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1.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 13-28, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134098

ABSTRACT

Abstract The subdiscipline of historical epidemiology holds the promise of creating a more robust and more nuanced foundation for global public health decision-making by deepening the empirical record from which we draw lessons about past interventions. This essay draws upon historical epidemiological research on three global public health campaigns to illustrate this promise: the Rockefeller Foundation's efforts to control hookworm disease (1909-c.1930), the World Health Organization's pilot projects for malaria eradication in tropical Africa (1950s-1960s), and the international efforts to shut down the transmission of Ebola virus disease during outbreaks in tropical Africa (1974-2019).


Resumo A subdisciplina epidemiologia histórica se propõe a criar um alicerce robusto e refinado para o processo de tomada de decisões em saúde pública global, aprofundando registros empíricos que nos ensinam sobre intervenções passadas. Este artigo se baseia na pesquisa epidemiológica histórica de três campanhas globais de saúde pública para ilustrar essa proposta: os esforços da Fundação Rockefeller para controle da ancilostomose (1909-c.1930), os projetos-piloto da Organização Mundial da Saúde para erradicação da malária na África tropical (décadas de 1950-1960), e os esforços internacionais de interrupção da transmissão do vírus Ebola durante surtos na África tropical (1974-2019).


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Global Health/history , Epidemiology/history , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/history , Health Promotion/history , Hookworm Infections/history , Malaria/history , World Health Organization/history , Public Health Practice/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , Africa , Hookworm Infections/prevention & control , Malaria/prevention & control
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e450, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126704

ABSTRACT

La uncinariasis, anquilostomiasis o también conocida como anemia tropical, es una parasitosis intestinal de gran importancia mundial. Las uncinarias son parásitos nematodos transmitidas por el contacto de la piel con suelos contaminados. Una de las consecuencias más importantes de la infección masiva por estos parásitos es el sangrado intestinal crónico que conduce a disminución de la hemoglobina, y en casos inusuales, esta anemia puede llegar a ser severa. Con el objetivo de poner en discusión la importancia y morbilidad de esta enfermedad, presentamos el caso de un varón de 23 años, procedente de una zona tropical del Perú, quien ingresa por emergencia con un valor de hemoglobina de 2,3 mg/dL, alteración del nivel de conciencia e historia de rectorragia. Durante el proceso diagnóstico se encuentra en la colonoscopia múltiples parásitos con áreas de sangrado y colitis erosiva, mientras que en el examen parasitológico se observan huevos de Ancylostoma/Necator spp 2+. La sintomatología mejora posterior al tratamiento con albendazol. La uncinariasis debe siempre sospecharse en el proceso diagnóstico de pacientes con anemia crónica tanto en Perú como en zonas tropicales del mundo.(AU)


Uncinariasis or ancylostomiasis, a.k.a. tropical anemia, is an intestinal parasitosis of great importance worldwide. Hookworms are parasitic nematodes transmitted by skin contact with contaminated soils. One of the most important consequences of massive infection by these parasites is chronic intestinal bleeding, which leads to reduced hemoglobin. In unusual cases the resulting anemia may be severe. With the purpose of discussing the importance and morbidity of this disease, a case is presented of a male 23-year-old patient from a tropical area in Peru who was admitted for an emergency hemoglobin value of 2.3 mg/dL, altered mental status and a history of rectal bleeding. During diagnostic examination, colonoscopy revealed multiple parasites with bleeding areas and erosive colitis, whereas parasitological analysis found eggs of Ancylostoma/Necator spp 2+. Symptoms improved after treatment with albendazole. Uncinariasis should always be suspected in the process of diagnosis of patients with chronic anemia both in Peru and in tropical areas worldwide(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Colonoscopy/methods , Hookworm Infections/complications , Hookworm Infections/diagnosis , Peru , Anemia/complications
4.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(4): 433-437, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092973

ABSTRACT

Resumen Presentamos el caso clínico de un joven, proveniente del área rural, con anemia ferropénica severa, sin sangrado evidente, quien requirió transfusión de hemoderivados y múltiples exámenes, donde se descartaron causas hemolíticas, autoinmunes y anemia de enfermedad crónica. En estudios endoscópicos se le documentó uncinariasis masiva como causa de su cuadro clínico. La uncinariasis es una causa sub-diagnosticada y potencialmente curable de anemia en nuestro medio. En este artículo hacemos la descripción de un caso clínico, la discusión sobre diagnósticos diferenciales de anemia ferropénica y revisión de la literatura.


Abstract We present the clinical case of a young man from a rural area who required transfusion of blood products due to severe iron deficiency anemia although there was no obvious bleeding. Multiple tests ruled out hemolytic, autoimmune causes and chronic disease as the cause of his anemia. Endoscopy found massive ancylostomiasis, a potentially curable cause of anemia in our environment. In this article we describe the clinical case, discuss differential diagnoses of iron deficiency anemia, and review the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Hookworm Infections , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Endoscopy
5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(3): 303-306, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042819

ABSTRACT

Resumen La anemia se caracteriza por niveles bajos de hemoglobina. En Colombia, la anemia afecta al 27,7 % de la población. Las poblaciones más afectadas son los niños en edad preescolar, mujeres en edad reproductiva, embarazadas y personas de edad avanzada. Caso clínico: paciente de 58 años con cuadro clínico compatible con cor anémico, que requirió transfusión sanguínea. Mediante estudios de extensión se consideró una hemorragia digestiva por uncinariasis, por lo cual se dio un manejo antihelmíntico, con lo que tuvo buena evolución clínica y paraclínica. Discusión: hay múltiples factores de riesgo asociados con la adquisición de este parásito; se considera que esta entidad es una causa olvidada de hemorragia de vías digestivas y en algunos casos conlleva consecuencias graves como el cor anémico. El tratamiento se realiza mediante antihelmínticos, que tienen una efectividad entre el 62 % y el 92 %.


Abstract Anemia is characterized by low levels of hemoglobin. In Colombia, anemia affects 27.7% of the population. The most seriously affected populations are preschool children, women of reproductive age, pregnant women and the elderly. Clinical case: Upon admission, the 58-year-old patient was found to have a condition compatible with cardiomegaly and redistribution of blood flow and required a blood transfusion. Additional studies suggested that digestive hemorrhaging due to ancylostomiasis could be the cause. Treatment with anthelmintics was begun and had good clinical and paraclinical results. Discussion: Acquisition of this parasite, considered to be a forgotten cause of digestive bleeding, is associated with multiple risk factors. In some cases, there are severe consequences such as cardiomegaly and redistribution of blood flow. The effectiveness of treatment with anthelmintics ranges between 62% and 92%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hemorrhage , Hookworm Infections , Anemia
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180603

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed to reveal the current status and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis infections in the villages of Kenethao district, Xayaburi Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected and examined for S. stercoralis using Koga-agar plate culture technique. Among 516 individuals, the prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 44.2% and 17.1%, respectively. Co-infection was detected in 13.2% of the cases. The prevalence did not significantly differ between males and females (P=0.193). However, the prevalence of S. stercoralis infection increased significantly with age (P=0.041). Of the risk factors examined, both performing farming activities (P=0.001) and walking barefoot when going outside of the house (P=0.003) showed significant correlations with S. stercoralis infections. Our results suggest that S. stercoralis is highly endemic in this area. The National Helminth Control Program of Lao PDR should take actions to control S. stercoralis infection. In addition, provision of health education about the benefits of wearing shoes would be important for reducing infection in the study area. Moreover, the application of high-sensitivity diagnostic approaches is needed to obtain the true impact of S. stercoralis infections in all rural communities in order to provide surveillance activities in Lao PDR.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Coinfection , Culture Techniques , Female , Health Education , Helminths , Hookworm Infections , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Shoes , Strongyloides stercoralis , Strongyloides , Walking
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203199

ABSTRACT

Hookworm infections are widely prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas, especially in low income regions. In the body, hookworms parasitize the proximal small intestine, leading to chronic intestinal hemorrhage and iron deficiency anemia. Occasionally, hookworms can cause overt gastrointestinal bleeding, but this is often ignored in heavily burdened individuals from endemic infectious areas. A total of 424 patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding were diagnosed by numerous blood tests or stool examinations as well as esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, capsule endoscopy or double-balloon enteroscopy. All of the patients lived in hookworm endemic areas and were not screened for hookworm infection using sensitive tests before the final diagnosis. The patients recovered after albendazole treatment, blood transfusion, and iron replacement, and none of the patients experienced recurrent bleeding in the follow-up. All the 31 patients were diagnosed with hookworm infections without other concomitant bleeding lesions, a rate of 7.3% (31/424). Seventeen out of 227 patients were diagnosed with hookworm infections in the capsule endoscopy (CE), and 14 out of 197 patients were diagnosed with hookworm infections in the double balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Hookworm infections can cause overt gastrointestinal bleeding and should be screened in patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) in endemic infectious areas with sensitive methods. Specifically, the examination of stool specimens is clinically warranted for most patients, and the proper examination for stool eggs relies on staff's communication.


Subject(s)
Albendazole , Ancylostoma , Ancylostomatoidea , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Blood Transfusion , Capsule Endoscopy , Colonoscopy , Diagnosis , Double-Balloon Enteroscopy , Eggs , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Tests , Hemorrhage , Hookworm Infections , Humans , Intestine, Small , Iron , Necator americanus , Ovum
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203196

ABSTRACT

Hookworm infections are rare causes of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a middle aged man with primary nephrotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism. During the treatment with steroids and anticoagulants, the patient presented acute massive hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal tract. The results of gastroscopy showed red worms in the duodenum. Colonoscopy and CT angiogram of abdomen were unremarkable. Capsule endoscopy revealed fresh blood and multiple hookworms in the jejunum and ileum. Hookworms caused the acute intestinal bleeding. The patient responded well to albendazole. Hematochezia was markedly ameliorated after eliminating the parasites. Hence, hookworm infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Capsule endoscopy may offer a better means of diagnosis for intestinal hookworm infections.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Albendazole , Ancylostoma , Ancylostomatoidea , Anticoagulants , Capsule Endoscopy , Colonoscopy , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Duodenum , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Gastrointestinal Tract , Gastroscopy , Hemorrhage , Hookworm Infections , Humans , Ileum , Jejunum , Middle Aged , Necator americanus , Nephrotic Syndrome , Parasites , Pulmonary Embolism , Steroids
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166325

ABSTRACT

Hookworm infections as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic in China. In this case, a 70-year-old male showed symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath, and both lower extremities edema. The diagnostic result was chronic renal insufficiency, chronic kidney disease (5th stage), and renal anemia at first. Then, he received treatment with traditional drugs. However, this treatment did not help to alleviate the symptoms of the patient significantly. The results of gastroendoscopy showed hookworms in the duodenum, also confirmed by pathology examination. Anemia was markedly ameliorated after eliminating the parasites. The results mentioned above suggested that ancylostomiasis was the leading causes of anemia in this patient, and the etiology of anemia in uremic patients should be systematically considered. Especially when anemia could not be cured by regular treatments, rare diseases should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Aged , Ancylostomatoidea , Ancylostomiasis , Anemia , China , Duodenum , Dyspnea , Edema , Hookworm Infections , Humans , Lower Extremity , Male , Parasites , Pathology , Peritoneal Dialysis , Rare Diseases , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Thorax
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99319

ABSTRACT

To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam.


Subject(s)
Ancylostomatoidea , Ascaris , Ascaris lumbricoides , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Eggs , Epidemiologic Studies , Feces , Helminths , Hookworm Infections , Humans , Larva , Methods , Necator americanus , Ovum , Prevalence , Public Health , Trichuris , Vietnam
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99311

ABSTRACT

A 26-year-old male member of the Australian Defense Force presented with a history of central abdominal pain of 4 weeks duration and peripheral eosinophilia consistent with eosinophilic enteritis. Acute hookworm disease was diagnosed as the cause. Adult worms recovered from feces after therapy with albendazole were morphologically consistent with Ancylostoma ceylanicum. As the patient had been deployed with the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands for 6 months prior to this presentation, it is very likely that the A. ceylanicum was acquired in Solomon Islands. Until now, it has been assumed that any Ancylostoma spp. recovered from humans in Solomon Islands is A. duodenale. However, this case demonstrates that human hookworm infection acquired in the Solomon Islands could be caused by A. ceylanicum.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Albendazole , Ancylostoma , Ancylostomatoidea , Enteritis , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Feces , Hookworm Infections , Humans , Male , Melanesia , Military Personnel
12.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 22(4): 1427-1439, out.-dez. 2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-767019

ABSTRACT

Resumo O farmacêutico Theodoro Peckolt é uma das mais importantes figuras da história da química de produtos naturais brasileira. Como outros farmacêuticos do século XIX que atuavam no Brasil, desenvolveu formulações que comercializava em sua farmácia, localizada no Rio de Janeiro, e que tiveram grande prestígio junto à população e à classe médica. O texto apresenta a relação entre a doença identificada inicialmente como opilação e a terapêutica utilizada no século XIX, destacando uma das formulações da Farmácia Peckolt – “Pós de doliarina e ferro”. O produto tem sua origem no látex da espécie Ficus gomelleira(figueira-branca ou gameleira). O artigo tem entre seus objetivos revelar a composição química, feita por métodos modernos de análise do látex deFicus gomelleira.


Abstract The pharmacist Theodoro Peckolt was one of the most important figures in the history of the chemistry of natural Brazilian products. Like other nineteenth-century pharmacists in Brazil, he developed formulations and sold them at his pharmacy in Rio de Janeiro, and these enjoyed great prestige in the eyes both of the public and the medical community. The article discusses the relation between the illness originally called “opilação” (ancylostomiasis, or hookworm) and nineteenth-century treatment. It focuses especially on Peckolt Pharmacy’s “Doliarina and iron powder,” a formulation extracted from the Ficus gomelleira rubber plant. One of the article’s goals is to use modern methods to analyze Ficus gomelleira and identify the chemical composition of the drug.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , History, 19th Century , Pharmacies/history , Ficus/chemistry , Hookworm Infections/history , Antinematodal Agents/history , Pharmacists/history , Brazil , Hookworm Infections/drug therapy , Iron/history , Iron/therapeutic use , Antinematodal Agents/therapeutic use , Antinematodal Agents/chemistry
13.
Rev. MED ; 23(2): 24-34, jul.-dic. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-829636

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades parasitarias son un problema de salud pública al ser causadas por agentes patógenos que afectan animales domésticos, los que a su vez pueden infectar humanos, principalmente en países ubicados en áreas tropicales. Objetivo: Identificar parásitos intestinales que afectan a caninos domiciliados de la zona urbana del municipio de Coyaima, y determinar la prevalencia y las variables asociadas al parasitismo en el área de estudio. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de febrero del 2011 a marzo del 2012, recolectando muestras de 175 caninos domiciliados de la zona urbana del municipio de Coyaima, las cuales se procesaron mediante la técnica de concentración formol - éter para la identificación de estadios de huevos de helmintos y quistes de protozoarios. Los datos fueron tabulados y analizados con el programa estadístico SPSSv20. Resultados: La prevalencia hallada para el parasitismo intestinal canino de la zona urbana del municipio de Coyaima fue del 53,1%, siendo estos resultados concordantes con los reportados por otros autores en estudios similares, realizados en países latinoamericanos. Conclusiones: La población canina de la zona urbana del municipio de Coyaima presenta afección por parásitos gastrointestinales, siendo entidades prevalentes Uncinarias, 20,6%, Toxocara canis 8,6%, Strongyloides spp., 2,9%,Entamoeba spp., 21,1%, Blastocystis spp., 18,3% y Giardia spp., 16%, entre las cuales se destacan, agentes etiológicos de relevancia por su carácter zoonótico, como los causantes de la toxocariosis, la migración larvaria cutánea y la giardiasis, entre otras. Se recomienda implementar campañas de educación en la población en general y ejecutar acciones de prevención por parte de estamentos responsables de la salud animal.


Introduction: The parasitic diseases are public health problem, because are caused by pathogens that affected domestic animals and right through then can infected the human, mainly in tropical countries. Objective: Identify the intestinal parasites in dogs of the Coyaima urban area, also the prevalence and associated variables that are involved with the parasitism in the study area. Materials and Methods: it was developed study between February 2011 to March 2012 where were collected 175 dog's samples in the Coyaima urban area. The samples were processed between the formol - eter technique for the qualitative analysis of the helminths eggs and protozoan cysts. The data were tabulate and analyzed through the statistic program SPSSv20. Results: It was found prevalence for intestinal parasites in dogs in the Coyaima urban area was 53, 1%. This results match with other studies in the same department. Conclusions: The canine population in the Coyaima urban area is highly affected for intestinal parasites; the entities more prevalent are Uncinarias, 20, 6%, Toxocara canis 8, 6%, Strongyloides spp., 2, 9%, Entamoeba spp., 21, 1%, Blastocystis spp., 18, 3% and Giardia spp., 16%. It is recommended implement educational campaigns in all population, and executed preventive actions by the responsible statements concerning animal health.


Introdução: As doenças parasitárias são um problema de saúde pública, as quais são causadas por agentes patogênicos que afetam animais domésticos e que a sua vez podem infetar ao ser humano principalmente em países localizados em áreas tropicais. Objetivo: Identificar parasitos intestinais que afetam aos cães residentes na área urbana do município de Coyaima e determinar a prevalência e as variáveis associadas ao parasitismo na área de estudo. Materiais e métodos: Um estudo descritivo do tipo transversal foi realizado entre fevereiro de 2011 e março de 2012, no estudo foram recolhidas amostras de 175 cães residentes na área urbana de município de Coyaima, as quais foram processadas mediante uma técnica de concentração conhecida como formol - éter, a fim de analisar quantitativamente a quantidade de ovos de helmintos v20 e cistos de protozoários. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados com o software estatístico SPSSv20. Resultados: A prevalência encontrada para o parasitismo intestinal canino da área urbana do município de Coyaima foi de 53,1%, estes resultados são consistentes com aqueles reportados por outros autores em estudos semelhantes realizados em países da América Latina. Conclusões: A população canina da área urbana do município de Coyaima tem afeição por parasitos gastrintestinais. As entidades mais prevalentes são Uncinarias, 20, 6%, Toxocara canis 8, 6%, Strongyloides spp., 2, 9%, Entamoeba spp., 21, 1%, Blastocystis spp., 18, 3% e Giardiaspp., 16%, entre as quais se destacam agentes etiológicos de relevância por seu caráter zoonótico, como causadores de toxocaríase, a larva migrans cutânea e a giardíase, entre outras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Hookworm Infections , Strongyloides , Toxocara canis , Colombia , Giardia
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180026

ABSTRACT

This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2+/-0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47+/-0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52+/-0.19 and 0.37+/-0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45+/-0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study.


Subject(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/anatomy & histology , Animals , Biometry , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Hookworm Infections/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Microscopy , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sus scrofa/parasitology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(3): 219-224, May-Jun/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710399

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the association between schistosomiasis and hookworm infection with hemoglobin levels of schoolchildren in northern Mozambique. Through a cross-sectional survey, 1,015 children from five to 12 years old in the provinces of Nampula, Cabo Delgado and Niassa were studied. Hookworm infection and urinary schistosomiasis were diagnosed, through Ritchie and filtration methods, with a prevalence of 31.3% and 59.1%, respectively. Hemoglobin levels were obtained with a portable photometer (Hemocue®). The average hemoglobin concentration was 10.8 ± 1.42 g/dL, and 62.1% of the children presented levels below 11.5 g/dL, of which 11.8% of the total number of children had hemoglobin levels below 9 g/dL. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated negative interactions between hemoglobin levels and ancylostomiasis, this being restricted to the province of Cabo Delgado (β = -0.55; p < 0.001) where an independent interaction between hemoglobin levels and urinary schistosomiasis was also observed (β = -0.35; p = 0.016). The logistical regression model indicated that hookworm infection represents a predictor of mild (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.17-3.00) and moderate/severe anemia (OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.50 - 4.89). We concluded that, in the province of Cabo Delgado, hookworm and Schistosoma haematobium infections negatively influence hemoglobin levels in schoolchildren. Periodical deworming should be considered in the region. Health education and improvements in sanitary infrastructure could achieve long-term and sustainable reductions in soil-transmitted helminthiases and schistosomiasis prevalence rates.


Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a relação entre a ancilostomíase e a esquistossomíase urinária com as concentrações sanguíneas de hemoglobina em crianças escolares no norte de Moçambique. Em estudo transversal, 1.015 crianças com idade entre cinco e 12 anos foram incluídas, nas Províncias de Nampula, Cabo Delgado e Niassa. A ancilostomíase e a esquistossomíase urinária foram diagnosticadas através das técnicas de Ritchie e de filtração da urina, respectivamente; prevalências de 31,3% e 59,1% foram observadas. As concentrações sanguíneas de hemoglobina foram obtidas com um fotômetro portátil (Hemocue). A concentração média de hemoglobina foi 10,8 ± 1.42 g/dL, 62,1% das crianças apresentaram concentração abaixo de 11,5 g/dL e 11,8% apresentaram nível abaixo de 9 g/dL. A regressão linear múltipla demonstrou interações negativas entre os níveis de hemoglobina e i) a infecção por ancilostomídeos (β = -0,55; p < 0,001) e ii) a esquistossomíase urinária (β = -0,35; p = 0,016), ambas associações restritas à Província de Cabo Delgado. Também em Cabo Delgado, o modelo de regressão logística demonstrou que a infecção por ancilostomídeos representa um preditor de anemia leve (OR = 1,87; 95% CI = 1,17-3,00) e anemia moderada/grave (OR = 2,71; 95% CI = 1,50 - 4,89). O estudo conclui que em Cabo Delgado, Moçambique, as infecções por ancilostomídeos e Schistosoma haematobium estão significativamente associadas a uma menor concentração sanguínea de hemoglobina em crianças em idade escolar. A administração periódica de anti-helmínticos deve ser feita regularmente. Melhorias na infraestrutura sanitária das regiões estudadas são as medidas mais eficazes para controle destas parasitoses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Anemia/parasitology , Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hookworm Infections/complications , Schistosomiasis haematobia/complications , Anemia/blood , Hookworm Infections/blood , Mozambique , Severity of Illness Index , Schistosomiasis haematobia/blood
16.
Acta méd. colomb ; 38(4): 282-282, oct.-dic. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-700464

ABSTRACT

Ingresa paciente joven de 19 años, soldado, remitido del batallón por cuadro de un día de evolución, dado por astenia, adinamia y episodio de lipotimia mientras se encontraba realizando ejercicio físico, con posterior aparición de disnea leve; a su ingreso al servicio de urgencias del Hospital Militar Central con signos vitales dentro de límites normales, mucosas pálidas, sin otro hallazgo significativo en el examen físico, incluido tacto rectal negativo para sangrado. Se toman paraclínicos encontrado hemograma con hemoglobina de 5.5 g/dL, hematocrito 20% con volumen corpuscular medio de 59.7 fL, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media 15.9 pg, RDW 18.2% con recuento total de eosinófilos dentro de límites normales. Se hace diagnóstico de anemia microcítica hipocrómica. Se realiza transfusión de dos unidades de glóbulos rojos, con remisión completa de los síntomas, dentro del estudio del síndrome anémico se realiza endoscopia de vías digestivas altas que muestra la presencia de múltiples larvas adultas de uncinarias, caracterizadas como Ancylostoma duodenale, se dio manejo con albendazol 400 mg, además de suplemento con sulfato ferroso. La infección por uncinarias es causada por los helmintos Necator americanus y Ancylostoma duodenale es transmitida a través del contacto con suelo contaminado, y uno de sus mayores compromisos es la anemia ferropénica, por pérdidas gastrointestinales que resulta de la ruptura de capilares y ateriolas en unión del parásito a la pared intestinal (1).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Blood Cell Count , Hookworm Infections , Anemia
18.
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2013; 6 (2): 125-133
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142710

ABSTRACT

The association of intestinal helminths with under nutrition varies by locality. The objective of this study was to investigate the nature of the association of helminth infection with the nutritional status of school children in Tikur Wuha Elementary School, northwestern Ethiopia. A total of 403 school children were examined for intestinal helminth infection [stool samples] and nutritional status, thick Kato-Katz and anthropometric techniques, respectively during a baseline survey. Among these children, 235 were treated for helminth infection and re-examined for weight changes four weeks after treatment. Among the 403 study participants, 29.3%, 28.3% and 58.3% were stunted, underweight and infected with intestinal helminths, respectively. In the multivariate regression model, the probability of being underweight was significantly higher in children who were infected with intestinal helminths, aged 5-10 years and male compared with children who were without helminth infection, aged 11-15 years and female, respectively. The association of helminths with low body mass was strong in the case of hookworm infection, and the probability of being underweight significantly decreased with every one-year increase in the age of the children. The means for weight, weight-for-age z-scores and body mass index-for-age z-scores of the children significantly increased four weeks after treatment for helminth infection, with a single dose of albendazole and/or praziquantel. Helminth-infected male children in the 5- to 10-year-old age group were more vulnerable to undernutrition, which decreased four weeks after treatment. Thus, deforming of children living in the area might be important for improving their nutritional status


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications , Nutritional Status , Schools , Thinness/complications , Hookworm Infections/complications , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Anthropometry , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Animals
20.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 52(2): 195-209, ago.-dic. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-756974

ABSTRACT

Un ensayo clínico de cuatro brazos fue llevado a cabo en 14 comunidades del estado Aragua para evaluar cuatro esquemas de tratamientos antihelmínticos para geohelmintos: Mebendazol y albendazol como monoterapias y cada una de estas drogas en combinación con ivermectina como terapias combinadas. Los tratamientos fueron administrados posteriormente a un examen coproparsitoscópico inicial, con reevaluaciones a los 7 y 21 días. Quedó en evidencia que las tasas de curación observadas a los 7 días posteriores al tratamiento, a favor de los esquemas combinados, particularmente la combinación albendazol + ivermectina (χ2 = 10,85; P < 0,0009), pero no se reflejaron a los 21 días después de la administración de los tratamientos y ningún esquema demostró una eficacia superior. Trichuris trichiura aún responde satisfactoriamente a los tratamientos convencionales. A pesar de la similitud en la eficacia de las monoterapias y terapias combinadas, el porcentaje de pacientes curados con T. trichiura solo o con infecciones mixtas fue elevada (> 93%). Las uncinarias fueron curadas en 100% (cero huevos en heces), seguido de A. lumbricoides (98,2%) y las infecciones mixtas de T. trichiura + A. lumbricoides + uncinarias (100%). La reducción porcentual de huevos por gramo de heces fue de 100% para las uncinarias, 89,3% para A. lumbricoides y 81,7% para T. trichiura. Las tasas de fracasos fueron bajas para los cuatro esquemas terapéuticos: mebendazol (5,14%), albendazol (6,20%), albendazol + ivermectina (2,02%) y mebendazol + ivermectina (2,22%). El grupo de edad de 0 a 9 años registró el mayor número de fracasos terapéuticos (n = 13). Quizás convendría emplear esquemas combinados en casos de fracasos terapéuticos. Pero, surge la duda si se está evidenciando la posibilidad de resistencia a estos medicamentos, dado que la mayoría de los fracasos terapéuticos se observaron en pacientes con bajas cargas parasitarias que bien podrían revertirse en el tiempo.


A four-arm clinical trial was carried out in 14 communities in the State of Aragua to evaluate four antihelminthics treatments, as monotherapy and combined treatments for soil-transmitted helminthiasis: Mebendazole, albendazole and each of these drugs in combination with ivermectin. Treatments were given after an initial stool specimens were obtained for examination, with two sequential stool reevaluations on days 7 and 21. Cure rates (zero eggs in stools) at day 7 after treatments were favourable for combined treatments, specially albendazole + ivermectin (χ2 = 10.85; P < 0.0009), which was not reflected by day 21 since no treatment showed any superior efficacy. Trichuris trichiura still responds satisfactorily to conventional treatments offered by the national Programme for the Fight against Anclyostomiasis and other Intestinal Parasites. Notwithstanding the similarities of monotherapy and combined treatments efficacy, the percentage of patients cured with T. trichiura solely or with mixed infections was high (> 93%). Hookworm infections were cured a 100% (zero eggs found in feces), followed by A. lumbricoides (98.2%) and mixed infections by T. trichiura + A. lumbricoides + hookworms (100%). However, the mean egg reduction percent was also a 100% for hookworms, 89.3% for A. lumbricoides and 81.7% for T. trichiura. The rates of treatment failure were limited, albendazole 6.20%, mebendazole 5.14%, for the combination of albendazole + ivermectin 2.02% and for mebendazole + ivermectine 2.22%. The majority of treatment failures were seen in the 0-9 age group. It is perhaps convenient to use combined schemes in cases of treatment failure. But, there is doubt as to whether there is the possibility of resistance to these drugs given that the majority of treatment failures observed in patients with low intensity infections which might be subdued in time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Helminthiasis , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Trichuris , Endemic Diseases , Helminths , Hookworm Infections
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