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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 641-644, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346518

ABSTRACT

Resumen Histoplasma capsulatum es un hongo ambiental que se encuentra distribuido comúnmente en los valles de los ríos Ohio y Mississippi, América Central, Sudamérica y Asia. Las zonas más afectadas en Argentina son las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y de La Plata. Los pacientes con histoplasmosis tienen una amplia variedad de manifestaciones clínicas. La mayoría son asintomáticos, mientras que aquellos con com promiso de la inmunidad celular tienen un riesgo aumentado de padecer la forma diseminada. Presentamos el caso de una mujer adulta, en tratamiento con metotrexato por una artritis seronegativa, que desarrolló la forma diseminada de la enfermedad, y que representó un desafío diagnóstico debido a la dificultad para identificar el agente etiológico.


Abstract Histoplasma capsulatum is an environmental fungus commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, Central and South America, and Asia. The most affected areas in Argentina are the Paraná and de La Plata river basins. Patients with histoplasmosis can have a wide range of clinical presentations. Most of them are asymptomatic, while those with compromised cellular immunity are at increased risk for the disseminated form. We present the case of a patient undergoing treatment with methotrexate for seronegative arthritis who developed the disseminated form of the disease, and who represented a diagnostic challenge due to the difficulty in identifying the etiologic agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Arthritis/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Argentina , Methotrexate , Histoplasma
2.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(2): 345-354, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279428

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La histoplasmosis diseminada progresiva constituye una expresión singular y rara de la infección por Histoplasma capsulatum. Sus formas agudas de presentación suelen aparecer en pacientes con deficiencias inmunitarias graves (fundamentalmente VIH). Sin embargo, en regiones de alta endemicidad, incluso pacientes sin inmunodeficiencia demostrada pueden desarrollar esta afección. Se presentó un paciente de 47 años de edad, con antecedentes de haber sufrido un cuadro grave de histoplasmosis pulmonar 18 años antes. El paciente fue ingresado por un cuadro de: fiebre, astenia, sudoración nocturna, disnea, tos seca, hepatoesplenomegalia, anemia y trombocitopenia marcada. Progresó a una insuficiencia respiratoria aguda y fue internado en cuidados intensivos con ventilación mecánica invasiva. Se demostró crecimiento de Histoplasma capsulatum en la muestra de lavado bronquioalveolar y reacción granulomatosa no caseificante en médula ósea, confirmándose el diagnóstico de histoplasmosis diseminada progresiva. El paciente recibió tratamiento con anfotericina B y se recuperó totalmente en pocas semanas.


ABSTRACT Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis is a unique and rare expression of the infection cause by Histoplasma capsulatum. Its acute forms of presentation usually appear in patients with severe immunodeficiency disorders (mainly HIV). However, even patients without proven immunodeficiency can develop this condition in regions of high endemicity. We present a 47-year-old male patient with a previous history of severe pulmonary histoplasmosis eighteen years earlier. The patient was admitted due to the presence of fever, asthenia, night sweats, dyspnea, dry cough, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and marked thrombocytopenia. He progressed to acute respiratory failure and was admitted to the intensive care unit requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Growth of Histoplasma capsulatum was demonstrated in the bronchoalveolar lavage sample and a non-caseating granulomatous reaction was found in the bone marrow, confirming the diagnosis of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. The patient received amphotericin B treatment and made a full recovery within a few weeks.


Subject(s)
Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis , Immunity
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRC5488, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249741

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The disease is endemic in several regions of tropical and temperate climate. The fungus presents opportunistic behavior, causing widespread infection in immunocompromised patients, resulting from complication of primary pulmonary infection, due to exogenous reinfection or reactivation of a quiescent source. In immunocompetent individuals, approximately 95% of pulmonary infections are asymptomatic. However, prolonged exposure to high amount spores may lead to acute or chronic lung infection. Due to the low amount of inoculum, primary cutaneous histoplasmosis caused by traumatic implantation is extremely rare and effectively treated with triazoles. Thus, the present study aims to report a case of primary cutaneous histoplasmosis that is difficult to treat in an immunocompetent patient, and to review the literature on the incidence of drug-resistant Histoplasma capsulatum strains in clinical practice.


RESUMO A histoplasmose é uma infecção causada pelo fungo dimórfico Histoplasma capsulatum. A doença é endêmica em diversas regiões de clima tropical e temperado. O fungo apresenta comportamento oportunístico, causando infecção disseminada em pacientes imunocomprometidos, resultante da complicação da infecção pulmonar primária, por reinfecção exógena ou reativação de um foco quiescente. Em indivíduos imunocompetentes, cerca de 95% das infecções pulmonares são assintomáticas. No entanto, a exposição prolongada à quantidade elevada de esporos pode levar à infecção pulmonar aguda ou crônica. Devido à baixa quantidade de inóculo, a histoplasmose cutânea primária causada por implantação traumática é extremamente rara e efetivamente tratada com triazóis. Assim, o presente estudo tem como objetivos relatar um caso de histoplasmose cutânea primária de difícil tratamento em paciente imunocompetente, e revisar a literatura a respeito da incidência de cepas de Histoplasma capsulatum resistentes aos fármacos utilizados na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Histoplasma
4.
Infectio ; 24(2): 126-128, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114852

ABSTRACT

Resumen La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica (LHH) por Histoplasma capsulatum, presentación rara de la histoplasmosis diseminada, es causada por la fagocitosis de las células hematopoyéticas por macrófagos tisulares. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 44 años con trasplante renal que asiste por fiebre sin otra sintomatología. Inicialmente se obtiene una gota gruesa positiva para P. vivax, iniciando manejo antimalárico. A los 2 días de tratamiento, el paciente presenta disfunción multiórganica, se rectifica diagnóstico en centro de referencia reportando en extendido de sangre periférica la presencia de levaduras de H. capsulatum en polimorfonucleares, resultado confirmado con prueba de inmunodifusión. Se ajusta manejo, pero el paciente fallece. El diagnóstico de infecciones por gérmenes inusuales con presentaciones inespecíficas es un reto en pacientes con inmunosupresión.


Abstract Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) induced by Histoplasma capsulatum is a rare entity who is characterized by phagocytosis of hematopoietic cells by tissue macrophages. A 44-year-old male patient with kidney transplantation was admitted to our ambulatory service with fever. Initially, we performed a thick drop test who was positive for P. vivax, so antimalarial therapy was initiated. Patient then progressed to multiple organ dysfunction after 2 days of treatment. Thus, a reference center went back over the blood smear which revealed the presence of yeast cells H. capsulatum within polymorphonuclear cells. This result was confirmed by an immunodifussion assay. Despite of antifungal treatment, patient passed away. The diagnosis for unusual microorganism with unspecific clinical presentation could be a challenge in immunosupressive patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Phagocytosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Kidney Transplantation , Histoplasma
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 44-50, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089329

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The yeast phase of 22 Histoplasma capsulatum clinical isolates from Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, and Guatemala and three reference strains, one from Panama and two from the United States of America (USA), were screened for thermosensitivity characteristics using different analyses. Growth curves at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 30 h of incubation at 37 and 40 °C, the growth inhibition percentage at 40 °C, and the doubling time at 37 and 40 °C were determined for all yeasts studied. Most of the isolates examined exhibited thermotolerant phenotypes at 40 °C, whereas a thermosensitive phenotype at 40 °C was only detected in the Downs reference strain from the USA. Growth inhibition values lower than 33.8% supported the predominance of the thermotolerant phenotype at 40 °C. The doubling time means found for the different isolates were 5.14 h ± 1.47 h at 37 °C and 5.55 h ± 1.87 h at 40 °C. This is the first report to underscore the predominance of thermotolerant and delayed doubling time phenotypes in H. capsulatum clinical isolates from different regions of Latin America.


Subject(s)
Thermotolerance/physiology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasma/growth & development , Phenotype , Phylogeny , Reference Values , Temperature , Time Factors , Histoplasma/genetics , Histoplasmosis/microbiology , Latin America
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190364, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057277

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present report describes the first case of postpartum disseminated histoplasmosis in a 24-year-old HIV-negative woman. On the tenth day after vaginal delivery, the patient presented with dyspnea, fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and painful hepatomegaly. Yeast-like Histoplasma capsulatum features were isolated in the buffy coat. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the fungal isolate was similar to other H. capsulatum isolates identified in HIV patients from Ceará and Latin America. Thus, histoplasmosis development in individuals with transitory immunosuppression or during the period of immunological recovery should be carefully examined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , DNA, Fungal/analysis , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Postpartum Period , Histoplasma/genetics , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/microbiology
7.
Caracas; s.n; dic. 2019. 125 p. ^e1 CD-ROM^c30 cmtab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1179534

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa, producida por hongos dimorfos del género Histoplasma. Se observa en casi todos los países del mundo. En América Latina, en Venezuela, Colombia, Brasil, Argentina, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay y Uruguay, entre otros. Datos epidemiológicos recienteshanmostrado un aumento de histoplasmosis en Venezuela y otros países.Los clínicos no están conscientes de su importancia en nuestro medio. Objetivo: Dar a conocer la situación actual de esta enfermedad en el Area Metropolitana de Caracas y en otras áreas endémicas, con la intención de crear la inquietud de investigar su incidencia y otras características relevantes en el resto del país. Métodos: Se analizaron las características de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de certeza de histoplasmosis registrados y realizados por la Sección de Micología Médica ­Dr. Dante Borelli‖ del Instituto de Medicina Tropical de la UCV, referidos de los diferentes hospitales del Distrito Capital y otros estados del país, con énfasis en los datos epidemiológicos, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico, tratamiento y evolución entre 1994 y 2012. Resultados: se encontraron 553 pacientes. La mayoría estaban entre los 20 y 49 años, relacionado con un alto número de pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Hubo más casos en hombres que en mujeres en todos los grupos etarios, menos en los pacientes mayores de 60 años, posiblemente debido a la disminución de los estrógenos, que son protectores en la mujer. Casi todos los pacientes con VIH/SIDA mostraron la forma diseminada, solo uno presentó una forma pulmonar. De los pacientes VIH negativos, 54,62% presentaron infección diseminada y 44,47%, formas pulmonares. 93 de los de enfermedad diseminada tenían estados de inmunocompromiso. El examen directo fue el método más fácil y eficaz para diagnosticar la histoplasmosis. La anfotericina B (AMB) fue el tratamiento para la histoplasmosis en pacientes con o sin SIDA, que requirieron hospitalización, seguido por itraconazol (ITC). Esta droga se utilizó en pacientes que no se encontraban severamente enfermos o con afectación del sistema nervioso central. Conclusiones: histoplasmosis se encuentra en aumento en nuestro país. Se observa con más frecuencia en pacientes con SIDA, inmunosuprimidos y pacientes que han recibido un inóculo abundante. El examen directo con coloraciones especiales es el método de mayor rendimiento para el diagnóstico. Este debe ser realizado por personal con experiencia.Es conveniente utilizar diferentes técnicas para aumentar la probabilidad de obtener un diagnóstico correcto. AMB e ITC son los tratamientos de elección. Los médicos deben estar alertas de los signos y síntomas, correlacionándolos con los antecedentes epidemiológicos, para evitar el retraso del diagnóstico y mejorar la evolución de los pacientes.


Histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease, caused by dimorphic fungi from the genus Histoplasma. It is described worldwide.In Latin America, Venezuela, Colombia, Brasil, Argentina, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay and Uruguay among others are affected. Recent epidemiological data have shown an increase of histoplasmosis in Venezuela and other countries. Clinicians are nor aware of the importance of this mycosis. Objective: analyze the current situation of this disease in the Caracas Metropolitan Area and other endemic areas, with intention to create awareness of its incidence and other relevant characteristics in our country. Methods: characteristics of the patients with diagnosis of histoplasmosis, performed and registered at the Sección de Micología Médica ­Dr. Dante Borelli‖, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, UCV, referred from different hospitals at Distrito Capital and other states of the country, with emphasis on epidemiological data, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and outcome, between 1994 and 2012 are analized. Results: 553 patients were found. Most of them were between 20 and 49 years old, possibly due to a high number of HIV/AIDS patients. There were more male than female patients in all age groups, except in 60 years and older, possibly due to the lack of estrogenic hormones, which protect women from infection. All HIV/AIDS patients but one, presented with a disseminated form of the disease, and one, a pulmonary form. Of the HIV negative patients, 54,62% showed disseminated infection and 44,47%, pulmonary presentation. 93 of the disseminated infection patients had immunocompromising conditions. Direct examination was the easiest and most efficacious diagnostic method. Amphotericin B (AMB) was the drug of choice for the treatment of hospitalized patients, followed by Itraconazole (ITC). This was the preferred treatment for mild to moderate disease or non CNS infection. Conclusions: Histoplasmosis is rising in our country. It is more frequent in HIV/AIDS patients and immune suppression. It is also seen in patients who have inhaled a large inoculum. Direct examination with special stains is the diagnostic method with better results. It must be performed by experienced personnel in fungal diagnosis. The use of different techniques is recommended to improve early and correct diagnosis. AMB and ITC are drugs of choice for the treatment of histoplasmosis. Clinicians should be aware of suggestive symptoms and signs, correlating them with epidemiological data, to avoid diagnostic delay and improve the outcome of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Mycoses/therapy , Signs and Symptoms , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Probability , Risk Factors , Fungi/pathogenicity , Histoplasma/drug effects , Histoplasmosis/therapy , Histoplasmosis/epidemiology , Infections , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Age Groups
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 96-98, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983729

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Histoplasmosis usually presents primarily as lung infection. Occasionally, mainly in immunocompromised hosts, it can spread and cause systemic manifestations. Skin lesions have been reported in 10 to 15 percent of cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, and panniculitis has been described as an unusual form of presentation in affected patients. We present the case of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented cellulitis due to disseminated histoplasmosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Panniculitis/pathology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Biopsy , Panniculitis/immunology , Panniculitis/microbiology , Cellulite/immunology , Cellulite/microbiology , Cellulite/pathology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/immunology , Immunocompetence
9.
Infectio ; 23(1): 22-26, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-975558

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La histoplasmosis diseminada es una forma de presentación común en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. La introducción de nuevos métodos diagnós ticos y la mejoría de la sobrevida de los pacientes con VIH pueden hacer cambiar las características clínicas de los pacientes con esta enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características demográficas, clínicas y métodos diagnósticos para esta enfermedad utilizados en una institución de cuarto nivel de complejidad en Colombia durante los últimos cinco años. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional tipo serie de casos, incluyendo pacientes con diagnóstico de histoplasmosis manejados en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio en Bogotá (Colombia) entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2016. Los casos fueron identificados utilizando una herramienta automatizada a partir de las historias clínicas electrónicas (DISEARCH). Resultados: 34 pacientes fueron incluidos, 73,5% con VIH. La enfermedad fue más sintomática en los pacientes con VIH. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron fiebre y tos (80%), seguidas por diarrea (47%) y manifestaciones cutáneas (35%). El estudio histopatológico fue el método de confirmación más frecuente. El antígeno urinario, fue positivo en el 92.8% de los pacientes a quienes se les realizó la prueba. Las enfermedades autoinmunes fueron la principal causa asociada en pacientes VIH negativos. Conclusiones: Las características clínicas de los pacientes con histoplasmosis son similares a las descritas en estudios previos en colombia, llamando la atención la alta prevalencia de diarrea y manifestaciones cutáneas. El antígeno urinario para histoplasma y las biopsias cutáneas son excelentes métodos diagnósticos, menos invasivos y con resultados rápidamente disponibles.


Abstract Introduction: Disseminated histoplasmosis is a common presentation in immunosuppressed patients. The introduction of new diagnostic methods and the impro vement of the survival of patients with HIV could have changed the clinical characteristics of patients with this disease. The objective of this study is to describe the demographic characteristics, clinical and methods for diagnosis of this disease in a high conplexity institution in Colombia during the last five years. Methods: A serie of cases was conducted, including patients diagnosed with histoplasmosis managed at the San Ignacio University Hospital in Bogotá (Colombia) between January 2012 and December 2016. The cases were selected using an automatic tool for searching in health electronic records (DISEARCH). Results: 34 patients were included, 73.5% with HIV. The disease was more symptomatic in patients with HIV. The most frequent symptoms were fever and cough (80%), followed by diarrhea (47%) and skin manifestations (35%). The histopathological study was the most frequent confirmation method. The urinary antigen was positive in 92.8% of the patients, in whom the test was performed. Autoimmune diseases were the main cause associated in HIV negative patients. Conclusions: The clinical characteristics of patients with histoplasmosis are similar to those described in previous studies in Colombia. It was remarkably the high prevalence of diarrhea and cutaneous manifestations. The urinary antigen for histoplasma and skin biopsies are excellent diagnostic methods, less invasive and with rapidly available results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , HIV , Histoplasmosis , Antigens , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Colombia , Histoplasma
10.
INSPILIP ; 2(2): 1-12, jul.-dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981634

ABSTRACT

La Histoplasmosis es una infección micóticaoportunista, frecuente en pacientes con infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA). La mayoría de las veces suele ser asintomática, pudiendo asociarse a hemorragia, destrucción acelerada de las plaquetas y descenso de la hemopoyesis debido a infección de los megacariocitos. Este reporte trata de un paciente con diagnóstico reciente de infección por VIH, por cuadro de 1 mes de evolución caracterizado por fiebre, malestar general y pérdida de peso mayor a 10% de la masa ponderal. Durante su hospitalización se realizaron estudios de imágenes y laboratorio para tamizaje de infecciones oportunistas. La evolución clínica inicialmente estuvo marcada por deterioro progresivo del estado general, con alteraciones persistentes de las plaquetas y de la serie eritroide, por lo que fue evaluado por el servicio de Hematología, que realizó la punción biopsia por aspiración de médula ósea (BAMO) para descartar malignidad hematológica y compromiso medular por agentes oportunistas.


Histoplasmosisis an opportunistic fungal infection, frequent in patients with infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Most of the time it is usually asymptomatic, and it can be associated with hemorrhage, the accelerated destruction of platelets and the decrease in hemopoiesis due to an infection of megakaryocytes. This report is based on a recent diagnosis of HIV infection, in a picture of evolution of fever, malaise and weight loss greater than 10% of body weight.During his hospitalization, imaging and laboratory studies are carried out to screen for opportunistic infections. Clinical evolution remained marked by progressive general state, with persistent alterations of platelets and erythroid series, so it was evaluated by the hematology service, which performed the bone marrow aspiration biopsy (BAMO) to rule out Hematological malignancy and spinal commitment by opportunistic agents.


Subject(s)
Male , Megakaryocytes , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Mycoses , Histoplasma , Infections
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 479-484, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957451

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In many settings, the lack of sensitive biomarkers of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) leads to a clinical reliance on older diagnostic methods and delayed treatment initiation. The early recognition of DH is critical for survival, especially in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study aimed to identify clinical and laboratory findings associated with the definitive diagnosis of DH in low-income HIV patients in endemic areas. METHODS: Febrile AIDS patients with suspected DH who were admitted to a reference hospital in northeastern Brazil from January 2006 to January 2007 were evaluated for clinical and laboratory findings associated with DH diagnosis. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients with fever were included, and 48 (41%) cases of DH were determined by Histoplasma capsulatum identification. A higher fever (≥38.5ºC), maculopapular/papular rash, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, wheezing, hemoglobin ≤9.5g/dL, platelets ≤80,000/µL, CD4 count ≤75/µL, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level ≥2.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ≥5times the ULN; and international normalized ratio (INR) >2 times the ULN were significantly associated with DH. A multivariable analysis identified hepatomegaly [adjusted (a) prevalence ratio (PR)= 1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-3.16), CD4 count ≤75/µL (aPR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.06-3.83), LDH ≥5 times the ULN (aPR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.44-3.48), and maculopapular/papular rash (aPR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.02-2.83) were independent risk factors for DH. CONCLUSIONS: These easily assessed parameters can facilitate clinical decision-making for febrile AIDS patients with suspected DH in low socioeconomic and Histoplasma-endemic regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Fever/microbiology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Histoplasmosis/epidemiology , Middle Aged
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(10): e180340, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040583

ABSTRACT

Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a heterothallic ascomycete. The sexual reproduction of this fungus is regulated by the mating type (MAT1) locus that contains MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs, which were identified by uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study aimed to optimise single-step multiplex PCR for the accurate detection of the distinct mating types of H. capsulatum. Among the 26 isolates tested, 20 had MAT1-1 genotype, while six showed MAT1-2 genotype, in agreement with the uniplex PCR results. These results suggest that multiplex PCR is a fast and specific tool for screening H. capsulatum mating types.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , Histoplasma/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Histoplasma/classification
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 309-311, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959445

ABSTRACT

Resumen En los últimos 11 meses, nuestro laboratorio ha diagnosticado 9 casos de histoplasmosis de presentación clínica en el territorio nacional. Todos los pacientes asociados a los cuadros clínicos son inmigrantes. Por medio del presente trabajo deseamos difundir y alertar a los profesionales de los laboratorios clínicos de nuestro país de la presencia y circulación de cepas de Histoplasma capsulatum en muestras clínicas. Asimismo, deseamos concientizar en el reforzamiento de las medidas de bioseguridad al interior de los laboratorios clínicos.


In the last eleven months, we have diagnosed 9 cases of Histoplasmosis in our country. All patients affected were from endemic areas of South-America. Here, we wish to inform and prevent to all clinical laboratories from Chile about the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum in clinical samples. In the same way we want to prepare and raising awareness of the strengthening of biosecurity measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Chile , Communicable Diseases, Emerging
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764854

ABSTRACT

Histoplasmosis is a common endemic mycosis in North, Central, and South America, but Korea is not known as an endemic area. We treated an immunocompetent Korean patient who had histoplasmosis. A 65-year-old Korean man presented with multiple pulmonary clumps of tiny nodules in the both lungs. He had been diagnosed 40 years earlier with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and a fungus ball had been diagnosed 4 years earlier. He denied any history of overseas travel. The patient visited our hospital with dyspnea, blood-tinged sputum, and weight loss, which had appeared 2 months earlier. The patient underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung biopsy. The biopsy sample showed necrotizing granuloma and the presence of multiple small yeast-like fungi. Tissue culture confirmed Histoplasma capsulatum, and he was finally diagnosed with pulmonary histoplasmosis. Therapy was initiated with 200 mg itraconazole orally once per day. The symptoms disappeared 1 week after the start of treatment. After 4 months, low-dose chest computed tomography showed improvement in the ground glass opacity and size of the lung lesions. In conclusion, we report a case of an immunocompetent patient who developed histoplasmosis in Korea. When a patient shows unexplainable progressive infiltrative lung lesions, histoplasmosis should be considered as one of differential diagnoses although Korea is not an endemic area.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea , Fungi , Glass , Granuloma , Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis , Humans , Itraconazole , Korea , Lung , South America , Sputum , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Thorax , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Weight Loss
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787005

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 29-year-old female with a history of asthma, post-partumARDS, and pulmonary hypertension who presents with severe shortness of breath. The patient describes her shortness of breath as progressive over the past 10 years. Chest radiography and CT angiography of the thorax showed findings consistent with fibrosing mediastinitis with severe stenosis of the left main pulmonary artery. This resulted in appearance of unilateral absent left lung perfusion on quantitative Tc-99-MAA perfusion and Xe-133 ventilation (V/Q) scan.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Asthma , Constriction, Pathologic , Dyspnea , Female , Histoplasma , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Lung , Mediastinitis , Perfusion , Pulmonary Artery , Radiography , Thorax , Ventilation
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 613-614, dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042642

ABSTRACT

The dermatological manifestations of disseminated histoplasmosis present in about 17% of the cases, is a challenge for its diagnosis. We report the case of a patient from the northern coast of Peru, who presented diffuse dermal lesions, erythema-violaceous nodules, and ulcers histopathologically compatible with the infection of the genus Histoplasma var. capsulatum


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Peru , Biopsy , Treatment Outcome , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. patol. trop ; 46(2): 135-145, jun. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-913455

ABSTRACT

Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis frequently affecting patients infected with HIV, appearing as acute or subacute disseminated forms. Early diagnosis is simple when muco-cutaneous lesions are present; but in their absence the use of non-culture based methods is usually required presenting a fundamental challenge for the management and prognosis of this infection. The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of an Elisa kit for the detection of the galactomannan antigen of Histoplasma capsulatum in different clinical samples. A total of 98 clinical samples obtained from different organic fluids were analyzed: 66 sera, 28 urine samples, 3 bronchoalveolar lavages and one cerebrospinal fluid. They corresponded to a total of 61 patients: 27 with histoplasmosis associated with AIDS, 7 histoplasmosis in nonreactive HIV individuals and 27 patients with other diseases but which were clinically similar to histoplasmosis. The sensitivity of the detection of the galactomannan antigen in serum of patients with histoplasmosis and AIDS was 76% and the specificity was 56%. In urine samples of this group of patients the sensitivity was 75%


Subject(s)
Histoplasmosis , Histoplasma , Mycoses , Antigens
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis (HP) is diagnosed by visualizing intracellular microorganisms in biopsy and/or culture. Periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) staining methods are routinely used for identification. The acid-fast property of Histoplasma was identified decades ago, but acid-fast staining has not been practiced in current surgical pathology. Awareness of the acid-fast property of Histoplasma, which is due to mycolic acid in the cell wall, is important in distinguishing Histoplasma from other infective microorganisms. Here, we examined acid-fastness in previously diagnosed cases of Histoplasma using the Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain and correlated those findings with other known fungal stains. METHODS: All cases diagnosed as HP were retrieved and reviewed along with ZN staining and other fungal stains. We also stained cases diagnosed with Cryptococcus and Leishmania as controls for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 54 patients ranging in age from 11 to 69 years were examined. The most common sites of infection were the skin, adrenal tissue, and respiratory tract. Of the total 43 tissue samples, 20 (46.5%) stained positive with the ZN stain. In viable cases, a significant proportion of microorganisms were positive while necrotic cases showed only rare ZN-positive yeasts. In comparison to PAS and GMS stains, there was a low burden of ZN-positive yeasts. Cryptococcus showed characteristic ZN staining and all cases of Leishmania were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Although the morphology of fungal organisms is the foundation of identification, surgical pathologists should be aware of the acid-fast property of fungi, particularly when there is the potential for confusion with other infective organisms.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Cell Wall , Coloring Agents , Cryptococcus , Fungi , Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis , Humans , Leishmania , Methenamine , Mycolic Acids , Pathology, Surgical , Respiratory System , Skin , Yeasts
20.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 14(3): 121-125, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-869097

ABSTRACT

La coinfección Leishmania/VIH es frecuente y por lo general son casos de leishmaniosis visceral (LV), sin embargo, Leishmania infantum, el agente etiológico, también puede causar formas cutáneas en pacientes VIH-positivos. Los parásitos llegan a la piel por difusión, en una nueva infección o reactivación de una infección latente. Existen técnicas moleculares que confirman el diagnóstico y caracterizan a la especie. En estos pacientes también se presenta como infección oportunista la histoplasmosis, reconocida como marcador de SIDA y causada por Histoplasma capsulatum. En este trabajo describimos un caso de coinfección SIDA, histoplasmosis y LV asociado a lesiones cutáneas. Paciente de sexo masculino, adulto, residente en J.A. Saldívar, VIH positivo (2010), sin tratamiento antirretroviral. En el 2012 es internado en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical (IMT) con fiebre, anemia, hepato-esplenomegalia, frotis de médula ósea y rk39 negativos para Leishmania, recibe tratamiento con Anfotericina B. En el 2013 presenta síndrome febril prolongado y en médula ósea se encuentran amastigotes de Leishmania sp. En el 2014 presenta úlceras en el rostro en las que se observan es porosmicóticos de H. capsulatum y amastigotes de Leishmania sp. Se confirma L. infantum por técnicas de biología molecular. En el caso estudiado concluimos que la presentación dérmica es causada por L. infantum, caracterizada por técnicas moleculares, eH. capsulatum que se presenta en concomitancia debido al estado inmunológico. Cabe resaltar la importancia del diagnóstico diferencial para aplicar el tratamiento correcto y además la manifestación clínica que normalmente no es asociada a esta especie de Leishmania.


Leishmania/HIV coinfection is frequent and generally they are visceral leishmaniasis cases(VL). However, Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent, could also cause cutaneousforms in HIV-positive patients. The parasites reach the skin through diffusion, a newinfection or a reactivation of a latent infection. There are molecular techniques that confirmthe diagnosis and characterize Leishmania species. These patients also present otheropportunistic infections like histoplasmosis, well known as an AIDS marker and caused byHistoplasma capsulatum. In this work, we describe one HIV/histoplasmosis/VL coinfectioncase associated to cutaneous lesions. The patient was a male, adult, coming from the city ofJ.A. Saldívar, HIV positive (since 2010), without antiretroviral treatment. He was hospitalized in 2012 at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical (IMT) with fever, anemia,hepatosplenomegaly, bone marrow smear and rK39 both negative for Leishmania. He wastreated with Amphotericin B. In 2013, he presented a prolonged febrile syndrome andLeishmania amastigotes were observed in the bone marrow. In 2014, the patient presentedulcerations on the face where H. capsulatum fungal spores and Leishmania amastigoteswere observed. L. infantum was confirmed by molecular methods. In the case under studywe can conclude that the dermal manifestation was caused by L. infantuma ccording to thecharacterization by molecular techniques, and simultaneously H. capsulatum was presentdue to his immunological status. It should be emphasized the importance of the differentialdiagnosis in order to apply the right treatment and also the uncommon clinicalmanifestation that is not associated to this Leishmania species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , HIV , Histoplasma , Leishmania infantum
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