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Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 287-295, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981942


Most prostate cancers initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). With the long-term application of ADT, localized prostate cancer will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), metastatic CRPC (mCRPC), and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), and the transcriptional network shifted. Forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) may play a key role in this process through multiple mechanisms. To better understand the role of FOXA1 in prostate cancer, we review the interplay among FOXA1-targeted genes, modulators of FOXA1, and FOXA1 with a particular emphasis on androgen receptor (AR) function. Furthermore, we discuss the distinct role of FOXA1 mutations in prostate cancer and clinical significance of FOXA1. We summarize possible regulation pathways of FOXA1 in different stages of prostate cancer. We focus on links between FOXA1 and AR, which may play different roles in various types of prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss FOXA1 mutation and its clinical significance in prostate cancer. FOXA1 regulates the development of prostate cancer through various pathways, and it could be a biomarker for mCRPC and NEPC. Future efforts need to focus on mechanisms underlying mutation of FOXA1 in advanced prostate cancer. We believe that FOXA1 would be a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

Humans , Male , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens/metabolism , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha/metabolism , Mutation , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism
Protein & Cell ; (12): 29-38, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880916


Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancers in North American men. While androgen deprivation has remained as the cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment, resistance ensues leading to lethal disease. Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) encodes a pioneer factor that induces open chromatin conformation to allow the binding of other transcription factors. Through direct interactions with the Androgen Receptor (AR), FOXA1 helps to shape AR signaling that drives the growth and survival of normal prostate and prostate cancer cells. FOXA1 also possesses an AR-independent role of regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In prostate cancer, mutations converge onto the coding sequence and cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of FOXA1, leading to functional alterations. In addition, FOXA1 activity in prostate cancer can be modulated post-translationally through various mechanisms such as LSD1-mediated protein demethylation. In this review, we describe the latest discoveries related to the function and regulation of FOXA1 in prostate cancer, pointing to their relevance to guide future clinical interventions.

Humans , Male , Amino Acid Sequence , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Mutation , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Binding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic