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1.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(3): 31-38, sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553365

ABSTRACT

La viruela fue una de las enfermedades epidémicas más temidas desde la antigüedad debido a su alta mortalidad y a las secuelas que dejaba en aquellos que lograban sobrevivir. En el presente trabajo se abordará el ingreso de esta enfermedad en nuestro continente, así como su manifestación a través de epidemias, brotes y focos endémicos. Al mismo tiempo se verá qué reacciones provocó dentro del ámbito médico durante los años del Virreinato del Río de la Plata. Se analizarán los problemas que surgieron con el uso de la vacuna importada, así como el hallazgo de nuestra vacuna local, finalizando con los comienzos de la organización de los servicios de vacunación obligatoria. (AU)


Smallpox was one of the most feared epidemic diseases since ancient times due to its high mortality and the sequelae caused in those that managed to survive. In the present work, the introduction of this disease into our continent will be addressed as well as its manifestation through epidemics, outbreaks, and endemic foci. At the same time, the reactions this disease caused inside the medical field during the years of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata will be observed. The problems that arose from the usage of the imported vaccine and the discovery of our local vaccine will be analyzed, and it will finish with the beginnings of the organization of the mandatory vaccination services. (AU)


Subject(s)
History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , Smallpox/history , Smallpox/epidemiology , Smallpox Vaccine/history , Americas , Smallpox/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/history , Vaccination/history , Epidemics/history
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 819-824, jun. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514289

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The spread of the idea that the human body should be learned from cadavers, especially under the leadership of Vesalius, and the strong support of this idea among surgeons and medical students of that period, led to the emergence of anatomy theatres, particularly in the rich centres of Western Europe. Anatomy theatres have become prestigious places that make contributions to financial income for the cities they are located in. They have contributed to the importance of universities with the students they attract. Anatomy has become a more visual and international science because of the spread of anatomical drawings in scientific medical books, the newly invented printing press making it easier to print more books and the increasing interest of the people of the period. Learning medicine has become easier with the spread of visual anatomy books and cadaver studies. Cadaver studies and anatomy theatres, which started to become widespread under the leadership of brave science warriors such as Vesalius, who lived in the Renaissance period, became the subject of the paintings of painters of the period such as Rembrandt under the name anatomy activities. It is beneficial and necessary for society to keep in memory what this period brought to the world of anatomy and the present with its historical processes.


La difusión de la idea de que el cuerpo humano se debe aprender a partir de cadáveres, especialmente bajo el liderazgo de Vesalius, y el fuerte apoyo de esta idea entre los cirujanos y estudiantes de medicina de ese período, condujo al surgimiento de las salas de anatomía, particularmente en los ricos centros de Europa Occidental. Las salas de anatomía se han convertido en lugares de prestigio que contribuyen a los ingresos económicos de las ciudades en las que están ubicados y han contribuido a la importancia de las universidades con los estudiantes que atraen. La anatomía se ha convertido en una ciencia más visual e internacional debido a la difusión de los dibujos anatómicos en los libros médicos científicos, la imprenta recién inventada que facilita la impresión de libros y el creciente interés de la gente de la época. Aprender medicina se ha vuelto más fácil con la difusión de libros de anatomía visual y estudios de cadáveres. Los estudios de cadáveres y las salas de anatomía, que comenzaron a generalizarse bajo el liderazgo de valientes guerreros de la ciencia como Vesalius, que vivió en el Renacimiento, se convirtieron en el tema de las pinturas de artistas de la época como Rembrandt bajo el nombre de actividades de anatomía. Es beneficioso y necesario que la sociedad guarde en la memoria lo que este período trajo al mundo de la anatomía y el presente con sus procesos históricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , Anatomy/education , Anatomy/history , Cadaver , Dissection/education , Dissection/history , Europe, Eastern
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243588, 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422396

ABSTRACT

O artigo parte da aposta na pesquisa como uma prática em movimento, na composição de territórios do ato de pesquisar como uma experiência. Inspiradas(os) na força disruptiva do torcer-retorcer dos Parafusos (folguedo sergipano, derivado de práticas de resistência à escravidão dos povos pretos), propomos um método-pensamento de inventar modos de ver, dizer e narrar a partir daquilo que está ao nosso redor, uma posição em relação ao mundo e a si mesmo, engendrando a ideia de que este mundo não é um dado, mas um efeito de nossas práticas. A partir dessa perspectiva, intentamos interpelar as próprias práticas discursivas e não discursivas da Psicologia, em favor de abrir trilhas nas quais esse saber possa refundar sua própria história, acentuando suas descontinuidades e heterogeneidades e, com isso, uma atitude de fazer frente às tendências colonialistas, agora em suas versões neoliberais. Esse modo de pesquisar se faz por: operar uma ideia-método genealógico-cartográfica e uma escrita polifônica; produzir máquinas de guerras nômades, minoritárias, pós-identitárias, decoloniais; e inventar com aquilo que está ao nosso redor em favor de saberes e fazeres das redes locais, que, tais como a planta mangabeira, não se deixam domesticar.(AU)


The article starts from the research as a moving practice; in the composition of territories of the act of researching as an experience. Inspired by the disruptive force of the twisting-twining of the Screws (revelry from Sergipe, derived from practices of resistance to the slavery of black people), we propose a thought-method of inventing ways of seeing, saying, and narrating from what is around us, a position in relation to the world and itself, engendering the idea that this world is not a given, but an effect of our practices. From this perspective, we try to question the very discursive and non-discursive practices of Psychology, in favor of opening trails, in which this knowledge can refund its own history, accentuating its discontinuities and heterogeneities and, thus, an attitude of facing the colonialist tendencies, now in their neoliberal versions. This way of searching is done by: operating a genealogical-cartographic idea-method and polyphonic writing; producing nomadic, minority, post-identity, decolonial war machines; and inventing with what is around us, in favor of knowledge and practices of local networks, which, like the mangabeira plant, do not allow domestication.(AU)


Este artículo parte de la investigación como práctica en movimiento, en la composición de territorios del acto de investigar como experiencia. Inspirándonos en la fuerza disruptiva de torsión-retorsión de los Tornillos (juerga de Sergipe, derivada de prácticas de resistencia a la esclavitud de los negros), proponemos un método de pensamiento para inventar formas de ver, decir y narrar a partir de lo que nos rodea, una posición en relación con el mundo y con él mismo, el cual constituye la idea de que este mundo no es un hecho, sino un efecto de nuestras prácticas. Desde esta perspectiva, pretendemos cuestionar las prácticas discursivas y no discursivas de la Psicología en favor de abrir caminos, en las cuales este conocimiento pueda refundar su propia historia, acentuando sus discontinuidades y heterogeneidades y, así, una actitud de hacer ante las prácticas colonialistas, ahora desde una perspectiva neoliberal. Este modo de investigación se realiza mediante: el funcionamiento de un método-idea de escritura genealógica, cartográfica y polifónica; la producción de máquinas de guerra nómadas, minoritarias y posidentitarias; y la composición con el tema que nos rodea a favor del conocimiento y las redes locales que no puede ser domesticada, como el árbol mangabeira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Psychology , Research , Inventions , Handwriting , Life Change Events , Poverty , Brazil , Mental Health , Culture , Dancing , Black People , Folklore , Quilombola Communities , History , Human Rights , Memory , Anthropology
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42(spe): e263587, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1386984

ABSTRACT

A constituição da psicologia como profissão e área acadêmico-científica se nutriu de saberes psicológicos presentes no campo cultural. A ciência e a profissão desdobram tais saberes em atenção a demandas do campo social. Quando esses conhecimentos, práticas e demandas são ingênua ou intencionalmente tomados como gerais e universais, há o risco de se reproduzir violências epistêmicas, eliminando as oportunidades de partilha e contribuição dos diversos pontos de vista culturalmente situados na construção daquilo que, desdobrando tradições greco-romanas, judaicas e cristãs vem sendo nomeado como psicologia. Diante dos 60 anos da regulamentação da Psicologia no Brasil, embora nas últimas décadas tenha havido algum esforço de escuta das demandas indígenas, em Pindorama ainda há um longo percurso para que as contribuições desses povos impliquem profundas retificações semânticas, implicando revisões conceituais e teórico-práticas. Este artigo defende que qualificar a psicologia como indígena visa oportunizar o diálogo de indígenas psicólogas e psicólogos, e quaisquer pessoas interessadas em refletir sobre o enraizamento dos conhecimentos e práticas psicológicas nas tradições que os originaram.(AU)


As a profession and academic-scientific area, Psychology was nourished by psychological knowledge that circulate on the cultural sphere, which the discipline unfolds in practices to meet social demands. When this knowledge, these practices and demands are naively or intentionally taken as universal, we risk reproducing epistemic violence, suppressing opportunities for sharing and contribution by different points of view culturally situated in the construction of what, based on Greco-Roman, Jewish and Christian traditions has been called psychology. Sixty years after the regulation of Psychology in Brazil, despite the efforts made in the last decades to listen to the Indigenous demands, Pindorama has a long way to go before these contributions ensue deep semantic ramifications, leading to conceptual and theoretical-practical revisions. This paper argues that qualifying psychology as Indigenous aims to provide opportunities for dialogue for indigenous psychologists, other psychologists, and anyone interested in reflecting on the diverse roots of psychological practices.(AU)


La constitución de la Psicología en tanto profesión y campo académico-científico estuvo conformada de saberes psicológicos presentes en el campo cultural. La ciencia y la profesión despliegan tales saberes en atención a las demandas del campo social. Cuando estos saberes, prácticas y demandas son considerados ingenua o intencionalmente como generales y universales, existe un riesgo de reproducir violencias epistémicas, eliminando oportunidades para compartir y aportar desde los diferentes puntos de vista culturalmente situados en la construcción de lo que desde tradiciónes griegas, romanas, judías y cristianas se viene nombrando la Psicología. Frente a los 60 años de regulación de la Psicología en Brasil, si bien en las últimas décadas hubo algún esfuerzo por escuchar las demandas indígenas, en Pindorama aún queda un largo camino por recorrer para que los aportes de estos pueblos impliquen profundas correcciones semánticas y revisiones conceptuales, teóricas y prácticas. Este artículo argumenta que calificar la Psicología como indígena pretende brindar espacios de diálogo entre psicólogas y psicólogos indígenas, y los demás interesados en reflexionar sobre el arraigo de las prácticas psicológicas en diferentes tradiciones.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 16th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Psychology , Social Behavior , Violence , Communication , Knowledge , Indigenous Culture , Ethnocentrism , Thinking , Brazil , Cultural Diversity , Europe , Indigenous Peoples , Health Occupations , Latin America , Persons
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(supl.1): 187-208, out.-dez. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360471

ABSTRACT

Resumen La historia de los animales analiza las relaciones entre sociedades humanas y animales no-humanos en el pasado. Como subcampo académico, la historia animal se remonta a la década de 1980, pero tiene sus antecedentes. En América Latina, existe una rica tradición de escritos sobre animales del siglo XVI en adelante. Las últimas décadas han visto un gran número de textos históricos sobre animales en América Latina que cubre temas variados: animales domésticos, animales y conquista militar, animales y ciencia, animales y el intercambio colombino, entre otros. Brasil, México y el Caribe han recibido gran parte de la atención. Este ensayo recapitula esta literatura e identifica patrones, problemáticas, y debates.


Abstract The animal history analyzes the relationships between human societies and non-human animals in the past. As an academic subfield, animal history dates back to the 1980s, but it has its antecedents. In Latin America, there is a rich tradition of writing about animals from the sixteenth century onwards. The last decades have seen a large number of historical texts on animals in Latin America that cover various topics: domestic animals, animals and military conquest, animals and science, animals and the Columbian exchange, among others. Brazil, Mexico, and the Caribbean have received much of the attention. This essay recapitulates this literature and identifies patterns, issues, and debates.


Subject(s)
Human-Animal Interaction , Latin America , Animals , History, 16th Century , History, 21st Century
10.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 29(2): 31-40, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364283

ABSTRACT

Resumen El Plomo ha tenido una estrecha relación con el mundo artístico pictórico a través de los pigmentos utilizados por los artistas durante milenios. El íntimo contacto con sustancias químicas potencialmente peligrosas para la salud, casi siempre sin medidas de higiene y seguridad laboral, ha desarrollado en muchos casos, enfermedades laborales en estos artistas, a veces sospechadas y en otros casos, más que confirmadas. En el presente trabajo se analiza la historia de vida laboral de Miguel Angel Buonarroti, de quien se tiene registro suficiente como para establecer un nexo causal con exposición laboral al Plomo.


Abstract Lead has shown a close relationship with the fine arts'world through the pigments used by artists for thousand of years. Close contact with potentially dangerous chemical substances for health, almost always without occupational hygiene and safety measures, has produced, in many cases, occupational illnesses in these artists, sometimes suspected and in other cases, more than confirmed. In the present work, the history of Miguel Angel Buonarroti's working life is analyzed, since there is sufficient record to establish a causal link with occupational exposure to Lead.


Subject(s)
History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , Paintings/history , Tinnitus/chemically induced , Famous Persons , Lead Poisoning/complications , Occupational Diseases/chemically induced , Paint/poisoning , Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Adult/complications
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(3): 332-345, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285074

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study of skin, the science of dermatology, has undergone significant transformations throughout the centuries. From the first descriptions of skin diseases in Egyptian papyri and in Hippocratic writings to the first treatises on dermatology, important individuals and discoveries have marked the specialty. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the specialty consolidated itself as a field of medical study based on the first classifications of dermatoses, diagnostic methods, and drug treatments. In the 20th century, the scientific and technological revolution transformed dermatological practice, incorporating new therapeutic resources, as well as surgical and aesthetic procedures. In the face of such a vigorous process, it is important to provide a historical synthesis for the medical community to recognize and understand the origins that supported one of the most relevant specialties in the current medical scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/therapy , Dermatology , Skin , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Egypt , Esthetics
12.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(2): 491-508, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279139

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oscar Nerval de Gouvêa was a scientist and teacher in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose work spanned engineering, medicine, the social sciences, and law. This paper presents and discusses a manuscript entitled "Table of mineral classification," which he appended to his dissertation Da receptividade mórbida , presented to the Faculty of Medicine in 1889. The foundations and features of the table provide a focus for understanding nineteenth-century mineralogy and its connections in Brazil at that time through this scientist. This text was Gouvêa's contribution to the various mineral classification systems which have emerged from different parts of the world.


Resumo Oscar Nerval de Gouvêa foi um cientista e professor no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, cuja obra abrange engenharia, medicina, ciências sociais e direito. Este artigo apresenta e discute o texto intitulado "Tabela de classificação mineral", que ele anexou a sua tese Da receptividade mórbida, apresentada na Escola Superior de Medicina, em 1889. Os fundamentos e características da tabela propiciam a compreensão da mineralogia do século XIX e suas conexões no Brasil à época por intermédio desse cientista. O texto foi a contribuição de Gouvêa aos diversos sistemas de classificação de minerais originados de diferentes partes do mundo.


Subject(s)
History, 16th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Geology/history , Homeopathy/history , Minerals/history , Brazil , History, Ancient , Minerals/classification
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 527-532, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385347

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La dehiscencia timpánica o Foramen de Huschke se considera un rasgo craneal morfológico menor, hipostósico, no estocástico, transitorio, ubicado en la placa timpánica del hueso temporal, cuya expresión se considera fisiológica hasta los 5 años de edad. La mención de este rasgo en la literatura es escasa, generando controversias entre de los anatomistas que la han descrito. El epónimo Huschke, anatomista alemán, quien ha sido mencionado como el primero en observarla en 1844. Sin embargo, existen antecedentes de que dicha característica ósea fue previamente descrita por otros autores casi 200 años antes. La actual denominación, dehiscencia timpánica, fue dada en 1878 por Bürkner, siendo aceptada hasta el día de hoy. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar un análisis histórico de la descripción morfológica de la dehiscencia timpánica en la literatura anatómica especializada.


SUMMARY: Tympanic dehiscence or Huschke's Foramen is considered a minor, hypostosic, non-stochastic, transitory morphological cranial feature, located in the tympanic plate of the temporal bone, whose expression is considered physiological up to 5 years of age. The mention of this feature in the literature is scarce, generating controversy among the anatomists who have described it. The eponymous Huschke, a German anatomist, who has been mentioned as the first to observe it in 1844. However, there is a history that this bone characteristic was previously described by other authors almost 200 years earlier. The current name, tympanic dehiscence, was given in 1878 by Bürkner, being accepted until today. The objective of this article is to carry out a historical analysis of the morphological description of tympanic dehiscence in specialized anatomical literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Anatomy/history
14.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(1): 7-13, ene.-feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412860

ABSTRACT

Este artículo presenta una historia general de las epidemias históricas y de las nuevas enfermedades emergentes, señalando sus factores desencadenantes. Se afirma que las epidemias son inevitables, y que su riesgo aumenta en proporción al tamaño, la complejidad y el poder tecnológico de nuestras sociedades. La historia enseña que las epidemias han sido casi siempre desencadenadas por cambios en el ambiente ocasionados por las propias actividades humanas. Las enfermedades infecciosas son manifestación de una interacción ecológica entre la especie humana y otra especie de microorganismos. Y las epidemias son resultado del cambio en algún factor ambiental capaz de influir en esa interacción. Las catástrofes epidémicas son inevitables: en primer lugar, porque no podemos evitar formar parte de cadenas tróficas en las que comemos y somos comidos por los microbios; en segundo lugar, porque las infecciones son mecanismos evolutivos y factores reguladores del equilibrio ecológico, que regulan sobre todo el tamaño de las poblaciones; y, en tercer lugar, porque las intervenciones técnicas humanas, al modificar los equilibrios previos, crean equilibrios nuevos que son más vulnerables. De este modo las sociedades humanas son más vulnerables cuanto más complejas. Y los éxitos humanos en la modificación de condiciones ambientales conservan, o más bien aumentan, el riesgo de catástrofes epidémicas. Todas las necesarias medidas de vigilancia y control epidemiológico imaginables pueden disminuir los daños que producen las epidemias, pero nunca podrán evitarlas.


This article presents a general history of historical epidemics, and new emerging diseases, pointing out their triggers. It is claimed that epidemics are inevitable, and that their risk increases in proportion to the size, complexity, and technological power of our societies. History teaches that epidemics have almost always been triggered by changes in the environment caused by human activities themselves. Infectious diseases are manifestations of an ecological interaction between the human species and another species of microorganisms. And epidemics are the result of a change in some environmental factor capable of influencing that interaction. Epidemic catastrophes are inevitable: firstly, because we cannot help but be part of trophic chains in which we eat and are eaten by microbes; secondly, because infections are evolutionary mechanisms and regulatory factors of ecological balance, which regulate especially the size of populations; and thirdly, because human technical interventions, in changing previous balances, create new balances that are more vulnerable. In this way human societies are more vulnerable the more complex. And human successes in modifying environmental conditions retain, or rather increase, the risk of epidemic catastrophes. All necessary epidemiological surveillance and control measures imaginable can lessen the damage caused by epidemics, but they can never prevent them.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Communicable Diseases/history , Pandemics/history , History of Medicine , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vulnerable Populations
15.
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145942

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El "Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis" (Librito de las Hierbas Medicinales de los Indios) fue elaborado por los sabios indígenas Martín De la Cruz y Juan Badiano, 31 años después de la caída del imperio azteca. El primero es su autor, el segundo tradujo el manuscrito del Náhuatl al latín. Contiene numerosas recetas para tratar enfermedades humanas y 185 dibujos a color de las plantas utilizadas. En 1939 se publicó por primera vez como "Un Herbario Azteca". Empero, también contiene enfermedades y prácticas médicas europeas del siglo XVI. Presentamos una revisión actualizada de este hermoso códice, su historia, concepción, creadores y botánica; además, la química y farmacología de cinco plantas ahí citadas. El Libellus es una ventana en el tiempo que permite la investigación científica del antiguo conocimiento etnofarmacológico en Mesoamérica y documentar su persistencia, desaparición o transformación. Sin embargo, esto requiere superar desafíos lingüísticos, pero también derivados de su contexto histórico, antropológico, cultural, botánico y médico.


Abstract: The "Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis" (Little Book of Indian Medicinal Plants) was composed by the indigenous sages Martín De la Cruz and Juan Badiano, 31 years after the Aztec Empire fall. The former was the author, and the latter translated the manuscript from the Nahuatl language to Latin. It contains numerous recipes for treating human diseases and 185 colored drawings of the prescribed plants. In 1939 it was first published as "An Aztec Herbarium". However, it also contains XVI century European diseases and medical practices. We present an updated review of this beautiful codex, its history, conception, creators, and botany; as well as, the chemistry and pharmacology of five plants therein cited. The Libellus is a window in the time that allows the scientific research of ancient ethnopharmacological knowledge in Mesoamerica and document its persistence, disappearance, or transformation. However, this requires overcoming linguistic defies, but also derived from its historical, anthropological, cultural, botanical, and medical context.


Subject(s)
History, 16th Century , Plants, Medicinal , Science/history , Americas , Ethnopharmacology , Mexico
16.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1284515

ABSTRACT

Justificación: la bibliografía sobre delitos sexuales en el periodo de dominación hispánica en América (1492-1821) es escasa, existiendo importantes vacíos historiográficos que dificultan la reconstrucción de un panorama general del proceso penal conducido en esa época, por lo que, investigar el peritaje conducido en los casos de violación es un primer paso para rastrear la evolución del tratamiento de esos casos en las instituciones judiciales. Objetivo: describir cómo se ejecutaba el peritaje forense en los casos de violación sucedidos en la Honduras previo a su independencia política de España. Metodología: se adoptó un enfoque cualitativo con un diseño exploratorio, utilizándose fuentes primarias que fueron seleccionadas mediante muestreo no probabilístico. Resultados: se logró identificar dos casos en los cuales se hizo recurso de peritos para confirmar una violación. En ambos las expertas tenían el oficio de partera, brindando declaraciones que reflejan una falta de preparación profesional y un conocimiento basado en la experiencia. Las declaraciones fueron transcritas conservándose la ortografía de la época y comentadas para ubicarlas en su contexto. Conclusión: en la Honduras de los años previos a la independencia se realizaba un peritaje forense en casos de violación basado en la experiencia laboral de los peritos y no en información científica o preparación académica, esto condujo a que los juicios de los expertos se vieran afectados por sus sesgos culturales...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , Sex Offenses/history , Coroners and Medical Examiners , Rape , Midwifery
18.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 474-481, sep.-oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249949

ABSTRACT

Resumen El análisis de tres personajes correspondientes a espacios y tiempos diferentes muestra el estrecho vínculo entre la literatura y la historia de la medicina. Por un lado, don Quijote de la Mancha, quien refleja el pensamiento de los últimos años del Renacimiento y ha sido asimilado en el México contemporáneo. Por otro lado, los doctores Miguel Francisco Jiménez y Rita Levi Montalcini, quienes vivieron en los siglos XIX y XX, respectivamente. A pesar de los años que separan a los tres personaje, se advierten numerosos elementos en común que no pierden vigencia: el valor que se otorga a la salud, la ética, la tenacidad y la experiencia para obtener resultados exitosos, entre otros. Los tres personajes aluden a la medicina de su tiempo, los logros alcanzados y la promoción del humanismo, siempre inherente a la medicina.


Abstract The analysis of three characters corresponding to different spaces and times shows the close link between literature and the history of medicine. On one hand, Don Quixote of La Mancha, who reflects the thought of the last years of the Renaissance and that has been assimilated in contemporary Mexico. On the other hand, Doctors Miguel Francisco Jiménez and Rita Levi Montalcini who lived in the 19th and 20th centuries, respectively. Despite the years that separate these three personalities, many elements in common are observed that do not lose their validity: the value that is given to health, ethics, tenacity and experience to attain successful results. All three characters refer to the medicine of their time, their achievements and the promotion of humanism, always inherent to medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Medicine in Literature/history , Nobel Prize , Nerve Growth Factor/history , Italy , Mexico
19.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 133(3): 30-40, sept. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425294

ABSTRACT

Se explica el origen de los términos cirugía plástica y rinoplastia, así como los inicios de la especialidad y de esta cirugía nasal. Se exponen cuáles fueron las necesidades que atendieron y qué lugar ocuparon la reparación y la reconstrucción en la historia y la filosofía de la medicina. La cirugía plástica se instaló como la disciplina quirúrgica encargada de buscar la recuperación de la identidad perdida. (AU)


The origin of the terms of "plastic surgery" and "Rhinoplasty" is explained, as well as the beginning of the specialty and this nasal surgery. It explains what his need was and how he filled that gap, the repair and reconstruction in the history and philosophy of medicine. It was installed as the surgical discipline in charge of seeking the recovery of the lost identity. (AU)


Subject(s)
History, Ancient , History, Medieval , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Rhinoplasty/history , Plastic Surgery Procedures/history , Philosophy, Medical , History of Medicine
20.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 4(3): 300-304, jul.set.2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381999

ABSTRACT

Girolamo Cardano, médico italiano do Renascimento, descreveu em suas memórias o tratamento detalhado de um arcebispo escocês que apresentava, havia mais de 10 anos, um quadro de asma grave. O tratamento, sem paralelo na história da Medicina até então, foi um verdadeiro sucesso, ajudando a firmar o nome de Cardano como um dos mais lidos e admirados personagens dos séculos XVI e XVII. Uma possível interpretação para a melhora significativa apresentada pelo paciente seria a resposta a uma medida de higiene ambiental antialérgica: a retirada do quarto de todo material que contivesse penas (colchão, mantas e travesseiros). No entanto, a análise detalhada do relato (excluindo-se a terapia medicamentosa, por não ter nenhum respaldo científico), faz surgir uma nova interpretação, pois a reeducação comportamental implementada foi surpreendente. Muitas das medidas defendidas por Cardano foram inovadoras para a época e, curiosamente, encontram ressonância na Hipótese da Biodiversidade, a mais recente tentativa de explicar a escalada da alergia e das doenças inflamatórias a partir de meados do século XX. A perseguição pela Inquisição, associada às críticas de irreligiosidade e possível retrocesso em sua capacidade mental, provavelmente impediram que o médico italiano fosse lembrado nos dias de hoje. O caso descrito nos relembra, em um momento de afã por novas medicações para asma, junto a tempos exageradamente curtos de consulta, que as medidas de orientação e educação podem ter um impacto significativo, chegando mesmo a se equiparar à terapêutica medicamentosa.


Girolamo Cardano, an Italian physician of the Renaissance, described in his memoirs the detailed treatment of a Scottish archbishop who had had severe asthma for more than 10 years. The treatment, unparalleled in the history of Medicine until then, was truly successful, helping to establish the name of Cardano as one of the most read and admired characters of the 16th and 17th centuries. A possible interpretation for the significant improvement presented by the patient is the response to an anti-allergic environmental hygiene measure: removing from the room all material containing feathers (mattress, comforters, and pillows). However, a detailed analysis of the report (excluding the drug therapy, which has no scientific support) gives rise to a new interpretation, as the implemented behavioral re-education measure was surprising. Many of the measures advocated by Cardano were innovative for the time and, interestingly, find resonance in the Biodiversity Hypothesis, the most recent attempt to explain the escalation of allergy and inflammatory diseases initiating in the mid-20th century. Persecution by the Inquisition, associated with criticisms of irreligiousness and possible retrogression in his mental capacity, probably prevented the Italian physician from being remembered today. The described case reminds us, in a moment of anxiety for new asthma medications, together with exaggeratedly short consultation times, that guidance and education measures can have a significant impact, possibly reaching the same level as drug therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , History, 16th Century , Asthma , History of Medicine , Therapeutics , Hygiene , Anti-Allergic Agents , Drug Therapy , Hypersensitivity
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