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1.
Rev. homeopatia (São Paulo) ; 83(1): 5-8, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1359187

ABSTRACT

Uma busca de conceitos velhos, mas não envelhecidos, com a ajuda preciosa de um grande estudioso. E foi então que, a 10 de abril de 1755, em Meissen, um lugarejo da Saxônia que se jactava de ser o melhor produtor de porcelana da época, nasceu Christian Frederico Samuel Hahnemann. Seu pai, apesar de ser o melhor pintor da fábrica, não tinha recursos para custearlhe a escola, mas dado o interesse e a inteligência do pequeno Samuel, o gerente assumiu o custeio de seus estudos, pois reconhecia nele uma capacidade e uma inteligência que não eram comuns. Após cursar os primeiros anos na escola local, aos 16 anos de idade (1771), o jovem Hahnemann foi admitido na famosa Escola de Saint Afra, dedicada apenas à instrução dos filhos de nobres. Como escola altamente aristocrática, recebeu ali excelente orientação no que tangia às línguas clássicas e modernas, dominando com facilidade além do alemão, sua língua mãe, o inglês, francês, árabe, espanhol, sírio, latim, grego, hebreu e o caldeu. Consta que nesta escola já tenha lido o "Corpus Hippocraticum", iniciando assim sua carreira devotada às ciências.


Subject(s)
History of Homeopathy, 18th Century , History, 18th Century , Homeopathy/history , Germany
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339975

ABSTRACT

Resumo A partir de contribuições teóricas do campo da história das ciências, o presente texto debate aspectos das etapas das pandemias entendidas como fenômeno social e como tem ocorrido o processo de interiorização da covid-19 na Amazônia. A chegada da doença aos vastos territórios da floresta tem deixado mais evidente o processo de acesso diferenciado à saúde pública, com concentração de serviços e profissionais nas maiores cidades da região Norte. O crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na floresta evidencia, portanto, as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania na sociedade brasileira.


Abstract This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Forests , Pandemics/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Indians, South American , Public Health/history , Cities , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(3): 332-345, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285074

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study of skin, the science of dermatology, has undergone significant transformations throughout the centuries. From the first descriptions of skin diseases in Egyptian papyri and in Hippocratic writings to the first treatises on dermatology, important individuals and discoveries have marked the specialty. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the specialty consolidated itself as a field of medical study based on the first classifications of dermatoses, diagnostic methods, and drug treatments. In the 20th century, the scientific and technological revolution transformed dermatological practice, incorporating new therapeutic resources, as well as surgical and aesthetic procedures. In the face of such a vigorous process, it is important to provide a historical synthesis for the medical community to recognize and understand the origins that supported one of the most relevant specialties in the current medical scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/therapy , Dermatology , Skin , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Egypt , Esthetics
6.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(1): 15-37, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154322

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo pretende contribuir com a história das ciências, a história indígena e a história da América portuguesa. Parte-se dos pressupostos metodológicos de Dominique Pestre e da historiografia sobre a América portuguesa para interrogar a existência de uma rede de aldeamentos indígenas, a atuação de funcionários com saberes naturalistas, o envio de espécies botânicas para análise em Portugal e, por fim, a fundação de um horto botânico na capitania de Guayases (Goiás) entre 1772 e 1806. Apresenta-se a contribuição indígena na construção dos conhecimentos da história natural e discutem-se as influências de concepções da Ilustração na reforma do sistema colonial português na capitania a partir de documentação administrativa portuguesa, cartas e do estudo da aplicação de leis e instruções.


Abstract The article intends to contribute to the history of science, indigenous history and the history of Portuguese America. We begin with the methodological assumptions of Dominique Pestre and the historiography on Portuguese America to investigate a network of indigenous settlements, the work of civil servants with naturalist knowledge, the shipment of botanical species for analysis in Portugal and, finally, the foundation of a botanical garden in the captaincy of Guayases (Goiás) from 1772 to 1806. We describe the indigenous contribution to the construction of natural history knowledge, and discuss the influence of Enlightenment concepts on the reform of the Portuguese colonial system in the captaincy based on Portuguese administrative documentation, letters and study of the application of laws and instructions.


Subject(s)
History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Botany/history , Colonialism/history , Natural History/history , Indigenous Peoples/history , Portugal , Brazil , Gardens/history
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 40-42, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146472

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades han sido representadas en el arte desde tiempos remotos. Las obras pictóricas muchas veces nos muestran trastornos que aún no se constituían como una entidad. Observar estos cuadros a la luz de la historia de las enfermedades nos da una perspectiva enriquecedora que nos ayuda a entender mejor dichas patologías. Se comenta un caso clínico endocrinológico pediátrico, la historia probable y su descripción física. Se revisa la historia de cómo se llegó a dilucidar la enfermedad y las claves de su tratamiento.


Diseases have been represented in art since ancient times. Paintings often show us disorders that had not yet been described as a pathological entity. Looking at these pictures in the light of the history of the diseases gives us an enriching perspective that helps us to better understand those pathologies. On this background a pediatric endocrinological clinical case, the most probable history and the features of the physical examination are discussed. The history of how the disease was uncovered and the keys of its treatment are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Rickets/history , Endocrinology/history , Medicine in the Arts
8.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1284515

ABSTRACT

Justificación: la bibliografía sobre delitos sexuales en el periodo de dominación hispánica en América (1492-1821) es escasa, existiendo importantes vacíos historiográficos que dificultan la reconstrucción de un panorama general del proceso penal conducido en esa época, por lo que, investigar el peritaje conducido en los casos de violación es un primer paso para rastrear la evolución del tratamiento de esos casos en las instituciones judiciales. Objetivo: describir cómo se ejecutaba el peritaje forense en los casos de violación sucedidos en la Honduras previo a su independencia política de España. Metodología: se adoptó un enfoque cualitativo con un diseño exploratorio, utilizándose fuentes primarias que fueron seleccionadas mediante muestreo no probabilístico. Resultados: se logró identificar dos casos en los cuales se hizo recurso de peritos para confirmar una violación. En ambos las expertas tenían el oficio de partera, brindando declaraciones que reflejan una falta de preparación profesional y un conocimiento basado en la experiencia. Las declaraciones fueron transcritas conservándose la ortografía de la época y comentadas para ubicarlas en su contexto. Conclusión: en la Honduras de los años previos a la independencia se realizaba un peritaje forense en casos de violación basado en la experiencia laboral de los peritos y no en información científica o preparación académica, esto condujo a que los juicios de los expertos se vieran afectados por sus sesgos culturales...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , Sex Offenses/history , Coroners and Medical Examiners , Rape , Midwifery
9.
Psicol. USP ; 32: e200005, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340404

ABSTRACT

Resumo Mapeiam-se os processos históricos, estéticos e epistêmicos dos séculos XVIII e XIX que associam romantismo, literatura fantástica e psicanálise. Defende-se que o fantástico constitui um importante vetor por meio do qual elementos do romantismo foram incorporados ao modelo psicanalítico de aparelho psíquico. Parte-se da perspectiva de que a assimilação da influência romântica realizou-se de forma seletiva e criativa. Destacam-se alguns pontos de tensões e compromissos entre romantismo e o iluminismo, que foram retomados e transformados pelo fantástico e a psicanálise: as temáticas do amor, da loucura, da sexualidade, das superstições e dos mitos; o questionamento da relação entre o real e suas representações e entre pensamento e consciência; e a valorização do uso retórico da ironia. Aponta-se a abordagem psicanalítica do infamiliar (Unheimliche) como o momento mais sensível dessa interlocução.


Résumé Cet article cartographie les processus historiques, esthétiques et épistémiques des XVIIIe et XIXe siècles qui associent le romantisme, la littérature fantastique et la psychanalyse. On soutient que le fantastique constitue un vecteur important par lequel des éléments du romantisme ont été incorporés dans le modèle psychanalytique de l'appareil psychique. Cette perspective repose sur le fait que l'assimilation de l'influence romantique s'est déroulée de manière sélective et créative. On mit en évidence certains points de tension et de compromis entre le romantisme et les Lumières, repris et transformés par le fantastique et la psychanalyse : les thèmes de l'amour, de la folie, de la sexualité, des superstitions et des mythes ; la remise en cause du rapport entre le réel et ses représentations et entre la pensée et la conscience ; et l'usage rhétorique de l'ironie. On signale l'approche psychanalytique de l'Unheimliche comme le moment le plus sensible de cette interlocution.


Resumen Se cartografían los procesos históricos, estéticos y epistémicos del siglo XVIII y XIX que asocian el romanticismo, la literatura fantástica y el psicoanálisis. Se argumenta que lo fantástico es un importante vector a través del cual los elementos del romanticismo se han incorporado al modelo psicoanalítico del aparato psíquico. Se entiende que la asimilación de la influencia romántica se produjo de forma selectiva y creativa. Se destacan algunos puntos de tensión y compromiso entre el romanticismo y la ilustración que han sido asumidos y transformados por lo fantástico y el psicoanálisis: los temas del amor, la locura, la sexualidad, las supersticiones y los mitos; el cuestionamiento de la relación entre lo real y sus representaciones y entre pensamiento y conciencia; y la apreciación del uso retórico de la ironía. El enfoque psicoanalítico de lo ominoso (Unheimliche) se señala como el momento más sensible de esta interlocución.


Abstract This paper maps the historical, aesthetic, and epistemic processes of the 18th and 19th centuries that associate romanticism, fantastic literature and psychoanalysis. We argue that fantastic is an important vector through which elements of Romanticism were incorporated into the psychoanalytic model of the psyche. Assuming that such Romantic influences were assimilated selectively and creatively, we highlight some points of contention and compromise between romanticism and the Enlightenment that were later resumed and transformed by fantastic literature and psychoanalysis: the themes of love, madness, sexuality, superstitions and myths; the relationship between reality and its representations and between thought and consciousness; and the rhetorical use of irony. Finally, the text points to the psychoanalytic approach of the uncanny (Unheimliche) as the most sensitive moment of such exchange.


Subject(s)
History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Psychoanalysis/history , Knowledge , Romanticism/history , Literature/history
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41: e221440, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340435

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo busca compreender, desde uma perspectiva arqueogenealógica, a produção de laudos psicológicos no contexto do Instituto Psiquiátrico Forense Maurício Cardoso (IPF) entre 1989 e 2016. Para tal, realiza-se um breve percorrido histórico da reforma do sistema penal do final do século XVIII, com o estabelecimento de uma nova racionalidade penal e dos tensionamentos que o crime sem razão produz neste regime de verdade. Com isso, pretende-se situar a produção dos laudos psicológicos no campo de relações entre os discursos jurídico e psiquiátrico. Foram analisadas 263 papeletas administrativas catalogadas no arquivo do IPF, o que resultou na seleção de 43 documentos produzidos por psicólogos para compor o escopo da pesquisa. Os laudos foram divididos em cinco períodos, nos quais podem ser identificados três regimes discursivos: um regime explicativo, fundado nas relações entre desenvolvimento, instinto e perigo; um regime marcadamente disciplinar, de vigilância e relato; e, por fim, um regime discursivo, que funciona por meio de uma modulação do poder de cuidado.(AU)


Abstract This article aims to understand the production of psychological reports in the Forensic Psychiatric Institute (FPI) Maurício Cardoso between 1989 and 2016 from an archaeogenealogical perspective. To locate the production of psychological reports in the field of relations between judicial and psychiatric discourses, this study performed a brief historical review of the 18th-century penal system reform, which established a new criminal rationality and heightened the tensions produced by crimes without reason in this regime of truth. From the 263 administrative folders cataloged in the FPI archive, 43 documents written by psychologists were selected for the research scope. These documents were analyzed and divided into five different moments, indicating three discursive regimes: an explanatory one, founded on the relations between development, instinct, and danger; a disciplinary regime of surveillance and reporting; and a discursive regime that works through the modulation of care power.(AU)


Resumen Este artículo pretende comprender, desde la perspectiva arqueogenealógica, la producción de informes psicológicos por el Instituto Psiquiátrico Forense Maurício Cardoso (IPF) en el período entre 1989 y 2016. Para ello, se realiza un breve recorrido histórico de la reforma del sistema penal de finales del siglo XVIII, con el establecimiento de una nueva racionalidad penal y de las tensiones que el delito sin razón produce en este régimen de verdad. Lo que se propone es situar la producción de los informes psicológicos en el campo de relaciones entre los discursos jurídico y psiquiátrico. Se analizaron 263 papeletas administrativas catalogadas en el IPF, lo que resultó en la selección de 43 documentos producidos por psicólogos para componer el corpus de la investigación. Los informes se dividieron en cinco períodos en que pueden ser identificados tres regímenes discursivos: el explicativo fundado en las relaciones entre desarrollo, instinto y peligro; el marcadamente disciplinario, de vigilancia y relato; y, por fin, el discursivo que funciona mediante una modulación del poder de cuidado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , Psychology , Justice Administration System , Expert Testimony , Forensic Psychology , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Mental Disorders , Social Justice , Forensic Psychiatry , Power, Psychological , Mental Health , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Crime , Criminal Law , Judiciary , Research Report , Genealogy and Heraldry
11.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 88(2): 121-124, jul.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179040

ABSTRACT

En 1815 una epidemia de viruela ingresó a la Alcaldía Mayor de Tegucigalpa que, a pesar de los esfuerzos de las autori-dades por esparcir la vacuna, causó estragos en la población indí-gena. Al mismo tiempo, en la época lluviosa de ese año, las lluvias fueron menores a lo acostumbrado, provocando el fracaso de las plantaciones, lo que llevó a una escasez de granos y a una hambru-na generalizada en el territorio. En este escenario, el Alcalde Mayor Simón Gutiérrez se vio obligado a cobrar el tributo de los pueblos indígenas, maniobrando políticamente la situación para evitar algu-na revuelta de la población. La epidemia de viruela y la hambruna ejemplifican la aplicación de política sanitaria en la Honduras colo-nial, destacando las maneras en que las acciones individuales de los funcionarios eran un ejercicio de administración de la vida de los habitantes de la provincia. De manera similar, en 2020 los intere-ses políticos y económicos han interferido en la prevención efectiva contra el COVID-19...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 18th Century , Smallpox/epidemiology , Smallpox Vaccine/immunology , Indigenous Peoples , History of Medicine
12.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(4): 459-468, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288158

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN ¿Se puede hablar de ciencia cuando nos referimos a la cirugía? No, de acuerdo con la epistemología clásica, que dice que para que una disciplina sea considerada científica debe alcanzar requisitos que la cirugía parecería no cumplir. Esto es, ser parte de un paradigma y crear conocimiento científico. Por lo que, si queremos afirmar la cientificidad de la cirugía, debemos investigar la existencia de ejem plares que podrían ser paradigmáticos, ya que son ellos los que fundamentan su estructura epistémi ca. Junto a esto debemos demostrar que su práctica crea conocimiento científico. Para ello, postulamos cinco objetivos que la cirugía debe cumplir. Además, a los personajes históricos clásicos a quienes se les atribuye haber fundado la cirugía moderna ‒Ambrosio Paré y John Hunter‒, solo pudieron alcanzar los tres primeros. Pero esto no basta para que se considere a la cirugía como parte de la ciencia. Debimos avanzar en la historia y encontrar esos ejemplares paradigmáticos. El primero corresponde al trabajo de investigación en fase animal, previa a la realización de la primera gastrectomía exitosa rea lizada en seres humanos por el cirujano alemán Theodor Billroth, en el año 1882. El segundo corres ponde a la investigación en fisiología tiroidea realizada por Emil T. Kocher, con la que ganó el premio Nobel en Medicina y Fisiología en año 1909. Se hace un análisis del desarrollo epistémico de la cirugía a partir de ellos y se evalúan las consecuen cias mediante el concepto de ciclo epistémico. Hipótesis clave para entender la creación del conoci miento científico a partir de disciplinas técnicas como la cirugía.


ABSTRACT Can we talk about science when we speak about surgery? Not, accordingly to classical epistemology. To consider a discipline as scientific, it must meet certain requirements that surgery would not seem to satisfy: being part of a paradigm and creating scientific knowledge. Therefore, if we want to affirm the scientific nature of surgery, we must investigate the existence of exemplars that could be paradigmatic, since they are the ones that support its epistemic structure. Along with this, we must demonstrate that their practice creates scientific knowledge. We've postulated five objectives that surgery had to satisfy. We've seen in classic history, that the main characters which are considered founders of modern surgery -Ambrosio Pare and John Hunter- were only able to reach the first three, and as we'll see, were not enough to consider surgery as part of science. Moving forward in history, we are able to find the first paradigmatic exemplars. The first corresponds to the research work in the animal phase, prior to the first successful human gastrectomy performed by the German surgeon Theodor Billroth, in 1882. The second corresponds to the research in thyroid's physiology carried out by Emil T. Kocher; thanks to this, he won the Nobel Prize in medicine and phy siology in 1909. An analysis of the epistemic development of surgery is made from them, and the consequences are analyzed using the concept of the epistemic cycle. Those key hypotheses are important to understand the creation of scientific knowledge in technical disciplines as surgery.


Subject(s)
History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Philosophy, Medical , General Surgery/history , Science/history , Gastroenterostomy/history , Knowledge , History of Medicine
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1614-1617, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134487

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La neuroanatomía y la neurofisiología han permitido en gran parte entender de forma más integrada las estructuras que conforman el sistema nervioso y los mecanismos asociados con la transmisión de los potenciales de acción, relacionados con la vía corticoespinal en la ejecución de movimientos voluntarios. Se realizó una revisión histórica sobre la vía corticoespinal, desde el punto de vista neuroanatómico y neurofisiológico mediante una revisión de literatura en distintas bases de datos y libros de texto dedicados a estas vías nerviosas. La información obtenida se ordenó cronológicamente, seleccionando los datos más relevantes que desde el punto de vista neuroanatómico y neurofisiológico han permitido comprender su mecanismo funcional. Actualmente se tiene un conocimiento muy depurado de los distintos elementos que componen la vía corticoespinal, lo que permitirá su aplicación en el campo de la salud y resolver múltiples problemas de la función motora.


SUMMARY: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology have, in large part, permitted a more thorough understanding of those structures that conform the nervous system and mechanisms associated with the transmission of action potentials associated with the corticospinal tract. This assertion is made based upon a literature review of various databases and textbooks dedicated to said nerve tracts. The information obtained was ordered chronologically, and data was selected that, from the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological viewpoints, were most relevant and have permitted the comprehension of its functional mechanism. The thorough understanding of those elements that compose the corticospinal tract will permit its application in the health field and resolve multiple motor function problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, Ancient , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Pyramidal Tracts/anatomy & histology , Pyramidal Tracts/physiology , Neuroanatomy/history , Neurophysiology/history
14.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(4): 39-43, out.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140830

ABSTRACT

Ludwig van Beethoven, the great composer, born 250 years ago, had several health problems and a progressive hearing loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms prevailed among his physical complaints, but there were also frequent headaches, eye pain, and polyarthralgia. Likewise, there are many reports about his alcohol intake and frequent walks. There were also peculiar behavioral and awkward physical aspects of the famous composer. All may take part as a determinant for the communicative aspects of his music. Spite Beethoven's corporal structure could be considered just a developmental variant, it can also be congenitally related to many bone-nervous abnormalities such as craniovertebral junction malformation with interference in the Genius' health. In reality, it is almost impossible to cover Beethoven's entire health problem with just one underlying disease. Most likely, he had comorbidities, one of which, although not fatal, was that related to abnormalities in the development of the skull and cervical spine worsened by a baseline autoimmune disorders that injured joints, and maybe even the VIII cranial nerve and inner ear.


Ludwig van Beethoven, o grande compositor, nascido há 250 anos, teve vários problemas de saúde e uma perda auditiva progressiva. Os sintomas gastrointestinais prevaleceram entre suas queixas físicas, mas também houve frequentes episódios de cefaleia, dores nos olhos e poliartralgia. Da mesma forma, há muitos relatos sobre sua ingestão de álcool e caminhadas frequentes. Havia também aspectos físicos peculiares e estranhos do famoso compositor. Todos podem tomar parte como um determinante para os aspectos comunicativos de sua música. Apesar da estrutura corporal de Beethoven poder ser considerada apenas uma variante de desenvolvimento, pode também estar relacionada a algumas anormalidades ósseo- neural, tais como a malformação da junção craniovertebral com interferência na saúde do Gênio. Na realidade, é quase impossível cobrir todo o problema de saúde de Beethoven com apenas uma doença subjacente. Muito provavelmente, ele tinha comorbidades, uma das quais, embora não fatal, era aquela relacionada a anormalidades no desenvolvimento do crânio e da coluna cervical agravadas por uma desordem auto-imune de base que lesionava as articulações, e talvez até o VIII nervo craniano e o ouvido interno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Deafness/etiology , Famous Persons , Hearing Loss/complications , Music/history , Skull/abnormalities , Deafness/history
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1302-1310, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134440

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: En Chile, los primeros médicos se formaron en la Universidad Real de San Felipe y el Instituto Nacional, entre 1758 y 1833. Sus maestros Domingo Nevín, Manuel Chaparro y Pedro Morán, usaron y recomendaron los pocos libros existentes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar estos libros con ilustraciones anatómicas que se utilizaron durante este período y en las que los primeros estudiantes de medicina encontraron una guía visual para la comprensión de la anatomía humana y la práctica de la disección. Para este estudio, se analizaron los trabajos de Lorenz Heister (1755), Martin Martínez (1764), Friedrich Tiedemann (1822a,b) y François Chaussier (1823). Para estos autores, se desarrolló una síntesis con datos biográficos relevantes. Para los libros se realizó un análisis bibliográfico, cuantitativo y descriptivo-cualitativo. Las imágenes también se analizaron según las clasificaciones de Gómez (2005), Choulant (1852) y Kemp (1990). En cuanto a los autores de los textos, eran médicos, cirujanos, anatomistas y / o legistas médicos, de origen alemán, español o francés. Los textos están escritos en español, francés, alemán y/o latín. Presentan imágenes con diferentes niveles de detalle, en blanco y negro o en color. Toda la bibliografía anatómica utilizada durante el período de estudio es de origen europeo, transfiriéndose a través de sus páginas, una realidad centrada en la Europa de los siglos XVIII y XIX. Esta visión sesgada del conocimiento se ha mantenido hasta ahora, donde la enseñanza de la anatomía humana todavía se basa en textos de origen extranjero. El estudio profundo de las características de la formación de médicos en Chile es esencial para comprender el nacimiento de la identidad profesional, que ha sido de gran influencia en las ciencias de la salud y en la historia político-social de Chile.


SUMMARY: In Chile, the first doctors were trained at the Universidad Real de San Felipe and the National Institute, between 1758 and 1833, where docents Domingo Nevín, Manuel Chaparro and Pedro Morán, used and recommended the few existing books. The objective of this work was to analyze these books with anatomical illustrations that were used during this period and in which, the first medical students found a visual guide for the understanding of human anatomy and the practice of dissection. For this study, the works of Lorenz Heister (1755), Martin Martínez (1764), Friedrich Tiedemann (1822) and François Chaussier (1823) were analyzed. A synthesis with relevant biographical data was developed for these authors, and for the books a bibliographic, quantitative and descriptive-qualitative analysis was performed. The images were also analyzed according to the classifications of Gomez (2005), Choulant (1852) and Kemp (1990). Regarding the authors of the texts, they were doctors, surgeons, anatomists and / or medical legists, of German, Spanish or French origin. The texts are written in Spanish, French, German and / or Latin. They present images with different levels of detail, in black and white or in color. All the anatomical bibliography used during the period under study is of European origin, transferring through its pages, a reality centered on 18th and 19th century Europe. This biased view of knowledge has been maintained until the present, where the teaching of human anatomy is still based on texts of foreign origin. A profound study of the training characteristics of doctors in Chile, is essential to understand the beginning of a professional identity, which has been important influence in health sciences and the political - social history of Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Education, Medical/history , History of Medicine , Anatomy/history , Chile
16.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 29-48, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134097

ABSTRACT

Abstract According to David Fidler, the governance of infectious diseases evolved from the mid-nineteenth to the twenty-first century as a series of institutional arrangements: the International Sanitary Regulations (non-interference and disease control at borders), the World Health Organization vertical programs (malaria and smallpox eradication campaigns), and a post-Westphalian regime standing beyond state-centrism and national interest. But can international public health be reduced to such a Westphalian image? We scrutinize three strategies that brought health borders into prominence: pre-empting weak states (eastern Mediterranean in the nineteenth century); preventing the spread of disease through nation-building (Macedonian public health system in the 1920s); and debordering the fight against epidemics (1920-1921 Russian-Polish war and the Warsaw 1922 Sanitary Conference).


Resumo Segundo David Fidler, a gestão de doenças infecciosas entre meados do século XIX e e o XXI guiou-se por uma série de acordos institucionais: Regulamento Sanitário Internacional (não interferência e controle de doenças em fronteiras), programas verticais da OMS (campanhas de erradicação da malária e varíola), e posicionamento pós-vestefaliano além do estado-centrismo e interesse nacional. Mas pode a saúde pública internacional ser reduzida à tal imagem vestefaliana? Examinamos três estratégias que destacaram as fronteiras sanitárias: prevenção em estados vulneráveis (Mediterrâneo oriental, século XIX); prevenção à disseminação de doenças via construção nacional (sistema público de saúde macedônico, anos 1920); remoção de fronteiras no combate às epidemias (guerra polaco-soviética, 1920-1921 e Conferência Sanitária de Varsóvia, 1922).


Subject(s)
History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Public Health Practice/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Politics , Asia , World Health Organization/history , Quarantine/history , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Global Health/history , Europe , Hospitals, Isolation/history , Malaria/history , Malaria/prevention & control
17.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 367-373, mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223789

ABSTRACT

La medicina china y su cultura ancestral parecen tener los antecedentes más remotos de los intentos por prevenir o curar el azote epidemiológico de esa época: la viruela. Estos conocimientos empíricos llegaron al Asia Central y Europa, y algunos granjeros hicieron observaciones de la utilidad de la inoculación o variolización sin llegar a documentar sus ensayos en la comunidad científica. El mérito de Edward Jenner reconocido como el descubridor de la vacuna antivariólica, radica en haber demostrado con evidencia práctica la protección conferida frente a la enfermedad por la administración en un niño sano de un material proveniente de una persona con lesiones causadas por el cowpox, virus de la viruela vacuna. Desde Europa en el siglo XVIII y comienzos del siglo XIX, la inoculación primero y luego la vacunación llegan a Hispanoamérica por vías informales o por determinación de la corona como un servicio a las colonias. La vacunación antivariólica tuvo el valor agregado de motivar y convencer a las autoridades gubernamentales sobre la necesidad de implementar políticas de salud pública para responder a las necesidades sanitarias de la población. En Chile, Fray Pedro Manuel Chaparro fue el pionero en la aplicación y difusión de la vacuna, realizó la primera campaña nacional y se cuenta entre los padres de la salud pública nacional.


Chinese medicine and its ancestral culture seem to have the most remote history of attempts to prevent or cure the epidemiological scourge of that era: smallpox. This empirical knowledge reached Central Asia and Europe, and some farmers made observations of the usefulness of inoculation or variolization without documenting their trials to the scientific community. The merit of Edward Jenner, recognized as the discoverer of the smallpox vaccine, lies in having demonstrated with practical evidence the protection conferred against the disease by the administration in a healthy child of a material from a person with cowpox lesions. From Europe in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, first inoculation and then vaccination arrive in Latin America by informal means or by determination of the crown as a service to the colonies. Smallpox vaccination had the added value of motivating and convincing government authorities about the need to implement public health policies to respond to the health needs of the population. In Chile, Fray Pedro Manuel Chaparro was the pioneer in the application and diffusion of the vaccine, conducted the first national campaign and is counted among the parents of national public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Vaccines/history , Vaccination/history , Immunization/history , History of Medicine
18.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(2): 337-354, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134058

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo esboça algumas compreensões sobre a palavra "higiene". A partir do Renascimento, a ideia advinda da Grécia Antiga voltou a ser trabalhada, primeiramente como método para uma organização dietética e moral da vida que visava ao seu prolongamento. De uma espécie de cuidado de si, transformou-se em conceito de governança, cujo objetivo era o prolongamento da vida dos súditos/cidadãos. O debate teórico sobre o que era higiene pública mostra sua faceta eminentemente política: não apenas era um ramo da economia política, mas também eram analisadas as propostas dos higienistas de acordo com seu maior ou menor impacto na política. A batalha político-científica resultou na vitória de certas compreensões de ação estatal, e no esquecimento e na negligência de outras.


Abstract This study outlines some understandings of the word "hygiene." The notion that originated in ancient Greece first began to be adopted as a system of diet and morals to prolong the lifespan. From a type of self-care, this idea transformed into a concept of governance to extend the lives of subject-citizens. The theoretical debate about what public hygiene used to be shows its eminently political side: not only was hygiene a branch of the political economy, the ideas of hygienists were also analyzed as to the degree of impact they had on policy. After political and scientific battles, certain understandings of government action emerged victorious, while others were forgotten and neglected.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Health Behavior , Hygiene/history , United States , History, Ancient , Europe , Government/history
19.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(2): 148-153, Apr.-Jun. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131024

ABSTRACT

Abstract The human being, throughout history, has used plants to prevent and cure diseases. It is important to know that for a long time, the mechanism through which those plants worked was unknown, making herbal medicine a purely empirical science. Medical prescriptions in the 19th century in the Kingdom of Nueva Granada were considered a significant medical advance as a result of knowledge and medical practices in the old continent. Medical literature of the time achieved, despite the lack of studies, the development of new schemes with exact dosages and new therapeutic possibilities. The medical prescription presented in this article was used in the management of heart palpitations, a frequent symptom nowadays, described as thoracic and/or neck beating, underlying various cardiac and non-cardiac diseases. The recipe for the palpitations of the historical archive "Cipriano Rodríguez Santa María" is a mixture of herbal agents that, as reviewed in the medical literature, showed to have anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and antioxidant effects, among others, allowing a beneficial effect on cardiac palpitations. Due to the lack of information on the posology, safety in its use, contraindications, and possible adverse effects, its potential use should have been underestimated at that time for the control of palpitations or as phytochemical agents directed to treat diseases causing this symptom.


Resumen A lo largo de la historia, el ser humano ha utilizado plantas para prevenir, aliviar y curar enfermedades. Cabe destacar que durante mucho tiempo se desconoció el mecanismo por el cual su uso era beneficioso, lo que hacía de la fitoterapia una ciencia netamente empírica. Las recetas médicas eran consideradas un avance médico significativo, resultado de conocimientos y prácticas traídas desde el viejo continente. Pese a la carencia de estudios locales, la literatura médica de la época permitió utilizar la biodiversidad de América para el desarrollo, investigación y uso de nuevos esquemas fitoterapéuticos con dosificaciones establecidas e indicaciones de uso, incluso un lugar específico de dispensación, ampliando aún más las posibilidades terapéuticas. La receta médica que se expone en este artículo era empleada en el manejo de las palpitaciones cardiacas, síntoma frecuente aún en la actualidad, descrito como golpes en tórax y/o cuello, subyacente en diversas enfermedades cardiacas y no cardiacas. La receta para las palpitaciones del archivo histórico Cipriano Rodríguez Santa María es una mezcla de agentes herbarios que, al realizar una revisión en la literatura médica, evidencian efectos antiinflamatorios, ansiolíticos y antioxidantes entre otros, sustentando un posible efecto beneficioso en las palpitaciones cardiacas. Debido a la ausencia de información sobre la posología, seguridad en su uso, contraindicaciones y posibles efectos adversos, es subestimado su potencial uso en aquel entonces para el control de las palpitaciones o como unos agentes fitoquímicos dirigidos para tratar enfermedades causantes de dicho síntoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/history , Plant Preparations/history , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/pharmacology
20.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(1): 275-303, jan.-mar. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090498

ABSTRACT

Resumo O documento que o leitor encontrará a seguir é a transcrição inédita e modernizada do manuscrito História do descobrimento da cochonilha no Brasil, editado pelo médico e químico Manuel Joaquim Henriques de Paiva entre os anos de 1774 e 1801. O propósito de Paiva, com essa versão revista e anotada do estudo pioneiro de seu irmão, o médico José Henriques Ferreira, era estimular a cultura e o comércio da cochonilha, um inseto produtor de corante avermelhado muito requisitado na Europa. A História..., portanto, fornece indícios do papel capital dos saberes ditos científicos para o fomento e engrandecimento do Reino português e de sua principal colônia.


Abstract A previously unpublished, modernized transcript of the manuscript História do descobrimento da cochonilha no Brasil (History of the discovery of the cochineal in Brazil), edited by the physician and chemist Manuel Joaquim Henriques de Paiva between 1774 and 1801, is presented. By bringing out this reviewed, annotated version of the pioneering study by his brother, the physician José Henriques Ferreira, Paiva wanted to encourage the culture and trade of the cochineal, an insect that produced a red dye that was in great demand in Europe. História... thus provides indications of the key role of so-called scientific knowledge in the development and growth of the Portuguese kingdom and their primary colony.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, 18th Century , Carmine/history , Hemiptera , Portugal , Translations , Brazil , Famous Persons
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