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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e247487, 2024. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345555

ABSTRACT

Abstract Worldwide, conventional agriculture makes extensive use of pesticides. Although the effects of herbicides are relatively well known in terms of environmental impacts on non-target organisms, there is very little scientific evidence regarding the impacts of herbicide residues on aquatic arthropods from tropical conservation areas. This study evaluates for the first time the toxicity of the herbicides ametryn, atrazine, and clomazone on the aquatic insect Limnocoris submontandoni (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). The lethal concentration (LC50) of herbicides was evaluated for these insects, as well as the effect of the herbicides on the insects' tissues and testicles. The estimated LC50 was 1012.41, 192.42, and 46.09 mg/L for clomazone, atrazine, and ametryn, respectively. Spermatocyte and spermatid changes were observed under the effect of atrazine, and effects on spermatogenesis were observed for some concentrations of clomazone, with apparent recovery after a short time. Our results provide useful information on the effects of herbicide residues in aquatic systems. This information can help minimize the risk of long-term reproductive effects in non-target species that have been previously overlooked in ecotoxicology studies.


Resumo Em todo o mundo, a agricultura convencional faz uso extensivo de pesticidas. Embora os efeitos dos herbicidas sejam relativamente bem conhecidos em termos de impactos ambientais em organismos não-alvo, há pouca evidência científica sobre os impactos de resíduos de herbicidas em artrópodes aquáticos de áreas de conservação tropicais. Este estudo avalia pela primeira vez a toxicidade dos herbicidas ametryn, atrazine e clomazone sobre o inseto aquático Limnocoris submontandoni (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). A concentração letal (LC50) de herbicidas foi avaliada para esses insetos, bem como o efeito dos herbicidas nos tecidos e testículos dos insetos. A LC50 estimada foi de 1012,41, 192,42 e 46,09 mg/L para clomazone, atrazine e ametryn, respectivamente. Alterações nos espermatócitos e espermátides foram observadas sob o efeito de atrazine, e efeitos na espermatogênese foram observados para algumas concentrações de clomazone, com aparente recuperação após um curto período de tempo. Nossos resultados fornecem informações úteis sobre os efeitos de resíduos de herbicidas em sistemas aquáticos. Essas informações podem ajudar a minimizar o risco de efeitos reprodutivos de longo prazo em espécies não-alvo que foram negligenciadas anteriormente em estudos de ecotoxicologia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropods , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Hemiptera , Herbicides/toxicity , Ecotoxicology , Genitalia
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicides/toxicity , Aspergillus , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Organophosphonates , Fungi , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246450, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278532
4.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2407, jan-jun. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in French | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1283532

ABSTRACT

As abelhas exercem essencial atividade polinizadora, além de fundamentais na manutenção ecossistêmica, também polinizam diversos sistemas agrícolas. São crescentes os relatos sobre o desaparecimento de abelhas, possivelmente em decorrência do intenso uso de agrotóxicos, os quais não possuem seus efeitos sobre a biodiversidade, de fato, conhecidos. A maioria dos estudos nessa área é voltada para a compreensão dos efeitos de inseticidas, porém, os herbicidas também podem influenciar na mortandade dos insetos polinizadores. Referente aos herbicidas paraquat e diquat, amplamente utilizados na agricultura, pouco se conhece sobre os efeitos que atingem organismos não-alvo, como as abelhas. Este trabalho avaliou a mortalidade das abelhas Scaptotrigona bipunctata submetidas aos herbicidas paraquat e diquat, via contato e ingestão. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 com tratamento adicional, em três repetições. Os tratamentos foram: dois herbicidas (paraquat e diquat), duas doses (50 e 100%) e um tratamento adicional sem exposição ao produto (controle). Cada parcela consistiu em dez indivíduos, expostos aos tratamentos e incubados à 28oC durante 72 horas em ambiente controlado. Para o experimento de ingestão, ambas as doses dos herbicidas resultaram em maior mortalidade de abelhas em relação à condição controle. Ademais, a dose 100% resultou em maior toxicidade comparada à dose 50%. Para a contaminação via contato, não houve aumento na mortalidade das abelhas perante a exposição. Conclui-se que a contaminação por ingestão com os herbicidas paraquat e diquat pode afetar a sobrevivência das abelhas sem ferrão, podendo em longo prazo alterar a viabilidade e a dinâmica das populações das abelhas Scaptotrigona bipunctata.(AU)


Bees have essential pollinating activities and are fundamental to the maintenance of the ecosystem since they also pollinate various agricultural systems. There are growing reports about the disappearance of bees, possibly due to the intense use of pesticides, which do not have their effects on biodiversity fully known. Most studies in this area are aimed at understanding the effects of insecticides; however, herbicides can also influence the mortality of pollinating insects. Regarding the paraquat and diquat herbicides, widely used in agriculture, little is known about the effects on non-target organisms, such as bees. This work evaluated the mortality of Scaptotrigona bipunctata bees submitted to the paraquat and diquat herbicides via contact and ingestion. Two experiments were conducted in a randomized block design in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme with additional treatment, in three replications. The treatments were: two herbicides (paraquat and diquat), two doses (50 and 100%), and an additional treatment without contamination (control). Each plot consisted of ten individuals exposed to treatments and incubated at 28 ºC for 72 hours in a controlled environment. For the ingestion experiment, both doses of the herbicides resulted in higher bee mortality when compared to the control condition. In addition, the 100% dose resulted in greater toxicity when compared to the 50% dose. For contact contamination, there was no increase in bee mortality on exposure. It can be concluded that contamination by ingestion of paraquat and diquat can affect the survival of stingless bees, which in the long term may alter the viability and population dynamics of Scaptotrigona bipunctata bees.(AU)


Las abejas ejercen una actividad polinizadora esencial, además de ser fundamentales en el mantenimiento de los ecosistemas, también polinizan varios sistemas agrícolas. Cada vez hay más informes sobre la desaparición de abejas, posiblemente como consecuencia del uso intenso de pesticidas, que no tienen sus efectos sobre la biodiversidad, de hecho, conocidos. La mayoría de los estudios en esta área tienen como objetivo comprender los efectos de los insecticidas, sin embargo, los herbicidas también pueden influir en la mortalidad de los insectos polinizadores. Con respecto a los herbicidas paraquat e diquat, ampliamente utilizados en la agricultura, se sabe poco sobre los efectos que afectan a organismos no objetivo, como las abejas. Esta investigación evaluó la mortalidad de abejas Scaptotrigona bipunctata sometidas a herbicidas paraquat y diquat, por contacto e ingestión. Dos experimentos fueron conducidos en el delineamiento de bloques casualizados en esquema factorial 2 x 2 con tratamiento adicional, en tres repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron: dos herbicidas (paraquat y diquat) dos dosis (50 y 100%) y un tratamiento adicional sin exposición al producto (control). Cada parcela estuvo compuesta por diez individuos, expuestos a tratamientos e incubados a 28ºC durante 72 horas en ambiente controlado. Para el experimento de ingestión, ambas dosis de herbicidas resultaron en mayor mortalidad de abejas en comparación con la condición de control. Además, la dosis del 100% resultó en mayor toxicidad en comparación con la dosis del 50%. Para la contaminación por contacto, no hubo un aumento en la mortalidad de las abejas debido a la exposición. Se concluye que la contaminación por ingestión con herbicidas paraquat y diquat puede afectar la supervivencia de las abejas sin aguijón, lo que a largo plazo puede alterar la viabilidad y la dinámica poblacional de las abejas Scaptotrigona bipunctata.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees , Biodiversity , Diquat/toxicity , Herbicides/toxicity , Insecticides , Mortality
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18194, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011639

ABSTRACT

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects on health of pregnant female rats exposed to pesticides glyphosate and carbendazim. Glyphosate is used as herbicide and carbendazim as a fungicide; all are commercially available readily for various agricultural and domestic purposes. The hypothesis tested in this investigation is that pesticide exposure during pregnancy causes changes in biomarker responses like serum glucose level, total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, SGOT, SGPT, and billirubin level. Significant changes were observed in all above biomarker responses, when compared with the reference. Histopathology of skin and kidney of rat neonates showed marked damage. Degenerative changes and vacuolization with eroded capsule were observed in kidney sample and thinning of epidermis in skin sample was seen in pesticides exposed neonates of rats. The serum biochemistry and histopathological findings are valuable markers for observing the changes caused by pesticide exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Infant, Newborn , Biomarkers/analysis , Pesticide Exposure , Herbicides/toxicity
6.
Hig. aliment ; 31(274/275): 104-9, 30/12/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-880186

ABSTRACT

O Paraquate (1,1'-dimetil-4,4'-bipiridina- dicloreto) é herbicida amplamente utilizado em vários países para diferentes culturas. O objetivo é determinar a concentração de Paraquate em batatas comercializadas em diferentes estabelecimentos da zona leste de São Paulo. Foram coletadas 12 (doze) amostras de batatas adquiridas no comércio varejista (sacolões, ou seja, do de frutas, verduras e legumes; supermercados e feiras livres) da zona leste do município de São Paulo. A quantificação do Paraquate foi baseada na reação de complexação com o ditionito de sódio, gerando composto de cor azulada, cuja absorvância foi lida em espectrofotômetro em comprimento de onda de 600nm. Foi construída a curva padrão e a determinada a equação da reta (y = 1,6448x e R2= 0,9945). O limite de tolerância do herbicida em alimentos é de 0,2 partes por milhão ou 0,2 mg/kg, enquanto que a ingestão diária aceitável (IDA) é de 0,004 mg/kg de peso corpóreo. Assim, pode-se observar que os valores encontrados em três amostras estão acima do limite máximo permitido, enquanto quatro apresentaram concentrações muito próximas ao limite. Os resultados permitem inferir que existe a necessidade de intensificação na fiscalização nos locais de comercialização de alimentos produzidos com a utilização de agrotóxicos.(AU)


Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'- bipyridine-dichloride) is herbicide widely used in several countries in different plantations. The objective is to determine the concentration of Paraquat in potatoes, marketed in different establishments in the eastern zone of São Paulo. Twelve (12) samples of potatoes purchased from the retail trade ("sacolões", ie fruit, vegetable and vegetable markets, supermarkets and free markets) were collected from the eastern part of the city of São Paulo. The quantification of Paraquat was based on the reaction of complexation with the sodium dithionite, generating compound of blue color, whose absorbance was read in a spectrophotometer at wavelength of 600 nm. The standard curve was constructed and the equation of the line was determined (y = 1,6448x e R2 = 0,9945). The tolerance limit of the herbicide in foods is 0.2 parts per million or 0.2 mg/kg, while the acceptable daily intake (ADI) is 0.004 mg/kg body weight. Thus, it can be observed that the values found in three samples are above the maximum allowed limit, while four of them presented concentrations very close to the limit. The results allow inferring that there is a need for intensification in the inspection in the commercial places of food produced with the use of pesticides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paraquat/administration & dosage , Paraquat/analysis , Pesticide Residues , Solanum tuberosum , Food Samples , Herbicides/toxicity
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 544-550, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889154

ABSTRACT

Abstract Presence of the relatively new sulfonylurea herbicide monosulfuron-ester at 0.03-300 nmol/L affected the growth of two non-target nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Anabaena flos-aquae and Anabaena azotica) and substantially inhibited in vitro Acetolactate synthase activity, with IC50 of 3.3 and 101.3 nmol/L for A. flos-aquae and A. azotica, respectively. Presenting in 30-300 nmol/L, it inhibited protein synthesis of the cyanobacteria with less amino acids produced as its concentration increased. Our findings support the view that monosulfuron-ester toxicity in both nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria is due to its interference with protein metabolism via inhibition of branch-chain amino acid biosynthesis, and particularly Acetolactate synthase activity.


Subject(s)
Pyrimidines/toxicity , Sulfonylurea Compounds/toxicity , Anabaena/drug effects , Anabaena/metabolism , Anabaena flos-aquae/drug effects , Anabaena flos-aquae/metabolism , Esters/toxicity , Herbicides/toxicity , Nitrogen Fixation/drug effects , Anabaena/genetics , Anabaena flos-aquae/genetics , Amino Acids/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(3): 174-180, mar. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782070

ABSTRACT

O uso inadequado de herbicidas pode resultar em intoxicações agudas e, às vezes, crônicas por exposição em longo prazo a baixos níveis desses agentes tóxicos, podendo o herbicida atuar também como agentes teratogênicos, mutagênicos, cancerígenos e desreguladores endócrinos, com o aparecimento de doenças neurodegenerativas e distúrbios reprodutivos. Estudos têm revelado que a melatonina tem propriedades antioxidantes, anti-inflamatórias e imunomoduladoras e atua na reprodução. Essa indolamina está entre os agentes que têm se mostrado benéfico em intoxicações por herbicidas, porém não há relatos do uso de melatonina contra intoxicações por Glifosato-Roundup®, muito menos em associação com o Paraquat. Dessa forma, o maior interesse no tratamento das intoxicações por herbicidas, tem-se concentrado em medidas que impeçam ou minimizem as lesões celulares provocadas nos diversos sistemas biológicos. Assim, a melatonina, como antioxidante conhecido, pode ser mais uma alternativa contra as intoxicações por herbicidas associados e/ou individuais.


The inadequate use of herbicides may cause serious and sometimes chronic poisoning due to long exposure to low levels of toxic agents. Herbicides may also be teratogenic, mutagenic, cancerigenous agents and endocrine disruptors, with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases and reproduction disorders. Several studies have shown that melatonin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating qualities, besides affecting the reproduction system. It is among the agents which are beneficent in poisoning by herbicides even though no reports are extant on the use of melatonin against poisoning by Glyphosate-Roundup® alone or associated with Paraquat. Solutions that prevent or minimize cell lesions caused by several biological systems have been focused upon in the treatment for poisoning with herbicides. Thus, melatonin, a known antioxidant, may be an alternative against the poisoning by single or associated herbicides.


Subject(s)
Herbicides/analysis , Herbicides/adverse effects , Herbicides/pharmacology , Herbicides/toxicity , Melatonin/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants , Cytoprotection , Public Health , Paraquat/adverse effects , Paraquat/toxicity
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(1): 223-233, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753788

ABSTRACT

Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux®411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance) of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup® Active and Cosmo-Flux®411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50=3 904µg a.e./L; LC50=2 799µg a.e./L, respectively), while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203µg a.e./L; LC50=1 424µg a.e./L, respectively) were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated), or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76kg glyphosate a.e./ha) the highest field application rate of 3.69kg glyphosate a.e./ha. Thus, toxicity was less in the microcosms than in laboratory tests, which may be attributed to the presence of sediments and organic matter which rapidly adsorb glyphosate and surfactants such as POEA. It is concluded that the mixture of glyphosate (Roundup® Active) and Cosmo-Flux®411F, as used in the field, has a negligible toxic effect to embryos and tadpoles of the species tested in this study.


El glifosato es el herbicida más usado en el mundo con aplicaciones para la agricultura, control de malezas forestales, industriales, en jardines y ambientes acuáticos. Sin embargo, su uso es altamente controversial por el posible impacto sobre organismos no blanco, como los anfibios, los cuales están desapareciendo a una tasa alarmantemente rápida. Debido a su alta solubilidad en agua y naturaleza iónica, el glifosato requiere de surfactantes para incrementar su actividad. Además, para el control de Erythroxylum coca y de malezas en la agricultura en Colombia, el glifosato formulado es mezclado y rociado con el coadyuvante Cosmo-Flux®411F para incrementar la penetración y actividad del herbicida. Este estudio evalúa los efectos tóxicos agudos y subletales (desarrollo embrionario, tamaño corporal y desempeño natatorio de los renacuajos) de la mezcla del glifosato formulado Roundup® Activo con el Cosmo-Flux®411F en embriones y renacuajos de cuatro especies de anuros colombianos, bajo pruebas de 96h en condiciones estándar de laboratorio y microcosmos, que son más similares a las condiciones de campo al incluir tierra, arena y macrófitas. En laboratorio, los embriones y renacuajos de Engystomops pustulosus fueron los más tolerantes (CL50=3 904µg a.e./L; CL50=2 799µg a.e./L, respectivamente), mientras que los embriones y renacuajos de Hypsiboas crepitans fueron los más sensibles (CL50=2 203µg a.e./L; CL50=1 424µg a.e./L, respectivamente). R. humboldti y R. marina presentaron una toxicidad intermedia. Los embriones fueron más tolerantes a la mezcla que los renacuajos, lo cual podría ser atribuido a la exclusión de los químicos por las membranas embrionarias y a la falta de órganos, como las branquias, que son más sensibles a los surfactantes. Se observaron efectos subletales en el tamaño corporal de los renacuajos, pero no en el desarrollo embrionario ni el desempeño natatorio de los renacuajos. En microcosmos no se observaron efectos tóxicos ni respuestas subletales a concentraciones hasta cuatro veces (14.67kg glifosato a.e./ha) la tasa de aplicación más alta de 3.69kg glifosato a.e./ha. Por lo tanto, la toxicidad fue menor en los microcosmos que en las pruebas de laboratorio, lo que puede ser atribuido a la presencia de sedimentos y materia orgánica que absorbe rápidamente el glifosato y surfactantes como el POEA. Se concluye que la mezcla del glifosato (Roundup® Activo) y Cosmo-Flux®411F, como se aplica en campo, tiene un efecto tóxico bajo en los embriones y renacuajos de las especies estudiadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anura , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Xanthones/toxicity , Anura/classification , Colombia , Glycine/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute
10.
Invest. clín ; 55(4): 352-364, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783089

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of melatonin (MEL) in the activities of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase as well as in the levels of H2O2 and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA) in paraquat-intoxicated Drosophila melanogaster. Paraquat (40 mM) was administrated for 36 h. Three groups of flies intoxicated with paraquat were used: PQ (exposed during 36h to paraquat), PQ-MEL (exposed during 36h to paraquat and then treated with MEL [0.43 mM] for 12 days) and PQ-Control (maintained in standard corn meal for 12 days). Two additional groups without pre-intoxication with PQ were added: Control (maintained in standard corn meal) and MEL (treated with MEL for 12 days). Immediately after PQ intoxication the concentration of MDA (17.240 ± 0.554 nmoles MDA/mg protein) and H2O2 (3.313 ± 0.086 nmol hydrogen peroxide/mg protein) and the activities of SOD and catalase (419.667 ± 0.731 and 0.216 ± 0.009 Units/mg of protein, respectively) in the PQ group were significantly increased with respect to Control. After 12 days of intoxication with PQ, the PQ-Control flies showed increases in H2O2 (4.336 ± 0.108) and MDA levels (8.620 ± 0.156), and in the activities of SOD and catalase (692.570 ± 0.433 and 0.327 ± 0.003, respectively) as compared to PQ-MEL (p<0.001). Treatment with MEL extended the life span of the groups PQ-MEL and MEL when compared to their corresponding controls. Motor activity decreased significantly in PQ-Control and PQ-MEL flies, suggesting that the damage caused by PQ affected the nervous system of flies. Our findings showed that oxidative damage caused by paraquat was observed even after 12 days and that melatonin mitigates this damage.


Investigamos el efecto de la melatonina (MEL) en la actividad de la superóxido dismutasa citosólica (SOD) y la catalasa, así como en las concentraciones del H2O2 y del malondialdehido mitocondrial (MDA) en la toxicidad inducida por paraquat (PQ) en Drosophila melanogaster. El paraquat (40 mM) fue administrado durante 36h. Tres grupos de moscas se utilizaron después de la intoxicación con paraquat: PQ (expuestas a paraquat durante 36 h), PQ-MEL (expuestas durante 36 horas a PQ y luego tratadas con MEL [0,43 mM] por 12 días) y PQ-Control (mantenidas en medio estándar por 12 días). Se incluyeron dos grupos adicionales sin pre-intoxicación con PQ: Control (mantenido en medio estándar) y MEL (tratado con MEL por 12 días). Inmediatamente después de la intoxicación con PQ, las concentraciones de MDA (17,240 ± 0,554 nmol de MDA/mg de proteína), H2O2 (3,313 ± 0,086 nmol de H2O2/mg de proteína) y las actividades de la SOD y catalasa (419,667 ± 0,731 y 0,216 ± 0,009 unidades/mg de proteína, respectivamente) se incrementaron significativamente con respecto al Control. Doce días después de la intoxicación con PQ, las moscas PQ-Control mostraron un aumento en la concentración de H2O2 (4,336 ± 0,108), de los niveles de MDA (8,620 ± 0,156) y en las actividades de la SOD y la catalasa (692,570 ± 0,433 y 0,327 ± 0,003, respectivamente) en comparación con el grupo PQ-MEL (p<0,001). El tratamiento con MEL extendió el tiempo de vida de los grupos PQ-MEL y MEL en comparación con sus correspondientes controles. La actividad motora disminuyó significativamente en las moscas de los grupos PQ-Control y PQ-MEL, lo que sugiere que el PQ afectó el sistema nervioso de las moscas. Nuestros hallazgos demostraron que el daño oxidativo causado por paraquat en las moscas fue observado aún después de 12 días de intoxicadas y que la melatonina logró mitigar este daño.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Drosophila melanogaster/drug effects , Herbicides/antagonists & inhibitors , Melatonin/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Paraquat/antagonists & inhibitors , Catalase/analysis , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drosophila Proteins/analysis , Drosophila melanogaster/physiology , Herbicides/toxicity , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Longevity/drug effects , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mitochondria/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Paraquat/toxicity
11.
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences [AJVS]. 2014; 41: 95-101
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160073

ABSTRACT

Genotoxic effect of acute and chronic doses of Bentazon and Glyphosate herbicides were estimated using micronucleus [MN], nuclear budding, mitotic index [MI] and chromosomal aberration assays. Five groups of Swiss male albino mice were used in acute exposure of 1/5 and 1/10 LD50 of both herbicides after 24, 96 hours of exposure compared to the control. For chronic exposure 1/20 of LD50 of each herbicide was for two months. Genotoxicity of acute doses at different duration of Bentazon and Glyphosate were confirmed through significant increased number of aberrant cells, different types of chromosomal aberration, micronucleus and nuclear budding. Chronic dose of Bentazone induced more genotoxic effects than Glyphosate


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Herbicides/toxicity , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Mice
12.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 38(1): 86-97, dez. 2013. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756227

ABSTRACT

Na natureza, os organismos são constantemente expostos a mais de um agente tóxico e, apesar do fenômeno de interaçõesquímicas ser conhecido há tempos, são poucos os estudos realizados que privilegiam a observação dos efeitosdecorrentes da exposição a duas ou mais substâncias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito combinado damistura dos herbicidas Gesapax 500® (ametrina 500 g/L) e Velpar K® (diuron 468 g/kg + hexazinone 132 g/kg) sobreo paulistinha (Danio rerio). O ensaio foi baseado no teste FET da OECD, com duração de 96 horas. As concentraçõestestadas foram 0, 21,22, 29,52, 41,08, 57,17 e 79,56 mg/L de Gesapax 500 vs. 0, 15,21, 21,17, 29,46, 40,99 e 57,04mg/L de Velpar K. Os testes foram conduzidos em triplicata e avaliados diariamente. As CL50-96h determinadas foram41,705 ± 8,373 mg/L para o Gesapax 500 e 55,460 ± 20,826 mg/L para o Velpar K. O modelo da mistura que melhordescreve a relação entre os dois componentes é a ação independente, sendo a toxicidade dose-dependente, ou seja,em baixas doses ocorre antagonismo e, em altas doses, sinergismo. Os endpoints edemas, atraso no desenvolvimentoembrionário (delay) e na absorção do saco vitelínico e diminuição na frequência de cardíaca foram observados apartir das concentrações mais baixas da mistura. Pelos dados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mistura de Gesapax 500 eVelpar K é medianamente tóxica para o paulistinha e que os endpoints avaliados foram úteis na determinação de suatoxicidade.


In nature, organisms are constantly exposed to more than one toxic agent, and although the phenomenon of chemical interactionsare known for some time, there are few previous studies that emphasize observation of the effects resulting fromexposure to two or more substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of the mixture of herbicideGesapax 500® (ametrina 500 g/L) and Velpar K® (diuron 468 g/kg + hexazinone 132 g/kg) on zebrafish (Danio rerio). The testwas based on the Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) from OECD, lasting 96 hours. The concentrations tested were: 0, 21.22, 29.52,41.08, 57.17 and 79.56 mg/L Gesapax 500 vs. 0, 15.21, 21.17, 29.46, 40.99 and 57.04 mg/L Velpar K. Tests were conductedin triplicate and evaluated daily. LC50-96h was determined to 41.705 ± 8.373 mg/L to Gesapax 500 and 55.460 ± 20.826 mg/Lto Velpar K. The mixture model that best describes the relationship between the two components is independent action andtoxicity of the mixture is dose-dependent, occurring antagonism at low doses and synergism at high doses. The endpointsedema, delay in general development and in yolk sac absorption and decrease in frequency of heart-beat rate were observedfrom the lower concentrations of the mixture. From the data obtained, it is concluded that the mixture of Velpar K and Gesapax500 is moderately toxic to zebrafish and that the endpoints evaluated were useful in determining its toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acute Toxicity , Complex Mixtures , Diuron , Herbicides/toxicity
13.
Braz. j. morphol. sci ; 30(1): 28-32, 2013. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699325

ABSTRACT

The 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a systemic herbicide whose effects in animal organic systemshave been examined in previous studies, being the neurotoxicity considered the predominant effect. However,the studies that detect the 2,4-D neurotoxicity have merely focused in the central nervous system, andtherefore, little is known about the effect of this herbicide in the enteric nervous system. This study aimedto verifying the 2,4-D effects on the myenteric neurons in duodenum of Wistar rats. Ten 60-day-old maleWistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided in two groups: control group (C) that did not receive 2,4-D andexperimental group (E) that received 5.0 mg of 2,4-D/kg for 15 days. At the end of experimental period, theanimal were euthanized, the duodenum was collected and processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemicalanalysis in order to expose the nitrergic myenteric neurons (NADPH-dp). In the light microscopy analysis, thewhole-mount preparation obtained from duodenum of each animal were image-captured in 120 and 40 fields,for quantitative and morphometric analyses of myenteric neurons, respectively. The neuronal density was notaffected when comparing the two groups, but an increase (p > 0.05) of 8.5% was observed in the cell bodyarea of neurons in the E group. In conclusion, the ingestion of 2,4-D at a dosage of 5.0 mg/kg body weightfor 15 days does not change the neuronal density, but promotes the hypertrophy of NADPH-dp myentericneurons in duodenum of the rats of this study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , /toxicity , Herbicides/toxicity , Intestine, Small , NADPH Dehydrogenase/analysis , Nitrergic Neurons , Myenteric Plexus , Control Groups , Euthanasia, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Statistical Analysis
14.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 20(1): 5-13, jul. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657454

ABSTRACT

En nuestro país existe una gran extensión de hectáreas cultivadas con soja transgénica, la misma ha sido modificada genéticamente para soportar la acción de un herbicida denominado glifosato. Debido a la gran cantidad de formulaciones comerciales que incluyen glifosato es de importancia analizar el impacto ambiental producido por éstas. La evaluacion de la toxicidad aguda de dos herbicidas comerciales formulados con glifosato y de una solución del mismo; frente a peces de la especie Poecilia reticulata "lebistes" acusa que una de las soluciones produce mortalidad del 100 % de los especimenes a 100 μl/l (equivalente a 48 mg/l de principio activo); la otra a 50 μl/l (equivalente a 24 mg/l de principio activo) y la solución formulada con glifosato puro no produce mortalidad aún a concentraciones de 400 mg/l. Utilizando dosis sub letales en función de los datos obtenidos en el ensayo de toxicidad aguda se determinó que a largo plazo especimenes de Cyprinus carpio haematopterus "carpa koi", manifestaron severas alteraciones hematológicas principalmente frente a una de las formulaciones evaluadas.


Nowadays, transgenic soya, modified in order to withstand the impact of the herbicide glyphosate, in one of the main crops grown in Argentina. Due to the large number of commercial formulations that include this drug, is important to analyze both, the acute and chronic environmental impact that they cause. Here the acute toxicity of two commercial herbicides glyphosatebased toward the fish Poecilia reticulate "guppy" was evaluated and compared with pure glyphosate solutions. Interestingly, while commercial herbicides formulations induce a 100% of mortality at concentration ranged between 50 and 100 μl/l, the pure glyphosathe does not present mortality even at doses higher than 400 mg/l. When some long term effects toward Cyprinus carpio haematopterus "koi" were determined by using the sub-lethal doses already calculated it was demonstrated that one of the commercial herbicides induces severe haematological alterations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Agrochemicals/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods , Toxicity Tests, Chronic/methods , Herbicides/toxicity , Poecilia , Carps , Agrochemicals/adverse effects , Herbicides/analysis
15.
Gac. méd. Caracas ; 120(2): 128-134, abr.-jun. 2012. tab, graf, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-679018

ABSTRACT

En Venezuela, es frecuente la utilización de plaguicidas como el paraguat en la actividad agrícola, por ello las intoxicaciones y fallecimientos que se producen anualmente por su mal uso, y manejo es importante. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los casos de intoxicaciones por paraquat registrados en el Centro Toxicológico de la Región Centro Occidental de Venezuela, durante los años 1997-2000, para evaluar frecuencia, causas, vías de ingreso y evaluación de los pacientes intoxicados. La investigación fue descriptiva, de registros médicos. Se registraron 79 pacientes; 44 pacientes del género masculino y 29 del género femenino y 6 no identificados en los registros. El promedio de edad fue de 24,22 ± 12,47 años. La principal vía de ingreso del tóxico fue oral 83.5%, y las causas de intoxicación identificadas fueron: 75,9% ocupacional y 22,8% accidental. El 49,3% de los pacientes fue dado de alta., mientras que el 8,8% falleció


In Venezuela, it is frequent the use of pesticides such as paraquat in agriculture, so poisonings and deaths that occur annually for their improper use and handling its important. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of paraquat poisoning recorded in the Poison Center of the Midwestern Region of Venezuela during the years 1997-2000, to assess prevalence, causes, access routes and evolution of poisoned patients. The research was descriptive, of medical records. There were 79 patienrs, 44 males and 29 females and 6 are not identified in the records. The average age was 24.22 ± 12.47 years. The main route of the toxic was oral 83.5%, and the causes of poisoning identified were: occupational 75.9% and accidental 22.8%. The 49.3% of patients were discharged, while 8.8% died


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Herbicides/chemistry , Herbicides/toxicity , Paraquat/adverse effects , Paraquat/toxicity , Agriculture , Agronomy , Cause of Death/trends , Pesticides/toxicity
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(1): 141-146, Feb. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618027

ABSTRACT

Agriculture uses a huge variety and quantity of chemicals. If, on one hand, the goal is to increase productivity, on the other hand these products contaminate aquatic environments. Among these products, herbicides deserve greater attention in relation to contamination of aquatic environments due to their extensive use to weed control. This study was carried out because the effects of these molecules on aquatic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, is still unclear. Using microdilution plate assays, Escherichia coli were exposed to various commercial formulations of herbicides widely used in Brazil. The herbicide paraquat was the only one able to prevent the growth of Escherichia coli and is characterized as bacteriostatic.


A agricultura utiliza uma enorme variedade de produtos químicos, e se por um lado a meta é aumentar a produtividade, por outro lado estes produtos contaminam ambientes aquáticos. Entre estes produtos, herbicidas merecem maior atenção em relação à contaminação de ecossistemas aquáticos, devido a seu amplo emprego para controlar plantas daninhas. Este estudo foi realizado porque os efeitos destas moléculas em micro-organismos aquáticos, tais como Escherichia coli, ainda são pouco estudados. Através de ensaios de microdiluição, E. coli foi exposta a várias formulações comerciais de herbicidas amplamente utilizados no Brasil e foi verificado que o herbicida paraquat foi o único capaz de impedir o crescimento de E. coli, caracterizando-se assim como bacteriostático.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/drug effects , Herbicides/toxicity , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Paraquat/toxicity , Time Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7978

ABSTRACT

Survivin, a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, is expressed during development and in various human cancers. However, the clinical relevance of survivin in cancer is still a matter of debate. Genes induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were screened using cDNA microarray technology in the stomach cancer cell lines, NUGC3 and MKN28. The levels of JunB, survivin, and uro-plasminogen activator (uPA) were up-regulated in cells treated with HGF in a dose-dependent manner. HGF-induced up regulation of JunB, survivin, and uPA was inhibited by pre-treatment with a MEK inhibitor (PD 98059). HGF-induced up-regulation of uPA was repressed by survivin knockdown. HGF enhanced the binding activity of JunB to the survivin promoter in control cells, but not in the JunB-shRNA cells. Transfection with survivin-shRNA resulted in a decrement of cell proliferation, as determined with MTT assays. In an in vitro invasion assay, significantly fewer cells transfected with survivin shRNA than control cells were able to invade across a Matrigel membrane barrier. In conclusion, survivin appeared to play an important role in the up-regulation of uPA induced by HGF via JunB and might contribute to HGF-mediated tumor invasion and metastasis, which may serve as a promising target for gastric cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytoprotection , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Herbicides/toxicity , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Paraquat/toxicity , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
18.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 73(1): 20-26, ene.-mar. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-589184

ABSTRACT

El paraquat es un plaguicida agricola bipiridilo, cuyos efectos tóxicos más severos son año hepato-renal y fibrosis pulmonar irreversible. Se reportan dos casos de intoxicación en niños, por ingestión accidental de paraquat; ellos desarrollaron sialorrea, vómitos azul verdoso, lesión digestiva cáustica. dificultad respiratoria, daño hepato-renal, alteraciones radiológicas y presencia de paraquat en orina y sangre. Ambos pacientes recibieron el tratamiento disponible entre 24-48 horas despues de la ingestion y tuvieron una evolución satisfactoria. El tratamiento consistió basicamente en diálisis gastrointestinal, diuresis forzada ácida, N-acetilcisteína y dexametasona.


Paraquat is a bipyridyl agricultural pesticide, whose more severe effects are hepatic-renal damage and irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Two children with paraquat accidental poisoning are reported; they developed syalorrhea, blue greenish vomiting, caustic digestive injury, breathing difficulty, liver and kidney damage, radiographic changes and presence of paraquat in blood and urine. Both patients received the available treatment 24-48 hours after ingetion and had a satisfactory autcome. The consisted basically of gatrointestinal dialysis, acidic forced diuresis, N-acetylcysteine and dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Esophagitis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Hemoperfusion/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Paraquat/toxicity , Accidents/trends , Herbicides/poisoning , Herbicides/toxicity
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 29(3): 456-475, sept. 2009.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-544530

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El Programa de Erradicación de Cultivos Ilícitos con Glifosato se ejecuta dando cumplimiento a lo establecido en el Plan de Manejo Ambiental. Objetivo. Explorar los posibles efectos del glifosato y otros plaguicidas sobre la salud humana como resultado de las aspersiones aéreas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 112 individuos procedentes de las áreas asperjadas de los departamentos de Huila, Tolima, Putumayo, Guaviare, Santander, Antioquia, Magdalena y La Guajira, durante 2005 y 2006. Se aplicó una encuesta y se recolectaron muestras de orina para la determinación de glifosato, y de sangre, para la determinación de acetilcolinesterasa y organoclorados. Se llevó a cabo un análisis simple y se exploraron las posibles asociaciones. Resultados. El 50,0% (56 individuos) de la población manifestó el uso de plaguicidas en su trabajo. El tiempo que llevaban utilizando los plaguicidas fue de 84,8 meses y refirieron aplicar plaguicidas 5,6 horas al día. El predominio de los plaguicidas usados fue extremadamente tóxico. De 39,6% de los individuos a quienes se les cuantificó glifosato, 64,3% reportaron su uso en actividades agrícolas. Se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre el uso de glifosato terrestre (manual) y los niveles de este herbicida en orina (OR=2,54; IC95% 1,08-6,08). Conclusión. No hubo hallazgos concluyentes entre la exposición a glifosato empleado en la erradicación de cultivos ilícitos y los efectos en la salud, debido a que se halló exposición ocupacional concomitante por la misma sustancia y por otras de mayor toxicidad que el glifosato.


Introduction. The herbicide glyphosate is administered aerially by the Program to Eradicate Illicit Crops Program and is undertaken in rigorous compliance with the Environmental Management Plan. Objective. The effects of the glyphosate herbicide and other aerially applied insecticides were measured to determine possible impact on human health. Materials and methods. In 2005-2006, a survey was taken of 112 individuals living in herbicide-treated areas of the Colombian provinces of Huila, Tolima, Putumayo, Guaviare, Santander, Antioquia, Magdalena and La Guajira. Samples of blood were examined for presence of acetylcholinesterase and organochlorine insecticides; urine was analyzed for glyphosate and its metabolites. Results. Fifty percent (50%) of the individuals sampled acknowledged the use of control chemicals as part of their work. The mean exposure time to the chemicals was 84.4 months, with a mean daily exposure of 5.6 hours. The most commonly used pesticides were of category I--extremely hazardous. In individuals sampled for glyphosate (39.6% of the total), 64.3% indicated the use of this herbicide at ground level in agricultural work. A statistically significative relationship was found between the use of glyphosate at ground level, and the concentration levels of glyphosate in the urine samples (odds ratio=2.54, 95% CI: 1.08 to 6.8). Conclusion. These data did not show a relationship between the aerial sprayings of glyphosate for illicit crops eradication and an impact on human health, nor with occupational exposure to this and other chemicals (insecticides) with a high levels of toxicity.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure , Herbicides/toxicity , Pesticide Exposure , Pesticides , Risk , Toxicity
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(1): 129-136, Feb. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-510132

ABSTRACT

This work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphosate on the morphoanatomy of three eucalypt clones and to correlate the intoxication symptoms on a microscopic scale with those observed in this visual analysis. The effects of glyphosate drift were proportional to the five doses tested, with Eucalyptus urophylla being more tolerant to the herbicide than E. grandis and urograndis hybrid. The symptoms of intoxication which were similar for the different clones at 7 and 15 days after application were characterized by leaf wilting, chlorosis and curling and, at the highest rates, by necrosis, leaf senescence and death. Anatomically glyphosate doses higher than 86.4 g.ha-1 caused cellular plasmolysis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia, formation of the cicatrization tissue and dead cells on the adaxial epidermis. The spongy parenchyma had a decrease, and the palisade parenchyma and leaf blade thickness had an increase. The increased thickness in leaf blade and palisade parenchyma may be related to the plant response to glyphosate action, as a form of recovering the photosynthetically active area reduced by necroses and leaf senescence caused by the herbicide.


Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphosate na morfoanatomia de três clones de eucalipto e correlacionar os sintomas de intoxicação em escala microscópica com aqueles observados à vista desarmada. Os efeitos da deriva do glyphosate foram proporcionais às doses testadas, sendo Eucalyptus urophylla mais tolerante ao herbicida que E. grandis e o híbrido urograndis. Os sintomas de intoxicação foram semelhantes para os diferentes clones testados, tanto aos 7 quanto aos 15 dias após a aplicação, sendo caracterizados, morfologicamente, por murcha, clorose e enrolamento foliar e, no caso das maiores doses, por necrose, senescência foliar e morte das plantas de eucalipto. Anatomicamente, doses de glyphosate superiores a 86,4 g.ha-1 provocaram plasmólise, hipertrofia e hiperplasia celular, formação de tecido de cicatrização e morte das células da face adaxial da epiderme. Observou-se diminuição na espessura do parênquima lacunoso e aumento na espessura do parênquima paliçádico e da lâmina foliar. O aumento na espessura da folha e do parênquima paliçádico podem estar relacionados à resposta das plantas ao glyphosate, como forma de compensar a área fotossinteticamente reduzida pelas necroses e senescência causadas pelo herbicida.


Subject(s)
Eucalyptus/drug effects , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/toxicity , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Cloning, Organism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Eucalyptus/anatomy & histology , Eucalyptus/cytology , Eucalyptus/genetics , Glycine/toxicity , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/cytology
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