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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e181776, fev. 2022. mapas, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363185

ABSTRACT

Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is an infectious disease caused by Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). Nevertheless, its clinical manifestations are considered multifactorial. Due to its relevance, FP is currently monitored in sea turtle populations in the United States, Australia, Caribbean, and Brazil. Between 2000 and 2020, the TAMAR Project/ TAMAR Project Foundation analyzed the prevalence of FP in nine states and oceanic islands along the Brazilian coast, including Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (FNA), a historically FP-free area. A total of 4,435 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were monitored from 2010 to 2016. Additionally, in 2012 and 2014, 43 FP-free skin samples were analyzed for ChHV5 using a qualitative PCR for the UL30 polymerase (pol) sequence. In 2015, a bilateral ocular nodule characterized as an FP tumor was reported in one of the monitored individuals undergoing rehabilitation. Tissue samples were collected following surgical removal of the tumor. Characterization of a 454 bp UL30 polymerase gene revealed a ChHV5 sequence previously reported in other areas of the Atlantic Brazilian coast. In the years following this finding from January 2017 to March 2020, a total of 360 C. mydas were monitored in the same area and no FP tumors were detected. This is the first report of FP and the first detection of ChHV5 in FNA, a finding of great concern considering this site's historical absence of FP occurrence. This study highlights the importance of monitoring this disease in historically FP-free areas of the Brazilian Atlantic coast.(AU)


A fibropapilomatose (FP) é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). No entanto, as manifestações clínicas da doença são consideradas multifatoriais. Esta doença é monitorada atualmente em populações de tartarugas marinhas nos EUA, Austrália, Caribe e Brasil. Desde 2000, o Projeto TAMAR/Fundação Projeto TAMAR analisa a presença de FP em nove estados da costa brasileira e ilhas oceânicas, incluindo o arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, uma área historicamente livre de FP. Um total de 4.435 indivíduos de Chelonia mydas foram monitorados de 2010 a 2016 e 43 amostras de pele foram analisadas para detectar ChHV5 em 2012 e 2014 com o objetivo de avaliar a presença do vírus em tecidos sem FP, usando uma PCR qualitativa para detecção de sequências do gene da UL30 polimerase. Em 2015, uma tartaruga verde (C. mydas) foi relatada com um nódulo ocular bilateral caracterizado como FP. Amostras de tecido foram coletadas durante sua reabilitação e procedimento cirúrgico para remover o tumor. A caracterização parcial de uma sequência de 454 bp do gene UL30 polimerase detectou ChHV5 anteriormente relatado em outras áreas da costa atlântica brasileira. Após estes achados, de janeiro de 2017 a março de 2020, um total de 360 indivíduos de C. mydas foram monitorados e nenhum caso de FP foi registrado. Este é o primeiro relato de FP e a primeira caracterização de ChHV5 no arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, uma questão preocupante e que ressalta a importância do monitoramento desta doença em áreas historicamente livres de FP na costa atlântica brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Papilloma/veterinary , Skin Neoplasms/veterinary , Tumor Virus Infections/veterinary , Turtles , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Herpesviridae , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878543

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle where folding and post-translational modification of secretory and transmembrane proteins take place. During virus infection, cellular or viral unfolded and misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER in an event called ER stress. To maintain the equilibrium homeostasis of the ER, signal-transduction pathways, known as unfolded protein response (UPR), are activated. The viruses in turn manipulate UPR to maintain an environment favorable for virus survival and replication. Herpesviruses are enveloped DNA viruses that produce over 70 viral proteins. Modification and maturation of large quantities of viral glycosylated envelope proteins during virus replication may induce ER stress, while ER stress play both positive and negative roles in virus infection. Here we summarize the research progress of crosstalk between herpesvirus infection and the virus-induced ER stress.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Herpesviridae , Signal Transduction , Unfolded Protein Response
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 20200000. 108 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1119588

ABSTRACT

O transplante renal é a terapia mais eficaz para a doença renal em fase terminal, porém sua longevidade depende de várias condutas, dentre elas o uso crônico de fármacos imunossupressores, os quais predispõem infecções oportunistas, como as por herpesvírus, sendo estas uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade para a maioria dos receptores de transplante. A literatura apresenta vários artigos focando o tipo e a frequência de manifestações bucais em pacientes transplantados renais a longo prazo no pós-transplante, mas é escassa em pesquisas que forneçam evidências científicas no curto prazo, principalmente em relação a saúde bucal e seu impacto no transplante renal. Outra área de interesse científico e pouco abordada é o uso da saliva para detecção e monitoramento de infecção por vírus da família herpesviridae. Este volume apresenta um compilado de três capítulos que abordaram o tema saúde bucal, manifestações orais e excreção salivar de herpesvírus em receptores de transplante renal. Os estudos objetivaram: avaliar o impacto da saúde bucal pré-transplante dos pacientes no desfecho a curto prazo do transplante renal e determinar a incidência de hospitalização por causa odontogênica; identificar as lesões orais de indivíduos com doença renal imediatamente antes e logo após o transplante renal; e avaliar a excreção salivar e a viremia dos vírus da família Herpesviridae em doentes renais. Foram desenvolvidos estudos coortes, onde um único dentista treinado coletou dados, durante três períodos consecutivos: dentro de 24 horas antes do transplante; 15 a 20 dias após o transplante; e 45 a 60 dias após o transplante. Os pacientes foram avaliados quando a saúde bucal, presença clínica de lesões/alterações bucais e foram coletados saliva e sangue para detecção dos herpesvírus nessas amostras. Todas as amostras foram submetidas a técnica da detecção da cadeia de polimerase (Panherpes) e subsequente digestão enzimática, para a detecção dos oito herpesvírus humanos. No primeiro estudo observou-se que pacientes transplantados com idade avançada (p = 0,004; OR: 1,10; IC 95% 1,03-1,17) apresentaram maior risco de hospitalização a cada ano de vida; e pacientes com focos de infecção odontogênica no prétransplante (p = 0,009; OR: 8,36; IC 95% 1,68-41,46) apresentaram 8,36 mais chances de serem internados nesse período. Apenas um paciente foi internado por infecção odontogênica aguda; O segundo estudo evidenciou que a candidíase oral foi diagnosticada em 10 dos 80 participantes, sendo associada ao uso de azatioprina (p=0,034) e que 10 participantes tiveram úlceras orais no período pós-transplante, sendo esta associada ao uso de everolimo (p = 0,005), sendo as duas principais lesões encontradas nestes pacientes. Em relação oo terceiro estudo, verificou-se que antes do transplante, o HSV-1 foi excretado por 2 (2.7%) pacientes, 15-20 e 45- 60 dias após o transplante renal, foi excretado, respectivamente, por 13 (17.8%) e 7 (9.6%) pacientes. O EBV foi encontrado na saliva de 26 (35.6%) pacientes antes do transplante e nos dois momentos consecutivos, o percentual de pacientes com excreção salivar do EBV foi, respectivamente, de 56.2% e 46.6%. A viremia dos herpesvírus foi posiviva apenas para o CMV e o HHV-7, não havendo concordância com a excreção salivar (p>0,05). Concluiu-se que: a presença de focos infecciosos odontogênicos no pré-transplante foi associado a readmissão hospitalar/internação hospitalar prolongada, sendo rara a hospitalização por infecção dentária aguda; as lesões orais, principalmente a candidíase e as úlceras orais, são comuns a curto prazo após o transplante renal e estão relacionadas principalmente à imunossupressão e à toxicidade dos imunossupressores; o padrão de excreção salivar dos herpesvírus é alterado após o transplante renal, especialmente o HSV-1 e EBV. Não houve concordância entre a excreção salivar e viremia entre os pacientes transplantados renais.


Subject(s)
Saliva , Oral Health , Kidney Transplantation , Herpesviridae
4.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 2-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785463

ABSTRACT

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction involving various internal organs. Flare-ups after recovery from the initial presentation of DRESS are caused by relapse of drug-induced T-cell-mediated reactions. However, the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report a case of a 60-year-old man with allopurinol-induced DRESS who suffered recurrent episodes of generalized rash with eosinophilia, which mimicked immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Analysis of immunological profiles revealed that the percentages of T lymphocytes and regulatory T cells in the patient with DRESS were higher than those in healthy controls. In addition, there was a notable change in the subtype of monocytes in the patient with DRESS; the percentage of nonclassical monocytes increased, whereas that of classical monocytes decreased. Upon viral infection, nonclassical monocytes exhibited strong pro-inflammatory properties that skewed the immune response toward a Th2 profile, which was associated with persistent flare-ups of DRESS. Taken together, the results increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of DRESS as they suggest that expansion of nonclassical monocytes and Th2 cells drives disease pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Allopurinol , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Eosinophilia , Exanthema , Herpesviridae , Humans , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome , Middle Aged , Monocytes , Recurrence , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th2 Cells
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e1362018, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1024536

ABSTRACT

Bovine alphaherpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the etiological agent responsible for serious infections that compromise the respiratory and genital tracts of affected cattle. In order to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and to identify the associated risk factors in dairy farms in the city of Senador Guiomard, Acre, Brazil, the present study was carried out through the analysis of 180 blood serum samples submitted to the screening of anti-BoHV-1 by the virus neutralization test (VN) and by means of the evaluation of the epidemiological questionnaire applied in the eight investigated properties. The prevalence of seropositivity for BoHV-1 was 61.1%, ranging from 43.3 to 86.2% among the analyzed properties. The variable absence of veterinary assistance showed statistically significant association (odds ratio ­ OR = 2.10; p < 0.001) with alphaherpesvirus infection. The results demonstrate that the frequency of BoHV-1 is high and needs to be controlled through prophylactic and health management measures.(AU)


O alfaherpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1) é o agente etiológico responsável por graves infecções que comprometem os tratos respiratório e genital dos bovinos acometidos. Com o objetivo de estimar a soroprevalência de BoHV-1 e identificar os fatores de risco associados em propriedades leiteiras do município de Senador Guiomard, Acre, foi realizado o presente estudo, por meio da análise de 180 amostras de soro sanguíneo submetidas à pesquisa de anticorpos anti-BoHV-1 pelo teste de vírus neutralização (VN) e por meio da avaliação do questionário epidemiológico aplicado nas oito propriedades investigadas. A prevalência de soropositividade para BoHV-1 foi de 61,1% variando de 43,3 a 86,2% entre as propriedades analisadas. A variável ausência de assistência veterinária apresentou associação estatisticamente significativa (odds ratio ­ OR = 2,10; p < 0,001) com a infecção pelo alfaherpesvírus. Os resultados demonstram que a frequência de BoHV-1 é alta e precisa ser controlada através de medidas profiláticas e de manejo sanitário.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle , Herpesviridae , Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis , Varicellovirus , Alphaherpesvirinae , Animal Husbandry
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190198, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In Brazil the implementation of the Sentinel Surveillance System of Influenza began in 2000. Central public health laboratories use reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for diagnosis of respiratory viruses, but this protocol identifies only specific targets, resulted in inconclusive diagnosis for many samples. Thus, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) would be complementary method in the identification of pathogens in inconclusive samples for RT-qPCR or other specific detection protocols. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to detect unidentified viruses using HTS approach in negative samples of nasopharynx/tracheal secretions by the standard RT-qPCR collected in the Federal District, Brazil. METHODS Nucleic acids were extracted from samples collected in winter period of 2016 and subjected to HTS. The results were confirmed by the multiplex PR21 RT-qPCR, which identifies 21 respiratory pathogens. FINDINGS The main viruses identified by HTS were of families Herpesviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae and Picornaviridae, with the emphasis on rhinoviruses. The presence of respiratory viruses in the samples was confirmed by the PR21 multiplex RT-qPCR. Coronavirus, enterovirus, bocavirus and rhinovirus were found by multiplex RT-qPCR as well as by HTS analyses. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Wide virus diversity was found by different methodologies and high frequency of rhinovirus occurrence was confirmed in population in winter, showing its relevance for public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parvoviridae/isolation & purification , Picornaviridae/isolation & purification , Trachea/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Coronaviridae/isolation & purification , Herpesviridae/isolation & purification , Parvoviridae/classification , Parvoviridae/genetics , Picornaviridae/classification , Picornaviridae/genetics , DNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Herpesviridae/classification , Herpesviridae/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758840

ABSTRACT

Herpesvirus infections in Cervidae are a serious threat affecting some deer species worldwide. In our attempt to identify malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses in deer herds, ten gammaherpesviral DNA fragments were identified in five species of deer in herds in China by using a pan-herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction assay targeting viral DNA polymerase. Notably, in sambar (Rusa unicolor), a novel gamma-2 herpesvirus was identified that showed a close relationship with fallow deer lymphotropic herpesvirus (LHV), while the other fragments were phylogenetically grouped together with Elk-LHV. Determination of whether these viruses have any clinical implication in these deer species should be undertaken urgently.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , China , Deer , DNA , DNA, Viral , Herpesviridae Infections , Herpesviridae , Malignant Catarrh , Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1721-1733, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776296

ABSTRACT

Viral infection of cells is a highly intricate process that involves the complex virus-cell interactions. Recently, virologists can monitor the virus life cycle at the primary infection site in real-time using various virus tracking techniques. Herpesviruses, a class of large enveloped DNA viruses, are important pathogens threatening the health of humans and animals. This review discussed the applications of different virus tracking techniques in herpesvirus studies, to provide new insights into virus-cell interactions and replication mechanisms of herpesviruses. Though the techniques have widely been exploited, some issues need to be addressed, such as the selection of the optimal site to insert reporters and the inability to track the whole process of the virus life cycle. With the updated tracking techniques, hopefully, more complex replication mechanismsof herpesviruses will be revealed in detail.


Subject(s)
Animals , Herpesviridae , Virulence , Physiology , Humans , Virus Diseases , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Virus Replication
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(7): 657-661, jul. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895482

ABSTRACT

A febre catarral maligna (FCM) é uma doença causada pela infecção de bovinos pelo herpesvírus ovino tipo 2 (OvHV-2), responsável por perdas econômicas em diferentes regiões do Brasil. Neste trabalho descreve-se a detecção molecular por nested-PCR (nPCR) do OvHV-2 em amostras de secreção/esfoliação nasal e fração celular sanguínea (FCS) de ovinos provenientes de 8 propriedades do Distrito Federal. Das 188 amostras nasais analisadas, 88 (41,5%) foram positivas. Ovelhas prenhes não apresentaram diferenças na taxa de infecção em comparação com fêmeas paridas. Fêmeas recém-paridas apresentaram taxa de infecção pelo OvHV-2 maior que em animais que pariram há mais de 60 dias. Amostras de secreção/esfoliação nasal permitiram a detecção por nPCR de animais infectados com uma eficiência aproximadamente duas vezes maior que em amostras de fração celular sanguínea. No Brasil, informações epidemiológicas sobre a infecção pelo OvHV-2 nos rebanhos ovinos e fatores envolvidos no surgimento de surtos de FCM em bovinos são escassos. Este estudo pode servir de subsídio para elucidar as características da enfermidade e para novos estudos sobre a epidemiologia da doença no Distrito Federal e em outros Estados do Brasil.(AU)


Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a disease caused by bovine infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) and responsible for economic losses in different Brazilian regions. This paper describes the molecular detection of OvHV-2 by nested-PCR (nPCR) in nasal secretion/exfoliation samples and blood cell fraction (BCF) of sheep from 8 properties in the Federal District. Among the 188 nasal samples, 88 (41.5%) were positive to OvHV-2. Pregnant ewe presented no differences at the infection rate in comparison with parous females. Newly calved sheep showed higher OvHV-2 infection rate than female over 60 days of calving. Nasal samples allowed the detection of infected animals by nPCR with efficiency about twice than that in the blood cell fraction samples. In Brazil, epidemiological information about OvHV-2 infection in sheep flocks and factors involved in emergence of FCM outbreaks in cattle are still scarce. This study may provide support for elucidating some characteristics of the disease and for further epidemiological studies in the Federal District and other Brazilian States.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/virology , Malignant Catarrh/diagnosis , Malignant Catarrh/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Herpesviridae/isolation & purification
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 366-372, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839381

ABSTRACT

Abstract Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) was investigated in the central nervous system of cattle with neurological syndrome. Two-hundred-ninety samples were analyzed by histology, and molecular methods to detect ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) were optimized and validated. The qualitative polymerase chain reaction (qualitative PCR) analytical sensitivity was 101 DNA copies/µL and found 4.8% (14/290) positive for OvHV-2. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analytical sensitivity was 100 DNA copy/µL and 5.9% (17/290) positivity, with 47.1% (8/17) of the positive samples presenting histological evidence of non-purulent meningo-encephalitis. The qualitative PCR products (422 bp of the ORF75 region) were sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. Identity matrices showed 100% similarity in OvHV-2 samples obtained in this study and those recovered from GenBank, corroborating other studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Herpesviridae/isolation & purification , Malignant Catarrh/diagnosis , Malignant Catarrh/pathology , Brazil , Cattle , Cluster Analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sequence Homology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Genotype , Herpesviridae/classification , Herpesviridae/genetics , Histocytochemistry , Microscopy
11.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): 18-26, 2017. tab.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846487

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To perform molecular diagnosis of microbial agents (FHV-1, FCV, Mycoplasma felis, and Chlamydophila felis) in kittens with conjunctivitis and correlate the clinical signs with clinical severity. Material and Methods: A total of 108 conjunctival swab were collected from kittens without (G1; n = 40) and with (G2; n = 68) clinical signs of conjunctivitis. Animals from G2 group were scored from 1 (mild) to 4 (severe) according to the severity of conjunctivitis. All samples were submitted to PCR and RT-PCR. Results: FHV-1 was detected in 62/108 (57.4%) of samples, FCV in 40/108 (37.0%), M. felis in 11/108 (10.2%) and C. felis in 26/108 (24.1%). Mixed infections were detected in 39/108 (36.1%). In G1, 28/40 (70.0%) were positive for one or more agents, in G2, 58/68 (85.3%) were positive (P = 0.03). In 1, single infections by FHV-1were found in 21/40 (52.5%) samples, FCV in 2/40 (5.0%), C. felis in 1/40 (2.5%), and no pathogens were detected in 12/40 (30%) of samples, while mixed infections accounted for 29/40 (72.5%) of the cases. In G2, single FHV-1 infections were found in 31/68 (45.6%) samples, FCV in 10/68 (14.7 %), M. felis in 2/68 (3.0%) and C. felis also in 2/68 (3.0%), and no pathogens were detected in 10/68 (14.7%) samples, while mixed infections accounted for 36/68 (52.0%) of the cases. They were categorized as grade 1, 20/68 (29.4%), grade 2, 14/68 (20.6%), grade 3, 21/68 (30.9%) and grade 4, 13/68 (19.1%). The presence of FHV-1 and FCV is equally distributed among the four categories. More severe clinical signs, scores 3 and 4, are related to coinfections by C. felis and M. felis. Conclusions: FHV-1, FCV, C. felis and M. felis were identified in feline conjunctivitis. Co-infections are related to more severe cases of conjunctivitis.Molecular diagnosis is helpful to detect asymptomatic carriers and is a rapid and accurate method to determine the pathogen of feline conjunctivitis.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar diagnóstico molecular de agentes microbiológicos (FHV-1, FCV, Mycoplasma felis e Chlamydophila felis) em gatos filhotes e associar a presença dos patógenos à gravidade dos sinais clínicos de conjuntivite. Foram coletadas um total de 108 amostras de suabe conjuntival de filhotes felinos assintomáticos (G1; n = 40) e sintomáticos (G2; n = 68). Animais do G2 foram categorizados de 1 (leve) até 4 (grave), de acordo com o quadro clínico de conjuntivite. As 108 amostras foram submetidas à PCR e RT-PCR. O FHV-1 foi detectado em 57,4% das amostras, o FCV em 37%, o M. felis em 10,2% e o C. felis em 24,1%. Coinfecções, por sua vez, foram detectadas em 36,1%. No G1, 70% das amostras foram positivas para um ou mais patógenos. No G2, 85,3% apresentavam infecções (P = 0,03). No G1, monoinfecções por FHV-1 foram diagnosticadas em 52,5% das amostras, por FCV em 5%, por C. felis em 2,5%, e em 30% das amostras analisadas nenhum dos patógenos estudados foi encontrado. Coinfecções, por sua vez, estavam presentes em 72,5% das amostras. No G2, monoinfecções por FHV-1 foram encontradas em 45,6% das amostras, por FCV em 14,7 %, por M. felis em 3% e por C. felis também em 3%. Nenhum dos patógenos estudados foi encontrado em 14,7% das amostras analisadas. Coinfecções, responsáveis por 52% dos casos, foram categorizados como Grau 1 (29,4%), Grau 2 (20,6%), Grau 3 (30,9%) e Grau 4 (19,1%). A presença de FHV-1 e FCV está igualmente distribuída entre as quatro categorias. Os sinais clínicos mais graves (graus 3 e 4) estão relacionados a coinfecções por C. felis e M. felis. Os agentes microbiológicos FHV-1, FCV, C. felis e M. felis foram encontrados em animais com conjuntivite. Coinfecções estão relacionadas aos casos mais graves. Por fim, concluiu-se que o diagnóstico molecular, além de detectar portadores assintomáticos, é um método rápido e acurado para o diagnóstico do patógeno causador da conjuntivite felina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis, Viral/veterinary , Eye Infections, Viral/veterinary , Calicivirus, Feline , Chlamydophila , Coinfection/veterinary , Herpesviridae , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/veterinary , Mycoplasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165937

ABSTRACT

Viruses continue to evolve a new strategy to take advantage of every aspect of host cells in order to maximize their survival. Due to their central roles in transducing a variety of transmembrane signals, GPCRs seem to be a prime target for viruses to pirate for their own use. Incorporation of GPCR functionality into the genome of herpesviruses has been demonstrated to be essential for pathogenesis of many herpesviruses-induced diseases. Here, we introduce US28 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as the best-studied example of virally-encoded GPCRs to manipulate host GPCR signaling. In this review, we wish to summarize a number of US28-related topics including its regulation of host signaling pathways, its constitutive internalization, its structural and functional analysis, its roles in HCMV biology and pathogenesis, its proliferative activities and role in oncogenesis, and pharmacological modulation of its biological activities. This review will aid in our understanding of how pathogenic viruses usurp the host GPCR signaling for successful viral infection. This kind of knowledge will enable us to build a better strategy to control viral infection by normalizing the virally-dysregulated host GPCR signaling.


Subject(s)
Biology , Carcinogenesis , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Cytomegalovirus , Genome , Herpesviridae , Humans
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(supl.2): 201-210, ago. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-794032

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos es una alternativa en el tratamiento de diversas condiciones en la población pediátrica. La intensidad del acondicionamiento para el trasplante predispone al desarrollo de complicaciones en los receptores. Las infecciones por el virus herpes simple 1 (HSV-1), el virus herpes simple 2 (HSV-2), el citomegalovirus (CMV) humano y el virus de Epstein-Barr (EBV) son una causa importante de morbimortalidad en estos pacientes. La reactivación de infecciones latentes puede producir descargas virales asintomáticas detectables en la saliva, lo cual ayuda a determinar el comportamiento de dichas infecciones en pacientes con trasplante y a establecer el diagnóstico temprano de la reactivación. Objetivo. Evaluar el comportamiento de la descarga viral de HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV y EBV en la saliva de pacientes hospitalizados en la Unidad de Trasplante de la Fundación HOMI - Hospital de la Misericordia, entre enero y noviembre de 2012. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron muestras de saliva de 17 receptores de trasplante. La presencia de ADN de HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV y EBV en las muestras de saliva se detectó mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa convencional. Resultados. Se detectó el ADN del HSV-2 en la saliva de cuatro pacientes, del CMV en la de cuatro y del EBV en la de nueve, lo cual se asoció con leucopenia. Cuatro de los 17 pacientes presentaron cargas simultáneas de CMV y EBV. No se detectó el ADN del HSV-1. Conclusiones: Se demostró una descarga asintomática de HSV-2, CMV y EBV asociada a leucopenia en la saliva de los pacientes.


Introduction: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients is an alternative treatment for different diseases. The conditioning regimen for transplant predisposes recipients to the development of infections. Viral infections by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are the most common, and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among these patients. These viruses lie dormant in various cell types and the reactivation of latent infections may lead to asymptomatic viral shedding in saliva. The detection of these viruses in secretions may contribute to understand the behavioral dynamics of these viral infections in transplanted patients, and to the early diagnosis of reactivation. Objective: To assess HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV and EBV viral shedding in the saliva of patients admitted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at Fundación HOMI - Hospital de la Misericordia between January and November of 2012. Materials and methods: We evaluated stimulated saliva samples of 17 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients weekly. We performed DNA extraction from saliva, and we evaluated the presence of DNA for HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV, and EBV by PCR. Results: While we detected HSV-2 and CMV DNA in the saliva of four patients, EBV DNA was detected in nine patients with leukopenia. In contrast, we did not detect HSV-1 DNA in saliva. Additionally, four out of the 17 patients showed a simultaneous shedding of CMV and EBV. Conclusions: By conventional PCR, we demonstrated asymptomatic HSV-2, CMV, and EBV viral shedding in saliva, associated with leukopenia.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes Simplex , Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Simplexvirus
14.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(4): 1-1, jul.-ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794086

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an epidemiological surveillance of viral herpes encephalitis in major hospitals of Monteria, Cordoba. Methods From September 2009 to December 2011, a descriptive study of cases of viral encephalitis was made in three hospitals in the city of Monteria. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 118 patients were included in the study. Clinical aspects, as well as cytochemical and microbiological analysis (Gram stain and culture) of CSF, were used for selecting the patients. Virus detection was performed by using multiplex nested PCR for Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus and Varicella zoster virus. Results Viral DNA of herpesvirus was detected in the CSFs of 30 (25.4 %) participants, as follows: 22 (18.6 %) Herpes simplex 1 and 2 viruses, 4 (3.3 %) Cytomegalovirus and 1 (0.8 %) Varicella zoster virus. Co-infections were observed in 3 patients (2.5 %), 1 case by HSV-VZV and 2 cases by CMV/HSV. The clinical manifestations of the patients included: headache (18.6 %), fever (14.4 %), asthenia (10.1 %), seizures (9.3 %), vomiting (8.4 %), and stiff neck (5.9 %). Thirty percent of the patients also had HIV-AIDS. A case fatality rate of 20 % was observed for the patients. Conclusions This paper shows that herpesvirus is a cause of infection of the CNS in patients from Cordoba. This study contributes to the epidemiology of encephalitis, as well as to patient management.(AU)


Objetivo Establecer una vigilancia epidemiológica de la encefalitis viral herpética en los principales hospitales de Montería, Córdoba. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de los casos de encefalitis viral entre septiembre de 2009 diciembre de 2011 en tres hospitales en la ciudad de Montería. Las muestras líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) de 118 pacientes fueron incluidos en el estudio. Los aspectos clínicos como el análisis citoquímico y microbiológico (tinción de Gram y cultivo) de LCR fueron utilizados para la selección de los pacientes. La detección de virus se realizó por PCR anidada multiplex para Herpes simplex virus 1 y 2, virus de Epstein Barr, virus zoster de la varicela y el citomegalovirus. Resultados Se detectó ADN viral del virus del herpes en 30 (25,4 %) muestras de LCR en los pacientes de la siguiente manera: 22 (18,6 %) Herpes simplex virus 1 y 2, 4 (3,3 %) Citomegalovirus y 1 (0,8 %) del virus de la varicela zóster. Se observaron Co-infecciones en 3 pacientes (2,5 %), 1 caso por el VHS-VZV y 2 casos por CMV / HSV. Las manifestaciones clínicas de los pacientes fueron: cefalea (18,6 %), fiebre (14,4 %), astenia (10,1 %), convulsiones (9,3 %), vómitos (8,4 %), y rigidez de nuca (5,9 %). El treinta por ciento de los pacientes también tenía VIH-SIDA. Se observó una tasa de letalidad del 20 % de los pacientes. Conclusiones Se demuestra que el herpesvirus es causa de infección del SNC en pacientes en Córdoba. Este estudio contribuye a la caracterización serológica viral epidemiológica de la encefalitis viral, así como en el manejo del paciente ya que se describen hallazgos clínicos importante en la población adulta estudiada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Herpesviridae/isolation & purification , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Colombia/epidemiology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 217-224, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775123

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thirty-six isolates of psittacid herpesvirus (PsHV), obtained from 12 different species of psittacids in Brazil, were genotypically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and PCR amplification. RFLP analysis with the PstI enzyme revealed four distinct restriction patterns (A1, X, W and Y), of which only A1 (corresponding to PsHV-1) had previously been described. To study PCR amplification patterns, six pairs of primers were used. Using this method, six variants were identified, of which, variants 10, 8, and 9 (in this order) were most prevalent, followed by variants 1, 4, and 5. It was not possible to correlate the PCR and RFLP patterns. Twenty-nine of the 36 isolates were shown to contain a 419 bp fragment of the UL16 gene, displaying high similarity to the PsHV-1 sequences available in GenBank. Comparison of the results with the literature data suggests that the 36 Brazilian isolates from this study belong to genotype 1 and serotype 1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/virology , Genotype , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Herpesviridae/classification , Herpesviridae/isolation & purification , Brazil , DNA, Viral/genetics , Herpesviridae Infections/virology , Herpesviridae/genetics , Parrots , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
16.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 101-107, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296210

ABSTRACT

Herpesviridae is a large family comprising linear, double-stranded DNA viruses. Herpesviridae contains three subfamilies: α-, β- and γ-herpesviruses. The glycoproteins gB, gH and gL of each subfamily form the "core fusion function" in cell-cell fusion. Other herpesviruses also need additional glycoproteins to promote fusion, such as gD of the Herpes simplex virus, gp42 of the Epstein-Barr virus, and gO or UL128-131 of the Human cytomegalovirus. In contrast, glycoproteins gM or gM/gN of herpesvirus inhibit fusion. We describe the molecular mechanisms of glycoprotein-induced fusion and entry of herpesviruses. It will be helpful to further study the pathogenic mechanism of herpesvirus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Fusion , Glycoproteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Herpesviridae , Genetics , Metabolism , Herpesviridae Infections , Virology , Humans , Viral Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 108-120, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296209

ABSTRACT

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the causative agent of an extremely contagious and aggressive disease afflicting common corp Cyprinus carpio L. termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Since it was first reported in 1997, the virus has spread worldwide rapidly, leading to enormous financial losses in industries based on common carp and koi carp. This review summarizes recent advances in CyHV-3 research on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and control of KHVD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fish Diseases , Diagnosis , Virology , Fishes , Classification , Virology , Herpesviridae , Genetics , Physiology , Herpesviridae Infections , Diagnosis , Virology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195565

ABSTRACT

Deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs) are important for the efficient growth of DNA viruses. Therefore, many DNA viruses have strategies for the upregulation of cellular dNTP levels. Both α- and γ-herpesviruses encode functional homologs of cellular dNTP anabolic enzymes, including the class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) large (R1) and small (R2) subunits, whereas β-herpesviruses modulate host cells to induce genes that increase dNTP levels. Interestingly, β-herpesviruses still express the nonfunctional RNR R1 subunit. However, it is not clear why β-herpesviruses still carry inactive R1 homologs. Recently, the R1 homologs of herpesviruses have been shown to inhibit innate immune signaling pathways. In particular, both functional and nonfunctional R1 homologs target receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and inhibit RIP1-mediated signaling pathways to promote viral replication. Here, we summarize recent findings on the activity of herpesviral R1 homologs and discuss their roles in the regulation of innate immune signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Deoxyribonucleotides , DNA Viruses , Herpesviridae , Protein Kinases , Ribonucleotide Reductases , Up-Regulation
19.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 53(2): 169-176, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789918

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the occurrence of feline upper respiratory tract disease agents, namely Feline Herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) and Chlamydophila felis, and co-infection of these agents with Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in non-domestic felids in Brazil. Between 2009 and 2010, 72 conjunctival swab and serum samples were collected from eight non-domestic felid species (Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Panthera leo, Panthera tigris, Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Oncifelis colocolo, and Panthera onca) maintained in captivity in Brazilian zoos. DNA extracted from conjunctival swabs were used in PCR assays for the detection of Chlamydophila sp, FHV-1, and retrovirus DNA, respectively. Antibodies to FIV and FeLV antigen were detected in non-domestic felid serum samples using a commercial ELISA kit. Antibodies to FIV were found only in five (6.9%) felids. No sampled non-domestic felid was positive for FeLV antigen detection. One (1.3%) out of 72 non-domestic felid conjunctival swab samples was positive for Chlamydophilasp. and Feline Herpesvirus-1 in PCR. This felid was an ocelot and was negative for FIV and FeLV. The results of this survey showed the occurrence of co-infection with C. felis and FHV-1 in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Brazil...


Poucos trabalhos descrevem a ocorrência dos agentes do complexo respiratório felino, Herpesvírus Felino tipo 1 (FHV-1) e Chlamydophila felis, e a coinfecção com o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV) e leucemia viral felina (FeLV) em felinos não domésticos no Brasil. Entre 2009 e 2010, 72 amostras de swab de conjuntiva e de soro foram coletados de oito espécies de felinos não domésticos (Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Panthera leo, Panthera tigris, Puma concolor, Puma yagouaroundi, Oncifelis colocolo, and Panthera onca) mantidos em cativeiro em zoológicos brasileiros. O DNA foi extraído das amostras de swab de conjuntiva para detecção de Chlamydophila sp e FHV-1 pela PCR. Anticorpos para FIV e antígeno para FeLV foram determinados pelo kit comercial de ELISA. Anticorpos para FIV foram detectados em cinco felídeos (6,9%). Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para a presença de antígeno de FeLV. Um (1,3%) dos 72 felinos não domésticos apresentou fragmentos de DNA de Chlamydophila sp e FHV-1 pela PCR. Este felino era uma jaguatirica que não apresentou anticorpos para FIV e nem antígeno para FelV. Estes resultados demonstram a ocorrência de coinfecção de C. felis e FHV-1 em uma jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis) no Brasil...


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlamydophila/isolation & purification , Felidae/microbiology , Herpesviridae/isolation & purification , Panthera/microbiology , Puma/microbiology , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline/isolation & purification , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63259

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Previously, we reported the presence of virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) in the urine of prostate cancer (CaP) patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs in prostate tissue. METHODS: A total of 175 tissue samples from noncancerous benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 248 tissue samples from patients with CaP and BPH, and 50 samples from noncancerous surrounding tissues from these same patients were analyzed for the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry using nanoparticles as molecular beacons. RESULTS: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed significantly higher expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miRH9- 5p in surrounding noncancerous and CaP tissues than that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.001). Of note, these miRNA were expressed equivalently in the CaP tissues and surrounding noncancerous tissues. Moreover, immunocytochemistry clearly demonstrated a significant enrichment of both hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9 beacon-labeled cells in CaP and surrounding noncancerous tissue compared to that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.05 for hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2- miR-H9). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that increased expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H95p might be associated with tumorigenesis in the prostate. Further studies will be required to elucidate the role of these miRNAs with respect to CaP and herpes viral infections.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Herpesviridae , Humans , Hyperplasia , Immunohistochemistry , MicroRNAs , Nanoparticles , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
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