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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(1): 64-69, 20240102. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526806

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El melanoma es la proliferación maligna de melanocitos asociado a un comportamiento agresivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las variables histológicas del melanoma cutáneo. Métodos. Estudio observacional retrospectivo, transversal descriptivo, realizado con reportes de patologías de pacientes con diagnóstico de melanoma cutáneo en un laboratorio de patología en Cali, Colombia, entre 2016-2021. Se incluyeron las variables edad, sexo, localización, subtipo, espesor de Breslow, ulceración, márgenes, mitosis, invasión linfovascular, neurotrofismo, regresión tumoral, nivel de Clark e infiltración tumoral por linfocitos. Resultados. Se obtuvieron 106 reportes y fueron excluidos 54 por duplicación. Se incluyeron 52 registros, la media de edad fue de 61 años, con una mayor frecuencia de mujeres (55,8 %). De los 33 casos donde se especificó el subtipo histológico, el más frecuente fue el de extensión superficial (66,6 %), seguido del acral lentiginoso (18,1 %) y nodular con (15,2 %). La localización más frecuente fue en extremidades (61,5 %). El espesor de Breslow más común fue IV (34,6 %) y el nivel de Clark más frecuente fue IV (34,6 %). La ulceración estuvo en el 40,4 %. El subtipo nodular fue el de presentación más agresiva, donde el 100 % presentaron espesor de Breslow IV. Conclusiones. El subtipo de melanoma más común en nuestra población fue el de extensión superficial; el segundo en frecuencia fue el subtipo acral lentiginoso, que se localizó siempre en extremidades. Más del 50 % de los melanomas tenían espesor de Breslow mayor o igual a III, lo que impacta en el pronóstico.


Background. Melanoma is the malignant proliferation of melanocytes associated with aggressive behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the histological variables of cutaneous melanoma. Methods. Observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, retrospective study carried out with reports of pathologies with a diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma in a pathology laboratory in Cali between 2016-2021. The variables were age, sex, location, subtype, Breslow thickness, ulceration, margins, mitosis, lymphovascular invasion, neurotropism, tumoral regression, Clark level and tumor infiltration by lymphocytes. Results. One hundred and six reports were obtained and 54 were excluded due to duplication. A descriptive analysis was made on the 52 records that were included, the mean age was 61 years, with a higher frequency in women with 55.8%. Of the 33 cases where the histological subtype was specified, the most frequent was superficial extension with 66.6%, followed by acral lentiginous with 18.1% and nodular with 15.2%. The most frequent location was in the extremities (61.5%); the most common Breslow was IV (34.6%), and the most frequent Clark was IV (34.6%). Ulceration was in 40.4%. The nodular subtype was the most aggressive presentation where 100% presented Breslow IV. Conclusions. The most common subtype of melanoma was that of superficial extension. In our population, the second most frequent was the acral lentiginous subtype, which was always located on the extremities. More than 50% of the melanomas had Breslow greater than or equal to III, which affects the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathology , Melanoma , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm Grading , Histology , Mitosis
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 965-970, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514308

ABSTRACT

En Terminologia Histologica y Terminologia Neuroanatomica está registrado el término Substantia chromatophilica de origen grecolatino, con los códigos H2.00.06.1.00009 y 78, respectivamente. Dicho término ha sido empleado para referirse a un conglomerado de estructuras que en unión fungen como maquinaria de síntesis proteica y que son característicos de las células nerviosas. Teniendo en cuenta los lineamientos de la Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT) referentes a la denominación de nombres estructurales con un valor descriptivo e informativo, creemos que el término en cuestión no es el más adecuado. Por lo anterior, el objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar y evaluar la concordancia de las raíces grecolatinas que componen el término. Para ello, se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en el Diccionario de la lengua española, Diccionario de Términos Médicos, diccionario VOX Griego-Español y el diccionario VOX Ilustrado Latino-Español Español-Latino. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la palabra chromatophilica no presenta registro en español, sin embargo, sus sinónimos hacen referencia a material biológico afín por los colorantes. En base a lo anterior, proponemos el término Ribocumulus corponeuralis en función de su estructura y ubicación, en reemplazo de Substantia chromatophilica.


SUMMARY: In Terminologia Histologica and Terminologia Neuroanatomica the term Substantia chromatophilica of Greco-Latin origin is registered with the codes H2.00.06.1.00009 and 78, respectively. This term has been used to refer to a conglomerate of structures that together function as protein synthesis machinery and are characteristic of nerve cells. Considering the guidelines of the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT) regarding the denomination of structural names with a descriptive and informative value, we believe that the term in question is not the most appropriate. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze and evaluate the concordance of the Greco-Latin roots that compose the term. For this purpose, a search was conducted in the Diccionario de la Lengua Española, Diccionario de Términos Médicos, Diccionario VOX Griego-Español and the Diccionario VOX Ilustrado Latino-Español Español-Latino. The results obtained indicate that the word chromatophilica is not registered in Spanish, however, its synonyms refer to biological material related to dyes. Based on the aforementioned, we propose the term Ribocumulus corponeuralis based on its structure and location, as a replacement for Substantia chromatophilica.


Subject(s)
Histology , Neuroanatomy , Nissl Bodies , Terminology as Topic
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 600-606, abr. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440293

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: E-learning courses become increasingly important and relevant in medicine and health sciences over the last decade. However, there are few teaching experiences of e-learning histology courses published in the literature worldwide. Moreover, most of these studies focus on the didactic aspects of the course without exploring student participation. The study presented below aimed to validate a scale to measure student participation in an e-learning histology course. We provide evidence of validity of the instrument based on its internal structure for use with medical, nursing, and midwifery students. The participants in this study were a group of 426 Chilean medical, nursing and midwifery students from a public university who completed the questionnaire in two consecutive semesters (2020-2021). Data from the first group of students were used to perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), while data from the second group of participants were used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The three factors identified according to the CFA were: "Habits of online," "Motivation for online learning," and "Interaction of online". After eliminating one of the initial items of the instrument, the scale showed acceptable psychometric properties suggesting that it is a useful instrument to measure students' perception of their participation in e-learning histology courses. The factors identified through the validation of the instrument provide relevant information for teachers and curriculum developers to create and implement different ways of encouraging student participation in e- learning histology courses to support online learning.


Los cursos e-learning han tomado mayor importancia y relevancia durante la ultima década en carreras de medicina y ciencias de la salud. No obstante, existen escasas experiencias docentes de cursos de histologia e-learning publicadas en la literatura mundial. Además, la mayoría de estos estudios se centran en los aspectos didácticos del curso sin explorar la participación de los estudiantes. El estudio que presentamos a continuación tuvo por objetivo validar una escala para medir la participación de los estudiantes en un curso de histología e-learning. Aportamos evidencia de validez del instrumento basada en su estructura interna para su uso con estudiantes de medicina, enfermería y obstetricia. Los participantes de este estudio fueron un grupo de 426 estudiantes chilenos de medicina, enfermería y obstetricia de una universidad pública quienes completaron el cuestionario en dos semestres consecutivos (año 2020-2021). Los datos del primer grupo de estudiantes se utilizaron para realizar un análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE), mientras que los datos del segundo grupo de participantes se utilizaron para realizar un análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC). Los tres factores identificados según el AFC fueron: "Hábitos de los estudiantes en línea", "Motivación por el aprendizaje en línea", "Interacción de los estudiantes en línea". Luego de la eliminación de uno de los ítems iniciales del instrumento, la escala mostró propiedades psicométricas aceptables sugiriendo que es un instrumento útil para medir la percepción de los estudiantes sobre su participación en cursos de histología en formato e-learning. Los factores identificados mediante la validación del instrumento entregan información relevante para que los profesores y curriculistas desarrollen e implementen diferentes formas de estimular la participación de los estudiantes en cursos de histología e- learning y así apoyar el aprendizaje en formato online.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Education, Distance , Histology/education , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Education, Medical/methods , Social Participation , Interpersonal Relations
4.
Rev. guatemalteca cir ; 28(1): 3-11, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1413410

ABSTRACT

El cáncer pulmonar se establece como la segunda causa de muerte en países desarrollados y en algunos en vías de desarrollo. Su diagnóstico es tardío, sus opciones de resección y su curación aun con terapias adyuvantes son limitadas, lo que incide en la pobre sobrevida a 5 años, es por ello que se necesitan mayores esfuerzos para combatir el hábito del tabaco, principal agente etiológico. Material y Métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal en pacientes adultos atendidos de 01 de enero del 2011 al 31 de diciembre del 2021, ingresados al servicio de cirugía del Hospital San Vicente de Guatemala, con diagnósticos de cáncer pulmonar, masa pulmonar, derrame pleural o nódulo pulmonar solitario. Resultados: Se atendieron 202 pacientes con diagnósticos presuntivos de cáncer pulmonar, no encontrando diferencias significativas en relación al sexo. La edad mayormente afectada se estableció entre los 50 y 70 años. Prevalecieron los estadíos IIIA, IIIB y IV basados en los hallazgos clínicos, tomográficos y transoperatorios y solo al 10% se le sometió a una cirugía de resección pulmonar mayor. Los cánceres de células no pequeñas NSCLC fueron reportados en el 68.7% y el adenocarcinoma fue la variedad más frecuente con el 54.95% sobre el 7.29% del epidermoide. La mortalidad a los treinta días se estableció en 2.97%. Conclusión: El adenocarcinoma pulmonar ocupa el primer lugar en la incidencia de los cánceres pulmonares, desplazando así al carcinoma epidermoide popularizado desde la mitad del siglo pasado. Esta tendencia en el cambio histológico está firmemente asociado a las modificaciones en los hábitos del fumar (AU)


Lung cancer is established as the second cause of death in developed countries and in some developing ones. Its diagnosis is late, its resection options and its cure even with adjuvant therapies are limited, which affects the poor survival at 5 years, which is why greater efforts are needed to combat the tobacco habit, the main etiological agent. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study in adult patients treated from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2021, admitted to the surgery service of the Hospital San Vicente de Guatemala, with diagnoses of lung cancer, lung mass, effusion pleural or solitary pulmonary nodule. Results: 202 patients with presumptive diagnoses of lung cancer were treated, finding no significant differences in relation to sex and the most affected age was established between 50 and 70 years. Stages IIIA, IIIB, and IV prevailed based on clinical, tomographic, and intraoperative findings, and only 10% underwent major lung resection surgery. NSCLC non-small cell cancers were reported in 68.7% and adenocarcinoma was the most frequent variety with 54.95% over 7.29% of epidermoid. Thirty-day mortality was established at 2.97%. Conclusion: Pulmonary adenocarcinoma occupies the first place in the incidence of lung cancers, thus displacing squamous cell carcinoma popularized since the middle of the last century. This trend in histological change is strongly associated with changes in smoking habits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/epidemiology , Histology/classification , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/complications , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules/diagnostic imaging
5.
BioSCI. (Curitiba, Online) ; 81(1): 30-32, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442611

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O infarto do miocárdio é uma patologia que apresenta grande morbidade e mortalidade. Ele é resultado da necrose de cadiomiócitos provocada por dificuldade de oxigenação. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi rever a histologia do miocárdio e suas alterações histológicas quando infartado. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa em livros técnicos e artigos cinetíficos publicados na SciELO e PubMed. Resultados: O miocárdio é formado por cardiomiócitos, que se contraem em função dos sarcômeros dispostos em suas miofibrilas e apresentam eficiente comunicação elétrica entre si por meio de junções comunicantes. O infarto do miocárdio promove morte dos cardiomiócitos, alterações em elementos citoplasmáticos e na condução elétrica além da formação de tecido cicatricial fibroso. Conclusão: Em conclusão, o miocárdio é altamente vascularizado e formado por cardiomiócitos contráteis alongados e de composição sarcométrica. Em condições isquêmicas, como no infarto do miocárdio, há uma remodelação histológica no tecido muscular cardíaco que leva à fibrose e perda das funções contráteis.


Introduction: Myocardial infarction is a pathology that presents high morbidity and mortality. It is the result of cardiomyocyte necrosis caused by oxygenation difficulties. Objective: The aim of this study was to review the histology of the myocardium and its histological changes when infarcted. Method: This is a narrative review of technical books and scientific articles published in SciELO and PubMed. Results: The myocardium is formed by cardiomyocytes, which contract due to the sarcomeres arranged in their myofibrils and present efficient electrical communication with each other through gap junctions. Myocardial infarction promotes the death of cardiomyocytes, alterations in cytoplasmic elements and electrical conduction, in addition to the formation of fibrous scar tissue. Conclusion: In conclusion, the myocardium is highly vascularized and formed by elongated contractile cardiomyocytes with a sarcometric composition. In ischemic conditions, such as myocardial infarction, there is histological remodeling in cardiac muscle tissue that leads to fibrosis and loss of contractile functions


Subject(s)
Humans , Histology , Infarction
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20960, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439534

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cisplatin (CP) is used to treat various tumors. A main restriction of cisplatin is nephrotoxicity. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of ZnONPs on cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and rat kidney tissue damage. Eighty adult male Wistar rats (250g-270g) were divided into ten groups: Control (CON), Sham (SH), Bulk ZnO (BZnO), Chemical ZnONPs (ChZnONPs), Green ZnONPs (GrZnONPs), Cisplatin (CP), Cisplatin+BulkZnO (CP+BZnO), Cisplatin+Green ZnONPs (CP+GrZnONPs), Cisplatin+Chemical ZnONPs (CP+ChZnONPs), Cisplatin+Explant (CP+EX). CP was i.p administered 5mg/kg/week and BZnO, ChZnONPs and GrZnONPs were i.p administered at a dose of 5mg/kg/day. After 30 days of the treatment, the expression of apoptosis/anti apoptosis related genes oxidant/antioxidant factors and histological changes in the were studied. The CP-treated group showed a decrease in body weight, while the Co-administration of ZGNPs to CP-treated rats showed a significant increase compared to the CP group. The results showed that the increased mRNA level of bax, MDA and the decreased mRNA level of bcl2, SOD and CAT activities in kidney of CP group were improved when animals were treated with ZnO NPs. Our results showed that GrZnONPs, ChZnONPs and BZnO had the potential to protect against oxidative stress and cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity that this protective effect was more evident in GrZnONPs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Zinc Oxide/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress , Nanoparticles/classification , Kidney/abnormalities , Histology
7.
Med. lab ; 27(3): 245-261, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444428

ABSTRACT

El linfoma de Hodgkin clásico es una neoplasia linfoide maligna derivada de las células B del centro germinal, que corresponde aproximadamente al 85 % de los casos de linfoma de Hodgkin. Esta entidad afecta principalmente a pacientes jóvenes, y cuenta con un excelente pronóstico gracias a los avances en los métodos diagnósticos para su estadificación y tratamiento. Su enfoque diagnóstico correcto y completo requiere de una historia clínica exhaustiva y una biopsia de ganglio linfático adecuada para el análisis e identificación de los hallazgos histopatológicos e inmunohistoquímicos característicos, ya que a diferencia de otros linfomas donde las células neoplásicas son una población importante o dominante, las células de Hodgkin y Reed-Sternberg generalmente representan menos del 10 % de la lesión tumoral. Aunque todavía falta mucho por entender sobre la naturaleza biológica de este linfoma y sus diferentes subtipos, en los últimos años se ha avanzado considerablemente en la comprensión de su linfomagénesis, especialmente cuando está relacionada con la infección por el virus de Epstein-Barr. Su alta heterogeneidad y posible superposición morfológica, obligan a continuar su estudio para poder identificarlo, al igual que a sus posibles diagnósticos diferenciales en aquellos casos donde se presente con una variante o patrón infrecuente. Este artículo pretende ofrecer una descripción integral resumida y actualizada sobre la fisiopatología, la clínica, el diagnóstico histopatológico con énfasis en aquellos patrones raros que podrían llegar a ser factores distractores y de confusión, y el pronóstico del linfoma de Hodgkin clásico, buscando lograr una mejor comprensión de la enfermedad


Classic Hodgkin lymphoma is a malignant lymphoid neoplasm derived from B cells in the germinal center, and accounts for approximately 85% of all Hodgkin lymphoma cases. This disease mainly affects young patients and has an excellent prognosis due to advances in diagnostic methods for staging and treatment. A correct and complete diagnostic approach requires a thorough clinical history and an adequate lymph node biopsy for the analysis and identification of characteristic histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. Unlike other lymphomas where neoplastic cells are an important or dominant population, Reed-Sternberg/ Hodgkin cells generally represent less than 10% of the tumor lesion. Although much remains to be understood about the biological nature of this lymphoma and its different subtypes, considerable progress has been made in understanding its lymphomagenesis in recent years, especially when it is related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Its high heterogeneity and possible morphological overlap require ongoing study to identify it and its possible differential diagnoses in cases where it presents with a rare variant or pattern. This article aims to provide a comprehensive updated summary on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, histopathological diagnosis, with emphasis on rare patterns that could become distracting and confusing factors, and prognosis of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, seeking to achieve a better understanding of the disease


Subject(s)
Hodgkin Disease , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Diagnosis , Histology
8.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 24(3): [13], dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440152

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: No se conoce cómo aceptan los residentes de Histología la inclusión de un sistema de videoconferencias sobre la estructura microscópica del cuerpo humano en su estrategia de autoaprendizaje. Objetivo: Explorar en profundidad la experiencia de los residentes de Histología de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Sancti Spíritus que utilizaron un sistema de videoconferencias para su formación profesional. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo en el que se realizó una entrevista a profundidad con los especialistas y residentes de Histología que han utilizado el sistema de videoconferencias en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Sancti Spíritus. Se transcribieron las entrevistas, se codificaron y se seleccionaron los principales temas abordados. Resultados: Se entrevistaron 5 usuarios del sistema de videoconferencias; de la entrevista surgieron 5 temas: 1) Como los residentes insertan las videoconferencias en su estrategia de autoaprendizaje, 2) Preferencia de las videoconferencias sobre los libros de texto, 3) Aciertos y desaciertos de las videoconferencias, 4) ¿Qué aportan las videoconferencias a la formación del residente, ventajas y desventajas? y 5) Sugerencias para mejorar las videoconferencias. Conclusiones: Un sistema de videoconferencias sobre la estructura microscópica del cuerpo humano puede ocupar un papel protagónico en la estrategia de aprendizaje de residentes de Histología. La preferencia que muestran los residentes por las videoconferencias sobre otros medios didácticos puede estar asociada a la capacidad de la multimedia para disminuir la carga cognitiva y facilitar el aprendizaje cuando se siguen los principios de Mayer al elaborar estos medios. La presencia de imágenes digitales en estas videoconferencias fue clave para su aceptación.


Background: It is not known how Histology residents accept the inclusion of a videoconferencing system on the microscopic structure of the human body in their self-learning strategy. Objective: To explore to depth the experience of Histology residents at the Sancti Spíritus University of Medical Sciences who used a videoconferencing system for their professional training. Methodology: Qualitative study with in-depth interview was conducted with Histology specialists and residents who have used the videoconferencing system at the Sancti Spíritus University of Medical Sciences. The interviews were transcribed, coded and the main topics addressed were selected. Results: 5 users of the videoconferencing system were interviewed; 5 themes emerged from the interview: 1) How residents insert videoconferences into their self-learning strategy, 2) Preference for videoconferences over textbooks, 3) Successes and failures of videoconferences, 4) What do videoconferences contribute to the training of the resident, advantages and disadvantages?, 5) Suggestions to improve videoconferences. Conclusions: A videoconferencing system on the microscopic structure of the human body can play a leading role in the learning strategy of Histology residents. The preference shown by residents for videoconferencing over other teaching media may be associated with the ability of multimedia to reduce cognitive load and facilitate learning when Mayer's principles are followed to developing these media. The presence of digital images in these videoconferences was essential to their acceptance.


Subject(s)
Universities , Video Recording/methods , Videoconferencing , Education, Medical , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Histology/education
9.
Educ. med. super ; 36(4)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1514070

ABSTRACT

La enseñanza de las ciencias básicas en las universidades médicas constituye una prioridad para la formación del profesional de la salud, porque ofrece los fundamentos teóricos que propician la comprensión de la morfofisiología del organismo humano, sus interdependencias y sus relaciones con el medio en que nace, crece, se desarrolla y muere. En tal sentido, se deriva la necesidad de mantener la superación de los docentes para el perfeccionamiento de la dirección del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje desde los primeros años de la carrera de medicina y en esta investigación, en particular, en el uso del dibujo de imágenes microscópicas para la enseñanza de estos conocimientos en la disciplina Bases Biológicas de la Medicina. El objetivo del artículo fue caracterizar la superación pedagógica de los profesores de Histología en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de artículos que abordaban esta temática, así como de documentos normativos para la formación de los docentes en esta área pedagógica. Se identificaron tres momentos que caracterizaban la trayectoria de la superación pedagógica de los profesores de las ciencias biomédicas; en particular, el papel del dibujo de imágenes microscópicas como medio de enseñanza en ese proceso. Se consideró que no se dedicaba tiempo en los programas a su desarrollo, por lo que se deriva la necesidad de la superación profesoral y el perfeccionamiento de la didáctica de esta disciplina(AU)


The teaching of basic sciences in medical universities is a priority for the training of health professionals, because it provides the theoretical foundations that promote the understanding of the morphophysiology of the human organism, its interdependencies and its relationship with the environment in which it is born, grows, develops and dies. In this respect, it is necessary to maintain the upgrading of professors in view of improving the guidance of the teaching-learning process from the first academic years of the medical major and, particularly in this research, through the use of drawn microscopic images for the teaching of this knowledge in the discipline Biological Basis of Medicine. The objective of the article was to characterize the pedagogical upgrading of Histology professors at the University of Medical Sciences of Matanzas. A bibliographic review of articles dealing with this topic was carried out, as well as of normative documents for the training of professors in this pedagogical area. Three moments were identified that characterized the pathway of the pedagogical upgrading of biomedical sciences professors, particularly the role of drawn microscopic images as a teaching aid in this process. The programs were not considered to devote any time to its development, thus the need appearing for the upgrading of professors and the improvement of the didactics of this discipline(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Science/education , Teaching/education , Faculty/education , Histology/education , Professional Training
10.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 267-273, out.2022. fig, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400234

ABSTRACT

Introdução: tecnologias digitais como as gamificações vem modernizando e inovando o processo de aprendizagem. Objetivo:agrupar, por meio de uma revisão de literatura, evidências científicas acerca da aplicabilidade do Kahoot© como estratégia de aprendizagem na disciplina de Ciências Morfofuncionais. Metodologia: os termos "anatomy", "histology", "embryology", "gamification", "kahoot", "Kahoot!", foram empregados nas bases de dados PubMed, Scopus, Bireme, Web of Science, Science Direct e Eric, utilizando operadores booleanos OR/AND. Foram estabelecidos como critérios de inclusão, artigos com delineamento do tipo experimental, observacional e revisões sistemáticas que descreveram a utilização do Kahoot© como ferramenta de ensino na disciplina de morfologia humana, publicados nos idiomas inglês, espanhol e português, no período de 2013 a 2021. Foram excluídos, artigos que utilizaram o Kahoot© em outras áreas do conhecimento e em outros componentes curriculares. Resultados: a amostra foi constituída por 337 artigos que, após leitura do título e resumo, foram submetidos aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Destes, 11 artigos foram elegíveis para o estudo. Discussão: o Kahoot© motiva o estudante, criando uma atmosfera divertida, favorecendo o trabalho colaborativo e o engajamento dos alunos em seu processo de aprendizagem. Elementos associados à gamificação foram vistos como responsáveis pela descontração e como agentes estressores. Conclusão: o Kahoot© possibilita um aprender divertido e dinâmico, porém, pesquisas que utilizem grupo controle e experimental são relevantes para verificar a efetividade do Kahoot© no ensino de morfologia a curto, médio ou longo prazo, potencializando os benefícios do seu uso em sala de aula.


Introduction:digital technologies such as gamifications have been modernizing and innovating the learning process. Objective: to group, through a literature review, scientific evidence about the applicability of Kahoot© as a learning strategy in the discipline of Morphofunctional Sciences. Methodology: the terms "anatomy", "histology", "embryology", "gamification", "kahoot", "Kahoot!" were employed in the PubMed, Scopus, Bireme, Web of Science, Science Direct and Eric databases, using Boolean OR/AND operators. Inclusion criteria articles with an experimental, observational design and systematic reviews were established that described the use of Kahoot© as a teaching tool in the discipline of human morphology, published in English, Spanish and Portuguese, from 2013 to 2021. Articles that used Kahoot© in other areas of knowlwdge and other curricular components were excluded. Results: the sample consisted of 337 articles that, after reading the title and abstract, were found in the searched databases. After reading the title and abstract, the articles are subject to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of these, 11 articles were eligible for the study. Discussion: the Kahoot© motivates the student, creating a fun atmosphere, favoring collaborative work and studente engagement in their learning process. Elements associated with gamification were seen as responsible for the relaxed and stressing agents. Conclusion: Kahoot© a fun and dynamic learning, however, research using control and experimental group is relevant to verify the effectiveness of Kahoot© in the teaching of morphology in the short, medium, or long term, enhancing the benefits of its use in the classroom use


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Embryology , Digital Technology , Gamification , Histology , Anatomy , Learning
12.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 8-13, jun. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395908

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer in men is a rare pathology. The most common clinical presentation is a palpable and painless retroareolar nodule. In men, it is a rare pathology, there are few studies on the matter, where breast cancer trials frequently exclude men. Objective: to present the incidence of breast cancer in men from the "Regional Hospital of Talca" Method: Retrospective and descriptive study of cases of breast cancer in men who have been treated and followed up in the Breast Pathology Unit of the Regional Hospital of Talca from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2021.Results: There were 9 cases of breast cancer in men. Average age at diagnosis was 63 years, all patients were 50 years of age or older. One hundred percent of patients consulted for a self-palpable breast nodule. Average size on physical examination was 30 mm. The most frequent histology was invasive ductal carcinoma (56%), followed by invasive tubular carcinoma (22%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (11%). Immunohistochemistry was 100% positive for estrogen and progesterone receptor. Surgery in 56% of cases was total mastectomy with axillary dissection, and in 33% it was total mastectomy alone. 4 patients underwent adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy, and just one required a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. During follow-up, only 2 patients died. Conclusion. Breast cancer in men is not very prevalent and the management is extrapolated from large studies in women, we believe that it is essential to have studies in male patients, to really have clarity on the behavior and evolution of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/therapy , Breast Neoplasms, Male/therapy , Mastectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Breast Neoplasms, Male/pathology , Breast Neoplasms, Male/epidemiology , Histology
13.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 11(1): 337, abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1417139

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar los procedimientos disponibles para el manejo quirúrgico del cáncer de tiroides y los criterios para su selección. Pacientes y métodos: se evaluaron dieciocho pacientes con cáncer de tiroides a quienes se les realizaron procedimientos quirúrgicos como parte de su enfoque diagnostico y terapéutico. Resultados: el 83,3% de la serie se distribuyó por encima de los 45 años. No hubo etapa tumoral T1. Doce pacientes se catalogaron como de riesgo intermedio. Los estudios imagenológicos y la punción con aguja fina se usaron como método de diagnóstico preoperatorio. La tiroidectomía total en un solo tiempo, fue la cirugía más común y el reporte histológico definitivo más frecuente fue el de carcinoma papilar. El tamaño tumoral igual o mayor de 4cms, los cortes congelados y los hallazgos intraoperatorios como la presencia de adenopatías e infiltración a estructuras anatómicas adyacentes permitieron correlacionar el resultado de la punción con aguja fina y definir la conducta quirúrgica en dos tercios de la casuística. La disección cervical estuvo indicada en las adenopatías clínicamente evidentes. Conclusiones: La presencia de neoplasias iguales o mayores de 4cms, metástasis cervicales, infiltración a estructuras anatómicas adyacentes y los cortes congelados determinaron el tipo de intervención. La tiroidectomía total con o sin linfadenectomía fue el procedimiento más frecuente, otras intervenciones de rescate y paliativas representan parte de las opciones quirúrgicas de acuerdo a la etapa tumoral o la situación clínica preoperatoria. La crisis sanitaria que sufre el país ha determinado algunas dificultades en el proceso terapéutico de estos pacientes(AU)


Objective: to evaluate the procedure for the surgical management of the thyroid cancer and the criteria for the selection Patients and method: eighteen patients with cancer of thyroid programmed to surgical procedures. Results: the 83, 3% of the series was 45 years or more. No exist T1. Twelve patients were intermediate risk. Radiologic studies and the fine needle aspiration were the methods of evaluation preoperative. Total thyroidectomy was the most common surgery and the histology more frequent was papilar carcinoma. The neoplasies of 4cms or more, the frozen section and the findings in the operating room were be used to adapt the surgical plan in the 66,6% of the serie. Neck dissection was indicated in the clinics lymph nodes. Conclusions: the surgical extension depends of the tumoral size, the presence of cervical metastasis, the infiltration of adjacent structures and frozen sections. The thyroidectomy total with or without lymphadenectomy were the procedures more frequent, other intervention of salvage and palliative intention represents surgical options. The sanitary crisis determinates some problems in the therapeutic process(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Papillary , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Frozen Sections , Histology
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 102-106, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385561

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The shift to online learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic sheds light on the need for innovative approaches to medical education, making it more interactive and effective. Histology is a challenging subject because it is known to be image intensive. In this study, we compared two methods of online teaching of practical histology: an interactive method using the Poll Everywhere Audience Response System and a traditional method without the use of Poll Everywhere. We performed a randomized controlled crossover trial. One hundred and forty students were divided into two groups. The first group was taught using the interactive method and the second group was taught using the traditional method. Each group was then taught using the other method for a second subject. Students' performance and preferences were assessed using tests and questionnaires. The examination scores were significantly higher for Poll Everywhere group. All students' responses were overwhelmingly in favor of the use of Poll Everywhere, with regard to their engagement, enjoyment, and morphology understanding, in addition to the applicability of the interactive approach. Interactive sessions of practical histology using applications such as Poll Everywhere can be an effective way to increase students' engagement, enjoyment, and knowledge retention during distance learning.


RESUMEN: El cambio al aprendizaje en línea debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 determinó la necesidad de enfoques innovadores para lograr que este método de educación médica sea más interactivo y efectivo. La histología es un tema desafiante debido a que se considera intensivo en imágenes. En este estudio, comparamos dos métodos de enseñanza en línea, en clases de laboratorio de histología: un método interactivo con el uso de Poll Everywhere Audience Response System y un método tradicional sin el uso de Poll Everywhere. Realizamos un ensayo cruzado (crossover) controlado aleatorio. Se dividieron cientocuarenta estudiantes en clases de laboratorio de histología en línea interactivas o tradicionales. Luego, a cada grupo se le asignó el segundo método para un segundo tema. El rendimiento y las preferencias de los estudiantes se evaluaron mediante pruebas y cuestionarios. Los puntajes de las pruebas fueron significativamente más altos para los grupos de Poll Everywhere, y las respuestas de los estudiantes fueron a favor de usar Poll Everywhere en lo que respecta a su participación, agrado y comprensión de la morfología como también del enfoque interactivo. Las clases de laboratorio de histología interactivas que utilizan aplicaciones como Poll Everywhere pueden ser una forma eficaz de impulsar la interacción de los estudiantes durante el aprendizaje a distancia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Distance/methods , COVID-19 , Histology/education , Quarantine , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 355-359, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385623

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Tradicionalmente, la Histología se ha apoyado del análisis de preparaciones histológicas a través del microscopio para su enseñanza. En este sentido, uno de los principales obstáculos que enfrentan los estudiantes al analizar los tejidos, es extrapolar una imagen bidimensional a una estructura tridimensional (3D). La impresión 3D permite subsanar esta limitación, haciendo posible fabricar material docente, con las características requeridas con un alto grado de detalle y bajo costo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue diseñar y fabricar modelos impresos en 3D como complemento para las clases prácticas de Histología Médica. Se fabricaron modelos impresos en 3D de la ultraestructura de la barrera de filtración glomerular (BFG) en su estado normal y síndrome nefrótico. Además, se fabricó un modelo de la capa muscular del esófago humano dando énfasis a la disposición helicoidal de sus fibras musculares. Los modelos de epidermis permitieron identificar sus distintos estratos: estrato córneo, estrato granuloso, estrato espinoso, y estrato basal. Dentro los beneficios derivados de la impresión de modelos en 3D podemos destacar el bajo costo económico de su fabricación, alta reproducibilidad, bioseguridad, y potencial para favorecer el aprendizaje y la enseñanza de la Histología. No obstante, es necesario analizar la percepción y beneficio sobre el aprendizaje de los estudiantes derivados de la aplicación de los modelos mediante técnicas de evaluación cuantitativas y cualitativas.


SUMMARY: Traditionally, Histology has relied on the analysis of histological slides through the microscope for its teaching. In this sense, one of the main obstacles faced by students when analyzing tissues is to extrapolate a two-dimensional image to a three-dimensional (3D) structure. 3D printing makes it possible to overcome this limitation, making it possible to manufacture teaching material with the required characteristics with a high degree of detail and low cost. The objective of this work was to design and manufacture 3D printed models as a complement for the practical classes of Medical Histology. 3D printed models of the ultrastructure of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) in its normal state and nephrotic syndrome were fabricated. In addition, a model of the muscular layer of the human esophagus was fabricated emphasizing the helical arrangement of its muscle fibers. The epidermis models allowed the identification of its different layers: stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale. Among the benefits derived from 3D printing of models, we can highlight the low economic cost of manufacturing, biosafety and potential to favor the learning and teaching of Histology. However, it is necessary to analyze the perception and benefit on student learning derived from the application of the models by means of quantitative and qualitative evaluation techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Histology/education , Models, Anatomic , Epidermis/anatomy & histology , Esophagus/anatomy & histology , Glomerular Filtration Rate
16.
Journal of Medicine University of Santo Tomas ; (2): 79-84, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-974208

ABSTRACT

Significance@#Accurate detection of Helicobacter pylori (HP) is essential for the diagnosis of HP infection. The use of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) may result in false-negative rapid urease test (RUT) results. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of RUT compared with histology and assess the detection rate of combined RUT and histology for HP infection. @*Methodology@#Retrospective data collection was performed on 192 patients who were tested for both RUT and histology at the time of upper endoscopy from 2017 to 2018. At least two gastric biopsies (1 from corpus, 1 from antrum) were taken each for RUT and histology. The endoscopy was performed by a single gastroenterologist and a single pathologist was responsible for interpreting the histology with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Giemsa stain. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of HP infection was histology. Demographic profile, RUT and histology results were reviewed. Tests for diagnostic accuracy were computed using SPSSv23. @*Results@#192 patients were tested for RUT and histology. 52(27.1%) were males and 140(72.9%) were females with a mean age of 54±17 years. Epigastric pain was the most common indication (42.7%). 24(12.5%) patients tested positive for HP infection. Among these; 16(8.3%) tested positive for both RUT and histology(true-positive), while 8(4.2%) tested negative for RUT but had positive histology(false-negative). 6 out of 8(75%) patients with false negative results had PPI use. The sensitivity and specificity of RUT for the diagnosis of HP infection were 66.7 and 98.2%, respectively. While the positive and negative likelihood ratio were 37.3 and 0.34, respectively with a diagnostic odds ratio of 110. @*Conclusion@#The HP detection rate of RUT combined with histology increased by 33% compared with RUT alone. RUT is a highly specific test for diagnosing HP infection. Given its modest sensitivity, histology plays an important role in the diagnosis of HP infection, especially in patients taking PPIs. We recommend doing histology when RUT is negative to increase the HP detection rate.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter pylori , Histology , Azure Stains
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1400-1403, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405268

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Histology and embryology is a science that studies the micro structure and function of the body and embryogenesis, and has insight into the microcosmic world of human body. It is delicate and ingeniousness, which greatly satisfy our thirst for knowledge and visual appreciation. This paper expounds the beauty of Science in histology and Embryology from the perspectives of aesthetics on cell morphology, tissue mode, organogenesis and life birth. Aesthetic education in histology and embryology can possible cultivate medical students' humanistic quality and aesthetic thinking, So that they are able to have an access to the essence of life.


RESUMEN: La histología y la embriología son ciencias que estudian la microestructura y la función del cuerpo y la embriogénesis, y tienen una visión del mundo microcósmico del cuerpo humano. Es delicadeza e ingenio, lo que satisface en gran medida nuestra deseo de conocimiento y apreciación visual. Este artículo expone la belleza de la ciencia en histología y embriología desde las perspectivas de la estética sobre la morfología celular, el modo tisular, la organogénesis y el nacimiento de la vida. La educación estética en histología y embriología puede posiblemente cultivar la calidad humanística y el pensamiento estético de los estudiantes de medicina, para que logren tener acceso a la esencia de la vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Embryology , Esthetics , Histology
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20151, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403754

ABSTRACT

Abstract This was a forthcoming study of those patients, who undergo in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and freeze-all embryo, who acquiesce for the study. The number of participated patients (n=350) in this study, underwent for IVF. The blood sample was collected from patients to evaluate the level of serum progesterone in vacuum vials on the day of ovulation trigger. After 36 hrs of ovulation trigger, ovum picked up was done. Quantitative methods were used to estimate the level of serum progesterone through the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and correlation of serum progesterone with embryo transfer (ET) outcomes. Main outcome of this current study was to evaluate the value of mean serum progesterone level i.e.0.868± 0.712 ng/ml and 0.88±0.723 ng/ml was found in case of pregnancy positive and negative respectively, at p=0.216 value. In antagonist (n=40) and agonist (n=310) cases, it was 8(20%) and 37(11.94%) PL occurrence was noted at p=0.143 respectively. An overall value of the premature lutenization (PL) occurrences was 13.63% and 15.25% observed in both positive and negative cases of pregnancy at p=0.216 respectively. This study concluded that 12.66% of PL occurrences were recorded in the case of IVF. Study results proved, there were no significant effect of PL on pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Progesterone/agonists , Endometrium , Histology/classification , Methods , Ovulation/genetics , Ovum , Patients/classification , Immunoassay , Fertilization in Vitro/classification , Embryo Transfer/instrumentation , Embryonic Structures
19.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 46(4): 60-65, dic. 07, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368185

ABSTRACT

Las ciencias morfológicas incluyen el estudio de tres disciplinas que analizan el cuerpo humano: la anatomía macroscópica, la histología y la embriología, las cuales forman parte central del ciclo básico en todas las carreras de la salud. El aprendizaje morfológico ocurre en el laboratorio y se basa en el estudio de disecciones cadavéricas, preparaciones histológicas o muestras del desarrollo embrionario, con el propósito de lograr una adecuada compresión de las características morfoestructurales del cuerpo humano. Sin embargo, la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 significó un cambio profundo en la forma de enseñar, incorporando métodos de enseñanza-aprendizaje utilizados du-rante la pandemia que incluyen estrategias como los microscopios virtuales, atlas interactivos o videos de disecciones, lo que ha llevado a algunos a cuestionar la necesidad de utilizar los laboratorios de morfología. La educación virtual ha aparecido como una alternativa factible de mantener post-pandemia, sin embargo, el paso por el laboratorio es irreemplazable en la formación de profesionales de la salud, permitiendo el desarrollo de otras competencias más allá de la aplicación del conocimiento. La morfología seguirá siendo la piedra angular en la formación de profesionales de la salud. El desafío es como a través de la innovación y la creatividad incorporamos las nuevas tecnologías digitales, agregando un nuevo valor al estudio de esta disciplina.


Morphological sciences include the study of three disciplines that analyze the human body: macroscopic anatomy, histology, and embr-yology, which are a central part of the basic cycle in all health careers. Morphological learning occurs in the laboratory, it is based on the study of cadaveric dissections, histological preparations, or samples of embryonic development to achieve an adequate compression of the morphological structure of the human body. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic meant a profound change in the way of teaching. These, teaching-learning methods that have been implemented during the pandemic include virtual microscopes, interactive atlases, or videos of dissections, which has led some teachers to question the usefulness of morphology laboratories. Virtual education has appeared as a feasible alternative to maintaining in post-pandemic; however, going through the laboratory is irreplaceable in the training of health professionals, allowing the development of other skills beyond the application of knowledge. The morphology will continue to be the cornerstone in the education of health professionals. The challenge is how through innovation and creativity, we incorporate new digital technologies, adding a new value to the study of this discipline


Subject(s)
Embryology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , COVID-19 , Histology , Anatomy , Teaching , Education, Medical , Human Development
20.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-7, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363276

ABSTRACT

Background: The bulb of Allium cepa Linnaeus (onion) is used in traditional medicine as an antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic, among others. The lack of information or little knowledge about the effects of Allium cepa L. on skin lesions, specifically burn wounds, arouses interest in studying its effects on these skin disorders. Objective: This study assessed the wound healing activity of Allium cepa L. on second-degree burns induced in Holtzman rats. Method: Thirty-two albino rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 8 rats each, including the Healthy group, the Control group, the Experimental group (Alliumcepa L.), and the Standard group (1% silver sulfadiazine). Burn wounds were induced, and topical treatments were performed daily for 21 days. The reduction of the burned body area (mm2) was determined during the experimental time. Albino rats were sacrificed with an excess of surgical anesthesia to obtain tissue samples for histopathological analysis. Results: Standard and experimental groups significantly reduced burned body area (p<0.01) compared to the control group. Histopathological studies showed hyperemic chorion in the Control group, fibroblasts, and collagen in the Standard group, and dermis composed of a reticular stratum of fibroblasts, collagen, and few blood vessels in the Experimental group. Conclusion: Allium cepa L. revealed wound-healing activity on burns induced in Holtzman rats and reduced the damage produced by burns


Antecedentes: El bulbo de Alliumcepa L. (cebolla) se utiliza en medicina tradicional como antidiabético, antioxidante, antihipertensivo, antiinflamatorio, anti hiperlipidémico entre otros. La falta de información o muy poco conocimiento acerca de los efectos de Allium. cepa L. en lesiones cutáneas, específicamente en las heridas por quemaduras, despierta el interés por estudiar sus efectos en estas afectaciones cutáneas. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad cicatrizante de Allium. cepa L. en quemaduras de segundo grado inducidas en ratas Holtzman. Método: Se utilizaron treinta y dos ratas albinas distribuidas al azar en cuatro grupos de ocho ratas cada uno, incluyendo el Grupo sano, el Grupo Control, el Grupo Experimental (Allium cepa L.) y el Grupo Estándar (Sulfadiazina de plata al 1%). Se indujo la herida por quemadura, y los tratamientos tópicos se realizaron diariamente durante 21 días. La reducción del área corporal quemada (mm2) se determinó durante el tiempo de experimentación, luego los animales fueron sacrificados con exceso de anestesia quirúrgica para obtener las muestras de tejidos para el estudio histopatológico. Resultados: Los grupos estándar y experimental mostraron reducción significativa en el área corporal quemada (p<0,01) comparadas al grupo control. El estudio histopatológico evidenció corion hiperémico en el grupo control; fibroblastos y colágeno en el grupo estándar y dermis integrada por un estrato reticular de fibroblastos, colágeno y pocos vasos sanguíneos en el grupo experimental. Conclusión: Alliumcepa L. reveló actividad cicatrizante en quemaduras inducidas en ratas Holtzman, y disminuyó el daño producido por las quemaduras


Subject(s)
Humans , Phytochemicals , Silver Sulfadiazine , Burns , Onions , Histology
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