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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 811-818, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514286

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of prenatal stress on the cognitive function of offspring, and clarify the change of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression in hippocampal neurons of offspring. 16 pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into control group and stress group, with eight rats in each group. The stress group received restrained stress from 15 to 21 days of pregnancy, while the control group did not receive any treatment. Anxiety-like behavior and spatial memory, learning and memory ability were detected in open field, elevated plus maze, novel object recognition test, and Barnes maze. Nissl staining was used to detect the function of hippocampal neurons. Western blot was used to detect the expression of HDAC2 protein in hippocampal neurons of adult offspring. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of HDAC2 protein and hippocampal neurogenesis. The learning and memory ability of adult offspring was decreased. The prenatal stress damaged the function of hippocampal neurons , the expression of HDAC2 was down-regulated, and the number of neurons was reduced. Maternal prenatal stress can down- regulate the expression of HDAC2 in the hippocampus of offspring, inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis and impairs the cognitive function.


El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el mecanismo del estrés prenatal en la función cognitiva de la descendencia y aclarar el cambio de la expresión de la histona desacetilasa 2 (HDAC2) en las neuronas del hipocampo de la descendencia. 16 ratas SD preñadas se dividieron aleatoriamente en un grupo de control y un grupo de estrés, con ocho ratas en cada grupo. El grupo de estrés recibió estrés durante 15 a 21 días de pre, preñez, mientras que el grupo de control no recibió ningún tratamiento. El comportamiento similar a la ansiedad y la memoria espacial, el aprendizaje y la capacidad de memoria se detectaron en campo abierto, laberinto en cruz elevado, prueba de reconocimiento de objetos novedosos y laberinto de Barnes. La tinción de Nissl se utilizó para detectar la función de las neuronas del hipocampo. Se utilizó Western blot para detectar la expresión de la proteína HDAC2 en las neuronas del hipocampo de la descendencia adulta. La tinción de inmunofluorescencia se utilizó para detectar la expresión de la proteína HDAC2 y la neurogénesis del hipocampo. La capacidad de aprendizaje y memoria de la descendencia adulta se redujo. El estrés prenatal dañó la función de las neuronas del hipocampo, se reguló negativamente la expresión de HDAC2 y se redujo el número de neuronas. El estrés prenatal materno puede regular a la baja la expresión de HDAC2 en el hipocampo de la descendencia, inhibe la neurogénesis del hipocampo y deteriora la función cognitiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Stress, Psychological , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neurogenesis , Epigenomics , Open Field Test , Elevated Plus Maze Test , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory
2.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 89-98, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The study explores the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the governing vessel (GV) on proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment.@*METHODS@#Healthy male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, model and EA. Cognitive impairment was induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion in the model and EA groups. Rats in the EA group were treated with EA at Shenting (GV24) and Baihui (GV20) for 7 d. Neurological deficit was scored using the Longa scale, the learning and memory ability was detected using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and the proteomic profiling in the hippocampus was analyzed using protein-labeling technology based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). The Western blot (WB) analysis was used to detect the proteins and validate the results of iTRAQ.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was significantly reduced, and the escape latency in the MWM test was significantly shortened, while the number of platform crossings increased in the EA group. A total of 2872 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified between different groups: 92 proteins were upregulated and 103 were downregulated in the model group compared with the sham group, while 142 proteins were upregulated and 126 were downregulated in the EA group compared with the model group. Most of the DEPs were involved in oxidative phosphorylation, glycolipid metabolism and synaptic transmission. Furthermore, we also verified 4 DEPs using WB technology. Although the WB results were not exactly the same as the iTRAQ results, the expression trends of the DEPs were consistent. The upregulation of heat-shock protein β1 (Hspb1) was the highest in the EA group compared to the model group.@*CONCLUSION@#EA can effect proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment. Hspb1 may be involved in the molecular mechanism by which acupuncture improves cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electroacupuncture , Proteomics , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Hippocampus
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 315-327, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971569

ABSTRACT

The hippocampus has been extensively implicated in spatial navigation in rodents and more recently in bats. Numerous studies have revealed that various kinds of spatial information are encoded across hippocampal regions. In contrast, investigations of spatial behavioral correlates in the primate hippocampus are scarce and have been mostly limited to head-restrained subjects during virtual navigation. However, recent advances made in freely-moving primates suggest marked differences in spatial representations from rodents, albeit some similarities. Here, we review empirical studies examining the neural correlates of spatial navigation in the primate (including human) hippocampus at the levels of local field potentials and single units. The lower frequency theta oscillations are often intermittent. Single neuron responses are highly mixed and task-dependent. We also discuss neuronal selectivity in the eye and head coordinates. Finally, we propose that future studies should focus on investigating both intrinsic and extrinsic population activity and examining spatial coding properties in large-scale hippocampal-neocortical networks across tasks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Spatial Navigation/physiology , Hippocampus/physiology , Primates , Neurons/physiology , Theta Rhythm/physiology
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 29-40, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971535

ABSTRACT

Fear memory contextualization is critical for selecting adaptive behavior to survive. Contextual fear conditioning (CFC) is a classical model for elucidating related underlying neuronal circuits. The primary visual cortex (V1) is the primary cortical region for contextual visual inputs, but its role in CFC is poorly understood. Here, our experiments demonstrated that bilateral inactivation of V1 in mice impaired CFC retrieval, and both CFC learning and extinction increased the turnover rate of axonal boutons in V1. The frequency of neuronal Ca2+ activity decreased after CFC learning, while CFC extinction reversed the decrease and raised it to the naïve level. Contrary to control mice, the frequency of neuronal Ca2+ activity increased after CFC learning in microglia-depleted mice and was maintained after CFC extinction, indicating that microglial depletion alters CFC learning and the frequency response pattern of extinction-induced Ca2+ activity. These findings reveal a critical role of microglia in neocortical information processing in V1, and suggest potential approaches for cellular-based manipulation of acquired fear memory.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Primary Visual Cortex , Extinction, Psychological/physiology , Learning/physiology , Fear/physiology , Hippocampus/physiology
5.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 694-701, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Zuogui Jiangtang Jieyu Decoction (ZJJ) on Shh signaling and self-renewal of neural stem cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats with depression.@*METHODS@#Diabetic rat models with depression were randomly divided into model group, positive drug (metformin + fluoxetine) group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose ZJJ groups (n=16), with normal SD rats as the control group. The positive drugs and ZJJ were administered by gavage, and the rats in the control and model groups were given distilled water. After the treatment, blood glucose level was detected using test strips, and behavioral changes of the rats were assessed by forced swimming test and water maze test. ELISA was used to examine the serum level of leptin; The expressions of nestin and Brdu proteins in the dentate gyrus of the rats were detected using immunofluorescence assay, and the expressions of self-renewal marker proteins and Shh signaling proteins were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The diabetic rats with depression showed significantly increased levels of blood glucose and leptin (P < 0.01) and prolonged immobility time in forced swimming test (P < 0.01) and increased stage climbing time with reduced stage seeking time and stage crossings in water maze test (P < 0.01). The expressions of nestin and Brdu in the dentate gyrus, the expressions of cyclin D1, SOX2, Shh, Ptch1, Smo in the hippocampus and the nuclear expression of Gli-1 were decreased (P < 0.01) while hippocampal Gli-3 expression was increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the rat models. Treatment of rat models with high-dose ZJJ significantly reduced the blood glucose (P < 0.01) and leptin level (P < 0.05) and improved their performance in behavioral tests (P < 0.01). The treatment also obviously increased the expressions of nestin, Brdu, cyclin D1, SOX2, Shh, Ptch1, and Smo and the nuclear expression of Gli-1 in the dentate gyrus (P < 0.01) and reduced hippocampal expression of Gli-3 (P < 0.05) in the rat models.@*CONCLUSION@#ZJJ can significantly improve the self-renewal ability of neural stem cells and activate Shh signaling in dentate gyrus of diabetic rats with depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Blood Glucose , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Self Renewal , Cyclin D1 , Dentate Gyrus , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Hippocampus , Leptin , Nestin , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 369-378, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981013

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on electrophysiological characteristics of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) and ventral hippocampus (vHPC) in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the plasticity of hippocampal neurons and memory regulation after PTSD. Male C57Thy1-YFP/GAD67-GFP mice were randomly divided into PTSD group and control group. Unavoidable foot shock (FS) was applied to establish PTSD model. The spatial learning ability was explored by water maze test, and the changes in electrophysiological characteristics of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in dHPC and vHPC were examined using whole-cell recording method. The results showed that FS significantly reduced the movement speed, and enhanced the number and percentage of freezing. PTSD significantly prolonged the escape latency in localization avoidance training, shortened the swimming time in the original quadrant, extended the swimming time in the contralateral quadrant, and increased absolute refractory period, energy barrier and inter-spike interval of glutamatergic neurons in dHPC and GABAergic neurons in vHPC, while decreased absolute refractory period, energy barrier and inter-spike interval of GABAergic neurons in dHPC and glutamatergic neurons in vHPC. These results suggest that PTSD can damage spatial perception of mice, down-regulate the excitability of dHPC and up-regulate the excitability of vHPC, and the underlying mechanism may involve the regulation of spatial memory by the plasticity of neurons in dHPC and vHPC.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Hippocampus , Spatial Learning , GABAergic Neurons
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 231-240, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981000

ABSTRACT

Persistent neurogenesis exists in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the adult mammalian brain. Adult endogenous neurogenesis not only plays an important role in the normal brain function, but also has important significance in the repair and treatment of brain injury or brain diseases. This article reviews the process of adult endogenous neurogenesis and its application in the repair of traumatic brain injury (TBI) or ischemic stroke, and discusses the strategies of activating adult endogenous neurogenesis to repair brain injury and its practical significance in promoting functional recovery after brain injury.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Brain/physiopathology , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Mammals/physiology , Neurogenesis/physiology , Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Recovery of Function , Spinal Cord/physiopathology
8.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 793-799, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of Yizhi Tiaoshen (benefiting mental health and regulating the spirit) acupuncture on learning and memory function, and the expression of phosphorylated tubulin-associated unit (tau) protein in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rats, and explore the effect mechanism of this therapy on AD.@*METHODS@#A blank group and a sham-operation group were randomly selected from 60 male SD rats, 10 rats in each one. AD models were established in the rest 40 rats by the intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and okadaic acid in the CA1 region of the bilateral hippocampus. Thirty successfully-replicated model rats were randomly divided into a model group, a western medication group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each one. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20), "Sishencong" (EX-HN 1), "Neiguan" (PC 6), "Shenmen" (HT 7), "Xuanzhong" (GB 39) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6); and the needles were retained for 10 min. Acupuncture was given once daily. One course of treatment was composed of 6 days, with the interval of 1 day; the completion of treatment included 4 courses. In the western medication group, donepezil hydrochloride solution (0.45 mg/kg) was administrated intragastrically, once daily; it took 7 days to accomplish one course of treatment and a completion of intervention was composed of 4 courses. Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition test (NORT) were used to assess the learning and memory function of the rats. Using HE staining and Nissl staining, the morphological structure of the hippocampus was observed. With Western blot adopted, the protein expression of the tau, phosphorylated tau protein at Ser198 (p-tau Ser198), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the hippocampus was detected.@*RESULTS@#There were no statistical differences in all of the indexes between the sham-operation group and the blank group. Compared with the sham-operation group, in the model group, the MWM escape latency was prolonged (P<0.05), the crossing frequency and the quadrant stay time in original platform were shortened (P<0.05), and the NORT discrimination index (DI) was reduced (P<0.05); the hippocampal cell numbers were declined and the cells arranged irregularly, the hippocampal neuronal structure was abnormal and the numbers of Nissl bodies decreased; the protein expression of p-tau Ser198 and GSK-3βwas increased (P<0.05) and that of PP2A decreased (P<0.05). When compared with the model group, in the western medication group and the acupuncture group, the MWM escape latency was shortened (P<0.05), the crossing frequency and the quadrant stay time in original platform were increased (P<0.05), and DI got higher (P<0.05); the hippocampal cell numbers were elevated and the cells arranged regularly, the damage of hippocampal neuronal structure was attenuated and the numbers of Nissl bodies were increased; the protein expression of p-tau Ser198 and GSK-3β was reduced (P<0.05) and that of PP2A was increased (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the above indexes between the acupuncture group and the western medication group (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture therapy of "benefiting mental health and regulating the spirit" could improve the learning and memory function and alleviate neuronal injure of AD model rats. The effect mechanism of this therapy may be related to the down-regulation of GSK-3β and the up-regulation of PP2A in the hippocampus, and then to inducing the inhibition of tau protein phosphorylation.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Tubulin , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , tau Proteins/genetics , Acupuncture Therapy , Hippocampus
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2184-2192, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981349

ABSTRACT

To investigate the antidepressant mechanism of Shenling Kaixin Granules(SLKX) in treating chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) model rats. Ninety male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, Shugan Jieyu Capsules(110 mg·kg~(-1)) group and SLKX low-(90 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(180 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(360 mg·kg~(-1)) groups. Depression rat model was replicated by CUMS method. After treatment, the behavioral changes of rats were evaluated by sugar preference, open field, elevated cross maze and forced swimming experiments. The contents of interleukin 1 beta(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α), brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) and 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) in serum were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in hippocampal CA1 region were also detected. Pathological changes in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and Western blot was used to determine the expression of nerve growth factor(NGF), BDNF, phospho-tyrosine kinase receptor(p-TrkB)/TrkB, phospho-cAMP-response element binding protein(p-CREB)/CREB, nuclear factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax) and caspase-3 in hippocampal CA1 region. RESULTS:: showed that compared with the control group, the model group had decreased sugar preference, reduced number of entries and time spent in the center of open field and shortened total distance of movement, reduced number of entries and proportion of time spent in open arm, and increased number and time of immobility in forced swimming experiment. Additionally, the serum contents of IL-1β and TNF-α and the expression of caspase-3 were higher, while the contents of BDNF and 5-HT, the activities of SOD and CAT in hippocampal CA1 region, the expressions of NGF, BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, p-CREB/CREB, HO-1 and Bcl-2/Bax, and the Nrf2 nuclear translocation were lower in model group than in control group. Compared with the conditions in model group, the sugar preference, the number of entries and time spent in the center of open, total distance of movement, and the number of entries and proportion of time spent in open arm in treatment groups were increased while the number and time of immobility in forced swimming experiment were decreased; the serum contents of IL-1β and TNF-α and the expression of caspase-3 were down regulated, while the contents of BDNF and 5-HT, the activities of SOD and CAT in hippocampal CA1 region, the expressions of NGF, BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, p-CREB/CREB, HO-1, Bcl-2/Bax, and Nrf2 nuclear translocation were enhanced. In conclusion, SLKX might regulate the Nrf2 nucleus translocation by activating BDNF/TrkB/CREB pathway, lower oxidative stress damage in hippocampus, inhibit caspase-3 activity, and reduce apoptosis of hippocampal nerve cells, thereby playing an antidepressant role.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Sugars/pharmacology , Depression/genetics , Stress, Psychological/metabolism
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 762-769, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970546

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effect of Ganmai Dazao Decoction on the ethology of rats with posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) and study the related mechanism through the changes in magnetic resonance imaging and protein expression. Sixty rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely the normal group, the model group, the low(1 g·kg~(-1)), medium(2 g·kg~(-1)), and high-dose Ganmai Dazao Decoction groups(4 g·kg~(-1)), and the positive control group(intragastric administration with 10.8 mg·kg~(-1) of fluoxetine), with 10 rats in each group. Two weeks after inducing PTSD by single-prolonged stress(SPS) in rats, the positive control group was given fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule by gavage, the low, medium, and high-dose groups were given Ganmai Dazao Decoction by gavage, and both the normal group and the model group were given the same volume of normal saline by gavage, each for 7 days. The open field experiment, elevated cross elevated maze, forced swimming experiment, and new object recognition test were carried out for the behavioral test. Three rats in each group were selected to detect the expression of neuropeptide receptor Y1(NPY1R) protein in the hippocampus by Western blot. Then, the other three rats in each group were selected to use the 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging experiment to observe the overall structural changes in the brain region and the anisotropy fraction of the hippocampus. The results of the open field experiment showed that the total distance and central distance of rats in the model group were significantly lower than those in the normal group, and the total distance and central distance of rats in the middle and high-dose Ganmai Dazao Decoction groups were higher than those in the model group. The results of the elevated cross maze test showed that medium and high-dose Ganmai Dazao Decoction remarkably increased the number of open arm entries and the residence time of open arm of rats with PTSD. The results of the forced swimming experiment showed that the immobility time in the water of the model group rats was significantly higher than that of the normal group, and Ganmai Dazao Decoction hugely reduced the immobility time in the water of rats with PTSD. The results of the new object recognition test showed that Ganmai Dazao Decoction significantly increased the exploration time of new objects and familiar objects in rats with PTSD. The results of Western blot showed that Ganmai Dazao Decoction significantly reduced the expression of NYP1R protein in the hippocampus of rats with PTSD. The 9.4T magnetic resonance examination found that there was no significant difference in the structural image among the groups. In the functional image, the fractional anisotropy(FA value) of the hippocampus in the model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group. The FA value of the hippocampus in the middle and high-dose Ganmai Dazao Decoction groups was higher than that in the model group. Ganmai Dazao Decoction reduces the injury of hippocampal neurons by inhibiting the expression of NYP1R in the hippocampus of rats with PTSD, thereby improving the nerve function injury of rats with PTSD and playing a neuroprotective role.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Ethology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Fluoxetine , Hippocampus , Maze Learning
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 472-480, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970484

ABSTRACT

This study identified the anti-depression targets of Kaixin San(KXS) in the brain tissue with "target fishing" strategy, and explored the target-associated pharmacological signaling pathways to reveal the anti-depression molecular mechanism of KXS. The Balb/c mouse model of depression was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) and the anti-depression effect of KXS was evaluated by forced swimming test and sucrose preference test. KXS active components were bonded to the benzophenone-modified magnetic nanoparticles by photocrosslinking reaction for capturing target proteins from cortex, thalamus and hippocampus of depressive mice. The target proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS). The enrichment analysis on signaling pathways was performed by Cytoscape. The potential biological functions of targets were verified by immunohistochemistry and Western blot assay. The results showed that KXS significantly improved the behavioral indexes. There were 64, 91, and 44 potential targets of KXS identified in cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus, respectively, according to the target identification experiment. The functions of these targets were mainly associated with vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption, salmonella infection, thyroid hormone synthesis, and other signaling pathways. Besides, the results of immunohistochemistry and Western blot showed that KXS up-regulated the expressions of argipressine(AVP) in the cortex, heat shock protein 60(HSP60), cytochrome C oxidase 4(COX4), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) in the thalamus, and down-regulated the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) p65 in the thalamus. Therefore, KXS may exert anti-depression effect through regulating vasopressin signaling pathway in the cortex and inflammation, energy metabolism, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways in the thalamus, and the effect of KXS on hippocampus is not significant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chromatography, Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Hippocampus , Stress, Psychological/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Depression/drug therapy
12.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 50-59, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Exposure to high intensity, low frequency noise (HI-LFN) causes vibroacoustic disease (VAD), with memory deficit as a primary non-auditory symptomatic effect of VAD. However, the underlying mechanism of the memory deficit is unknown. This study aimed to characterize potential mechanisms involving morphological changes of neurons and nerve fibers in the hippocampus, after exposure to HI-LFN.@*METHODS@#Adult wild-type and transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 knockout (TRPV4-/-) mice were used for construction of the HI-LFN injury model. The new object recognition task and the Morris water maze test were used to measure the memory of these animals. Hemoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence staining were used to examine morphological changes of the hippocampus after exposure to HI-LFN.@*RESULTS@#The expression of TRPV4 was significantly upregulated in the hippocampus after HI-LFN exposure. Furthermore, memory deficits correlated with lower densities of neurons and neurofilament-positive nerve fibers in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus (DG) hippocampal areas in wild-type mice. However, TRPV4-/- mice showed better performance in memory tests and more integrated neurofilament-positive nerve fibers in the CA1 and DG areas after HI-LFN exposure.@*CONCLUSION@#TRPV4 up-regulation induced neurofilament positive nerve fiber injury in the hippocampus, which was a possible mechanism for memory impairment and cognitive decline resulting from HI-LFN exposure. Together, these results identified a promising therapeutic target for treating cognitive dysfunction in VAD patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Intermediate Filaments/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism
13.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 191-196, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of umbilical moxibustion therapy on phobic behavior and the contents of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in different brain regions of the stress-model rats and explore the potential mechanism of umbilical moxibustion on phobic behavior.@*METHODS@#Among 50 Wistar male rats, 45 rates were selected and randomly divided into a control group, a model group and an umbilical moxibustion group, 15 rats in each one; and the rest 5 rats were used for preparing the model of electric shock. The bystander electroshock method was adopted to prepare phobic stress model in the model group and the umbilical moxibustion group. After modeling, the intervention with umbilical moxibustion started in the umbilical moxibustion group, in which, the ginger-isolated moxibustion was applied at "Shenque" (CV 8), once daily, 2 cones for 20 min each time, for consecutively 21 days. After modeling and intervention completed, the rats in each group were subjected to the open field test to evaluate the state of fear. After intervention, the Morris water maze test and fear conditioning test were performed to evaluate the changes in learning and memory ability and the state of fear. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the contents of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus were determined.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the horizontal and vertical activity scores were lower (P<0.01), the number of stool particles was increased (P<0.01), the escape latency was prolonged (P<0.01), the times of target quadrant were reduced (P<0.01), and the freezing time was prolonged (P<0.05) in the rats of the model group. The horizontal and vertical activity scores were increased (P<0.05), the number of stool particles was reduced (P<0.05), the escape latency was shortened (P<0.05, P<0.01), the times of target quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the freezing time was shortened (P<0.05) in the rats of the umbilical moxibustion group when compared with the model group. The trend search strategy was adopted in the control group and the umbilical moxibustion group, while the random search strategy was used in rats of the model group. Compared with the control group, the contents of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus were reduced (P<0.01) in the model group. In the umbilical moxibustion group, the contents of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) when compared with the model group.@*CONCLUSION@#Umbilical moxibustion can effectively relieve the state of fear and learning and memory impairment of phobic stress model rats, which may be related to the up-regulation of contents of brain neurotransmitters, i.e. NE, DA, and 5-HT.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Moxibustion , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Serotonin , Hippocampus , Dopamine , Norepinephrine , Neurotransmitter Agents
14.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 60-66, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969948

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at different frequencies on learning and memory functions, as well as the relevant proteins of brain insulin signal transduction pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice and explore the effect mechanism of EA in treatment of AD.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two SPF Kunming male mice were randomized into a blank group, a sham-operation group, a model group, a 2 Hz EA group, a 15 Hz EA group and a 30 Hz EA group, 12 mice in each one. In the model group and each EA group, AD model were established by the injection with streptozotocin (ST2) solution (8 mg/kg) into the left lateral ventricles. In the sham-operation group, 0.9% sodium chloride solution of the same volume was injected into the left lateral ventricles. After successful modeling, in each EA group, EA was applied at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) with corresponding frequencies, once daily. One course of EA intervention consisted of 7 treatments and 2 courses were given totally at interval of 1 day. After modeling and intervention, Morris water maze test was conducted for the mice of each group. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot method, the protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) was detected in the hippocampal of the mice after intervention.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the 2 Hz, 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups, the escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all extended (P<0.01), and the number of crossing the platform was reduced (P<0.01) after modeling. When compared with the blank group, the escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all extended (P<0.01), and the number of crossing the platform was reduced (P<0.01) in the model group after intervention. In the 2 Hz, 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups, the escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all shortened (P<0.01), and the number of crossing the platform was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) after intervention when compared with the model group. The escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all shortened (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the number of crossing the platform was increased (P<0.05) in the 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups in comparison with the 2 Hz EA group. The protein expression levels of IR, IRS-1 and PI3K were reduced in the model group when compared with those of the blank group (P<0.01, P<0.05); and these protein expression levels were increased in the 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups compared with the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the 2 Hz EA group, the protein expression levels of IR, IRS-1 and PI3K were all elevated in the 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The learning and memory function of AD mice may be improved through regulating brain insulin signaling transconduction pathway with electroacupuncture, and electroacupuncture at 15 Hz and 30 Hz obtains the overall better effect compared with the intervention at 2 Hz.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1087-1104, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982458

ABSTRACT

Gene transcription and new protein synthesis regulated by epigenetics play integral roles in the formation of new memories. However, as an important part of epigenetics, the function of chromatin remodeling in learning and memory has been less studied. Here, we showed that SMARCA5 (SWI/SNF related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 5), a critical chromatin remodeler, was responsible for hippocampus-dependent memory maintenance and neurogenesis. Using proteomics analysis, we found protein expression changes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) after the knockdown of SMARCA5 during contextual fear conditioning (CFC) memory maintenance in mice. Moreover, SMARCA5 was revealed to participate in CFC memory maintenance via modulating the proteins of metabolic pathways such as nucleoside diphosphate kinase-3 (NME3) and aminoacylase 1 (ACY1). This work is the first to describe the role of SMARCA5 in memory maintenance and to demonstrate the involvement of metabolic pathways regulated by SMARCA5 in learning and memory.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Memory , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Hippocampus/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Chromatin/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways
16.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1009-1026, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982449

ABSTRACT

Anxiety disorders are currently a major psychiatric and social problem, the mechanisms of which have been only partially elucidated. The hippocampus serves as a major target of stress mediators and is closely related to anxiety modulation. Yet so far, its complex anatomy has been a challenge for research on the mechanisms of anxiety regulation. Recent advances in imaging, virus tracking, and optogenetics/chemogenetics have permitted elucidation of the activity, connectivity, and function of specific cell types within the hippocampus and its connected brain regions, providing mechanistic insights into the elaborate organization of the hippocampal circuitry underlying anxiety. Studies of hippocampal neurotransmitter systems, including glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems, have contributed to the interpretation of the underlying neural mechanisms of anxiety. Neuropeptides and neuroinflammatory factors are also involved in anxiety modulation. This review comprehensively summarizes the hippocampal mechanisms associated with anxiety modulation, based on molecular, cellular, and circuit properties, to provide tailored targets for future anxiety treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hippocampus/physiology , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Neurotransmitter Agents , Neuropeptides
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 617-630, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982417

ABSTRACT

Malfunction of the ventral subiculum (vSub), the main subregion controlling the output connections from the hippocampus, is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although the vSub receives cholinergic innervation from the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MSDB), whether and how the MSDB-to-vSub cholinergic circuit is involved in MDD is elusive. Here, we found that chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depression-like behaviors with hyperactivation of vSub neurons, measured by c-fos staining and whole-cell patch-clamp recording. By retrograde and anterograde tracing, we confirmed the dense MSDB cholinergic innervation of the vSub. In addition, transient restraint stress in CUMS increased the level of ACh in the vSub. Furthermore, chemogenetic stimulation of this MSDB-vSub innervation in ChAT-Cre mice induced hyperactivation of vSub pyramidal neurons along with depression-like behaviors; and local infusion of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, into the vSub attenuated the depression-like behaviors induced by chemogenetic stimulation of this pathway and CUMS. Together, these findings suggest that activating the MSDB-vSub cholinergic pathway induces hyperactivation of vSub pyramidal neurons and depression-like behaviors, revealing a novel circuit underlying vSub pyramidal neuronal hyperactivation and its associated depression.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Depressive Disorder, Major/metabolism , Basal Forebrain , Depression , Hippocampus/metabolism , Cholinergic Agents
18.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 448-458, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of electroacupuncture (EA) in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vivo.@*METHODS@#Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were used as AD models and received EA at Yingxiang (LI 20, bilateral) and Yintang (GV 29) points for 20 days. For certain experiments, SAMP8 mice were injected intravenously with human fibrin (2 mg). The Morris water maze test was used to assess cognitive and memory abilities. The changes of tight junctions of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice were observed by transmission electron microscope. The expressions of fibrin, amyloid- β (Aβ), and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBa-1) in mouse hippocampus (CA1/CA3) were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot or immunohistochemical staining. The expression of fibrin in mouse plasma was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and claudin-5 in hippocampus were detected by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining.@*RESULTS@#Fibrin was time-dependently deposited in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice and this was inhibited by EA treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, EA treatment suppressed the accumulation of Aβ in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice (P<0.01), which was reversed by fibrin injection (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EA improved SAMP8 mice cognitive impairment and BBB permeability (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, EA decreased reactive oxygen species levels and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, which was reversed by fibrin injection (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Mechanistically, EA inhibited the promoting effect of fibrin on the high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1)/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) signaling pathways (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA may potentially improve cognitive impairment in AD via inhibition of fibrin/A β deposition and deactivation of the HMGB1/TLR4 and RAGE/NADPH signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Mice , Humans , Animals , NADP/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Electroacupuncture , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Hippocampus/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
19.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 405-412, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of hippocampal neurodevelopment in the antidepressant effect of baicalin.@*METHODS@#Forty male Institute of Cancer Research mice were divided into control, corticosterone (CORT, 40 mg/kg), CORT+baicalin-L (25 mg/kg), CORT+baicalin-H (50 mg/kg), and CORT+fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) groups according to a random number table. An animal model of depression was established by chronic CORT exposure. Behavioral tests were used to assess the reliability of depression model and the antidepressant effect of baicalin. In addition, Nissl staining and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the effect of baicalin on hippocampal neurodevelopment in mice. The protein and mRNA expression levels of neurodevelopment-related factors were detected by Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Baicalin significantly ameliorated the depressive-like behavior of mice resulting from CORT exposure and promoted the development of dentate gyrus in hippocampus, thereby reversing the depressive-like pathological changes in hippocampal neurons caused by CORT neurotoxicity. Moreover, baicalin significantly decreased the protein and mRNA expression levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and upregulated the expression levels of cell cycle protein D1, p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), doublecortin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (all P<0.01). There were no significant differences between baicalin and fluoxetine groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Baicalin can promote the development of hippocampal neurons via mTOR/GSK3β signaling pathway, thus protect mice against CORT-induced neurotoxicity and play an antidepressant role.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Corticosterone , Fluoxetine/metabolism , Depression/chemically induced , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Hippocampus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Behavior, Animal , Disease Models, Animal , Mammals/metabolism
20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 490-499, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether meranzin hydrate (MH) can alleviate depression-like behavior and hypomotility similar to Chaihu Shugan Powder (CSP), and further explore the potential common mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Totally 120 Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5-8 groups including sham, vehicle, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), mosapride (10 mg/kg), CSP (30 g/kg), MH (9.18 mg/kg), [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (Dlys, 0.5 mg/kg), and MH+Dlys groups by a random number table, 8 rats in each group. And 32 mice were randomly divided into wild-type, MH (18 mg/kg), growth hormone secretagogue receptor-knockout (GHSR-KO), and GHSR+MH groups, 8 mice in each group. The forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT), tail suspension test (TST), gastric emptying (GE) test, and intestinal transit (IT) test were used to assess antidepressant and prokinetic (AP) effects after drug single administration for 30 min with absorbable identification in rats and mice, respectively. The protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) in the hippocampus of rats were evaluated by Western blot. The differences in functional brain changes were determined via 7.0 T functional magnetic resonance imaging-blood oxygen level-dependent (fMRI-BOLD).@*RESULTS@#MH treatment improved depression-like behavior (FST, OFT) and hypomotility (GE, IT) in the acute forced swimming (FS) rats (all P<0.05), and the effects are similar to the parent formula CSP. The ghrelin antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 inhibited the effect of MH on FST and GE (P<0.05). Similarly, MH treatment also alleviated depression-like behavior (FST, TST) in the wild-type mice, however, no effects were found in the GHSR KO mice. Additionally, administration of MH significantly stimulated BDNF and p-mTOR protein expressions in the hippocampus (both P<0.01), which were also prevented by [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (P<0.01). Besides, 3 main BOLD foci following acute FS rats implicated activity in hippocampus-thalamus-basal ganglia (HTB) circuits. The [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 synchronously inhibited BOLD HTB foci. As expected, prokinetic mosapride only had effects on the thalamus and basal ganglia, but not on the hippocampus. Within the HTB, the hippocampus is implicated in depression and FD.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MH accounts for part of AP effects of parent formula CSP in acute FS rats, mainly via ghrelin-related shared regulation coupled to BOLD signals in brain areas. This novel functionally connection of HTB following acute stress, treatment, and regulation highlights anti-depression unified theory.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ghrelin/metabolism , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Hippocampus , Stress, Psychological , Mammals/metabolism
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