, which needs to be investigated.

Resumo Na hepatite autoimune experimental (HAE) de perfil Th1, o extrato de vermes adultos Ascaris suum (ASC) desviou a resposta imune para um padrão Th2/IL-10. Neste trabalho, foram avaliados os efeitos do tratamento com ASC na produção TGF-β e dos isótipos de IgG1 e IgG2a anti-Ascaris na HAE. Esta foi induzida em camundongos BALB/c intravenosamente com Concanavalina A. Após duas horas, os animais receberam ASC (grupo HAE+ASC) ou veículo PBS (grupo HAE). IgG1 e IgG2a foram avaliados em 8 horas, 24 horas e 7 dias após indução. TGF-β foi mensurado em cultura de esplenócitos nesse último tempo. Os níveis dos isótipos no grupo HAE foram baixos durante toda a cinética. No grupo HAE+ASC, houve produção significativa de IgG1 em 24 horas e 7 dias, mas somente em 7 dias para IgG2a. A produção de TGF-β foi estatisticamente maior no grupo HAE+ASC. Níveis mais altos de IgG1 e TGF-β nesse grupo sugerem uma via adicional de controle da resposta Th1 na HAE que precisa ser investigada.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/biosynthesis , Ascaris suum/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/parasitology , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antigens, Helminth/immunology