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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2874-2896, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981238

ABSTRACT

Glutamate receptor-like (GLR) is an important class of Ca2+ channel proteins, playing important roles in plant growth and development as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this paper, we performed genome-wide identification of banana GLR gene family based on banana genomic data. Moreover, we analyzed the basic physicochemical properties, gene structure, conserved motifs, promoter cis-acting elements, evolutionary relationships, and used real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to verify the expression patterns of some GLR family members under low temperature of 4 ℃ and different hormone treatments. The results showed that there were 19 MaGLR family members in Musa acuminata, 16 MbGLR family members in Musa balbisiana and 14 MiGLR family members in Musa itinerans. Most of the members were stable proteins and had signal peptides, all of them had 3-6 transmembrane structures. Prediction of subcellular localization indicated that all of them were localized on the plasma membrane and irregularly distributed on the chromosome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that banana GLRs could be divided into 3 subclades. The results of promoter cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding site prediction showed that there were multiple hormone- and stress-related response elements and 18 TFBS in banana GLR. RT-qPCR analysis showed that MaGLR1.1 and MaGLR3.5 responded positively to low temperature stress and were significantly expressed in abscisic acid/methyl jasmonate treatments. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that GLR, a highly conserved family of ion channels, may play an important role in the growth and development process and stress resistance of banana.


Subject(s)
Musa/metabolism , Phylogeny , Abscisic Acid/metabolism , Temperature , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Hormones/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 85 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-999535

ABSTRACT

A promoção a amamentação representa uma importante estratégia de saúde pública no manejo do sobrepeso e obesidade mundial. É possível que os hormônios reguladores do metabolismo energético, como a adiponectina, leptina e melatonina do colostro humano, possa beneficiar o sistema imunológico do lactente e minimizar os impactos ocasionados pelo excesso de peso materno pré-gestacional. Dado que, esses hormônios também possuem ação imunomoduladora. Assim, mudanças nas concentrações desses hormônios, podem comprometer a atividade funcional das células mononucleares (MN) do colostro humano e contribuir para o aumento de infecções neonatais. Por isto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a atividade funcional dos fagócitos MN do colostro de mulheres com excesso de peso pré-gestacional, na ausência e presença de adiponectina, leptina e melatonina. As amostras de colostro foram coletadas de 109 doadoras saudáveis e foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle e grupo com excesso de peso. O colostro foi centrifugado para obtenção do botão celular e sobrenadante. O sobrenadante foi utilizado para dosagem de melatonina, quantificada por ELISA. As células MN foram utilizadas no ensaio de fagocitose, por citometria de fluxo, e a produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROS), cálcio intracelular e apoptose foram realizadas por fluorimetria. Foram consideradas diferenças significativas quando p<0,05. O colostro de mulheres com excesso de peso pré-gestacional apresentou uma maior concentração de melatonina (p<0,05). Os fagócitos MN do grupo excesso de peso teve um menor índice de fagocitose (p<0,05). No entanto, os estímulos foram capazes de restaurar a atividade fagocítica para este grupo (p<0,05). A adiponectina+leptina foi o estímulo que desenvolveu uma resposta mais efetiva, com restauração dos níveis de EROS, manutenção do cálcio intracelular e elevação do índice de apoptose para o grupo com excesso de peso (p<0,05). Os dados em conjunto reforçam a hipótese de que amamentação é benéfica para a saúde da criança. A manutenção dos níveis endógenos de adiponectina, leptina e melatonina pode aumentar a proteção e diminuir os índices de infecção neonatais, em filhos de mulheres com excesso de peso. Assim, políticas públicas que apoiam o controle de peso pré-gestacional devem ser encorajadas


Breastfeeding promotion represents an important public health iniciative in worldwide overweight and obesity management strategies. It is possible that the hormones regulating energy metabolism, such as adiponectin, leptin and melatonin of human colostrum can benefit the infant's immune system and minimize the impacts caused by pre-gestational maternal overweight. As these hormones also have immunomodulatory action, changes in their concentrations can affect the functional activity of mononuclear cells of human colostrum and contribute to the increase of neonatal infections. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the functional activity of colostrum mononuclear phagocytes in women with pregestational overweight, with absence or presence of adiponectin, leptin and melatonin. Colostrum samples collected from 109 healthy donors were divided into two groups: the control group and the high body mass index (BMI) group. Colostrum samples were centrifuged to obtain the cell button and supernatant. The supernatant was used for melatonin dosing performed by ELISA, mononuclear cells used to phagocytosis assay, by flow cytometry and production of reactive species of oxygen, intracellular calcium and apoptosis assays were performed by fluorimetry using plate reader. Statistically significant differences were considered when p <0.05. Colostrum of pre-gestational high BMI group had higher concentration of melatonin (p <0.05). Mononuclear phagocytes of high BMI group had a lower index of phagocytosis (p <0.05). However, the stimuli restored the phagocytic activity for high BMI group (p <0.05). Adiponectin+leptin was the stimulus that developed a more effective response, with restoration of reactive oxygen species levels, maintenance of intracellular calcium and elevation of apoptosis index (p < 0.05) in the high BMI group. These data reinforce that breastfeeding is beneficial to child's health and maintaining endogenous levels of adiponectin, leptin and melatonin may increase protection and decrease neonatal infection rates in children of women with high BMI. Thus, public policies that support pre-gestational weight control should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Phagocytes , Colostrum , Leptin , Adiponectin , Melatonin , Obesity , Hormones/metabolism
3.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 3(3): 933-941, sept. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087613

ABSTRACT

La vitamina D clásicamente ha sido relacionada con el metabolismo óseo, sin embargo ejerce diversas funciones en varios tejidos del organismo que poseen el receptor para vitamina D (VCR) yson susceptibles a su efecto. La disminución de vitamina D también se ha asociado a patologías "no clásicas"como hipertensión, síndrome metabólico, resistencia a insulina, diabetes, desarrollo de algunos canceres,alteraciones pulmonares, autoinmunidad e infertilidad, entre otras. También se ha asociado la deficiencia materna de vitamina D en la génesis de patologías postnatales. Además, muchas de estas patologías se producirían por alteraciones moleculares, principalmente relacionadas con su metabolismo y con polimorfismos del receptor VCR. La vitamina D se considerara una hormona, puede ser sintetizada en la piel a partir 7-dehidrocolesterol mediante radiación ultravioleta B. Su metabolismo es complejo e implica la interacción de diversos factores en su incorporación y formación final de calcitriol, su forma activa. Para ejercer su efecto requiere de la activación del receptor VDR en la célula blanco, el cual a su vez activa secuencias de genes específicos con funciones diversas, a través de secuencias promotoras del ADN denominadas elementos de respuesta de vitamina D (VDRE). Muchos tejidos presentan el receptor VDR y enzimas necesarias para su metabolismo, por lo cual el espectro de acción de la vitamina D es muy amplio, así como la variedad de patologías que produce. Esta revisión de vitamina D, está centrada principalmente en los aspectos moleculares de su metabolismo y su rol en la génesis de enfermedades "no clásicas", producto de su disminución o alteración de su metabolismo.


Vitamin D has traditionally been associated with bone metabolism, however it exerts different functions in various tissues of the body that possess the vitamin D (VCR) receptor and they are susceptible to its effect. Decreased vitamin D has also been associated with "nonclassical" diseases such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, development of some cancers, lung disorders,autoimmunity and infertility, among others. Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been associated in the genesis of postnatal diseases. Further, many of these pathologies are produced by molecular alterations, mainly related to metabolism and receptor polymorphisms VCR. Vitamin D is considered a hormone, can be synthesized in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by ultraviolet radiation B. The metabolism is complex and involves the interaction of several factors in its incorporation and final formation of calcitriol, the active form. To produce its effect requires activation of VDR receptor on the target cell, which activates specific gene sequences with different functions, through DNA promoter sequences in identified vitamin D response elements (VDRE).Many tissues have the VDR receptor and enzymes necessary for metabolism, so the spectrum of vitamin Daction is very broad in the variety of pathologies produced. This review of vitamin D focuses primarily on the molecular aspects of its metabolism and its role in the genesis of "nonclassical", diseases, product of its reduction or alteration of metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/metabolism , Receptors, Calcitriol/deficiency , Immune System/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Disease/etiology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Hormones/metabolism
4.
Femina ; 44(2): 131-136, 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050858

ABSTRACT

Os fenômenos do desenvolvimento sexual e puberal são eventos progressivos e coordenados. Dependem de fatores cromossômicos - gênicos, gonadais e hormonais. Tais eventos nos indivíduos do sexo masculino e feminino, sendo sincrônicos, permitirão um conveniente desenvolvimento sexual e puberal. Analisar tais fenômenos é o propósito deste estudo.(AU)


The sexual and puberal modifications are coordinate and progressive during differents life phases. Many factors are involved like genic-chromosomic, gonadal and hormonal. Those events that occurred in males and females are synchronous and to create a perfect development. Our proposal is review those situations.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Puberty/physiology , Sexual Development/physiology , Menarche/physiology , Endocrine Glands/metabolism , Adrenarche/physiology , Genitalia, Female/growth & development , Genitalia, Male/growth & development , Gonads/growth & development , Hormones/metabolism , Menstruation/physiology , Nipples/growth & development
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Mar; 51(3): 235-240
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147587

ABSTRACT

The snake shed skin though considered as biological waste products have been mentioned in folk and traditional medicine for treatment of ailments like skin disorders, parturition problems etc. Shedded skin extract (5 mg.kg-1, sc) did not produce any change in the estrous cycle of normal cycling female mice. However in 10 mg.kg-1, sc dose, the extract caused a temporary cessation of the estrous cycle at diestrous phase in normal cycling female mice for 10 days. SSAE (10 mg.kg-1, sc) caused a significant change in the level of LH, FSH, progesterone, estradiol, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Histopathology of uterus and ovary showed structural disorientation in both. The results substantiate the influence of snake shed skin in mice reproductive cycle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Elapidae , Estradiol/metabolism , Estrous Cycle/drug effects , Estrous Cycle/metabolism , Female , Fertility/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hormones/metabolism , Mice , Ovary/metabolism , Ovary/pathology , Progesterone/metabolism , Reproduction , Skin/chemistry , Uterus/metabolism , Uterus/pathology
6.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Mar; 51(3): 218-227
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147585

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different Luteinizing hormone (LH) and steroid hormones levels on LH receptor (LHR) expression in the hippocampal cells. Rats (24 males and 24 females) were assigned to four groups: one control and three experimental [gonadectomy (GDX), gonadectomy + gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GDX+GnRHa) and GDX+GnRHa+estradiol (E2) or testosterone (T)] independently for each gender. All experimental rats were gonadectomized; then GnRHa was administrated to GDX+GnRHa group, and GnRHa plus steroid hormone to GDX+GnRHa+E2 or T group in both genders for four-month. LHR mRNA expression and its protein level in hippocampal cells were measured using QRT-PCR and Western blotting. Quantification of mRNA revealed a decrease in LHR transcripts level in GDX+GnRHa group of females. A significant change was observed between GDX groups and GDX+GnRHa+E2 or T versus GDX+GnRHa group in females. High levels of LH decreased significantly the immature isoform of LHR in GDX group compared to control group in both genders, but low LH concentrations in GDX+GnRHa group induced immature LHR isoform production only in females. Therefore increased LH concentration induces production of incomplete LHR transcripts in hippocampal cells and decreases immature LHR at the protein level. This implies that LH decreases the efficiency of translation through either producing non-functional LHR molecules or preventing their translation.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Primers/genetics , Estradiol/biosynthesis , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Hippocampus/cytology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hormones/metabolism , Luteinizing Hormone/biosynthesis , Male , Neurons/metabolism , Protein Isoforms , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, LH/biosynthesis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Steroids/metabolism , Testosterone/biosynthesis
7.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 109 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-716898

ABSTRACT

Eventos ou estímulos no início da vida podem afetar o desenvolvimento do indivíduo; dentre esses o tabagismo materno. A exposição materna isolada à nicotina, principal componente do cigarro, causa na prole alterações metabólicas, em curto e longo prazo, como aumento da adiposidade, resistência à leptina, e disfunção tireoideana e adrenal. Entretanto é sabido que na fumaça de cigarro estão presentes outros componentes com potenciais efeitos tóxicos. Assim propomos comparar o efeito de duas formas de exposição neonatal à fumaça do cigarro sobre o perfil endócrino-metabólico da prole em curto e longo prazo. Para isso, no 3º dia após o nascimento, ratos lactentes foram submetidos a dois modelos: Modelo I (exposição pelo leite materno), ninhadas separadas em: exposição à fumaça (EF; n=8) – lactantes expostas à fumaça de cigarros 2R1F (1,7 mg de nicotina/cigarro por 1h, 4 vezes ao dia), separadas de suas proles e grupo controle (C; n=8), onde as mães foram separadas de suas proles e expostas ao ar filtrado; Modelo II (exposição direta à fumaça), ninhadas separadas em: exposição à fumaça (EF; n=8) – mães e proles expostas à fumaça de cigarros 2R1F e controle (C; n=8) – mães e proles expostas ao ar filtrado. A exposição ao tabaco ocorreu até o desmame. Mães sacrificadas aos desmame e proles aos desmame e aos 180 dias de idade. As mães lactantes expostas à fumaça (EF) apresentaram hipoleptinemia (-46%), hiperprolactinemia (+50%), hipoinsulinemia (-40%) e diminuição de triglicérides (-53%). Quanto a composição bioquímica do leite, as lactantes EF mostraram aumento de lactose (+52%) e triglicérides (+78%). No modelo I, as proles EF apresentaram ao desmame: diminuição da gordura corporal total (-24%), aumento de proteína corporal total (+17%), diminuição da glicemia (-11%), hiperinsulinemia (+28%), hipocorticosteronemia (-40%) e aumento de triglicérides (+34%). Quando adultas, as proles EF apresentaram somente alteração da função adrenal onde observou-se menor ...


Events or stimuli during early life can affect the development; among these events, there is the maternal smoking. Children born from smoking mothers showed low birth body weight and overweight in childhood and adolescence. Maternal nicotine exposure, the main cigarette component, causes in the offspring several metabolic changes in short- and long-term, such as increase in adiposity, hyperleptinemia, leptin resistance as well as thyroid and adrenal dysfunction. However, it is known that there are other toxic components in tobacco smoke. Then, we compared the effects of two models of tobacco smoke exposure on endocrine-metabolic profile in offspring at short- and long-term. For this, in the 3rd day of birth, suckling rats were submitted to two different experiments: Model I (through breast milk exposure), in which litters were separated into, smoke exposure (SE; n=8) – lactating mothers exposed to 2R1F cigarettes smoke (1.7 mg nicotine/cigarette/1h, 4 times per day) separated from their offspring; and control (C; n=8) – mothers were separated of their pups and exposed to filtered air. Model II (direct exposure), in which litters were separated into: Smoke exposure (SE; n=8) – lactating mothers and their offspring were exposed to 2R1F cigarettes smoke; and control (C; n=8) – mothers and their pups were exposed to filtered air. The smoke exposure occurred until the weaning, when mothers and half of pups were killed. The other offspring were killed at 180 days-old. SE dams presented hypoleptinemia (-46%), hyperprolactinemia (+50%), hypoinsulinemia (-40%) and lower triglycerides (-53%). Concerning milk compositon, SE dams showed higher lactose (+52%) and triglycerides (+78%). In model I (through breast milk exposure), EF offspring showed at weaning lower total body fat (-24%) and higher total body protein (+17), lower serum glucose (-11%), hyperinsulinemia (+28%), hypocorticosteronemia (-40%) and higher triglycerides (+34%). In adulthood, these parameters were ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Lactation , Lactation/metabolism , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Endocrine Glands , Endocrine Glands/physiopathology , Hormones/metabolism , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Nicotine/adverse effects , Nicotine/toxicity , Obesity/metabolism , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Endocrine System/metabolism
8.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 125(1): 9-18, mar. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-658213

ABSTRACT

En esta publicación se describen las diferencias dimórficas sexuales observadas en los seres humanos. Ademas se intenta explicar el origen de las mismas, que se considera preferentemente hormonal en los rasgos que definen la masculinidad morfológica y psicológica. En las mujeres los rasgos dimórficos son posiblemente de origen genético, no dependientes de los determinantes hormonales. Desde allí se puede suponer que el biotipo humano original es la mujer lo que quizás tenga eventual significado biológico.


Sexual dismorphic differences observed in human are described in this publication. Attemps to explain the origin of the observed differences suggest hormonal responsability in the determination of the tracts that defines the morphological and psychological masculinity. Those tracts that characterizes morphological and psychological feminity are supposed genetics or constitutional, but no hormonal in its origin. From these observations we may support that the woman is the original human biotype maybe with a biological significance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Characteristics , Sex Differentiation/physiology , Sex Differentiation/genetics , Phenotype , Gonads/growth & development , Hormones/genetics , Hormones/metabolism
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 37(3): 375-379, maio-jun. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-592668

ABSTRACT

Nas células musculares lisas atípicas características da linfangioleiomiomatose (LAM) encontram-se receptores de estrogênio e progesterona, de modo que o tratamento anti-hormonal pode ser considerado uma opção, mas ainda com resultados controversos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar retrospectivamente parâmetros hormonais e espirométricos em nove mulheres com LAM após o tratamento com goserelina por um ano. Houve um aumento médio de 80 mL e 130 mL, respectivamente, em VEF1 e CVF, assim como bloqueio hormonal efetivo. Ainda não se pode excluir um potencial efeito favorável da utilização de análogos de hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina em pacientes com LAM, reforçando a necessidade de ensaios randomizados.


In the atypical smooth muscle cells that are characteristic of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), there are estrogen and progesterone receptors. Therefore, anti-hormonal therapy, despite having produced controversial results, can be considered a treatment option. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate hormonal and spirometric data for nine women with LAM after one year of treatment with goserelin. The mean increase in FEV1 and FVC was 80 mL and 130 mL, respectively. There was effective blockage of the hormonal axis. It is still not possible to exclude a potential beneficial effect of the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues in LAM patients, which underscores the need for randomized trials.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Goserelin/therapeutic use , Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/physiopathology , Vital Capacity/drug effects , Hormones/metabolism , Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
12.
Rev. HCPA & Fac. Med. Univ. Fed. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 30(2): 140-152, 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834339

ABSTRACT

A anorexia e o hipermetabolismo são aspectos clínicos importantes em crianças com cirrose. Embora muitas das complicações da cirrose sejam semelhantes àquelas encontradas em adultos, a etiologia e a história natural da progressão da doença e o tratamento clínico em pacientes pediátricos podem ser significativamente diferentes. As alterações metabólicas da doença hepática crônica agravada pela anorexia e desnutrição podem ter implicações negativas no crescimento e desenvolvimento infantil. Crianças com cirrose de evolução progressiva são frequentemente desnutridas e, no entanto, os métodos comumente empregados para avaliação nutricional têm uso limitado nestes pacientes. Mesmo que a importância do estado nutricional sobre o prognóstico destes pacientes seja clara, poucos estudos sobre a terapia nutricional nas hepatopatias da infância têm sido realizados. A avaliação nutricional em crianças com cirrose hepática deve incluir uma completa história clínica e dietética, medidas antropométricas e parâmetros laboratoriais. A recomendação nutricional na cirrose infantil pode variar de acordo com o estado nutricional, idade e quadro clínico. Como a doença hepática crônica em crianças pode impactar significativamente sobre o estado nutricional e consequentemente no crescimento e desenvolvimento, o objetivo deste artigo é revisar os aspectos clínicos e fisiopatológicos envolvidos no diagnóstico e manejo nutricional da cirrose hepática em pacientes pediátricos.


Anorexia and hypermetabolism are disorders of paramount importance in children with cirrhosis. Although many complications caused by cirrhosis in children are similar to those found in adults, the etiologic spectrum and natural history of this disease progression and its clinical management in pediatric patients may be significantly different. The metabolic changes caused by chronic liver disease aggravated by anorexia and malnutrition can affect child growth and development. Malnutrition is common in children with cirrhosis and the methods commonly used for their nutritional assessment are limited. Although the importance of the nutritional status on the prognosis of these patients is clear, there are few studies about nutritional therapy in children with cirrhosis. Nutritional assessment in children with liver cirrhosis should include full clinical and nutritional history, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory parameters. The nutritional recommendation for cirrhosis in children may vary depending on age and nutritional and clinical status. Because chronic liver disease in children may have a significant impact on nutritional status, growth, and development, the objective of this study is to review the clinical and pathophysiological aspects involved in the diagnosis and nutritional management of liver cirrhosis in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Liver Cirrhosis/diet therapy , Nutrition Therapy , Anorexia/etiology , Nutrition Assessment , Cachexia/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Hormones/physiology , Hormones/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 974-977, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204144

ABSTRACT

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis, and it can be classified as either a functional or nonfunctional tumor. Affected patients usually present with abdominal pain or with symptoms related to the mass effect or hormonal activity of the tumor. Several cases of spontaneously ruptured nonfunctional adrenocortical carcinoma have been reported, but no case of a spontaneous rupture of functioning adrenocortical carcinoma has been described. We report a functioning adrenocortical carcinoma that spontaneously ruptured during a work-up.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/complications , Biopsy , Carcinoma/complications , Cushing Syndrome/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Hormones/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Rupture, Spontaneous , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
14.
Actual. osteol ; 5(3): 171-179, sept.-dic. 2009. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-614299

ABSTRACT

El esqueleto continuamente remodela en una acción coordinada de osteoblastos y osteoclastos. El mantenimiento de la integridad mecánica y homeostasis mineral requiere un delicado equilibrio entre la formación y resorción ósea ya que un desbalance entre ambas llevaría a una debilidad ósea con el incremento en el riesgo de fracturas por fragilidad. La actividad de osteoblastos y osteoclastos está regulada por varias hormonas sistémicas y también localmente por factores producidos por las mismas células óseas o células vecinas. Estos factores, citoquinas y prostaglandinas, están a su vez regulados en parte por hormonas sistémicas. Recientemente se ha sugerido que el remodelamiento óseo, como la mayoría de las funciones homeostáticas, también se encontraría regulado por el sistema nervioso central (SNC) a través de conexiones nerviosas eferentes. Las células óseas presentan receptores funcionantes para una serie de factores neuropeptídicos que se cree son moléculas señalizadoras de los mensajes del SNC. Una serie de eventos sugieren que una hormona que regula el apetito, la reproducción y el consumo de energía a través de receptores específicos hipotalámicos estaría también implicada en el control del remodelamiento óseo. Este hecho determina una vinculación directa entre el metabolismo energético y óseo. La leptina es una hormona producida principalmente, pero no exclusivamente por la grasa blanca, es transportada unida a receptores específicos y atraviesa la barrera hematoencéfalica y se une a receptores hipotalámicos desencadenando una serie de procesos. Uno de ellos corresponde a la activación del sistema nervioso simpático, el cual estaría implicado en el control del remodelamiento óseo. A nivel de la formación la leptina actúa sobre receptores beta2adrenérgicos desencadenando una acción antiosteogénica. A nivel de la resorción y sobre el mismo tipo de receptores presenta una acción osteoclastogénica. Sin embargo, el mecanismo central implicado es diferente...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adipocytes , Bone Remodeling , Central Nervous System , Homeostasis , Leptin , Osteocalcin , Osteoclasts , Hormones/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/physiology
15.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(5): 572-581, jul. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-525419

ABSTRACT

A adoção de um padrão alimentar saudável, caracterizado pelo consumo de frutas, hortaliças, carnes magras, lácteos desnatados, frutos secos e moderada ingestão de óleos vegetais e álcool, é um fator determinante para um menor risco de doenças crônicas como a obesidade, a síndrome metabólica e as doenças cardiovasculares. Esse efeito benéfico pode ser explicado, pelo menos em parte, por seu papel modulador sobre biomarcadores da sensibilidade insulínica, da aterogênese, bem como os de inflamação e de função endotelial. Por outra parte, a ingestão de componentes específicos da dieta como os ácidos graxos insaturados (oleico e alfa-linolênico) e os micronutrientes com propriedades antioxidantes (vitaminas A, E e C; selênio e zinco) vêm sendo discutida, em razão de sua potencial ação protetora perante a ocorrência das doenças crônicas e possíveis benefícios na regulação hormonal, metabólica e inflamatória que esses fatores dietéticos podem proporcionar dentro de um tratamento nutricional para a obesidade e a síndrome metabólica.


Healthy dietary pattern, characterized by the consumption of fruits, vegetables, white meats, skim dairy products, nuts and moderate intake of vegetable oils and alcohol, is an important factor for a lower risk of chronic disease such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. This beneficial effect can be explained, at least partially, by its modulating role on biomarkers of insulin sensitivity and atherosclerosis as well as of inflammation and endothelial function. On the other hand, the intake of specific dietary factors, such as unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and alpha-linolenic) and micronutrients with antioxidant properties (vitamins A, E and C; selenium, zinc) has been discussed, due to its potential protector action due to chronic disease occurrence and its possible profits in hormonal, metabolic and inflammatory regulations that these dietetic factors can provide within a nutritional treatment to obesity and metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Diet , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Hormones/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/diet therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Fatty Acids/administration & dosage , Inflammation Mediators , Inflammation/diet therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/diet therapy , Nutritional Requirements , Obesity/diet therapy , Obesity/metabolism , Risk Factors
16.
Femina ; 37(1): 35-39, jan. 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-521742

ABSTRACT

A fertilidade depende da interação entre o embrião e o útero receptor competente. Um endométrio inadequado pode ser considerado fator determinante de infertilidade. Diversos eventos estruturais, bioquímicos, moleculares e genéticos estão envolvidos na receptividade endometrial, sob o comando dos hormônios esteroides. O período em que o endométrio permanece receptivo ao embrião é chamado de janela de implantação. Para avaliar essa receptividade, são realizados exames complementares como a medida da espessura endometrial pelo ultrassom, a perfusão endometrial pelo doppler, a função secretora do endométrio e biópsias endometriais. Concluindo, pode-se dizer que a receptividade endometrial é um importante fator envolvido na infertilidade, sendo necessários mais estudos para melhor compreendê-la e para desenvolver novas medidas terapêuticas que favoreçam a implantação embrionária.


Fertility depends on the interaction between the embryo and the competent receptive uterus. An inapropriate endometrium may be considered as the determining factor for infertility. Several structural, biochemical, molecular and genetic events are involved in the endometrial receptivity, controlled by steroids hormones. The period in which the endometrium remains receptive to the embryo is called window of implantation. To evaluate this receptivity, complementary exams are performed, including ultrasound measurement of endometrial thickness, endometrial perfusion with Doppler, the secretory function of the endometrium and endometrial biopsies. In conclusion, it can be said that endometrial receptivity is an important factor involved in infertility. For this reason, more studies are needed in order to better understand it so that new therapeutical treatments are developed to assist embrio implantation.


Subject(s)
Female , Embryo Implantation , Endometrium/physiopathology , Endometrium , Hormones/metabolism , Infertility, Female/etiology , Ultrasonography
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2008. 90 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-574047

ABSTRACT

A nutrição na lactação é um importante fator de impressão para futuras alterações hormonais e metabólicas no desenvolvimento, que vai regular a composição corporal, a homeostase glicêmica e o perfil hormonal dos animais, caracterizando o processo de programação. Nesta etapa crítica da vida, a desnutrição ou o excesso de nutrientes modificam a secreção e ação de vários hormônios, especialmente a prolactina, leptina e hormônios tireóideos. Apesar dos diversos estudos epidemiológicos mostrando que o perfil lipídico pode ser programado por alterações nutricionais na gestação e lactação, contribuindo para maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares, poucos estudos exerimentais foram realizados. Assim, avaliamos a programação do perfil lipídico em diversos modelos de impressão nutricional e hormonal em ratos e ovelhas, relacionando a programação da massa e composição corporal e homeostase glicêmica. Estudamos seis modelos de programação, a saber: a) desnutrição protéica materna na lactação (dieta com 8 porcento de proteína); b) bloqueio da prolactina no fim da lactação, com o uso de bromocriptina; c) supernutrição na lactação por redução da ninhada (3 vs. 10 filhotes); d) injeção de leptina aos filhotes (8ug/100g peso corporal/dia, nos dez primeiros dias de lactação); e) exposição materna à nicotina (6 mg/kg de massa corporal/dia) na lactação; f) desnutrição protéica e calórica materna de ovelhas na lactação. Os ratos programados pela restrição protéica materna ganham menos massa corporal, menos gordura total e visceral, apresentam menor glicemia e insulinemia e a única alteração programada no perfil lipídico foi a menor concentração sérica de colesterol total (16 porcento). Os ratos cuja prolactina materna foi bloqueada ganharam mais massa corporal, maior gordura total e visceral, apresentaram maior índice de resistência à insulina e menor adiponectinemia, que se refletiu em um perfil lipídico bastante alterado, com elevação do colesterol total (30 porcento)...


Nutritional status on lactation is an important imprinting factor for future hormonal and metabolic changes during development, regulating body composition, glucose homeostasis and hormonal profile in animals, characterizing the programming effect. In this critical period of life, malnutrition or overnutrition changes the secretion and action of several hormones, such as prolactin, leptin and thyroid hormones. Although several epidemiologic studies confirm the programming effect upon the lipids profile in humans, caused by nutritional imprinting during gestation of lactation that can contribute to a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, few experimental data was reported. Thus, our main objective was to study the lipid profile in several models of nutritional and hormonal imprinting in rats and ovine, related to the programming of body mass and composition and glucose homeostasis. We studied 6 models of programming: a) maternal protein malnutrition (8 percent protein); b) prolactin blockade at the end of lactation by bromocriptine c) early overnutrition on lactation by litter size reduction (3 vs. 10 pups); d) leptin injection to the pups (8 ug/100g body weight/day, for the first 10 days of lactation); e) maternal nicotine administration (6mg/Kg body mass/day) during lactation; f) ewes maternal protein (8 percent) or energie (60 percent) restriction during lactation. The programmed offspring whose mother were protein-restricted during lactation gain less body mass, and when they were 180 days-old, showed lower total and visceral fat mass, lower serum glucose and insulin and lower total cholesterol (-16 percent). The prolactin blockadge programmed for higher body mass, total and visceral fat mass, higher insulin resistance index and lower serum adiponectin, these effects were associated to several changes in the lipid profile, such as higher total cholesterol (30 percent), LDL-c (1,5X), VDLc (46 percent), triglycerides (49 percent) and lower HDLc...


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn/physiology , Animals, Newborn/metabolism , Body Composition/physiology , Malnutrition/pathology , Malnutrition/blood , Pregnancy/physiology , Hormones/metabolism , Lipids/physiology , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Rats , Sheep
18.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 51(1): 34-41, fev. 2007. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-448361

ABSTRACT

Diversas alterações endócrinas são descritas na obesidade. O eixo corticotrófico encontra-se hiper-responsivo, com maior depuração dos hormônios e nível de cortisol normal. A caracterização do pseudo-Cushing é importante. A leptina parece ser um hormônio permissivo para o desencadeamento da puberdade. Em adultos, as gonadotrofinas são normais, hiperandrogenismo e hiperestrogenismo são encontrados. Nas mulheres, a resistência insulínica é central no desenvolvimento da síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP), associada a hiperandrogenemia ovariana. Nos obesos, GH geralmente é baixo e IGF1 normal. A função tireoidiana é habitualmente normal nos obesos.


Several endocrine changes have been described in the obesity state. The corticotropic axis is hyperresponsive and there is enhancement of hormonal clearance, but cortisol levels are within the normal range. It is important to characterize a pseudo-Cushing in obesity. Leptin seems to be a permissive hormone for the beginning of puberty. In adults, gonadotropines are normal, and hyperandrogenism and hyperestrogenism are found. In women, insulin resistance has a central role in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), which is associated to ovarian hyperandrogenemia. In obese subjects, growth hormone (GH) is generally low and IGF1 is normal. Thyroid function is commonly normal in obese subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocrine Glands/metabolism , Hormones/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/metabolism , Gonadotropins, Pituitary/metabolism , Growth Hormone/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Leptin/metabolism , Thyrotropin/metabolism
19.
J Biosci ; 2007 Jan; 32(1): 169-80
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110797

ABSTRACT

Bioinformatics has delivered great contributions to genome and genomics research, without which the world-wide success of this and other global ('omics') approaches would not have been possible. More recently, it has developed further towards the analysis of different kinds of networks thus laying the foundation for comprehensive description, analysis and manipulation of whole living systems in modern "systems biology". The next step which is necessary for developing a systems biology that deals with systemic phenomena is to expand the existing and develop new methodologies that are appropriate to characterize intercellular processes and interactions without omitting the causal underlying molecular mechanisms. Modelling the processes on the different levels of complexity involved requires a comprehensive integration of information on gene regulatory events, signal transduction pathways, protein interaction and metabolic networks as well as cellular functions in the respective tissues / organs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Communication , Cell Physiological Phenomena , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genomics , Hormones/metabolism , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Signal Transduction , Systems Biology
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Nov; 43(11): 1032-41
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55933

ABSTRACT

The development of steroid-based oral contraceptives had revolutionized the availability of contraceptive choice for women. In order to expand the contraceptive options for couples by developing an acceptable, safe and effective male contraceptive, scientists have been experimenting with various steroidal/non-steroidal regimens to suppress testicular sperm production. The non-availability of a long-acting androgen was a limiting factor in the development of a male contraceptive regimen since all currently tested anti-spermatogenic agents also concurrently decrease circulating testosterone levels. A combination regimen of long-acting progestogen and androgen would have advantage over an androgen-alone modality since the dose of androgen required would be much smaller in the combination regimen, thereby decreasing the adverse effects of high steroid load. The progestogen in the combination regimen would act as the primary anti-spermatogenic agent. Currently, a number of combination regimens using progestogen or GnRH analogues combined with androgen are undergoing trials. The side effects of long-term use of androgens and progestogens have also undergone evaluation in primate models and the results of these studies need to be kept in view, while considering steroidal regimens for contraceptive use in men. Efforts are also being made to popularize non-scalpel vasectomy and to develop condoms of greater acceptability. The development of contraceptive vaccines for men, using sperm surface epitopes not expressed in female reproductive tract as source, still requires considerable research efforts.


Subject(s)
Androgens/metabolism , Condoms , Contraception/methods , Contraceptive Agents/pharmacology , Contraceptive Agents, Male/pharmacology , Contraceptives, Oral , Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal/chemistry , Cyproterone/pharmacology , Desogestrel/pharmacology , Dihydrotestosterone/metabolism , Epitopes , Estrogens/metabolism , Hormones/metabolism , Humans , Levonorgestrel/pharmacology , Male , Nandrolone/analogs & derivatives , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Spermatozoa/metabolism , Testosterone/metabolism , Time Factors
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