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1.
Biol. Res ; 51: 21, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the precise mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) to delay cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease. Methods N -Acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu) and myoinositol (mI) metabolism were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, learning and memory of APP/PS1 mouse was evaluated by the Morris water maze test and the step-down avoidance test, neuron survival number and neuronal structure in the hippocampus were observed by Nissl staining, and BDNF and phosphorylated TrkB detected by Western blot. RESULTS: EA at DU20 acupuncture significantly improve learning and memory in behavioral tests, up-regulate NAA, Glu and mI metabolism, increase the surviving neurons in hippocampus, and promote the expression of BDNF and TrkB in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that EA is a potential therapeutic for ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, and it might be due to EA could improve NAA and Glu metabolism by upregulation of BDNF in APP/PS1 mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Electroacupuncture/methods , Aspartic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Hippocampus/chemistry , Learning/physiology , Memory/physiology , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis , Mice, Transgenic , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , Maze Learning , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Models, Animal , Exercise Test , Hippocampus/diagnostic imaging , Inositol/analysis
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 155-161, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886639

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Several studies have shown that a high consumption of vegetables and fruits is consistently associated with a low risk of oxidative stress-induced diseases, which includes some degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson. Therefore, the objective of this study is to verify the effects of conventional and organic grape juice in the modulation of the neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and astrocytic markers protein (S100B) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of Wistar rats. In this study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. To the first one, it was given organic purple grape juice; to the second, conventional grape juice, while the last one received only saline. After 30 days, all rats were sacrificed and hippocampus and frontal cortex were dissected. The animals that received organic and conventional grape juice showed, in frontal cortex, an elevated BNDF levels in relation to saline group. However, S100B levels did not change. These results showed that grape juices are able to modulate important marker in brain tissue, and could be an important factor to prevent brain diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Vitis/chemistry , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/analysis , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Frontal Lobe/chemistry , Hippocampus/chemistry , Reference Values , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/drug effects , Food, Organic , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/drug effects , Frontal Lobe/drug effects , Hippocampus/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-6, 2016. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight by controlling the excitability, plasticity and the synchronization of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex (FC). It has been also proposed that the high-fat diet (HFD) could disturb the metabolism of glutamate and consequently the GABA levels, but the mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a HFD on the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rats. RESULTS: The HFD significantly increased weight gain and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus compared with standard diet-fed rats. CONCLUSIONS: HFD decreases GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rat, which likely disrupts the GABAergic inhibitory processes, underlying feeding behavior.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diet, High-Fat , Frontal Lobe/chemistry , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/analysis , Hippocampus/chemistry , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight , Weight Gain , Rats, Wistar , Feeding Behavior , Frontal Lobe/metabolism , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
4.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-10, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wnt-5a is a member of the WNT family of secreted lipoglycoproteins, whose expression increases during development; moreover, Wnt-5a plays a key role in synaptic structure and function in the adult nervous system. However, the mechanism underlying these effects is still elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs that control the gene expression of their targets through hybridization with complementary sequences in the 3' UTR, thereby inhibiting the translation of the target proteins. Several evidences indicate that the miRNAs are actively involved in the regulation of neuronal function. RESULTS: In the present study, we examined whether Wnt-5a modulates the levels of miRNAs in hippocampal neurons. Using PCR arrays, we identified a set of miRNAs that respond to Wnt-5a treatment. One of the most affected miRNAs was miR-101b, which targets cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostanoids, and has been involved in the injury/inflammatory response, and more recently in neuronal plasticity. Consistent with the Wnt-5a regulation of miR-101b, this Wnt ligand regulates COX2 expression in a time-dependent manner in cultured hippocampal neurons. CONCLUSION: The biological processes induced by Wnt-5a in hippocampal neurons, involve the regulation of several miRNAs including miR-101b, which has the capacity to regulate several targets, including COX-2 in the central nervous system


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , MicroRNAs/physiology , Cyclooxygenase 2/analysis , Wnt Proteins/physiology , Hippocampus/enzymology , Neurons/enzymology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Gene Targeting , Gene Expression Profiling , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Wnt-5a Protein , Hippocampus/chemistry , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons/chemistry
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 703-710, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753052

ABSTRACT

Chronic ethanol consumption can produce learning and memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors affect the pathogenesis of alcoholism. In this study, we examined the expression of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence. Twenty domestic dogs (9-10 months old, 15-20 kg; 10 males and 10 females) were obtained from Harbin Medical University. A stable alcoholism model was established through ad libitum feeding, and anti-alcohol drug treatment (Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling, the main ingredient was the stems of watermelon; developed in our laboratory), at low- and high-doses, was carried out. The Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling was effective for the alcoholism in dogs. The morphology of hippocampal neurons was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The number and morphological features of BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), and the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus were observed using immunohistochemistry. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR expression. BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive cells were mainly localized in the granular cell layer of the DG and in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions (DG>CA1>CA3>CA4). Expression levels of both BDNF and TrkB were decreased in chronic alcoholism, and increased after abstinence. The CA4 region appeared to show the greatest differences. Changes in p75NTR expression were the opposite of those of BDNF and TrkB, with the greatest differences observed in the DG and CA4 regions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Alcohol Abstinence , Alcoholism/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Hippocampus/chemistry , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Receptor, trkB/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/genetics , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Hippocampus/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor/genetics , Receptor, trkB/genetics
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(4): 207-212, abr. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670889

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the volumetric and spectroscopy aspects of hippocampus in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A series of patients older than 65 years and with memory deficit were studied. Results: The evocation of words test presented a significant reduction in the number of words recalled by the patients with MCI and mild AD as compared with the control group. Bilateral reduction of the hippocampus volume in the AD group was observed when compared to the control group. There were no statistical differences in the values of NAA/Cr, mI/Cr, Cho/Cr and mI/NAA between the groups. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging study failed to individually distinguish patients with MCI, mild AD and normal aging. However, patients with mild AD presented loss of asymmetry between the right and left hippocampus, and a reduction in hippocampus volume. .


Objetivo: Avaliar volume e espectroscopia do hipocampo em pacientes com doença de Alzheimer leve e declínio cognitivo leve. Métodos: Foi estudada uma série de pacientes com 65 anos de idade ou mais, com déficit de memória. Resultados: O teste de evocação de palavras mostrou redução significativa no número de palavras lembradas pelos pacientes com declínio cognitivo leve e doença de Alzheimer leve, em comparação com o grupo controle. Foi observada redução bilateral do volume do hipocampo no grupo com doença de Alzheimer quando comparado com o grupo controle. Não houve diferença estatística nos valores de NAA/Cr, mI/Cr, Cho/Cr e mI/NAA entre os grupos. Conclusão: Estudo pela ressonância magnética não diferencia individualmente os pacientes com declínio cognitivo leve, doença de Alzheimer leve e envelhecimento normal. No entanto, pacientes com quadro leve de doença de Alzheimer apresentam perda de assimetria entre os hipocampos direito e esquerdo e redução no volume do hipocampo. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Aging , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Hippocampus/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Aspartic Acid/analysis , Aspartic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Choline/analysis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hippocampus/chemistry , Inositol/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mental Status Schedule , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(8): 784-791, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-643651

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), ionized calcium binding adaptor protein-1 (Iba-1), and ferritin in rats after single or repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, which is known to induce endotoxin tolerance and glial activation. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) received ip injections of LPS (100 µg/kg) or saline for 6 days: 6 saline (N = 5), 5 saline + 1 LPS (N = 6) and 6 LPS (N = 6). After the sixth injection, the rats were perfused and the brains were collected for immunohistochemistry. After a single LPS dose, the number of GFAP-positive cells increased in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC; 1 LPS: 35.6 ± 1.4 vs control: 23.1 ± 2.5) and hippocampus (1 LPS: 165.0 ± 3.0 vs control: 137.5 ± 2.5), and interestingly, 6 LPS injections further increased GFAP expression in these regions (ARC = 52.5 ± 4.3; hippocampus = 182.2 ± 4.1). We found a higher GS expression only in the hippocampus of the 6 LPS injections group (56.6 ± 0.8 vs 46.7 ± 1.9). Ferritin-positive cells increased similarly in the hippocampus of rats treated with a single (49.2 ± 1.7 vs 28.1 ± 1.9) or repeated (47.6 ± 1.1 vs 28.1 ± 1.9) LPS dose. Single LPS enhanced Iba-1 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN: 92.8 ± 4.1 vs 65.2 ± 2.2) and hippocampus (99.4 ± 4.4 vs 73.8 ± 2.1), but had no effect in the retrochiasmatic nucleus (RCA) and ARC. Interestingly, 6 LPS increased the Iba-1 expression in these hypothalamic and hippocampal regions (RCA: 57.8 ± 4.6 vs 36.6 ± 2.2; ARC: 62.4 ± 6.0 vs 37.0 ± 2.2; PVN: 100.7 ± 4.4 vs 65.2 ± 2.2; hippocampus: 123.0 ± 3.8 vs 73.8 ± 2.1). The results suggest that repeated LPS treatment stimulates the expression of glial activation markers, protecting neuronal activity during prolonged inflammatory challenges.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Calcium-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Ferritins/drug effects , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/drug effects , Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/drug effects , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hypothalamus/drug effects , Neuroglia/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Ferritins/metabolism , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/metabolism , Hippocampus/chemistry , Hippocampus/cytology , Hypothalamus/chemistry , Hypothalamus/cytology , Immunohistochemistry , Lipopolysaccharides , Neuroglia/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(6): 447-452, June 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626286

ABSTRACT

Different effects of scopolamine on learning, memory, and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in hippocampal tissues of ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated rats were investigated. The animals in the Sham-Scopolamine (Sham-Sco) and OVX-Scopolamine (OVX-Sco) Groups were treated with 2 mg/kg scopolamine before undergoing the Morris water maze, while the animals in the Sham and OVX Groups received saline. The time latency and path length were significantly higher in both the Sham-Sco and the OVX-Sco Groups, in comparison with the Sham and OVX Groups, respectively (p<0.001). Significantly lower NO metabolite levels in the hippocampi of the Sham-Sco Group were observed, compared with the Sham Group (p<0.001), while there was no significant difference between the OVX-Sco and OVX Groups. The decreased NO level in the hippocampus may play a role in the learning and memory deficits induced by scopolamine. However, it seems that the effect of scopolamine on hippocampal NO differs between situations of presence and absence of ovarian hormones.


Diferentes efeitos da escopolamina no aprendizado, na memória e nos níveis dos metabólitos do óxido nítrico (ON) no tecido hipocampal de ratas ovariectomizadas (OVX) e controles com cirurgia sem ooforectomia (Grupo Sham) foram investigados. Os animais dos grupos Sham-Escopolamina (Sham-Sco) e OVX-Escopolamina (OVX-Sco) foram tratados com escopolamina 2 mg/kg antes de entrar no labirinto aquático de Morris, enquanto aqueles dos grupos Sham e OVX receberam solução salina. A latência de tempo e o comprimento do caminho foram significativamente maiores nos Grupos Sham-Sco e OVX-Sco em comparação com os grupos Sham e OVX, respectivamente (p<0,001). Foram observados níveis significativamente mais baixos de metabólitos do ON nos hipocampos do Grupo Sham-Sco em comparação aos níveis do Sham (p<0,001), enquanto não foi observada diferença significativa entre os Grupos OVX-Sco e OVX. A diminuição do nível de ON no hipocampo pode ter um papel no aprendizado e nos déficits de memória induzidos pela escopolamina. No entanto, parece que este efeito da escopolamina no ON hipocampal é diferente em situações de presença ou ausência de hormônios ovarianos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Cholinergic Antagonists/pharmacology , Hippocampus/chemistry , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Scopolamine/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Ovariectomy , Rats, Wistar , Reaction Time , Time Factors
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(1): 91-99, Feb. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598353

ABSTRACT

We investigated a relationship between the FLAIR signal found in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and inflammation. Twenty nine patients were selected through clinical and MRI analysis and submitted to cortico-amygdalo-hippocampectomy to seizure control. Glutamate, TNFα, IL1, nitric oxide (NO) levels and immunostaining against IL1β and CD45 was performed. Control tissues (n=10) were obtained after autopsy of patients without neurological disorders. The glutamate was decreased in the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) -MTS group (p<0.001), suggesting increased release of this neurotransmitter. The IL1β and TNFα were increased in the hippocampus (p<0.05) demonstrating an active inflammatory process. A positive linear correlation between FLAIR signal and NO and IL1β levels and a negative linear correlation between FLAIR signal and glutamate concentration was found. Lymphocytes infiltrates were present in hippocampi of TLE patients. These data showed an association between hippocampal signal alteration and increased inflammatory markers in TLE-MTS.


Este estudo foi delineado para investigar a presença de relação entre a intensidade de sinal em FLAIR e níveis de citocinas, óxido nítrico (NO) e glutamato no hipocampo de pacientes com epilepsia do lobo temporal refratária, associada com esclerose mesial (TLE-MTS). Vinte e nove pacientes foram selecionados através de análise clínica e de ressonância magnética (RM) que foram submetidos a cortico-amigdalo-hipocampectomia para o controle das crises. Os níveis de glutamato foram avaliados por HPLC, as citocinas TNFα e IL1β por ELISA e os níveis de NO via NO system. Avaliamos também por imuno-histoquímica a expressão de IL1β e CD45 em tecidos controles e com esclerose. Tecido controle foi obtido após autópsia de indivíduos mortos sem disfunções inflamatórias e neurológicas (n=10). A concentração de glutamato se mostrou reduzida no tecido TLE-MTS (p<0,001) sugerindo aumento na liberação desse neurotransmissor. TNFα e IL1β também apresentaram níveis elevados no hipocampo dos pacientes (p<0,05), demonstrando um processo inflamatório crônico. Houve uma correlação linear positiva entre a intensidade do sinal em FLAIR e os níveis de NO e IL1β. Em contraste, uma correlação linear negativa foi encontrada entre a intensidade do sinal em FLAIR e níveis de glutamato no hipocampo com esclerose. Infiltrado linfocitário hipocampal também foi visualizado pela imuno-marcação com CD45 em pacientes com TLE-MTS. Esses dados mostraram uma associação entre alteração de sinal na RM e marcadores inflamatórios em pacientes com TLE-MTS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/metabolism , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/pathology , Hippocampus/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Temporal Lobe/pathology , Amygdala/pathology , /analysis , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/surgery , Glutamic Acid/analysis , Hippocampus/chemistry , Hippocampus/surgery , Interleukin-1/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Sclerosis , Temporal Lobe/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(2b): 360-364, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-588098

ABSTRACT

Pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated by increases in oxidative stress and by cerebral amino acid changes. The present research suggests that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures in cellular level. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lipoic acid (LA) effects in glutamate and taurine contents in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.9 percent saline (Control), pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, Pilocarpine), LA (10 mg/kg, LA), and the association of LA (10 mg/kg) plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg), that was injected 30 min before of administration of LA (LA plus pilocarpine). Animals were observed during 24 h. The amino acid concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). In pilocarpine group, it was observed a significant increase in glutamate content (37 percent) and a decrease in taurine level (18 percent) in rat hippocampus, when compared to control group. Antioxidant pretreatment significantly reduced the glutamate level (28 percent) and augmented taurine content (32 percent) in rat hippocampus, when compared to pilocarpine group. Our findings strongly support amino acid changes in hippocampus during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and suggest that glutamate-induced brain damage plays a crucial role in pathogenic consequences of seizures, and imply that strong protective effect could be achieved using lipoic acid through the release or decrease in metabolization rate of taurine amino acid during seizures.


As convulsões induzidas pela pilocarpina podem ser mediadas através do aumento do estresse oxidativo cerebral e das alterações na concentração dos aminoácidos. O presente estudo sugere que compostos antioxidantes podem produzir neuroproteção contra a neurotoxicidade em nível celular causada pelas convulsões. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido lipóico (AL) no conteúdo de glutamato e taurina no hipocampo de ratos durante convulsões induzidas por pilocarpina. Ratos Wistar foram tratados por via intraperitoneal com solução salina 0,9 por cento (controle), pilocarpina (400 mg/kg, pilocarpina), AL (10 mg/kg) e com a associação de AL (10 mg/kg); 30 min após com pilocarpina (400 mg/kg), que foi injetada 30 min após a administração de AL (AL + pilocarpina). Os animais foram observados durante 24 horas. As concentrações de aminoácidos foram determinadas por HPLC. No hipocampo dos ratos do grupo pilocarpina foi observado um aumento significativo de 37 por cento na concentração de glutamato e uma diminuição de 18 por cento no nível de taurina, quando comparado ao grupo controle. O pré-tratamento com o antioxidante reduziu significativamente o nível de glutamato em 28 por cento e aumentou em 32 por cento os níveis de taurina no hipocampo dos ratos, quando comparado ao grupo pilocarpina. Nossos resultados sugerem que ocorrem alterações na concentração dos aminoácidos no hipocampo de ratos durante as convulsões induzidas por pilocarpina, e que o glutamato pode desempenhar um papel crucial na fisiopatologia das convulsões, e que o efeito protetor poderia ser alcançado com pré-tratamento com ácido lipóico, provavelmente pelo aumento da liberação ou redução da taxa de metabolização dos aminoácidos durante as convulsões.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Hippocampus/drug effects , Seizures/metabolism , Taurine/metabolism , Thioctic Acid/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hippocampus/chemistry , Pilocarpine , Rats, Wistar , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 May; 45(5): 425-31
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57507

ABSTRACT

The effect of chloroform: methanolic (80:20) extract of C. asiatica (CA; 100 and 200 mg/kg), was evaluated on the course of free radical generation and excitotoxicity in monosodiumglutamate (MSG) treated female Sprague Dawley rats. The extract showed significant improvement in catalase, super oxide desmutase and lipid peroxides levels in hippocampus and striatum regions. Glutathione level was not altered with CA treatment. Similar observation was made with dextromethorphan. The general behavior, locomotor activity and CAl a region of the hippocampus was significantly protected by CA indicating neuroprotective effect of CA in MSG induced excitotoxic condition. Hence it can be concluded that CA protected MSG induced neurodegeneration attributed to its antioxidant and behavioural properties. This activity of CA can be explored in epilepsy, stroke and other degenerative conditions in which the role of glutamate is known to play vital role in the pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Centella/chemistry , Corpus Striatum/chemistry , Female , Glutathione/analysis , Hippocampus/chemistry , Neurodegenerative Diseases/chemically induced , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium Glutamate , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2005. [140] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-424926

ABSTRACT

A Ressonância Magnética e a Espectroscopia por Ressonância Magnética de Hidrogênio têm sido empregadas em estudos anatômicos e neuroquímicos do Transtorno Depressivo Maior (TDM). Dezenove crianças com TDM e 24 controles saudáveis foram avaliados em um magneto de 1,5 Tesla (Philips Intera 8.1.1.). Em comparação aos controles saudáveis, crianças com TDM apresentaram: menores volumes de hipocampo esquerdo; e no voxel único em CPFDL esquerdo: menores níveis dos compostos de colina, e maiores níveis de mio-inositol em CPFDL esquerdo. Menores níveis dos compostos de colina podem refletir uma diminuição da renovação de membranas. Maiores níveis de mio-inositol podem representar uma alteração no sistema de segundos mensageiros intracelulares / Magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been applied to anatomical and neurochemical studies of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Nineteen children with MDD and 24 healthy controls were evaluated on a 1.5 Tesla (Philips Intera 8.1.1.) MRI. Compared to healthy controls, children with MDD presented: smaller left hippocampal volumes; and lower levels of choline-containing-compounds and higher myo-inositol levels in the left DLPFC. Lower levels of choline-containing-compounds in pediatric patients with MDD may reflect lower cell membrane turn-over. Higher myo-inositol levels in MDD may represent a disturbed secondary messengers system...


Subject(s)
Child , Adolescent , Male , Female , Humans , Prefrontal Cortex/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Hippocampus/chemistry
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 65(3): 213-218, 2005. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-425257

ABSTRACT

The quantitative relationship between glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) hyper-reactivity and -amyloid protein (AP) deposition was investigated by double immunoperoxidase labeling of hippocampal and entorhinal cortex sections from five Alzheimer´s disease (AD) cases and five age-matched controls. AP plaques, which were absent in controls, were found in all AD samples, without significant differences in number or perimeter according to their location among the regions studied. In contrast, the mean number of GFAP (+) cells was significantly greater in the hippocampus than in the entorhinal cortex from AD cases (49 vs.39). Although at lower values (30 vs. 20), predominance of astrocyte hyperplasia in hippocampus as compared with entorhinal cortex was also found in control samples. Concomitant astrocyte hypertrophy, as defined by surface density (Sv) values of GFAP-immunoreactive material exceeding those of control means, affected a similar proportion of cells in the hippocampus (73%) and the entorhinal cortex (74%) from AD cases. Since an increased number of GFAP (+) cells in the hippocampus was not accompanied by an increased number and/or perimeter of neighbouring plaques, such differential hyper-reactivity in samples from AD patients, as well as in those with normal aging, seems to depend partially on the regional location of the involved astrocyte.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Aging/pathology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Astrocytes/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/analogs & derivatives , Astrocytes/cytology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Count , Entorhinal Cortex/chemistry , Entorhinal Cortex/pathology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Hippocampus/chemistry , Hippocampus/pathology , Immunohistochemistry
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 61(4): 942-945, Dec. 2003. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-352430

ABSTRACT

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the commonest pathology in epileptic patients undergoing temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Beside, there are an increased density of corpora amylacea (CA) founded in 6 to 63 percent of those cases. OBJECTIVE: verify the presence of CA and the clinical correlates of their occurrence in a consective series of patients undergoing temporal surgery with diagnosis of HS. METHOD: We reviewed 72 hippocampus specimens from January 1997 to July 2000. Student's t test for independent, samples, ANOVA and Tukey test were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: CA were found in 35 patients (49 percent), whose mean epilepsy duration (28.7 years) was significantly longer than that group of patients without CA (19.5 years, p= 0.001). Besides, when CA were found, duration was also significantly correlated with distribution within hippocampus: 28.7 years with diffuse distribution of CA, 15.4 with exclusively subpial and 17.4 years with distribution subpial plus perivascular (p= 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings corroborate the presence of CA in patients with HS and suggest that a longer duration of epilepsy correlate with a more distribution of CA in hippocampus


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/pathology , Hippocampus/pathology , Inclusion Bodies/pathology , Age of Onset , Analysis of Variance , Amylases/analysis , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/surgery , Hippocampus/chemistry , Inclusion Bodies/chemistry , Sclerosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53142

ABSTRACT

Following kainate (KA)-induced epilepsy, rat hippocampal neurons strongly ex-press immediate early gene (IEG) products, i.e., c-FOS and c-JUN, and neural stress protein, HSP72. Prolonged expression of c-JUN and c-FOS 48 hr after cerebral ischemia has been underwent delayed neuronal death. However, it is not yet clear whether IEGs actually assume the essential roles in the cell death process or simply as a by-product due to external stimuli because of the prolonged expression of c-FOS, more than one week, on intact CA2 neurons of the hippocampus in a KA-induced epilepsy model. This study investigated the relationships between prolonged expression of c-JUN and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in a KA-induced epilepsy model. Epileptic seizure was induced in rats by a single microinjection of KA (1g/l) into the left amygdala. Characteristic seizures and hippocampal neuronal injury were developed. The expression of c-JUN was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and neuronal apoptosis by in situ end labeling. The seizures were associated with c-JUN expression in the hippocampal neurons, of which the level showed a positive correlation with that of apoptosis. Losses of hippocampal neurons, especially in the CA3 region, were partly caused by apoptotic cell death via a c-JUN-mediated signaling pathway. This is thought to be an important component in the pathogenesis of hippocampal neuronal injury via KA-induced epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/chemically induced , Hippocampus/chemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Kainic Acid/toxicity , Male , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/analysis , Rats , Rats, Wistar
16.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-225869

ABSTRACT

Estudos em modelos animais possibilitam a descricao dos mecanismos bioquimicos envolvidos na memoria e no aprendizado. A memoria envolve uma serie de alteracoes bioquimicas em varias areas do sistema nervoso central (SNC), entre as quais destaca-se o hipocampo. Os eventos bioquimicos envolvidos na formacao da memoria incluem a ativacao de receptores glutamatergicos dos tipos N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA), metabotropico (mGluRs) e a-amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-isoxazolpropionato (AMPA), e de cascatas bioquimicas dependentes se proteinas quinases. Entre as proteinas cerebrais envolvidas nessas cascatas, destacam-se a proteina quinase A (PKA), a proteina quinase C (PKC), a proteina quinase dependente de GMPc (PKG) e a calcio-calmodulina quinase II (CaMKII)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Memory/physiology , Neurochemistry/classification , Long-Term Potentiation , /analysis , Cognition , Hippocampus/chemistry , Learning , Neuronal Plasticity , Brain Chemistry
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 30(8): 961-5, Aug. 1997. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-197252

ABSTRACT

Training in step-down inhibitory avoidance (0.3-mA footshock) is followed by biochemical changes in rat hippocampus that strongly suggest an involvement of quantitative changes in glutamate AMPA receptors, followed by changes in the dopamine D1 receptor/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/CREB-P signalling pathway in memory consolidation. AMPA binding to its receptor and levels of the AMPA receptor-specific subunit GluR1 increase in the hippocampus within the first 3 h after training (20-70 per cent). Binding of the specific D1 receptor ligand, SCH23390, and cAMP levels increase within 3 or 6 h after training (30-100 per cent). PKA activity and CREB-P levels show two peaks: a 35-40 per cent increase 0 h after training, and a second increase 3-6 h later (35-60 per cent). The results correlate with pharmacological findings showing an early post-training involvement of AMPA receptors, and a late involvement of the D1/cAMP/PKA/CREB-P pathway in memory consolidation of this task.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Avoidance Learning/physiology , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/physiology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/physiology , Hippocampus/chemistry , Memory/physiology , Receptors, AMPA/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Receptors, Glutamate/physiology
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 30(3): 325-38, Mar. 1997. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-191344

ABSTRACT

The present review describes recent research on the regulation by glutamate and Ca2+ of the phosphorylation state of the intermediate filament protein of the astrocytic cytoskeleton, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), in immature hippocampal slices. The results of this research are discussed against a background of modern knowledge of the functional importance of astrocytes in the brain and of the structure and dynamic properties of intermediate filament proteins. Astrocytes are now recognized as partners with neurons in many aspects of brain function with important roles in neural plasticity. Site-specific phosphorylation of intermediate filament proteins, including GFAP, has been shown to regulate the dynamic equilibrium between the polymerized and depolymerized state of the filaments and to play a fundamental role in mitosis. Glutamate was found to increase the phosphorylation state of GFAP in hippocampal slices from rats in the post-natal age range of 12-16 days in a reaction that was dependent on external Ca2+. The lack of external Ca2+ in the absence of glutamate also increased GFAP phosphorylation to the same extent. These effects of glutamate and Ca2+ were absent in adult hippocampal slices, where the phosphorylation of GFAP was completely Ca2+ -dependent. Studies using specific agonists of glutamate receptors showed that the glutamate response was mediated by a G protein-linked group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Since group II mGluRs do not act by liberating Ca2+ from internal stores, it is proposed that activation of thereceptor by glutamate inhibits Ca2+ entry into the astrocytes andconsequently down-regulates a Ca2+-dependent dephosphorylationcascade regulating the phosphorylation state of GFAP. The functional significance of these results may be related to the narrow developmental window when the glutamate response is present. In the rat brain this window corresponds to the period of massive synaptogenesis during which astrocytes are known to proliferate. Possibly, glutamate liberated from developing synapses during this period may signal an increase in the phosphorylation state of GFAP and a consequent increase in the number of mitotic astrocytes.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Astrocytes/chemistry , Calcium/metabolism , Excitatory Amino Acid Agents/pharmacology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Hippocampus/chemistry , Phosphorylation , Astrocytes/physiology , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/pharmacokinetics , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/pharmacology
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 27(1): 81-9, jan. 1994. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-136496

ABSTRACT

1. Brain micro-slices from guinea pig, mouse and rat were incubated in Krebs-Ringer Na- HEPES buffered medium containing [32P]-phosphate and characterized by immunoblotting with polyclonal antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). 2. GFAP presented small differences in two-dimensional electrophoretic mobility. 3. The phosphorylation of GFAP was dependent on Ca2+ in the incubation medium in adult animals. 4. Both the immunocontent and level of phosphorylation of GFAP were higher in hippocampus than in cerebral cortex of all the three species


Subject(s)
Animals , Adult , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Rats , Cerebral Cortex/chemistry , Hippocampus/chemistry , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/chemistry , Calcium Isotopes , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Phosphorylation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161008

ABSTRACT

Glutamate (GLU) is a neurotransmitter. Massive release of GLU and glycine (GLY) into the brain's extracellular space may be triggered by ischemia, and may result in acute neuronal lysis or delayed neuronal death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationship between hyperventilation and the level of GLU and GLY during brain ischemia. Rabbits were anesthetized with halothane and oxygen. Group 1 was allowed to hyperventilate (PaCO2 25-35 mmHg). PaCO2 was maintained throughout the study. Group 2 was a normal control group that maintained normocapnia. Two global cerebral ischemic episodes were produced. Microdialysate was collected during the peri-ischemic and reperfusion periods from the dorsal hippocampus. GLU and GLY concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the control group, GLU and GLY were significantly elevated during each episode of ischemia; these levels returned to baseline within 10 minutes after reperfusion. In contrast, in the hyperventilation group GLU and GLY concentrations increased during ischemia, but they were not statistically significant. We were able to demonstrate that hypocapnia during periischemic period lowered extracellular GLU and GLY concentrations. These results can explain a part of the protective action of hypocapnia during cerebral ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/analysis , Glycine/analysis , Hippocampus/chemistry , Hyperventilation/metabolism , Hypocapnia/metabolism , Potassium/metabolism , Potassium Channels/physiology , Rabbits
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