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2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 287-290, ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040524

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis y la leishmaniasis son enfermedades olvidadas, endémicas en Argentina, y generalmente se asocian a inmunocompromiso. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 16 años, inmunocompetente, con histoplasmosis del sistema nervioso central y leishmaniasis cutánea. Inicialmente, el paciente presentó una lesión en la pierna de un mes de evolución seguida de paraparesia leve, diagnosticada como un proceso de desmielinización mediante estudios de imágenes. El cuadro fue tratado con altas dosis de corticoides y en 72 horas evolucionó a paraparesia grave con lesiones nodulares en las vértebras cervicales, observadas en las imágenes de resonancia magnética nuclear. Se aisló Histoplasma capsulatum de líquido cefalorraquídeo, genotípicamente identificado como perteneciente a la especie filogenética LamB. El paciente recibió tratamiento intravenoso con anfotericina B deoxicolato durante 30 días y posteriormente fluconazol e itraconazol oral durante un año. A los tres meses de iniciado el tratamiento con antifúngicos se reactivó la lesión de la pierna y en el examen directo se observaron amastigotes de Leishmania. La leishmaniasis cutánea fue tratada con antimoniato de meglumina intramuscular. La respuesta clínica al tratamiento de ambas enfermedades fue favorable.


Histoplasmosis and leishmaniasis are neglected and endemic diseases in Argentina, and generally are found associated with immunosuppression. We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-years-old man with simultaneous occurrence of central nervous system histoplasmosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Upon admission, the patient showed a one-month old skin lesion in a leg and mild paraparesis. Imaging studies detected thickening and edema in the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid analysis was within normal range. The case was diagnosed as a demyelinating disorder and treated with high-dose short-term steroids. Seventy-two hours later the patient showed severe paraparesis and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging revealed nodular lesions in the spinal cord. Histoplasma capsulatum belonging to the phylogenetic species LamB was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid samples. The patient received intravenous antifungal therapy with amphotericin B for 30 days, followed by oral fluconazole and itraconazole for one year. Three months after initiation of antifungal treatment, the cutaneous lesion recrudesced and Leishmania amastigotes were observed on microscopic examination. The cutaneous leishmaniasis was treated with intramuscular meglumine antimoniate. The patient´s outcome was favorable after treatment for both diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/complications , Histoplasmosis/complications , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Immunocompetence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(2): e2018028, Apr.-May 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905529

ABSTRACT

In the advanced stage of AIDS, the diagnosis of the opportunistic infections may be challenging due to the high risk of performing invasive diagnostic methods in a patient with a critical clinical condition, as well as the correct interpretation of the results of microbiological exams. One of the challenges for the diagnosis and treatment of the opportunistic infections is that they may occur concomitantly in the same patient and they may mimic each other, leading to a high discrepancy between clinical and autopsy diagnoses. We describe the case of a 52-year-old man who was hospitalized because of weight loss, anemia, cough, and hepatosplenomegaly. During the investigation, the diagnosis of AIDS was made, and the patient developed respiratory failure and died on the fourth day of hospitalization. At autopsy, disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis was found, affecting mainly the organs of the reticuloendothelial system. Also, severe and diffuse pneumonia caused by multiple agents (Pneumocystis jirovecii, Histoplasma capsulatum, suppurative bacterial infection, non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, and cytomegalovirus) was seen in a morphological pattern that could be called "collision pneumonia." The lesson from this case, revealed by the autopsy, is that in advanced AIDS, patients often have multiple opportunistic infections, so the principle of Ockham's razor­that a single diagnosis is most likely the best diagnosis­fails in this clinical context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Autopsy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Histoplasmosis/complications , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/complications , Pneumocystis Infections/complications
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(6): 509-517, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956489

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: HIV-related mortality is still high, especially in developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate factors associated to death in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with all HIV adult patients admitted to a tertiary infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil, from January 2013 to December 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: survivors and non-survivors. Demo-graphical, clinical and laboratory data were compared and a logistic regression was performed in order to investigate risk factors for death. P values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients with mean age of 39 years were including in the study, 69.5% males. Fifteen patients (7.5%) died. Non-survivors presented a higher percentage of males (93.3 vs. 67.3%, p = 0.037). Non-survivors presented AKI (73.3 vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001), liver dysfunction (33.3 vs. 11.5, p = 0.031), dyspnea (73.3 vs. 33.0%, p = 0.002) and disorientation (33.3 vs. 12.4%, p = 0.025) more frequently. Non-survivors also had higher levels of urea (73.8 ± 52.7vs. 36.1 ± 29.1 mg/dL, p < 0.001), creatinine (1.98 ± 1.65 vs. 1.05 ± 1.07 mg/dL, p < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (130.8 vs. 84.8 U/L, p = 0.03), alanine aminotransferase (115.6 vs. 85.4 U/L, p = 0.045) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (1208 vs. 608 U/L, p = 0.012), as well as lower levels of bicarbonate (18.0 ± 4.7 vs. 21.6 ± 4.6 mEq/L, p = 0.016) and PCO2 (27.8 ± 7.7 vs. 33.0 ± 9.3 mmHg, p = 0.05). In multivariate analysis, disorientation (p = 0.035, OR = 5.523, 95%CI = 1.130 - 26.998), dyspnoea (p = 0.046, OR = 4.064, 95%CI = 1.028 - 16.073), AKI (p < 0.001, OR = 18.045, 95%CI = 4.308 - 75.596) and disseminated histoplasmosis (p = 0.016, OR = 12.696, 95%CI = 1.618 - 99.646) and LDH > 1000 U/L (p = 0.038, OR = 4.854, 95%CI = 1.093 - 21.739) were risk factors for death.]CONCLUSION: AKI and disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) were the main risk factors for death in the studied population. Neurologic and respiratory impairment as well as higher levels of LDH also increased mortality in HIV-infected patients.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade relacionada ao HIV ainda é alta, especialmente nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar os fatores associados ao óbito em pacientes com HIV. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com todos os pacientes com HIV admitidos consecutivamente em um hospital terciário de doenças infecciosas em Fortaleza, Nordeste do Brasil, entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2014. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: sobreviventes e não sobreviventes. Dados demográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais foram comparados e análise de regressão logística foi feita para investigação dos fatores de risco para óbito. RESULTADOS: Um total de 200 pacientes, com média de idade de 39 anos, foi incluído no estudo, sendo 69,5% do sexo masculino. Óbito ocorreu em 15 pacientes (7,5%). Os não sobreviventes apresentaram maior percentual de homens (93,3 vs. 67,3%, p = 0,037) e um menor tempo de internação (8 ± 6 vs. 18 ± 15 dias, p = 0,005). Na análise multivariada, desorientação (p = 0,035, OR = 5,523), dispneia (p = 0,046, OR = 4,064), LRA (p < 0,001, OR = 18,045), histoplasmose disseminada (p = 0,016, OR = 12,696) e desidrogenase lática (LDH) > 1.000 U/L (p = 0,038, OR = 4,854) foram fatores de risco para óbito. CONCLUSÕES: LRA e histoplasmose disseminada foram os principais fatores de risco para óbito na população estudada. Distúrbios neurológicos e respiratórios, bem como níveis elevados de LDH, também estiveram associados com o aumento da mortalidade em pacientes com HIV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Confusion/complications , Confusion/mortality , Dyspnea/complications , Dyspnea/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/mortality , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 506-513, oct.-dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730933

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una afección polifacética producida por el hongo dimorfo Histoplasma capsulatum , cuyas esporas son inhaladas y llegan al pulmón, órgano primario de infección. La forma meníngea, considerada como una de las manifestaciones más graves de esta micosis, suele presentarse en individuos con alteraciones en la inmunidad celular: pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana adquirida, con lupus eritematoso sistémico o con trasplante de órgano sólido, así como en lactantes, debido a su inmadurez inmunológica. La forma de presentación más usual es de resolución espontánea y se observa en individuos inmunocompetentes que se han expuesto a altas concentraciones de conidias y fragmentos miceliares del hongo. En estas personas, la afección se manifiesta por trastornos pulmonares y por la posterior diseminación a otros órganos y sistemas. Se presenta un caso de histoplasmosis del sistema nervioso central en un niño inmunocompetente.


Histoplasmosis is a multifaceted condition caused by the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum whose infective spores are inhaled and reach the lungs, the primary organ of infection. The meningeal form, considered one of the most serious manifestations of this mycosis, is usually seen in individuals with impaired cellular immunity such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous or solid organ transplantation, and infants given their immunological immaturity. The most common presentation is self-limited and occurs in immunocompetent individuals who have been exposed to high concentrations of conidia and mycelia fragments of the fungi. In those people, the condition is manifested by pulmonary disorders and late dissemination to other organs and systems. We report a case of central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent child.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Diagnostic Errors , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Meningitis, Fungal/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Device Removal , Headache/etiology , Histoplasma/immunology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmin/blood , Histoplasmin/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Hydrocephalus/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hypokalemia/etiology , Immunocompetence , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Fungal/complications , Meningitis, Fungal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Vancomycin Resistance , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/adverse effects
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156366

ABSTRACT

Background. Disseminated histoplasmosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. Clinical presentation can vary from the acute pulmonary to the chronic disseminated form. In India, disseminated histoplasmosis often presents with pyrexia of unknown origin with a presentation similar to ‘disseminated tuberculosis’ involving the adrenal glands and bone marrow. Due to rarity of the disease, data are lacking regarding its clinical presentation and outcome among immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Methods. During January 2000 to December 2010, we identified 37 patients of disseminated histoplasmosis and attempted to characterize the differences between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, risk factors, laboratory findings, diagnostic yield, treatment received and prognosis were noted and compared between the two groups. Results. Eleven of 37 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis were immunocompromised and 26 were immunocompetent. Comparison of their clinical features showed a higher frequency of skin lesions in the immunocompromised compared to the immunocompetent group (54.5% v. 11.5%). Pancytopenia and anaemia were more common among the immunocompromised (81.8%) compared to the immunocompetent (46.2%) group. In the immunocompromised patients, the diagnosis was made most often by bone marrow aspirate and culture (72.7%) compared to the immunocompromised group where the diagnosis was most often obtained by adrenal gland biopsy and fungal cultures (57.7%). The cure rate was significantly higher in the immunocompetent group (73% v. 45%). Conclusion. The clinical presentation and outcome of patients with disseminated histoplasmosis differs among immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands/pathology , Adult , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Bone Marrow/pathology , Female , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Pancytopenia/immunology , Pancytopenia/microbiology , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/microbiology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 46(4): 677-681, dic. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-671976

ABSTRACT

Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente (<50 linfocitos T CD4+/µL), falleció al día siguiente de efectuado el diagnóstico, a pesar de las medidas terapéuticas tomadas. Este hallazgo pone de manifiesto la necesidad de contar, en un Centro de Referencia de Enfermedades Infecciosas, con operadores entrenados para reconocer estructuras microbianas de importancia diagnóstica en extendidos hemáticos, aún en el Laboratorio General. El diagnóstico inmediato de ésta y otras infecciones graves, como el paludismo, a partir de estas muestras permite instalar un tratamiento etiológico y mejorar las posibilidades de éxito terapéutico.


A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiología contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (<50 T CD4+ lymphocytes/µL), died the next day after the diagnosis was made, in spite of the established treatments. This finding highlights the need to have operators trained in the recognition of microbiological structures of diagnostic importance in hematological smears in a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases, and even in the General Laboratory. The immediate diagnosis of this and other serious infections, as Malaria, enables the etiologic treatment and increases the possibilities of therapeutic success.


Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado (<50 células T CD4+/ µL) morreu um dia após o diagnóstico, apesar das medidas terapêuticas adotadas. Este achado evidencia a necessidade de contar, em um Centro de Referência para Doenças Infecciosas, com operadores treinados para reconhecer estruturas microbianas de importância diagnóstica em extensões sanguíneas, mesmo no Laboratório Geral. O diagnóstico imediato desta e de outras infecções graves como a Malária, a partir de uma extensão sanguínea torna possível instalar um tratamento etiológico e melhorar as chances de êxito terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Histoplasmosis/blood , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Argentina , Azure Stains , Erythroblasts
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(5): 435-438, oct. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657543

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Sjögren es una enfermedad autoinmune caracterizada por disminución de las secreciones de las glándulas exocrinas; puede presentar también diversas alteraciones hemáticas, entre ellas linfopenia. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 28 años que consultó por cefalea de un mes de evolución a la que se agregaron en las últimas 48 horas vómitos y fiebre. Presentaba lesiones en piel de tronco y cara; no tenía rigidez de nuca. Se demostró infección por Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum en piel y líquido cefalorraquídeo, linfopenia, anticuerpos anti Ro-SSA positivos, baja concentración del trazador en centellograma de glándulas salivales e infiltración linfocitaria en glándulas salivales, lo que permitió confirmar al diagnóstico de síndrome de Sjögren. El tratamiento con anfotericina liposomal e itraconazol mejoró el cuadro clínico. Comunicamos este caso para referir que una infección oportunista, como la histoplasmosis diseminada, puede ser una forma poco común de presentación del síndrome de Sjögren.


Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by decreased exocrine gland secretions; patients may also present several hematological abnormalities, like lymphopenia. We describe the case of a 28 year old man who complained of headache a month of duration, with fever and vomiting in the last 48 hours. He also presented skin lesions on trunk and face, without neck stiffness. The diagnosis of duration infection was confirmed by culture from the skin biopsy and spinal fluid specimens; in addition, the presence of lymphopenia, positive anti Ro-SSA antibodies, poor concentration of the tracer in scintigraphy and lymphocytic infiltration in salivary glands confirmed the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin and itraconazole. We report this case to emphasize that opportunistic infections, such as disseminated histoplasmosis, may be an uncommon clinical presentation of Sjögren's syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Sjogren's Syndrome/drug therapy
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4,supl.1): 168-172, jul,-ago. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604151

ABSTRACT

Paciente masculino, 27 anos, portador de HIV, com quadro de histoplasmose cutânea disseminada. Terapia antirretroviral oral e anfotericina B por via EV (dose total acumulada 0,5g) foram introduzidas, verificando-se rápida cicatrização das lesões após duas semanas. A anfotericina B foi substituída por itraconazol (200mg/dia). O paciente interrompeu voluntariamente os tratamentos. A terapia antirretroviral foi reintroduzida, havendo aumento da contagem de células T CD4-positivas (No restante do texto, a autora usa o símbolo "+" (T CD4+) ao invés da palavra "positiva". O que fazer neste caso? Seguimos o padrão do restante do texto ou acatamos essa opção da autora no resumo?!). Neste momento, diagnosticou-se histoplasmose ganglionar. O aumento da contagem de células T CD4-positivas (de novo aqui), associado à redução da carga viral a níveis inferiores ao limite de detecção após a reintrodução da terapia antirretroviral, sugere que essa piora clínica paradoxal seja uma síndrome de restauração imune.


A 27-year-old HIV-positive male patient with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis was treated with both HAART and amphotericin B (total accumulated dose of 0.5g). Amphotericin B was later replaced with itraconazole (200mg/day). Two months after therapy had been started and the cutaneous lesions had healed, the patient interrupted both treatments voluntarily and his health deteriorated. HAART was then re-introduced and CD4+ cell count increased sharply at the same time as lymph node histoplasmosis was diagnosed. This paradoxical response? the relapse of histoplasmosis and concomitant increase in CD4+ cell count and undetectable viral load after resumption of HAART ? suggests that this was a case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS).


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Histoplasmosis/complications , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Histoplasmosis/immunology , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/immunology , Medication Adherence , Viral Load
12.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2011 Apr-June; 29(2): 188-191
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143809

ABSTRACT

Disseminated cases of histoplasmosis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are rarely reported from India. Most of these cases report isolation of this fungus from the bone marrow, lymph node aspirate, spleenic aspirate, and biopsies. We report isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum from the blood of an AIDS patient. A 30-year-old male from Utter Pradesh was admitted with fever, loss of appetite, and nausea since two months. Few intracellular and extracellular budding cells were observed on bone marrow examination on the fifth day of admission. Diagnosis was confirmed by blood cultures taken on the 11th day of admission. Amphotericin B was started, but the patient's condition deteriorated and he died.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Adult , Blood/microbiology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Fungemia/diagnosis , Fungemia/microbiology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/microbiology , Humans , India , Male , Mycology/methods
13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 128(4): 236-238, July 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-566419

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by inhaling spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The spores can be found in soil contaminated with bird, bat or chicken feces. Histoplasmosis occurs worldwide and is one of the most common pulmonary and systemic mycoses. CASE REPORT: We report here the case of a 37-year-old man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and histoplasmosis in the nasal septum, without pulmonary involvement, that evolved rapidly to disseminated infection, multiple organ failure and death.


CONTEXTO: Histoplasmose é uma doença fúngica causada pela inalação de esporos do fungo Histoplasma capsulatum. Os esporos podem ser encontrados no solo contaminado com fezes de aves, morcegos ou galinhas. Histoplasmose ocorre em todo o mundo e é uma das mais comuns micoses pulmonares e sistêmicas. RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos aqui o caso de um homem de 37 anos com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida e histoplasmose no septo nasal sem envolvimento pulmonar que evoluiu rapidamente para infecção disseminada, falência de múltiplos órgãos e morte.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Histoplasmosis/complications , Nasal Septum/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Fatal Outcome
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 138(5): 586-589, mayo 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-553258

ABSTRACT

Histoplasmosis is an endemic deep mycosis produced by Histoplasma capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. It penetrates into the organism by inhalation and spreads by lymphatic or hematic route. We report a 57-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with an enlargement of the tongue that also exhibited white pseudomembranes. There were also nodular lesions in the dorsum of the tongue, separated by deep grooves. The pathological study revealed a chronic infammatory process with granulomas. The microbiological examination with the Giemsa technique showed multiple yeasts of 4-5 mm of diameter with a clear halo inside macrophages and epithelial cells, compatible with the parasitic phase of Histoplasma capsulatum. Serology was positive for the histoplasmine antigen. The patient was treated with Itraconazole 200 mg/day, experiencing 40 percent remission of lesions during the frst month of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Histoplasmosis/complications , Macroglossia/microbiology , Argentina , Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Macroglossia/pathology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(1): 27-31, Jan.-Feb. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-540508

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Desde o início da epidemia de HIV no Ceará, histoplasmose disseminada tem sido detectada com frequência em pacientes com aids. MÉTODOS: De modo a conhecer características clínico-laboratoriais, evolução e sobrevida da co-infecção HD/AIDS, analisou-se retrospectivamente 134 prontuários casos de HD internados de 1999 a 2005 no hospital referência para HIV no Ceará. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com HD apresentaram maior frequência de febre diária, tosse, perda de peso, hepatoesplenomegalia e insuficiência renal aguda. Diagnóstico foi dado por pesquisa e/ou cultura. À admissão, foram fatores de risco relacionados ao óbito de pacientes com HD: vômitos, dispnéia, insuficiência respiratória e IRA, hemoglobina<8g/L, uréia>40mg/dL e creatinina >1,5mg/dL. CONCLUSÕES: pacientes com HD apresentaram caracteristicamente febre mais elevada, internamentos anteriores por infecção respiratória, mais complicações clínicas e como fatores independentes para óbito, anemia importante e elevação de uréia.


INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in Ceará, disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) has often been detected among AIDS patients. METHODS: In order to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics, evolution and survival of cases of DH/AIDS coinfection, the medical records on 134 cases of DH admitted to a reference hospital in Ceará between 1999 and 2005 were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with DH presented higher frequency of daily fever, coughing, weight loss, enlarged liver and spleen and acute kidney failure. The diagnosis was made using investigation and/or cultures. At admission, the following were risk factors for death among DH patients: vomiting, dyspnea, respiratory failure, acute kidney failure, hemoglobin < 8g/l, urea > 40mg/dl and creatinine >1.5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DH characteristically presented higher fever, previous hospitalization due to respiratory infection and more clinical complications. Significant anemia and elevated urea were independent risk factors for death among DH patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Histoplasmosis/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
16.
Arch. argent. dermatol ; 60(5): 195-198, 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-648232

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una micosis profunda ampliamente distribuida con predominio en América y África. El agente causal es el Histoplasma capsulatum, hongo dimorfo cuya fuente de infección es la tierra o los excrementos de algunos animales. La conidia llega por vía hemática, incluyendo la piel. La histoplasmosis diseminada progresiva es una enfermedad producida por reactivación de la infección latente en huéspedes inmunosuprimidos, especialmente en personas con defectos de inmunidad mediada por células. Hay formas agudas, subagudas y crónicas en la enfermedad progresiva. Lesiones focales, especialmente úlceras mucocutáneas, son más frecuentes en las formas diseminadas crónicas. Presentamos una paciente con artritis reumatoidea tratado con anti factor de necrosis tumoral alfa, con lesiones en boca como única manifestación de histoplasmosis deseminada crónica. La histología fue compatible y los cultivos fueron positivos para Histoplasma capsulatum. Hay pocos casos publicados de esta forma aislada de presentación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Histoplasmosis/complications , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors
17.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2008; 29 (6): 904-906
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-90220

ABSTRACT

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. In the normal individual, both disseminated histoplasmosis and symptomatic adrenal histoplasmosis are rare. Herein, we describe the case of a 50-year-old gentleman residing in western Sudan who presented with a 7-month history of generalized body weakness, easy fatigue, and frequent attacks of vomiting and diarrhea. Physical examination and laboratory investigations confirmed the diagnosis of Addison's disease due to Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii infection of the adrenal glands. He was treated with intravenous hydrocortisone, followed by oral prednisolone and itraconazole


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasma , Adrenal Glands/microbiology , Fatigue , Vomiting , Diarrhea , Addison Disease/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone , Prednisolone , Itraconazole
20.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2007 May-Jun; 73(3): 209
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-52144

ABSTRACT

We are reporting a rare case of primary mucocutaneous histoplasmosis. A 47-year-old male with a part-time job of rearing pigeons presented with a non-healing oral ulcer with no associated systemic symptoms. Differential diagnosis of oral ulcerative lichen planus, squamous cell carcinoma and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was considered. Histopathology showed multiple organisms with a peripheral halo, stained strongly with Gomori methenamine silver stain.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Histoplasmosis/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oral Ulcer/microbiology
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