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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 641-644, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346518

ABSTRACT

Resumen Histoplasma capsulatum es un hongo ambiental que se encuentra distribuido comúnmente en los valles de los ríos Ohio y Mississippi, América Central, Sudamérica y Asia. Las zonas más afectadas en Argentina son las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y de La Plata. Los pacientes con histoplasmosis tienen una amplia variedad de manifestaciones clínicas. La mayoría son asintomáticos, mientras que aquellos con com promiso de la inmunidad celular tienen un riesgo aumentado de padecer la forma diseminada. Presentamos el caso de una mujer adulta, en tratamiento con metotrexato por una artritis seronegativa, que desarrolló la forma diseminada de la enfermedad, y que representó un desafío diagnóstico debido a la dificultad para identificar el agente etiológico.


Abstract Histoplasma capsulatum is an environmental fungus commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, Central and South America, and Asia. The most affected areas in Argentina are the Paraná and de La Plata river basins. Patients with histoplasmosis can have a wide range of clinical presentations. Most of them are asymptomatic, while those with compromised cellular immunity are at increased risk for the disseminated form. We present the case of a patient undergoing treatment with methotrexate for seronegative arthritis who developed the disseminated form of the disease, and who represented a diagnostic challenge due to the difficulty in identifying the etiologic agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Arthritis/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Argentina , Methotrexate , Histoplasma
2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRC5488, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249741

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The disease is endemic in several regions of tropical and temperate climate. The fungus presents opportunistic behavior, causing widespread infection in immunocompromised patients, resulting from complication of primary pulmonary infection, due to exogenous reinfection or reactivation of a quiescent source. In immunocompetent individuals, approximately 95% of pulmonary infections are asymptomatic. However, prolonged exposure to high amount spores may lead to acute or chronic lung infection. Due to the low amount of inoculum, primary cutaneous histoplasmosis caused by traumatic implantation is extremely rare and effectively treated with triazoles. Thus, the present study aims to report a case of primary cutaneous histoplasmosis that is difficult to treat in an immunocompetent patient, and to review the literature on the incidence of drug-resistant Histoplasma capsulatum strains in clinical practice.


RESUMO A histoplasmose é uma infecção causada pelo fungo dimórfico Histoplasma capsulatum. A doença é endêmica em diversas regiões de clima tropical e temperado. O fungo apresenta comportamento oportunístico, causando infecção disseminada em pacientes imunocomprometidos, resultante da complicação da infecção pulmonar primária, por reinfecção exógena ou reativação de um foco quiescente. Em indivíduos imunocompetentes, cerca de 95% das infecções pulmonares são assintomáticas. No entanto, a exposição prolongada à quantidade elevada de esporos pode levar à infecção pulmonar aguda ou crônica. Devido à baixa quantidade de inóculo, a histoplasmose cutânea primária causada por implantação traumática é extremamente rara e efetivamente tratada com triazóis. Assim, o presente estudo tem como objetivos relatar um caso de histoplasmose cutânea primária de difícil tratamento em paciente imunocompetente, e revisar a literatura a respeito da incidência de cepas de Histoplasma capsulatum resistentes aos fármacos utilizados na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Histoplasma
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180463, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057304

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic efficacy of daily amphotericin B infusion is related to its maximum concentration in blood; however, trough levels may be useful in intermittent regimens of this antifungal drug. METHODS : High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the minimum concentration (Cmin) of amphotericin B in the serum of patients receiving deoxycholate (D-Amph) or liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis (n=28), histoplasmosis (n=8), paracoccidioidomycosis (n=1), and leishmaniasis (n=1). RESULTS: Daily use of D-Amph 30 to 50 mg or L-AmB 50 mg resulted in a similar Cmin, but a significant increase ocurred with L-AmB 100 mg/day. The geometric mean Cmin tended to decrease with a reduction in the dose and frequency of intermittent L-AmB infusions: 357 ng/mL (100 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 263 ng/mL (50 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 227 ng/mL (50 mg 1 to 3 times/week). The impact on Cmin was variable in patients whose dose or therapeutic scheme was changed, especially when administered the intermittent infusion of amphotericin B. The mean Cmin for each L-AmB schedule of intermittent therapy was equal or higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B against Cryptococcus isolates from 10/12 patients. The Cmin of amphotericin B in patients with cryptococcal meningitis was comparable between those that survived or died. CONCLUSIONS: By evaluating the Cmin of amphotericin B, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of its intermittent use including in the consolidation phase of neurocryptococcosis treatment, despite the great variability in serum levels among patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/blood , Deoxycholic Acid/blood , Antifungal Agents/blood , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Deoxycholic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 287-290, ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040524

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis y la leishmaniasis son enfermedades olvidadas, endémicas en Argentina, y generalmente se asocian a inmunocompromiso. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 16 años, inmunocompetente, con histoplasmosis del sistema nervioso central y leishmaniasis cutánea. Inicialmente, el paciente presentó una lesión en la pierna de un mes de evolución seguida de paraparesia leve, diagnosticada como un proceso de desmielinización mediante estudios de imágenes. El cuadro fue tratado con altas dosis de corticoides y en 72 horas evolucionó a paraparesia grave con lesiones nodulares en las vértebras cervicales, observadas en las imágenes de resonancia magnética nuclear. Se aisló Histoplasma capsulatum de líquido cefalorraquídeo, genotípicamente identificado como perteneciente a la especie filogenética LamB. El paciente recibió tratamiento intravenoso con anfotericina B deoxicolato durante 30 días y posteriormente fluconazol e itraconazol oral durante un año. A los tres meses de iniciado el tratamiento con antifúngicos se reactivó la lesión de la pierna y en el examen directo se observaron amastigotes de Leishmania. La leishmaniasis cutánea fue tratada con antimoniato de meglumina intramuscular. La respuesta clínica al tratamiento de ambas enfermedades fue favorable.


Histoplasmosis and leishmaniasis are neglected and endemic diseases in Argentina, and generally are found associated with immunosuppression. We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-years-old man with simultaneous occurrence of central nervous system histoplasmosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Upon admission, the patient showed a one-month old skin lesion in a leg and mild paraparesis. Imaging studies detected thickening and edema in the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid analysis was within normal range. The case was diagnosed as a demyelinating disorder and treated with high-dose short-term steroids. Seventy-two hours later the patient showed severe paraparesis and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging revealed nodular lesions in the spinal cord. Histoplasma capsulatum belonging to the phylogenetic species LamB was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid samples. The patient received intravenous antifungal therapy with amphotericin B for 30 days, followed by oral fluconazole and itraconazole for one year. Three months after initiation of antifungal treatment, the cutaneous lesion recrudesced and Leishmania amastigotes were observed on microscopic examination. The cutaneous leishmaniasis was treated with intramuscular meglumine antimoniate. The patient´s outcome was favorable after treatment for both diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/complications , Histoplasmosis/complications , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Immunocompetence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(1): 95-97, Jan.-Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893819

ABSTRACT

Abstract Histoplasmosis is a fungus infection that mainly affects immunosuppressed patients. The authors present a case of a kidney transplant recipient who developed sepsis-like histoplasmosis, na atypical but severe manifestation of the disease. The fungus was found in blood and in a skin biopsy, and the treatment with liposomal amphotericin resulted in hepatotoxicity.


Resumo Histoplasmose é uma infecção fúngica que afeta principalmente pacientes imunossuprimidos. Os autores apresentam um caso de uma receptora de transplante de rim que desenvolveu histoplasmose disseminada, uma manifestação atípica, mas grave da doença. O fungo foi encontrado no sangue e na biópsia cutânea, e o tratamento com anfotericina lipossomal resultou em hepatotoxicidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Kidney Transplantation , Sepsis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome , Sepsis/drug therapy
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 11-15, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951617

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fluconazole is extensively used for the treatment of candidiasis and cryptococcosis. Among other factors, successful treatment is related to appropriate fluconazole levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. In the present study, fluconazole levels were determined in 15 patients, 14 of whom had AIDS and 13 had neurocryptococcosis. The only selection criterion was treatment with fluconazole, which was performed with a generic or similar form of the drug. Fluconazole level was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the susceptibility profile of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from the patients was assessed by broth microdilution. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid fluconazole levels were found to be related to the fluconazole daily dose, and exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration of this antifungal for the Cryptococcus spp. isolates. A good correlation was observed between serum and cerebrospinal fluid drug concentration. In conclusion, treatment with non-original fluconazole under usual medical practice conditions results in appropriate blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels of the drug for inhibiting Cryptococcus spp. susceptible to this antifungal drug. The relatively common failures of neurocryptococcosis treatment appear not to be due to insufficient fluconazole levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, especially with the use of daily doses of 400-800 mg.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Fluconazole/cerebrospinal fluid , Fluconazole/blood , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/cerebrospinal fluid , Antifungal Agents/blood , Reference Values , Candidiasis/cerebrospinal fluid , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/blood , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Treatment Outcome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cryptococcosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Cryptococcosis/blood , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Histoplasmosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/blood , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 671-679, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990850

ABSTRACT

Resumen La histoplasmosis diseminada es una micosis sistémica endémica, causada por el hongo dimórfico Histoplasma capsulatum. Las manifestaciones clínicas dependen de la carga fúngica inhalada, del estado inmunológico del paciente y de la virulencia de la cepa infectante. La variante diseminada es más frecuente en inmunocomprometidos, registrándose 90% de los casos en pacientes con serología positiva para VIH. En esta serie se evaluaron 37 pacientes con diagnóstico de infección por VIH e histoplasmosis diseminada. El 43,2% de los pacientes no sabía su serología en forma previa a la consulta por histoplasmosis. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron síndrome de impregnación (67,6%), fiebre (64,9%), síntomas respiratorios (62,2%) y manifestaciones muco-cutáneas (67,6%), entre otras. El 94,6% de los pacientes presentó anemia, 75,7% tenía bicitopenia y 32,4% pancitopenia. La sensibilidad de los hemocultivos fue de 70,4%. El 86,5% no tuvo otra infección oportunista concomitante al momento del diagnóstico. En 83,8% de los pacientes la histoplasmosis diseminada fue la primera enfermedad marcadora de SIDA. Se registró una mortalidad de 14,7%.


Disseminated histoplasmosis is an endemic systemic mycosis, caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The clinical manifestations depend on the inhaled fungal load, the immunological state of the patient and the virulence of the infecting fungal strain. The disseminated variant is most frequent in immunocompromised patients, with 90% of cases in patients with positive serology for HIV, In this series, 37 patients with diagnosis of HIV and disseminated histoplasmosis were evaluated. The 43.2% of the patients did not know their serology prior to the consultation due to histoplasmosis. The main clinical causes were impregnation syndrome (67.6%), fever (64.9%), respiratory symptoms (62.2%) and mucocutaneous manifestations (67.6%), among others. The 94.6% of the patients presented anemia, 75.7% had bicytopenia and 32.4% pancytopenia. The sensitivity of the blood cultures was 70.4%. The 86.5% of the patients did not have another opportunistic infection concomitant at the time of diagnosis. In 83.8% of patients, disseminated histoplasmosis was the first AIDS disease. A mortality of 14.7% was recorded.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Immunocompromised Host , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 613-614, dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042642

ABSTRACT

The dermatological manifestations of disseminated histoplasmosis present in about 17% of the cases, is a challenge for its diagnosis. We report the case of a patient from the northern coast of Peru, who presented diffuse dermal lesions, erythema-violaceous nodules, and ulcers histopathologically compatible with the infection of the genus Histoplasma var. capsulatum


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Peru , Biopsy , Treatment Outcome , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 365-369, ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899725

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La histoplasmosis es una infección fúngica endémica en Perú, y la co-infección con VIH conlleva dificultades diagnósticas y alta mortalidad asociada. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y desenlace clínico en pacientes con infección por VIH con diagnóstico de histoplasmosis diseminada (HD) en el Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, Lima-Perú. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo; se obtuvo información del registro informático de pacientes con infección por VIH con diagnóstico de HD, durante el período 1996-2014. Se describieron características clínicas, epidemiológicas, tratamiento y desenlace. Resultados: Se encontraron 27 pacientes, 25 (92,6%) fueron varones, con edad media de 36,7 años (± 9,4 años) y 22 (81,5%) tuvieron antecedente epidemiológico. Dieciséis (59,3%) tuvieron HD como enfermedad indicadora de SIDA. El recuento medio de LT CD4+ fue de 65 céls/mm3 (RIQ 15-92). Sólo siete (25,9%) recibían al momento del diagnóstico terapia anti-retroviral combinada. La presentación clínica más frecuente fue con fiebre (66,7%), diarrea crónica (40,7%) y linfoadenopatías (33,3%); el diagnóstico fue realizado principalmente mediante histopatología. Seis (22,2%) fallecieron en la etapa aguda de la enfermedad. Siete (25,9%) fueron tratados inicialmente de forma empírica como tuberculosis. Conclusiones: Se describen las características clínicas de un grupo de pacientes que tuvieron HD como co-infección de VIH, siendo esto aún una realidad cuasi endémica en los pacientes que sufren esta patología.


Background: Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection in Peru and HIV coinfection leads to difficult diagnoses and high associated mortality. Aim: To describe clinical, epidemiological and clinical outcomes in patients with HIV infection with diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) at Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital, Lima, Peru. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive study; information was obtained from the computer registry of patients with HIV infection diagnosed with DH, during the period 1996-2014. Clinical, epidemiological, treatment and outcome characteristics were described. Results: We found 27 patients, 25 (92.6%) were male, with a mean age of 36.7 years (± 9.4 years) and 22 (81.5%) had an epidemiological history contact. Sixteen patients (59.3%) had DH as an AIDS defining disease. The median CD4 count was 65 cells/mm3 (IQR 15-92). Only 7 (25.9%) received combination antiretroviral therapy at diagnosis. The most common clinical presentation was fever (66.7%), chronic diarrhea (40.7%) and lymphadenopathy (33.3%). The diagnosis was made mainly by histopathology. Six (22.2%) patiens died in the acute stage of the disease. Seven (25.9%) were initially treated empirically as tuberculosis. Conclusion: We describe the clinical characteristics of a group of patients who had DH as HIV coinfection and this is still a quasi endemic reality in patients suffering from this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Peru , Retrospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Coinfection , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5,supl.1): 107-109, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887086

ABSTRACT

Abstract This case report describes an uncommon manifestation of histoplasmosis on the soft palate. The importance of appropriate treatment and follow-up in complex cases is emphasized, especially in patients with chronic diseases. Oral lesions may occur as multiple, granular and painful ulcers, as well as verrucous growths. Lesions may also be deep, with infiltrative edges and erythematous or with white areas, accompanied by local lymphadenopathy, resembling a carcinoma on clinical examination. In this sense, a fast and accurate diagnosis is essential to the success of treatment of oral histoplasmosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Palate, Soft/microbiology , Palate, Soft/pathology , Oral Ulcer/microbiology , Oral Ulcer/pathology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Biopsy , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Fatal Outcome , Oral Ulcer/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Autops. Case Rep ; 6(4): 27-33, Oct.-Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905080

ABSTRACT

Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycoses among HIV-infected people. Patients with suppressed cell immunity mainly due to HIV are at increased risk of disseminated disease. Dermatological manifestations of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and cutaneous manifestations of histoplasmosis similar to an IRIS event have been previously described. We report the case of a 43-year-old male who presented with cutaneous disseminated histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum 4 months after the onset of the antiretroviral therapy and some improvement in the immune reconstitution. After 2 weeks of amphotericin B and itraconazole therapy, the scheduled treatment involved fluconazole maintenance therapy, which resulted in an improvement of his skin lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Skin/injuries
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(5): 546-548, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764497

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTFungal arthritis is a rare complication of arthroscopic surgeries, but its possibility should always be considered due its deleterious effects on any joint. Infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is the most common cause of respiratory tract infections by fungi, meanwhile histoplasmosis arthritis is more rare than all other fungal infections. However, their atypical forms of arthritis and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment cannot be over-emphasized. Herein we report a case of knee monoarthritis in an immunocompetent patient with histoplasmosis arthritis following an arthroscopic meniscetomy, diagnosed by synovial biopsy and culture performed during a second arthroscopic procedure. The joint was debrided in this second intervention and the patient received itraconazole initially and fluconazole latter on. The arthritis subsided after 10 months of treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Arthritis, Infectious/diagnosis , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Knee Joint/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy , Arthritis, Infectious/etiology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/etiology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3,supl.1): 32-35, May-June 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755767

ABSTRACT

Abstract

We present a case of disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in a male patient, rural worker, HIV positive for 20 years, with a history of irregular use of antiretroviral therapy, T cell counts below 50 cells/mm3 and with good response to treatment with Itraconazole. We highlight importance of skin lesions in clarifying early diagnosis, since this co-infection often leads patients to death.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Histoplasmosis/immunology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Immunocompetence/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Biopsy , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(2): 255-257, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741072

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old male presenting a 3-month history of genital painless erythematous nodules in the balanopreputial sulcus was referred to our service. Histopathological exam presented a chronic dermatitis with epithelioid granulomas and Grocott staining revealed numerous fungal structures with a suggestive morphology of Histoplasma sp. Cultures evidenced Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. Treatment with oral itraconazole led to complete remission of lesions.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Immunocompetence , Penile Diseases/pathology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/immunology , Immunocompetence/immunology , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Penile Diseases/drug therapy , Penile Diseases/immunology , Treatment Outcome
17.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 506-513, oct.-dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730933

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una afección polifacética producida por el hongo dimorfo Histoplasma capsulatum , cuyas esporas son inhaladas y llegan al pulmón, órgano primario de infección. La forma meníngea, considerada como una de las manifestaciones más graves de esta micosis, suele presentarse en individuos con alteraciones en la inmunidad celular: pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana adquirida, con lupus eritematoso sistémico o con trasplante de órgano sólido, así como en lactantes, debido a su inmadurez inmunológica. La forma de presentación más usual es de resolución espontánea y se observa en individuos inmunocompetentes que se han expuesto a altas concentraciones de conidias y fragmentos miceliares del hongo. En estas personas, la afección se manifiesta por trastornos pulmonares y por la posterior diseminación a otros órganos y sistemas. Se presenta un caso de histoplasmosis del sistema nervioso central en un niño inmunocompetente.


Histoplasmosis is a multifaceted condition caused by the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum whose infective spores are inhaled and reach the lungs, the primary organ of infection. The meningeal form, considered one of the most serious manifestations of this mycosis, is usually seen in individuals with impaired cellular immunity such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous or solid organ transplantation, and infants given their immunological immaturity. The most common presentation is self-limited and occurs in immunocompetent individuals who have been exposed to high concentrations of conidia and mycelia fragments of the fungi. In those people, the condition is manifested by pulmonary disorders and late dissemination to other organs and systems. We report a case of central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent child.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Diagnostic Errors , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Meningitis, Fungal/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Device Removal , Headache/etiology , Histoplasma/immunology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmin/blood , Histoplasmin/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Hydrocephalus/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hypokalemia/etiology , Immunocompetence , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Fungal/complications , Meningitis, Fungal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Vancomycin Resistance , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/adverse effects
18.
Colomb. med ; 45(4): 186-189, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747585

ABSTRACT

Laryngeal histoplasmosis is a fungal infection that is frequent in Colombia. Laryngeal histoplasmosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients through the dissemination of the fungus from the lungs to other organs. Histoplasmosis isolated laryngeal (primary) is rare. If a patient presents with a history of immunosuppression by renal transplant, primary laryngeal histoplasmosis with supraglottic granulomatous inflammation that was treated with amphotericin B and Itraconazole, with complete resolution of laryngeal lesions.


Histoplasmosis es una infección fúngica que es frecuente en Colombia. La histoplasmosis laríngea por lo general se presenta en pacientes inmunocomprometidos por la difusión del hongo desde los pulmones a otros órganos. La enfermedad laríngea aislada (primaria) es rara. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con antecedente de inmunosupresión por trasplante renal, con histoplasmosis laríngea primaria que produjo inflamación granulomatosa supraglótica, tratado con Anfotericina B e Itraconazol, con resolución completa de las lesiones laríngeas.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Laryngeal Diseases/microbiology , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Colombia , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Itraconazole/administration & dosage , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Laryngeal Diseases/drug therapy
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156366

ABSTRACT

Background. Disseminated histoplasmosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. Clinical presentation can vary from the acute pulmonary to the chronic disseminated form. In India, disseminated histoplasmosis often presents with pyrexia of unknown origin with a presentation similar to ‘disseminated tuberculosis’ involving the adrenal glands and bone marrow. Due to rarity of the disease, data are lacking regarding its clinical presentation and outcome among immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Methods. During January 2000 to December 2010, we identified 37 patients of disseminated histoplasmosis and attempted to characterize the differences between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, risk factors, laboratory findings, diagnostic yield, treatment received and prognosis were noted and compared between the two groups. Results. Eleven of 37 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis were immunocompromised and 26 were immunocompetent. Comparison of their clinical features showed a higher frequency of skin lesions in the immunocompromised compared to the immunocompetent group (54.5% v. 11.5%). Pancytopenia and anaemia were more common among the immunocompromised (81.8%) compared to the immunocompetent (46.2%) group. In the immunocompromised patients, the diagnosis was made most often by bone marrow aspirate and culture (72.7%) compared to the immunocompromised group where the diagnosis was most often obtained by adrenal gland biopsy and fungal cultures (57.7%). The cure rate was significantly higher in the immunocompetent group (73% v. 45%). Conclusion. The clinical presentation and outcome of patients with disseminated histoplasmosis differs among immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands/pathology , Adult , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Bone Marrow/pathology , Female , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Pancytopenia/immunology , Pancytopenia/microbiology , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/microbiology , Treatment Outcome
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