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1.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 486-492, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985788

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the patterning cropped and shaped mesh repair for perineal hernia after abdominoperineal excision (APE) in rectal cancer. Methods: The clinical data of 8 patients with perineal hernia after APE who accepted surgical treatment in the Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary and Hernia Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from March 2017 to December 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 3 males and 5 females, aged (67.6±7.2) years (range: 56 to 76 years). Eight patients developed a perineal mass at (11.3±2.9) months (range: 5 to 13 months) after APE. After surgical separation of adhesion and exposing the pelvic floor defect, a 15 cm×20 cm anti-adhesion mesh was fashioned as a three-dimensional pocket shape to fit the pelvic defect, then fixed to the promontory or sacrum and sutured to the pelvic sidewalls and the anterior peritoneum, while two side slender slings were tailored in front of the mesh and fixed on the pectineal ligament. Results: The repair of their perineal hernias went well, with an operating time of (240.6±48.8) minutes (range: 155 to 300 minutes). Five patients underwent laparotomy, 3 patients tried laparoscopic surgery first and then transferred to laparotomy combined with the perineal approach. Intraoperative bowel injury was observed in 3 patients. All patients did not have an intestinal fistula, bleeding occurred. No reoperation was performed and their preoperative symptoms improved significantly. The postoperative hospital stay was (13.5±2.9) days (range: 7 to 17 days) and two patients had postoperative ileus, which improved after conservative treatment. Two patients had a postoperative perineal hernia sac effusion, one of them underwent placement of a tube to puncture the hernia sac effusion due to infection, and continued irrigation and drainage. The postoperative follow-up was (34.8±14.0) months (range: 13 to 48 months), and 1 patient developed recurrence in the seventh postoperative month, no further surgery was performed. Conclusions: Surgical repair of the perineal hernia after APE can be preferred transabdominal approach, routine application of laparoscopy is not recommended, combined abdominoperineal approach can be considered if necessary. The perineal hernia after APE can be repaired safely and effectively using the described technique of patterning cropped and shaped mesh repair.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Animals , Herniorrhaphy/methods , Surgical Mesh , Retrospective Studies , Hernia, Abdominal/surgery , Hernia , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Proctectomy , Laparoscopy , Perineum/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Incisional Hernia/surgery , Hominidae
2.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 165-182, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787419

ABSTRACT

Like the body of Hominin, mind is the result of natural selection. Therefore, an evolutionary approach in the biological aspects is essential for an intrinsic understanding of mental disorders. However, the evolutionary medical approach to mental disordershas not been well researched because evolutionary psychiatry is not widely accepted, and the conceptual paradigm has not been unified. Nevertheless, some evolutionary hypotheses about some mental disorders have been proposed, including the following: 1) thesimple disease argument that mental disorder is a mere disease, 2) the genomic lag hypothesis that current genes are incompatible with evolutionary environmental changes, 3) the developmental mismatch hypothesis that brain development cannot reflect entire-information of surrounding environment, 4) the trade-off hypothesis that costs are offset by other adaptive benefits, 5) the by-product hypothesis that mental disorders are inevitable outcome of evolutionary design, 6) the cliff-edge model that the encephalizationin the Hominin caused mental disorders, 7) the inclusive fitness hypothesis that costs of individual are compensated by benefits of kinship, 8) the antagonistic polymorphism hypothesis that differential costs and benefits according to sex or age cause ofpolymorphic psychological traits 9) the heterozygote advantage hypothesis that the heterozygous genotypes have higher relative fitness, so they can persist even though homozygous genotypes cause mental disorders, and 10) a genomic imprinting hypothesis that conflicts between maternal genes and paternal genes cause mental disorders. I will summarize and compare the evolutionary hypotheses of mental disorders and present the lim itations of each hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Genomic Imprinting , Genotype , Heterozygote , Hominidae , Mental Disorders , Selection, Genetic
3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1195-1206, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) for volume measurement of part-solid nodules (PSNs) and solid nodules (SNs) in comparison with filtered back projection (FBP) or hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) at various radiation dose settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT scanning was performed for eight different diameters of PSNs and SNs placed in the phantom at five radiation dose levels (120 kVp/100 mAs, 120 kVp/50 mAs, 120 kVp/20 mAs, 120 kVp/10 mAs, and 80 kVp/10 mAs). Each CT scan was reconstructed using FBP, HIR, or MIR with three different image definitions (body routine level 1 [IMR-R1], body soft tissue level 1 [IMR-ST1], and sharp plus level 1 [IMR-SP1]; Philips Healthcare). The SN and PSN volumes including each solid/ground-glass opacity portion were measured semi-automatically, after which absolute percentage measurement errors (APEs) of the measured volumes were calculated. Image noise was calculated to assess the image quality. RESULTS: Across all nodules and dose settings, the APEs were significantly lower in MIR than in FBP and HIR (all p < 0.01). The APEs of the smallest inner solid portion of the PSNs (3 mm) and SNs (3 mm) were the lowest when MIR (IMR-R1 and IMR-ST1) was used for reconstruction for all radiation dose settings. (IMR-R1 and IMR-ST1 at 120 kVp/100 mAs, 1.06 ± 1.36 and 8.75 ± 3.96, p < 0.001; at 120 kVp/50 mAs, 1.95 ± 1.56 and 5.61 ± 0.85, p = 0.002; at 120 kVp/20 mAs, 2.88 ± 3.68 and 5.75 ± 1.95, p = 0.001; at 120 kVp/10 mAs, 5.57 ± 6.26 and 6.32 ± 2.91, p = 0.091; at 80 kVp/10 mAs, 5.84 ± 1.96 and 6.90 ± 3.31, p = 0.632). Image noise was significantly lower in MIR than in FBP and HIR for all radiation dose settings (120 kVp/100 mAs, 3.22 ± 0.66; 120 kVp/50 mAs, 4.19 ± 1.37; 120 kVp/20 mAs, 5.49 ± 1.16; 120 kVp/10 mAs, 6.88 ± 1.91; 80 kVp/10 mAs, 12.49 ± 6.14; all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: MIR was the most accurate algorithm for volume measurements of both PSNs and SNs in comparison with FBP and HIR at low-dose as well as standard-dose settings. Specifically, MIR was effective in the volume measurement of the smallest PSNs and SNs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hominidae , Lung Neoplasms , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Noise , Phantoms, Imaging , Radiation Dosage , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 467-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742558

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the nationwide rate of acute postoperative endophthalmitis (APE) after cataract extraction in Korea and to evaluate potential risk factors thereof. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nationwide insurance claims data from July 2014 to June 2017 were reviewed. All patients with phacoemulsification or extracapsular/intracapsular cataract extraction were included. Exclusion criteria were combined glaucoma surgery or total vitrectomy or when the patient had a history of intraocular foreign body. RESULTS: In total, 1505103 cases (982203 patients) were included. APE developed in 953 cases (938 patients) with an overall incidence of 0.063%. After adjusting for possible confounding factors, male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25–1.61; p<0.001], primary clinical setting, operations performed in non-major cities, usage of sutures (OR 2.82; 95% CI 2.13–3.74; p<0.001), anterior vitrectomy (OR 8.71; 95% CI 6.71–11.32; p<0.001), aphakic cataract surgery (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.03–2.22; p=0.033), hypertension (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.18–1.66; p<0.001), diabetes (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.31–1.93; p<0.001), and chronic renal failure (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.01–1.62; p=0.039) were found to be related to APE development. CONCLUSION: The incidence of APE after cataract extraction was consistent with reports from other studies. Additional research is needed to determine the relationship of newly found risk factors, such as hypertension, primary clinical setting, chronic renal failure, and usage of suturing, with APE development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Endophthalmitis , Foreign Bodies , Glaucoma , Hominidae , Hypertension , Incidence , Insurance , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Korea , Phacoemulsification , Risk Factors , Sutures , Vitrectomy
5.
rev. psicogente ; 21(40): 321-336, jul.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-979576

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El presente trabajo es resultado de una investigación que se realizó en las ciudades de Monclova y Saltillo en el estado de Coahuila, México, con el objetivo de indagar acerca de la autopercepción que tienen gais y lesbianas respecto de los efectos en su afrontamiento y del soporte social después de haber revelado su homosexualidad a la familia. Método: Para medir las variables de estudio se empleó la Batería de Evaluación Psicosocial de Sucesos Vital (Cantú y Álvarez, 2009; 2013), la cual se aplicó a 30 sujetos: 15 gais y 15 lesbianas. Los datos se analizaron de forma descriptiva y comparando ambos grupos respecto a cada variable, a través de la prueba T de Student. Resultados: Respecto al afrontamiento y al soporte social no se encuentra diferencia significativa, mostrando ambos grupos estrategias de afrontamiento para resolver problemas. En cuanto al soporte social se encontraron diferencias significativas en dos ítems: "obtuve apoyo emocional de familiares que no viven en casa", y "tuve ayuda económica o de información de mi pareja en relación a la situación", y tanto lesbianas como gais encuentran mayor soporte social en amistades. Conclusiones: Hombres y mujeres tienen una consideración negativa de la homosexualidad, incluso aquellos que se reconocen como homosexuales; además, tanto gais como lesbianas encuentran mayor soporte fuera de la familia y concretamente en amistades. Por ello, en un inicio la revelación de la propia homosexualidad no suelen hacerla a la familia. Resulta necesario un proceso de reorganización del individuo, así como de la familia y del grupo social a fin de modificar la consideración negativa a priori dominante acerca de la homosexualidad.


Abstract Objective: This paper is the result of a research whose purpose is related to gays and lesbian's self-perception and their coping effects and social support after having revealed their homosexuality to their families. Method: Variables such as Psychosocial Assessment of Vital Events Battery (Cantú y Álvarez, 2009; 2013) was used to measure these variables. 30 individuals were sampled as follows: 15 gays and 15 lesbians. The data analysis was descriptive, where both groups for each variable were compared; Student's T test was used. Results: In relation with gays and lesbians' coping support, there is no significant differences, in the manner that show coping strategies to solve a situation which they consider a problem; also, in relation with social support, significant differences were found, both lesbians and gays find greater social support in friendships but not from their family, as follows : they got emotional support from family members who do not live with them; and they got financial aid and information help from their couples. Conclusions: Men and women have a negative opinion related to homosexuality, even those who are recognized as homosexual individual; both gays and lesbians receive more support from people outside the family that means friends. It is necessary to modify the negative and a priori concept of homo-sexuality considered by the society, that is why an individual, family and social group's re-organization process is required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Self Concept , Adaptation, Psychological , Homosexuality , Family Characteristics , Population Groups , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Social Support , Hominidae , Health Strategies , Sexuality , Friends , Data Analysis
6.
Korean Journal of Physical Anthropology ; : 105-119, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718964

ABSTRACT

Archaeogenetics is an academic discipline that aims to establish scientific facts of human history by integrating ancient DNA analyses with archaeological and anthropological evidence. After ancient DNA research was initiated about 30 years ago, it has been innovated so rapidly that the range of analysis has been extended toward the whole genome sequence of ancient genomes in recent 10 years. By this development, researchers have been able to study in detail the origins and migration patterns of hominin species and ancient human populations by approaches of evolutionary genetics. This study has reviewed main principles of the archaeogenetic analysis and the current trends of ancient genome studies with recent achievements. While sampling techniques and statistical analyses have been improved, typical research methods have been established by the findings on hominins and ancient western Eurasia populations. Recently, archaeogenecists have been applying the methods to studying those in other geographical areas. Nonetheless, there is still the lack of ancient genome research about populations in Eastern Asia including the Korean peninsula. This review ultimately aims to predict possibilities and promise of future ancient genome studies of ancient Korean populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA , Asia, Eastern , Genetics , Genome , Hominidae
7.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 46(1): 12-21, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-900805

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To recognise the changes experienced by the therapist who works with gay and lesbian couples. Method: Qualitative with biographical-narrative method. Seven therapists were interviewed in Medellin. Results: Three moments in the life trajectory of the participants were identified: Before: close ness and distances between families and the school were found (distances, makes reference, among others, to discourses about homosexuality). During: showed the conspiracy of silence in the undergraduate and postgraduate training of therapists, and in the clinical approach with homosexual couples they perceive in the reasons for consultation, a spectrum between everyday conflict and imposed exclusion. After: makes reference to the changes that this clinical work has generated in them, how they have become different, while others have been defined as: political subjects who resist normalisation and become learners of artistic territories and artisans of their own lives. Conclusions: The task of becoming another is a poetic, aesthetic and ethical process like the beautiful creation of the own existence. These transformations are connected with presence, social, politic and artistic contexts, reflexive labour and criticism about themselves.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Reconocer las transformaciones que han tenido los terapeutas a partir de la aten ción a parejas lesbianas y gais. Método: Enfoque cualitativo con método biográfico narrativo. Se realizaron entrevistas a siete terapeutas de la ciudad de Medellín. Resultados: Se identificaron tres momentos en la trayectoria de vida de los participantes: el antes, donde se encontraron cercanías y distancias en relación con sus familias de origen y la escuela (las distancias hacen referencia, entre otros, a los discursos sobre la homo sexualidad); el durante, que evidenció el complot del silencio en la formación de pregrado y posgrado de los terapeutas y en el abordaje clínico con las parejas homosexuales que perciben en los motivos de consulta, un abanico que oscila entre el conflicto cotidiano y la exclusión impuesta; el después, que hace referencia a las transformaciones que dicha labour clínica ha generado en ellos, cómo van siendo diferentes en tanto han ido deviniendo otros como sujetos políticos que se resisten a la normalización y se hacen aprendices de territorios artísticos y artesanos de la propia vida. Conclusiones: La labour de devenir otro es un proceso poético, estético y ético en tanto creación bella de la propia existencia. Estas transformaciones se vinculan con presencias, contextos sociales, políticos, artísticos, labour reflexiva y crítica sobre sí mismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Homosexuality , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Hominidae , Family Characteristics , Sexuality
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2199-2207, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886803

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Recent fossil material found in Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, was initially described as a new species of genus Homo, namely Homo naledi. The original study of this new material has pointed to a close proximity with Homo erectus. More recent investigations have, to some extent, confirmed this assignment. Here we present a phenetic analysis based on dentocranial metric variables through Principal Components Analysis and Cluster Analysis based on these fossils and other Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Our results concur that the Dinaledi fossil hominins pertain to genus Homo. However, in our case, their nearest neighbors are Homo habilis and Australopithecus sediba. We suggest that Homo naledi is in fact a South African version of Homo habilis, and not a new species. This can also be applied to Australopithecus sediba.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skull/anatomy & histology , Hominidae/anatomy & histology , Hominidae/genetics , Fossils/anatomy & histology , South Africa , Biological Evolution
9.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 625-632, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727952

ABSTRACT

Familial Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to point mutations and duplication of the α-synuclein (α-syn) gene. Mutant α-syn expression increases the vulnerability of neurons to exogenous insults. In this study, we developed a new PD model in the transgenic mice expressing mutant hemizygous (hemi) or homozygous (homo) A53T α-synuclein (α-syn Tg) and their wildtype (WT) littermates by treatment with sub-toxic (10 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 5 days) or toxic (30 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 5 days) dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Tyrosine hydroxylase and Bcl-2 levels were reduced in the α-syn Tg but not WT mice by sub-toxic MPTP injection. In the adhesive removal test, time to remove paper was significantly increased only in the homo α-syn Tg mice. In the challenging beam test, the hemi and homo α-syn Tg mice spent significantly longer time to traverse as compared to that of WT group. In order to find out responsible proteins related with vulnerability of mutant α-syn expressed neurons, DJ-1 and ubiquitin enzyme expressions were examined. In the SN, DJ-1 and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, UBE2N, levels were significantly decreased in the α-syn Tg mice. Moreover, A53T α-syn overexpression decreased DJ-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggest that the vulnerability to oxidative injury such as MPTP of A53T α-syn mice can be explained by downregulation of DJ-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Adhesives , Apoptosis , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Down-Regulation , Hominidae , Mice, Transgenic , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Point Mutation , Synucleins , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Ubiquitin
10.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 71-77, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222535

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine whether cardiac biomarkers, such as N-terminal-proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), are good predictors of adverse events in acute pulmonary embolism (APE). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with APE, which was confirmed by a computed tomography in the emergency room. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the major adverse event (MAE) group and the no-MAE group. MAE was defined as one of the following occurrences: in-hospital-death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, thrombolysis, or surgical embolectomy. Blood samples were obtained during the first hour of presentation to the emergency room. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients were included in this study. Twenty-seven patients had MAE. According to the univariate analysis, NT-proBNP, troponin I, and D-dimer plasma levels were significantly higher in the MAE group than in the noMAE group (919.8 vs. 2,131.0 ng/mL, p=0.032; 0.091 vs. 0.172 ng/mL, p=0.037; 2.43 vs. 3.74 ng/mL, p=0.049, respectively). However, according to the multivariate logistic regression, NT-proBNP was not independently associated with MAE in APE (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.01). Conversely, troponin I was independently associated with MAE (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.18). The NT-proBNP plasma level was not significantly different between the right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) group and the no-RVD group (p=0.178). CONCLUSION: The NT-proBNP level, unlike the troponin I level, in the emergency room was not identified as an independent predictor of MAE in acute pulmonary embolism. Further studies of large-scale with controlled timing of blood sampling and echocardiography are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Echocardiography , Embolectomy , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hominidae , Logistic Models , Noma , Plasma , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Troponin I , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right
11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 85-94, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening complication after acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of CTEPH after APE in Korea and to determine echocardiographic predictors of CTEPH. METHODS: Among 381 patients with APE confirmed by chest computed tomography (CT) between January 2007 and July 2013, 246 consecutive patients with available echocardiographic data were enrolled in this study. CTEPH was defined as a persistent right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) greater than 35 mmHg on echocardiography during follow-up and persistent pulmonary embolism on the follow-up CT. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (6.1%) had CTEPH. The rate of right ventricular (RV) dilatation (66.7% vs. 28.1%, p = 0.002) and the RVSP (75.5 mmHg vs. 39.0 mmHg, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the CTEPH group. D-dimers, RV dilatation, RV hypertrophy, RVSP, and intermediate-risk APE were associated with the risk of CTEPH after APE (odds ratio [OR] 0.59, 5.11, 7.82, 1.06, and 4.86, respectively) on univariate analysis. RVSP remained as a significant predictor of CTEPH on multivariate analysis (OR, 1.056; 95% confidence interval, 1.006 to 1.109; p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the incidence of CTEPH after APE in Korea was 6.1% and that initial RVSP by echocardiography was a strong prognostic factor for CTEPH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Dilatation , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Hominidae , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Hypertrophy , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Pulmonary Embolism , Thorax
12.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 288-294, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195571

ABSTRACT

Marine algae exhibit broad spectrum anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Acrosorium polyneurum (A. polyneurum) is a marine red alga and belongs to the family Delesseriaceae. The present research evaluates the antiinflammatory effects of A. polyneurum extract (APE) on pro-inflammatory cytokine production. APE demonstrated substantial inhibitory effects on production of pro-inflammatory cytokine in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). APE pre-treatment in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMDMs exhibited a robust inhibitory effect on production of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. It revealed a robust inhibitory effect on phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38. APE also showed remarkable inhibitory effect on phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Furthermore, APE pre-treatment demonstrated substantial inhibition of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Collectively, these data suggest that APE has a noteworthy anti-inflammatory property and deserve further studies concerning its potential use as a medicinal agent for inflammation-related disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hominidae , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Macrophages , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phosphorylation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-707414

ABSTRACT

Cuando Darwin dio a conocer su teoría acerca de la evolución de las especies, y con la posterior inclusión del hombre en ese proceso, se generó la idea de "eslabón perdido". A partir de allí, comenzó la búsqueda de ese fósil que pudiese conectar a los humanos con los simios. La imagen que por entonces se tenía de nuestro antepasado era la de un ser con cráneo desarrollado, según un modelo que relacionaba la humanidad con la capacidad cognitiva, en un cuerpo de aspecto simiesco. Hoy sabemos que los primeros cambios evolutivos que dieron lugar al surgimiento de nuestros ancestros no se relacionaron con un incremento del cerebro, sino con una modificación de la postura. Por lo tanto, en el proceso evolutivo de la humanidad, el bipedismo habría precedido a la encefalización. Este texto resume la primera etapa de ese largo camino, desde el momento en que unos primates africanos fueron capaces de erguirse y desplazarse utiizando sus extremidades posteriores, hasta la aparición de los primeros representantes del género Homo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthropology , Biological Evolution , Hominidae , Posture/physiology
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(supl.1): 113-117, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-666077

ABSTRACT

The anatomical comparative studies among the primates are important for the investigation of ethology, evolution, taxonomy, and comprehension of tools by hominoids. Especially the anatomical knowledge of Cebus contributes to conservation of the species, and to development of surgical procedures and clinical treatments of these animals, as they frequently are victims of automobile accidents. Recent anatomical studies came to a wrong conclusion regarding behavioral traits of Cebus, ascribed to few data available in previous literature. Therefore, to provide anatomical data and to support the other sciences related to anatomy, and to develop surgical and/or clinical procedures, we described the nerves of the legs of Cebus foccusing on their position and trajectory, as wll as innerved muscles, and compared these results with those of humans and other primates. Eight adult capuchin specimens were used for this study. The anatomical comparative study of the leg's nerves of Cebus demonstrated that, in general, structural organization of the nerves is similar among the four primates analyzed here (Cebus, chimpanzees, baboons and humans), which might be attributed to the fact that the all four primates have similar body structures. However, nerve trajectory and muscles innervation in Cebus was more similar to baboons.(AU)


Os estudos anatômicos comparativos entre os primatas são importantes para pesquisas associadas com a etologia, evolução, taxonomia e compreensão dos usos de ferramentas pelos hominídeos. Especificamente, o conhecimento anatômico sobre Cebus contribui para sua própria conservação e para o desenvolvimento de procedimentos cirúrgicos e tratamentos clínicos destes animais, pois são frequentemente vítimas de acidentes automobilísticos. Recentemente, estudos sobre características comportamentais de Cebus indicaram conclusões erradas sobre sua anatomia, o que pode ser atribuído aos poucos dados disponíveis sobre a anatomia desses animais na literatura especializada. Portanto, para fornecer dados anatômicos e fornecer suporte para as outras ciências relacionadas com a anatomia e também desenvolver procedimentos cirúrgicos e/ou clínicos, foram descritos os nervos das pernas de Cebus com enfoque sobre a posição, a trajetória e os músculos inervados, e comparar esses resultados com os dos humanos modernos e outros primatas. Oito espécimes adultos de macacos-prego foram usados para este estudo. O estudo anatômico comparativo dos nervos da perna de Cebus demonstrou que, em geral, a organização estrutural dos nervos é semelhante entre os quatro primatas aqui analisados (Cebus, chimpanzés, babuínos e humanos modernos), o que pode ser atribuído ao fato de que os quatro primatas terem estruturas corporais semelhantes. No entanto, a trajetória dos nervos e a inervação dos músculos em Cebus o aproximam dos babuínos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Papio/anatomy & histology , Primates/anatomy & histology , Hominidae/anatomy & histology , Cebus/anatomy & histology , Models, Anatomic
17.
In. Vallejo, Gustavo; Miranda, Marisa. Derivas de Darwin: cultura y política en clave biológica. Buenos Aires, Siglo XXI Editora Iberoamericana, 2010. p.97-115.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-600491

ABSTRACT

Discute la investigación de Corrado Gine sobre los problemas de grupos étnicos primitivos aislados. En 1928 Corrado Gini había fundado el comité italiano para el estudio de los problemas de las poblaciones (CISP), que tenia entre sus objetivos el estudio de los 'grupos étnicos aislados' y en particular de los 'grupos étnicos primitivos aislados' con el fin de de comprender la evolución de las poblaciones humanos. Con este objetivo Gini organizó diversas expediciones científicas en África, Europa, Asia y América. El investigador italiano quería con esto demostrar una teoría sobre la evolución de las poblaciones, la teoría cíclica, que postulaba la existencia de fases en el desarrollo demográfico de las naciones. Estudiando las poblaciones aisladas y aquellas de mezcla reciente, se podía verificar el surgimiento de una nueva raza o la desaparición de otra que degeneraba, porque no se renovaba a través de nuevas cruzas. Era una teoría útil no solo para interpretar la historia sino, según Gini, fundamental para orientar las políticas demográficas de los gobiernos. México constituía para él 'una especie de tierra prometida' porque precisamente ahí se podrían encontrar poblaciones aisladas desde mucho tiempo y al mismo tiempo ejemplos de mestizaje reciente. La expedición en México se hizo en el transcurso del 1933: un equipo italo-mexicano estudió cerca de dos mil indígenas en diferentes zonas del país.


Subject(s)
Demography , Expeditions/history , Ethnicity/history , Racial Groups/history , Hominidae , Hybridization, Genetic , Indigenous Peoples , Public Policy , Public Health/history , Mexico
18.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 378-381, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with an acute pulmonary embolism (APE). We studied the role of electrocardiography and biomarkers for early detection and recovery of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in APE. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The medical records of 48 consecutive patients diagnosed with APE using CT-angiography, at the Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, between January 2004 and February 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. RVD was assessed by serial echocardiography (ECG). Patients with one of the following were considered to have RVD: 1) RV dilatation (enddiastolic diameter >30 mm in the parasternal long axis view), 2) RV free wall hypokinesia, and 3) paradoxical septal systolic motion. We compared the electrocardiographic findings and the biomarkers for the early detection of RVD. RESULTS: The electrocardiographic findings showed T-wave inversion (TWI) in leads V1 to V3 with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 95%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 80% for the detection of RVD, with positive and negative predictive values of 95.5% and 73.1%, respectively; these results were better than the biomarkers such as cardiac enzymes or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for the early detection of RVD. TWIs persisted throughout the period of RVD, in contrast to a transient S1Q3T3 pattern detected during the acute phase only. CONCLUSION: TWIs in leads V1 to V3 had the greatest sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for early detection of RVD, and normalization of the TWIs was associated with recovery of RVD in APE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Biomarkers , Dilatation , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart , Hominidae , Hypokinesia , Medical Records , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right
19.
Rio de Janeiro; Via Lettera; 2009. 430 p. ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558177

ABSTRACT

Este livro aborda a repercussão do darwinismo em duas vertentes que se entrecruzam: o meio ambiente e a sociedade. Os problemas gerais que mobilizam os estudos do meio ambiente hoje não podem negligenciar os conhecimentos desenvolvidos em torno da teoria da seleção das espécies. Se o aparecimento desta teoria pode ser considerado como mais um momento revolucionário do pensamento científico, cujos resultados atingiram o espectro das ciências - das naturais às sociais -, não se pode esquecer de que ela tem sido uma das mais polêmicas e de que, sem dúvida, ganhou muitos adeptos, mas também angariou ao longo destes últimos 150 anos inúmeros inimigos. A questão envolvendo a teoria de Darwin e o ambiente físico, bem como as repercussões na sociedade são o tema central deste livro, que aborda caso relativos às Américas e à Europa. A história desta publicação começa na Amazônia, onde também a teoria começou com os trabalhos de Bates e Wallace, que analisaram aquele meio especial (a hileia, conforme dissera Humboldt algumas décadas antes deles) e concluíram pela teoria da seleção natural das espécies, concomitantemente a Darwin. Independentemente deste fato, para Darwin, o meio, físico e social foi fundamental para a formulação da sua teoria, pois esta, como é sabido, ocorreu após a viagem pela América do Sul, a bordo do Beagle (Desmond e Moore). O prefácio de Anna Carolina Regner mostra a quanto as observções de Darwin em seus diários de viagem, sobre a natureza e a sociedade da América, anteciparam a teoria que ele desenvolveria em A origem das espécies por seleção natural, publicado em 1859. Tais observações, analisadas por Anna Carolina, além do mais, podem servir para dirimir as dúvidas sobre a prioridade teórica.


Subject(s)
Environment , History of Medicine , Hominidae , Natural History/history , Selection, Genetic , Brazil , Eugenics , Europe , Latin America
20.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 37(3): 428-451, sep. 2008.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-636428

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El texto revisa los fundamentos de la evolución biológica en términos de una ecología evolutiva. Se enfatiza el concepto de adaptación, haciendo hincapié en cómo se origina, se mantiene y contribuye al proceso evolutivo de los organismos. Objetivo: Presentar la evolución biológica del hombre en términos de una ecología evolutiva que contribuya a la compresión del comportamiento del hombre actual como un posible remanente filogenético de sus necesidades en épocas pasadas de la historia biológica. Método: Se rastrea el origen biológico del hombre actual, comenzando en los primeros organismos multicelulares y avanzando por los cordados, los vertebrados, los mamíferos, los primates y los homínidos. Se estudian en cada momento evolutivo las características biológicas de cada grupo de organismos y se intenta comprenderlas a la luz de una ecología evolutiva que permita entender la manera como surgen dichas características en respuesta a las diversas presiones ecológicas coexistentes. Resultados: Se concluye que el programa científi co que pretende comprender la evolución de la mente y del comportamiento a través del estudio de la evolución biológica del hombre, esto es, la psicología evolucionista, tiene un horizonte muy fecundo por delante. Sin embargo, estos estudios deben realizarse con extrema precaución y delicadeza, ya que la posibilidad de incurrir en inferencias espurias es altamente probable...


Introduction: The text details the fundamental elements of the biological evolution in terms of evolutionary ecology. The origin of adaption, how it is sustained through time and how in contributes to the evolutionary process of organisms are concepts analyzed throughout the document. Objective: To present mankind biological evolution in terms of an evolutionary ecology that contributes to the compression of the current human behavior as a possible phylogenetic remainder of their necessities in previous times of its biological history. Method: Human biological origin is tracked starting from the fi rst multicellular organisims to the chordates, vertebrates, mammals, primates and hominids. The biological characteristics of each group of organisms are studied from an evolutionary ecology point of view, which allows understanding the way these characteristics arise in answer to the diverse coexistent ecological distress. Results: It is concluded that the scientifi c program that seeks to understand the evolution of the mind and of the behavior through the study of mankind biological evolution, this is, the evolutionist psychology, has a rich horizon ahead. However, these studies should be carried out with extreme caution and fi neness because the possibility to incur in spurious inferences is very likely...


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Ecology , Behavior , Cerebrum , Hominidae
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