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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e011821, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341190

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa is an etiological agent of human phagicolosis. Mugilids are the second intermediate host, the first being Heleobia australis, and mugilids predatory birds and mammals are its definitive hosts. The occurrence of cysts holding A. longa metacercariae is described in mugilids with a prevalence of up to 100%. The wide geographical distribution of A. longa and its intermediate hosts coupled with the rise in the consumption of raw or poorly cooked fish may elevate the risk of human infection. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to verify the distribution pattern of cysts holding A. longa in mugilids. The tissue and organ samples of these fish were processed in a domestic blender and examined under a stereoscopic microscope to identify the cysts holding the digenetic metacercariae. Of the 24 (100%) fish samples that were analyzed, 12 of Mugil curema and 12 of Mugil liza possessed cysts holding A. longa metacercariae. Digenetic cysts were identified to be present in the gills, heart, stomach, liver, intestines, mesentery, and muscular tissues collected from M. curema and M. liza. Conclusively, in M. curema, the cysts holding A. longa metacercariae were found to be distributed randomly throughout the fish body in almost every tissue and organ that was examined.


Resumo Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa é o agente etiológico da fagicolose humana. Os mugilídeos são os segundos hospedeiros intermediários. O primeiro é Heleobia australis e pássaros e mamíferos predadores de mugilídeos, os hospedeiros definitivos. A ocorrência de cistos contendo metacercárias de A. longa é descrita em mugilídeos, com até 100% de prevalência. A ampla distribuição geográfica de A. longa e seus hospedeiros intermediários, acompanhado do aumento do consumo de peixe cru ou mal cozido, pode aumentar o risco de infecção humana, portanto o objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o padrão de distribuição de cistos, contendo metacercárias de A. longa, em mugilídeos. Amostras de tecidos e órgãos desses peixes foram processadas em liquidificador doméstico e observadas em microscópio estereoscópico à procura de cistos contendo metacercárias do digenético. Todos os 24 (100%) mugilídeos, 12 Mugil curema e 12 Mugil liza examinados apresentaram cistos contendo metacercária de A. longa. Foram observados cistos do digenético nas brânquias, coração, estômago, fígado, intestino, mesentério e tecido muscular de M. curema e de M. liza. Em M. curema, os cistos contendo metacercárias de A. longa estão distribuídos de forma aleatória por praticamente todos os tecidos e órgãos dos mugilídeos examinados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trematoda , Trematode Infections/veterinary , Smegmamorpha , Cysts/veterinary , Fish Diseases , Heterophyidae , Metacercariae
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786633

ABSTRACT

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). All fishes collected in 5 lakes were examined with the artificial digestion method. More than 10 species, i.e., Metagonimus spp., Pygidiopsis summa, Centrocestus armatus, Metorchis orientalis, M. taiwanensis, Clinostomum complanatum, Echinostoma spp., Stictodora spp., Diplostomum sp. and Diplostomid No. 1. by Morita (1960), of DTM were detected in fishes from 5 coastal lakes in Gangwon-do. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 52 (41.3%) out of 126 sea rundace, Tribolodon hakonensis, from 5 lakes, and their density was 14.6 per fish infected. P. summa metacercariae were detected in 48 (84.2%) out of 57 mullets from 5 lakes, and their density was 316 per fish infected. C. armatus metacercariae were detected in 7 (14.6%) T. hakonensis and 3 (15.0%) Tridentiger brevispinis from Hyang-ho, and 5 (19.2%) Acanthogobius flavimanus from Gyeongpo-ho. Stictodora spp. metacercariae were found in 4 fish species, i.e., Tridentiger obscurus, Tridentiger trigonocephalus, Chelon haematocheilus, and Acanthogobius lactipes, from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 15 C. complanatum metacercariae were detected in 2 (9.1%) crucian carp, Carassius auratus, from Songji-ho. M. taiwanensis metacercariae were found in T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho and Gyeongpo-ho and in Pseudorasbora parva from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 11 M. orientalis metacercariae were detected in 3 (6.3%) T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho. From the above results, it was confirmed that various species of DTM are infected in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Carps , Digestion , Echinostoma , Fishes , Goldfish , Heterophyidae , Korea , Lakes , Metacercariae , Methods , Republic of Korea , Smegmamorpha
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761742

ABSTRACT

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from 2 representative visiting sites of migratory birds in Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). A totaly 220 freshwater fishes (7 species) were collected from Junam-jeosuji (reservoir), and 127 fishes (7 species) were also collected from Woopo-neup (swamp) in June and October 2017. As the control group, total 312 fish (22 spp.) from Yangcheon in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do were also collected in June and October 2017. All fishes collected in 3 sites were examined with the artificial digestion method. In the fishes from Junam-jeosuji, more than 4 species, i.e., Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Diplostomum spp. and Cyathocotyle orientalis, of DTM were detected and their endemicy was very low, 0.70. More than 6 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Metorchis orientalis, Clinostomum complanatum, Diplostomum spp. and C. orientalis, of DTM were found in the fishes from Woopo-neup, and their endemicy was low, 5.16. In the fishes from Yangcheon, more than 8 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Metagonimus spp., Centrocestus armatus, C. complanatum, C. orientalis, M. orientalis, Echinostoma spp., and Diplostomum spp., of DTM were detected, and their endemicity was relatively high, 95.48. The percentages of avian trematode metacercariae (ATM) were 99.6% and 94.7% in fishes from Junam-jeosuji and Woopo-neup whereas it was 74.1% in the control site, Yangcheon. The above findings suggested that migratory birds partly affect in endemicity of DTM in the fish in the 2 visiting sites in Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Birds , Clonorchis sinensis , Digestion , Echinostoma , Fishes , Fresh Water , Heterophyidae , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Republic of Korea
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713614

ABSTRACT

Annual proficiency surveys were conducted in March, May, and August of 2017 as the Korean Association of External Quality Assessment Service. Overall, four image samples (MPI-17-01, MPI-17-02, MPI-17-03, MPI-17-04) in the first trial, three image samples (MPI-17-05, MPI-17-06 , MPI-17-07) in the second trial, and a slide specimen (MPS-17-01) using parasite samples in the third trial were distributed to participating institutions. The first and second trial specimens were prepared by photographing slides made of formalin-ether concentrate of positive samples stored for educational purposes. The slide distributed in the third trial was prepared using cellophane tape, which was stored after diagnosis of the patients infected with Enterobius vermicularis . There were 191 participating institutions in the first, 204 in the second, and 212 in the third trial. The correct identification rates were 27.2% for MPI-17-01 Diphyllobothrium species (sp.), 96.6% for MPI-17-02 no parasite, 67.5% for MPI-17-03 Metagonimus yokogawai , 71.2% for MPI-17-04 Balantidium coli , 99.0% for MPI-17-05 Taenia sp., 99.0% for MPI-17-06 Trichuris trichiura , 92.7% for MPI-17-07 Cryptosporidium sp., and 96.7% for MPS-17-01 E. vermicularis . The current external quality assessment for clinical parasitology was performed using image samples and standard slides. Surveys of parasitic infections should be accompanied by continuous education on various parasitic infections, for which there was lack of experience of inspection in clinical laboratories. In the future, it will be necessary to establish a standard material using parasitic samples, and ultimately to conduct a survey on whole series of tests for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
Balantidium , Cellophane , Cryptosporidium , Diagnosis , Diphyllobothrium , Education , Enterobius , Heterophyidae , Humans , Korea , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Parasitology , Quality Control , Taenia , Trichuris
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742271

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to survey infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in 2 alien fish species, Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) and Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), in 2 rivers draining Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea. A total of 107 largemouth bass and 244 bluegills were caught in Daecheong-ho (ho=lake) and Musim-cheon (a branch of Geum-gang), in Chungcheongbuk-do April–July 2015. Additionally, 68 native fish of 5 species, i.e., Zacco platypus, Hemibarbus longirostris, Carassius auratus, Pseudogobio esocinus and Puntungia herzi, were caught from the same water bodies. All of the fish collected were examined by artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Centrocestus armatus, Clinostomum complanatum, Metagonimus sp. and Diplostomum spp. were detected from 4 out of 5 native fish species in Daecheong-ho. However, any metacercariae were not found from 87 M. salmoides and 177 L. macrochirus in Daecheong-ho. In Musim-cheon, metacercariae of Exorchis oviformis and Metacercaria hasegawai were detected from 78% Z. platypus and 34% L. macrochirus, but any metacercariae not found in M. salmoides. We report here that the 2 alien fish species were less infected with the metacercariae than the native ones. Surveys on the metacercariae in the alien fish species in geographically various rivers should be undertaken for better understanding on the role of alien fish species in the trematode infections in Republic of Korea.


Subject(s)
Bass , Digestion , Emigrants and Immigrants , Goldfish , Heterophyidae , Humans , Metacercariae , Methods , Perciformes , Platypus , Republic of Korea , Rivers , Trematode Infections , Water
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742266

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among students from Goseong-gun, Gangwon-do and Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do as typical low and high endemic counties. From May to July 2017, a total of 2,033 fecal samples were collected at 27 elementary, 10 junior high, and 8 high schools from 2 counties and examined by the Kato-Katz technique for egg-positive surveys (Collection rate: 37.02% [2,033/5,492]). Of the participants examined, 13 (0.64%) were found to harbor eggs of 3 parasitic species, Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai. Based on the regional distribution, the egg-positive rate in Goseong-gun was 0% (0/550) and that in Hadong-gun was 0.88% (13/1,483). The positive rates for C. sinensis, M. yokogawai, and T. trichiura in Hadong-gun were 0.20% (3/1,483), 0.61% (9/1,483), and 0.07% (1/1,483), respectively. The present survey showed that the prevalence of parasitic infection among students is currently very low even in remote, previously endemic areas, and the present status of parasitic diseases can be summarized as some transmission of fish/food-borne trematodes. Thus, it is necessary to carefully, continuously monitor the trematode infection status, particularly of C. sinensis and M. yokogawai.


Subject(s)
Clonorchis sinensis , Eggs , Helminths , Heterophyidae , Humans , Korea , Ovum , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Prevalence , Trematode Infections , Trichuris
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742264

ABSTRACT

To grasp the infection status of Metagonimus spp. metacercariae (MsMc), the freshwater fishes were surveyed from Seomjin-gang (river) and Tamjin-gang in the Republic of Korea. Total 1,604 fishes from 7 local sites of Seomjin-gang and 1,649 fishes from 2 sites of Tamjin-gang were examined for 6 years (2012–2017) by the artificial digestion method. MsMc were detected in fishes from 7 sites, i.e., Osucheon in Imsil-gun (36.3% fish in 6 spp.), Seomjin-gang in Sunchanggun (49.8% in 18 spp.), Songdaecheon in Namwon-si (64.5% in 8 spp.), Seomjin-gang in Gokseong-gun (72.4% in 14 spp.) and in Gurye-gun (78.8% in 17 spp.), Hoengcheon (75.9% in 11 spp.) and Namsancheon (58.9% in 7 spp.) in Hadong-gun. Their average densities were 4.2, 86.8, 39.9, 43.1, 246.5, 173.6 and 67.5 per fish infected respectively. Prevalence with MsMc in rasborinid fish from Seomjin-gang was 89.2% and their intensity was 73.6 per fish infected. Endemicities of MsMc in rasborinid fish from Seomjin-gang were significantly higher in fishes from the lower reaches (prevalence: 98.7%; density: 137) rather than in fishes from the middle (93.5%; 38) and upper (72.4%; 13) reaches. MsMc were also detected in 56.1% and 66.4% fishes from 2 surveyed areas, i.e., the middle reaches in Jangheung-gun and the lower reaches in Gangjin-gun, of Tamjin-gang, and their densities were 147 and 121 per fish infected. In susceptible fishes from Tamjin-gang, the prevalence was 84.1% and density was 227 per fish infected. By the present study, it was confirmed that MsMc is highly prevalent in the fishes from Seomjin-gang and Tamjin-gang in Korea.


Subject(s)
Digestion , Fishes , Fresh Water , Hand Strength , Heterophyidae , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742252

ABSTRACT

To investigate the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in yellowfin goby, Acanthogobius flavimanus, from coastal areas of the Republic of Korea (Korea), we examined total 344 gobies from 21 localities with an artificial digestion method from 2013 to 2017. The metacercariae of Stictodora lari were most frequently detected in 45.3% goby from 7 localities, i.e., Taean-gun (Chungcheongnam-do), Gochang-gun (Jeollabuk-do), Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Haenam-gun (Jeollanam-do), Hadong-gun and Goseong-gun (Gyeongsangnam-do). Their infection rates were 90.0%, 66.7%, 46.7%, 8.0%, 3.3%, 26.7%, and 86.7% and intensities were 1,090, 6.2, 1.6 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 7.2 metacercariae per fish infected respectively. Heterophyopsis continua metacercariae were found in 38.2% goby from 6 localities, i.e., Gochang-gun, Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Gangjin-gun, Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do) and Goseong-gun, and their intensities were relatively low, 1–21 metacercariae. Stictodora fuscata metacercariae were detected in 61.3% goby from 4 localities, i.e., Taean-gun, Gochang-gun, Hadong-gun and Goseong-gun. Their infection rates were 90.0%, 53.3%, 5.9%, and 73.3% and intensities were 1,081, 3.1, 3.0, and 10.2 metacercariae per fish infected respectively. Heterophyes nocens metacercariae were found in 55.0% goby from Muan-gun and Shinan-gun. Total 3 metacercariae of Isthmiophora hortensis were detected in 2 (8.0%) gobies from Shinan-gun. Total 15 metacercariae of Centrocestus armatus were detected in 5 gobies (33.3%) from Gyeongpo-ho (ho means lake) in Gangneung-si, Gangwon-do. The present study suggests that yellowfin goby, A. flavimanus, acts as the infection sources of zoonotic intestinal flukes in western and southern coastal areas than in eastern coastal areas of Korea.


Subject(s)
Digestion , Heterophyidae , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Republic of Korea , Trematoda
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 318-322, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888750

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pleurolophocercous cercariae found in the invasive gastropod Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) collected in a stream of the Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were used for experimental infection that enabled the identification of the heterophyid trematode Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924). The parasite has been found in the locality since 2007, after two years of the introduction of M. tuberculata. Recently, from a sample of 483 specimens collected in June 2013, 101 (21%) were found infected with parasite. The potential environmental impacts caused by the parasite occurrence could be underestimated in the country, and actions to monitor and control both the parasite and the mollusk are necessary.


Resumo Cercárias do tipo pleurolofocerca encontradas no gastrópode invasor Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) coletados em um riacho da Vila do Abraão em Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil foram utilizadas em estudos de infecção experimental que possibilitaram a identificação do trematódeo heterofiídeo Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924). O parasito vem sendo encontrado na localidade desde 2007, dois anos após a introdução do molusco. Recentemente, de uma amostra de 483 espécimes coletados em junho de 2013, 101 (21%) apresentavam-se infectados pelo parasito. Os potenciais impactos ambientais ocasionados pela ocorrência deste parasito podem estar sendo subestimados no país, sendo necessárias ações visando o monitoramento e controle tanto do parasito quanto do molusco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/parasitology , Heterophyidae/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Brazil , Introduced Species , Metacercariae/growth & development , Metacercariae/physiology , Heterophyidae/growth & development
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168658

ABSTRACT

During civil engineering construction near Sejong-ro, Jongro-ku, Seoul, cultural sites were found that are thought to have been built in the 15th century. This area was home to many different people as well as the leaders of the Yi dynasty. To gain further insight into the life styles of the inhabitants of the old capital, soil samples were collected from various areas such as toilets, water foundations, and drainage ways. Parasite eggs were examined by microscopy after 5 g soil samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. A total of 662 parasite eggs from 7 species were found. Species with the highest number of eggs found were Ascaris lumbricoides (n=483), followed by Trichuris trichiura (138), Trichuris vulpis (21), Fasciola hepatica (8), Clonorchis sinensis (6), Paragonimus westermani (4), and Metagonimus yokogawai (2). These findings indirectly indicate the food habits of the people in Yi dynasty.


Subject(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides , Clonorchis sinensis , Drainage , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Feeding Behavior , Foundations , Heterophyidae , Korea , Life Style , Microscopy , Ovum , Paragonimus westermani , Parasites , Seoul , Soil , Trichuris , Water
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99316

ABSTRACT

To know the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in brackish water fish, we surveyed mullets collected from 18 coastal areas in the Republic of Korea. The metacercariae of Pygidiopsis summa were detected in 236 (68.2%) out of 346 mullets examined. They were found in mullets from 15 areas except for those from Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Pohang-si, and Uljin-gun (Gyeongsangbuk-do). Especially in mullets from Taean-gun (Chungcheongnam-do) and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), their prevalences were 100% and 95.5%, and the average metacercarial density was more than 1,000 per fish. They were also detected in mullets from 3 coastal lakes, Gyeongpoho, Songjiho, and Hwajinpoho, in Gangwon-do, and their average densities were 419, 147, and 672 per infected fish, respectively. The metacercariae of 5 other heterophyid species, including Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Metagonimus sp., Stictodora fuscata, and Stictodora lari, were found in the mullets examined. The metacercariae of H. nocens were detected in 66.7, 100, 28.6, 81.6, 3.9, 61.5, and 27.3% of mullets from Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Haenam-gun, Gangjin-gun, and Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Hadong-gun, and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), and their metacercarial intensities were 64, 84, 119, 99, 1, 24, and 24 per fish infected, respectively. From the above results, it has been confirmed that P. summa metacercariae are heavily infected in mullets from coastal areas of Korea. It is suggested that residents who frequently consume raw mullet dish can be easily infected with heterophyid flukes.


Subject(s)
Heterophyidae , Korea , Lakes , Metacercariae , Prevalence , Republic of Korea , Saline Waters , Smegmamorpha , Trematoda
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180024

ABSTRACT

Metagonimus yokogawai (Katsurada, 1912) Katsurada, 1912 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) is parasitic in the small intestine of mammals including man and birds in Far Eastern Russia, Korea, Japan, China, and Taiwan. In the present study, the metacercariae and adults of M. yokogawai were redescribed to designate a neotype of this fluke together with reviews of previous studies including study histories from the first discovery to now. We particularly, attempted to review the study histories and morphological descriptions of M. yokogawai for the species validity, and compared with the morphological characteristics and life cycles of the closely related species, Metagonimus takahashii and Metagonimus miyatai. Finally, we proposed a differential key for the 8 known Metagonimus species distributed in East Asia. Metacercariae were obtained from the body muscles of sweetfish (Plecoglossus altivelis) collected in the Asahi River at Takebe-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Adults were recovered from the small intestine of Syrian golden hamsters, to which the metacercariae had been fed 14 days before. A neotype was selected out of the present adult specimens. The Asahi River at Takebo-cho became the type locality of M. yokogawai. In conclusion, the present review shows that M. yokogawai, M. takahashii, and M. miyatai are valid and discriminated by means of morphological characteristics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Helminthiasis , Heterophyidae/anatomy & histology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Japan , Life Cycle Stages , Mesocricetus/parasitology , Microscopy , Osmeriformes/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/parasitology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51157

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the infection status, worm development, and phylogenetic characteristics of the intestinal trematode, Stellantchasmus falcatus. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected only in the half-beak (Dermogenus pusillus) out of the 4 fish species examined. Their prevalence was 90.0%, and the intensity of infection was 919 metacercariae on average. Worms were recovered from 33 (97.1%) of 34 chicks that were experimentally infected with 200 S. falcatus metacercariae each, and the average recovery rate was 43.0%. The body size and inner organs of S. falcatus quickly increased in the experimental chicks over days 1-2 post-infection (PI). In addition, ITS2 sequence data of this parasite were analyzed to examine the phylogenetic relationships with other trematodes using the UPGMA method. The results indicated that the ITS2 sequence data recorded from trematodes in the family Heterophyidae appeared to be monophyletic. This study concluded that D. pusillus serves as a compatible second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Thailand and that S. falcatus can develop rapidly in the experimental chicks. Data collected from this study can help to close the gap in knowledge regarding the epidemiology, biology, and phylogenetic characteristics of S. falcatus in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes , Heterophyidae/classification , Metacercariae/classification , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Thailand , Trematode Infections/parasitology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820673

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze a phylogenetic tree for understanding the molecular systematic of trematode in Family Heterophyidae, which are highly distributed in Thailand.@*METHODS@#Based on thirteen sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mCOI) gene from six genera of heterophyid trematodes, viz. Haplorchis, Stellantchasmus, Centrocestus, Metagonimus, Pygidopsis, and Haplorchoides were aligned automatically using the Clustal × 2.0 program. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by maximum likeinghood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods, with 1 000 bootstrap using the 5.0 program.@*RESULTS@#The phylogenetic relationship from both methods was similar and separated into three groups consisting of Haplorchoides pumilio group, Haplorchoides taichui group and another heterophyid genera.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The sequence data of mtCOI can be used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of trematodes at the genus level. Each clade of different genera of heterophyid trematodes can be separated into sister groups that correlated with the morphological characteristic, kind of secondary intermediate host and geographic distribution.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Helminth , Genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genetics , Fishes , Parasitology , Helminth Proteins , Genetics , Heterophyidae , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny , Trematode Infections , Parasitology
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190694

ABSTRACT

While paleoparasitologists in Korea reported scientific evidences for the infection patterns of various parasite species among the pre-modern Joseon people, historical study is also needed for understanding the socio-cultural aspects of parasitic infections of the past. In this study on the historical documents, we revealed the socio-cultural environment of Joseon society by which people were easily infected by trematode parasites. The historical records showed that Joseon people enjoyed raw fish cuisines, that might have caused Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai infection, much more frequently than originally expected. It is also proven that Joseon people ate raw crab and crayfish, the intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani, as the seasonal delicacy or miracle cure drug for incurable diseases. We also found many Joseon records on raw-oyster dishes, possibly having caused Gymnophalloides seoi infection among the people. By this study, we could get the historical clues on how Joseon people could have been infected by various trematode parasites.


Subject(s)
Astacoidea , Clonorchis sinensis , Heterophyidae , Korea , Paragonimus westermani , Parasites , Seasons
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121886

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to characterize the properties of a 100 kDa somatic antigen from Metagonimus yokogawai. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against this 100 kDa antigen, and their immunoreactivity was assessed by western blot analysis with patients' sera. The mAbs against the 100 kDa antigen commonly reacted with various kinds of trematode antigens, including intestinal (Gymnophalloides seoi), lung (Paragonimus westermani), and liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica). However, this mAb showed no cross-reactions with other helminth parasites, including nematodes and cestodes. To determine the topographic distribution of the 100 kDa antigen in worm sections, indirect immunoperoxidase staining was performed. A strong positive reaction was observed in the tegumental and subtegumental layers of adult M. yokogawai and C. sinensis. The results showed that the 100 kDa somatic protein of M. yokogawai is a common antigen which recognizes a target epitope present over the tegumental layer of different trematode species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Clonorchis sinensis/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Female , Helminth Proteins/immunology , Heterophyidae/immunology , Immunologic Tests , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Paragonimus westermani/immunology , Trematode Infections/diagnosis
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210970

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immune responses against Pygidiopsis summa (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) infection were studied in ICR mice. Experimental groups consisted of group 1 (uninfected controls), group 2 (infection with 200 metacercariae), and group 3 (immunosuppression with Depo-Medrol and infection with 200 metacercariae). Worms were recovered in the small intestine at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infection (PI). Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), mast cells, and goblet cells were counted in intestinal tissue sections stained with Giemsa, astra-blue, and periodic acid-Schiff, respectively. Mucosal IgA levels were measured by ELISA. Expulsion of P. summa from the mouse intestine began to occur from days 3-5 PI which sustained until day 7 PI. The worm expulsion was positively correlated with proliferation of IEL, mast cells, goblet cells, and increase of IgA, although in the case of mast cells significant increase was seen only at day 7 PI. Immunosuppression suppressed all these immune effectors and inhibited worm reduction in the intestine until day 7 PI. The results suggested that various immune effectors which include IEL, goblet cells, mast cells, and IgA play roles in regulating the intestinal mucosal immunity of ICR mice against P. summa infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Goblet Cells/immunology , Heterophyidae/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Intestine, Small/parasitology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Mast Cells/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Parasite Load , Time Factors , Trematode Infections/immunology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197167

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial genomes have been extensively studied for phylogenetic purposes and to investigate intra- and interspecific genetic variations. In recent years, numerous groups have undertaken sequencing of platyhelminth mitochondrial genomes. Haplorchis taichui (family Heterophyidae) is a trematode that infects humans and animals mainly in Asia, including the Mekong River basin. We sequenced and determined the organization of the complete mitochondrial genome of H. taichui. The mitochondrial genome is 15,130 bp long, containing 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, a small and a large subunit), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Like other trematodes, it does not encode the atp8 gene. All genes are transcribed from the same strand. The ATG initiation codon is used for 9 protein-coding genes, and GTG for the remaining 3 (nad1, nad4, and nad5). The mitochondrial genome of H. taichui has a single long non-coding region between trnE and trnG. H. taichui has evolved as being more closely related to Opisthorchiidae than other trematode groups with maximal support in the phylogenetic analysis. Our results could provide a resource for the comparative mitochondrial genome analysis of trematodes, and may yield genetic markers for molecular epidemiological investigations into intestinal flukes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asia , Codon, Initiator , DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry , Gene Order , Genes, Helminth , Genome, Mitochondrial , Heterophyidae/genetics , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Sequence Analysis, DNA
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197157

ABSTRACT

Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enterobius/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Heterophyidae/isolation & purification , Humans , Parasitology/methods , Prevalence , Taenia/isolation & purification , Thailand/epidemiology , Trematode Infections/epidemiology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69767

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections was determined by surveying inhabitants of Hengxuan, Fusui, and Shanglin villages which were known to be endemic for liver flukes in Guangxi, China in May 2010. A total of 718 people were examined for helminth eggs by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique, ultrasonography, immunoaffinity chromatography, and DNA sequencing. The overall egg positive rate was found to be 59.6% (28.0-70.6%) that included mixed infections with liver and intestinal flukes. Cases showing higher than 20,000 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were detected between 1.3% and 16.2%. Ultrasonographic findings exhibited overall 28.2% (72 of 255 cases) dilatation rate of the intrahepatic bile duct. Clonorchis sinensis infection was detected serologically in 88.3% (38 of 43 cases) among C. sinensis egg positive subjects by the immunoaffinity chromatography using a specific antigen for C. sinensis. For differential diagnosis of the liver and intestinal flukes, more precise PCR and nucleotide sequencing for copro-DNA were performed for 46 egg positive cases. Mixed infections with C. sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai were detected in 8 of 46 egg positive cases, whereas 29 specimens were positive for Haplorchis taichui. Ultrasonographic findings and immunoaffinity chromatography results showed usefulness, even in a limited way, in figuring out of the liver fluke endemicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Chromatography, Affinity , Clonorchiasis/epidemiology , Clonorchis sinensis/genetics , Coinfection , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Female , Heterophyidae/genetics , Humans , Intestines/parasitology , Liver/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Trematode Infections/epidemiology
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