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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 533-547, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057985

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fish immune systems have become the subject of several studies due to the growing development of aquaculture and fisheries, and the demand for healthy produce for human consumption. Among the parasites responsible for diseases in fish farming, helminths stand out because they cause infections in farmed fish and decrease food conversion, zootechnical performance and meat quality. In the present review, the components that participate in the innate and adaptive immune responses of teleost fish that have so far been described are presented in order to summarize the defenses that these hosts have recourse to, in combating different groups of helminth parasites.


Resumo O sistema imune dos peixes tem se tornado alvo de muitas pesquisas devido ao crescente desenvolvimento da aquicultura e da pesca, assim como a exigência de obtenção de animais saudáveis para o consumo humano. Dentre os parasitos responsáveis pelas enfermidades na piscicultura, os helmintos destacam-se por causarem infecções nos peixes cultivados e por ocasionarem diminuição da conversão alimentar, do desempenho zootécnico e da qualidade da carne. Nesta revisão, apresentaremos os componentes que participam das respostas imunes inata e adaptativa dos peixes teleósteos já descritos, a fim de sintetizar à quais defesas o hospedeiro recorre frente aos diferentes grupos de parasitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Immunity, Humoral , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Fish Diseases/immunology , Fishes/immunology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 341-352, jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013792

ABSTRACT

Resumen La malaria asociada al embarazo es un evento poco estudiado en América Latina. Los abundantes trabajos sobre el problema en África llevan a pensar que esta infección genera una modulación de la respuesta inmune y alteraciones en el ambiente placentario, eventos cruciales para el adecuado desarrollo del feto y el neonato. La inmunidad contra Plasmodium spp es compleja porque involucra diversos factores que amplían las posibilidades de desenlaces, los que finalmente conducen a los diferentes fenotipos clínicos de la enfermedad. Uno de los desenlaces inmunológicos en infecciones por Plasmodium spp es la modulación de la respuesta inmune hacía un perfil regulador. Esta regulación inducida por la infección malárica resulta ventajosa para la persistencia del parásito en el hospedero, y adicionalmente, podría generar eventos adversos en la respuesta inmune general de los individuos infectados. El objetivo de esta revisión es abordar los mecanismos con los cuales Plasmodium spp modula la respuesta inmune del hospedero y exponer las consecuencias de las infecciones maláricas en el contexto madre-neonato.


Pregnancy-associated malaria is an understudied event in Latin America. Most works about malaria in pregnancy have been conducted in Africa. These studies indicate that the infection generates immune response modulation and alterations in the placental environment, key factors for the proper development of the fetus and neonate. Immunity against Plasmodium spp is complex since involves several factors that increase the possible infection outcomes. One of these immunological outcomes is the immune response modulation towards a regulatory profile, which is advantageous for the persistence of the parasite in the host; additionally, it could generate adverse events in the general immune response of infected individuals. The objective of this review is to address the Plasmodium spp mechanisms of modulation in the host immune response and expose the consequences of malarial infections in the mother-neonate context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Plasmodium/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/immunology , Immunomodulation/physiology , Malaria/immunology , Placenta/immunology , Placenta/parasitology , Plasmodium/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Immune System/immunology
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 652-657, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897016

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Immunogenicity of Schistosoma mansoni egg surface was examined to determine whether intact eggshells have lower antigenicity than ruptured eggs. METHODS: Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with intact or ultrasonicated S. mansoni eggs isolated from infected human feces. Mice were separated into four groups of six animals each and immunizations were performed approximately every 20 days during a 60-day period. Groups 1-4 were administered with saline solution, sonicated eggs with Freund's adjuvant, sonicated eggs without Freund's adjuvant, and intact eggs, respectively. IgG humoral immune response was assessed by ELISA using Soluble Egg Antigen produced from eggs isolated from the livers of infected mice. RESULTS Sonicated eggs co-administered with adjuvant induced the highest humoral response at 58 days, which was 11.9-fold (95% CI 6.2-17.5) greater than the response induced by saline solution. Sonicated eggs without adjuvant induced a 4.3-fold stronger response (95% CI 2.4-6.2) than normal saline. Intact eggs induced humoral response that was nominally twice stronger (95% CI 0.8-3.2) than that induced by normal saline but the effect did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS Soluble antigens are not abundant on the surface of S. mansoni eggs and/or are not secreted in sufficient quantities to induce a significant immune response to intact eggs. Assuming that isolation procedures had not damaged the eggs used for inoculation, our observations suggest that intact eggs either do not induce a significant immune response or, if they do, the mechanism involves insoluble antigens from the egg surface.


Subject(s)
Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Eggs/parasitology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Parasite Egg Count , Schistosoma mansoni/parasitology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunogenetic Phenomena , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Liver/parasitology , Mice
4.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(1): 21-27, Jan-Feb/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702067

ABSTRACT

Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection.


O recrutamento de uma população de células específicas após infecção por Leishmania pode influenciar o resultado da doença. A migração celular em resposta a Leishmania ou saliva do vetor tem sido reportada utilizando o modelo da bolsa de ar subcutânea, entretanto, a migração celular induzida por Leishmania associada com o sangue do hospedeiro e saliva do vetor neste modelo ainda não foi descrita. Neste trabalho foi investigada a migração celular no modelo da bolsa de ar subcutânea em hamster após a estimulação com a combinação de L. chagasi, sangue do hospedeiro e saliva de Lutzomyia longipalpis. A migração induzida por saliva foi três vezes maior do que a induzida por L. chagasi sozinha. Adicionalmente, L. chagasi associada com sangue e saliva induziu significativamente ainda mais leucócitos no exsudato inflamatório do que o estímulo com Leishmania sozinha. L. chagasi recrutou uma população de células distintas, no entanto, a maioria dessas células parece não ter migrado para o exsudato inflamatório, permanecendo no tecido da bolsa de ar. Estes resultados indicam que L. chagasi pode reduzir o acúmulo de leucócitos para o local inicial da infecção e que quando associada à saliva do vetor e na presença de componentes do sangue aumenta o influxo de mais neutrófilos do que macrófagos, sugerindo que o parasito desenvolveu uma estratégia para minimizar a resposta inflamatória inicial, permitindo uma progressão ilimitada dentro do hospedeiro. Este trabalho reforça a importância de mais estudos sobre os componentes da saliva dos vetores das leishmanioses no processo de transmissão e no estabelecimento da infecção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Male , Cell Movement/immunology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Psychodidae/parasitology , Saliva/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Exudates and Transudates/immunology , Exudates and Transudates/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Psychodidae/immunology , Saliva/immunology
5.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2014. XX, 90 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-940884

ABSTRACT

A malária é um problema de saúde pública. O Brasil é o país sul-americano que mais casos aporta todo ano, a maioria deles ocorridos na região Amazônica. Até o presente não há nenhuma vacina eficaz contra a malária. O controle dessa doença baseia-se principalmente no combate vetorial. Um dos desafios atuais é encontrar novas moléculas úteis para bloquear a transmissão da malária no vetor, sendo necessário para isso conhecer a biologia da interação entre os parasitos e seus hospedeiros. A maioria dos grupos de pesquisa utiliza como modelos de laboratórios combinações não naturais de Anopheles – Plasmodium. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a suscetibilidade ao P. vivax em espécies Amazônicas de Anopheles, fêmeas de Anopheles darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l., An. nuneztovari s.l. e An. triannulatus s.l. e An.aquasalis foram infectadas com P. vivax utilizando um sistema de infecção experimental por membrana artificial.


Todas as espécies de Anopheles estudadas foram suscetíveis à infecção por P. vivax, porém a taxa de infecção e o numero de oocistos variaram significativamente entre elas. An. aquasalis (Spearman rho = 0.255, n = 386, p < 0.01) e An. darlingi (rho =0.518; n = 54, p < 0.01) mostraram uma correlação positiva entre o número de gametócitos e o número de oocistos formados. Também foi avaliada a via JAK/STAT de resposta imune em A. aquasalis, durante a fase tardia da infecção, e em A. darlingi, no início da infecção. A expressão dos genes STAT, PIAS e NOS foi avaliada por q-PCR. Em An. aquasalis a expressão dos genes estudados foi induzida a partir de 8 dPI (PIAS e NOS) e 12 dPI (STAT),e começou a diminuir aos 14dPI, provavelmente indicando a indução transitória desses genes na fase tardia da infecção. Em An. darlingi não foi observada a ativação dessa via imune durante a fase inicial da infecção com P. vivax. Estudos futuros devem ser realizados para saber de que forma os genes regulados pela via JAK/STAT podem modular o desenvolvimento do P. vivax em An. aquasalis, e outras vias de sinalização devem ser estudadas na resposta de An. darlingi à infecção pelo Plasmodium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Malaria/prevention & control , Plasmodium vivax/pathogenicity
6.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2014. XX, 90 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-760547

ABSTRACT

A malária é um problema de saúde pública. O Brasil é o país sul-americano que mais casos aporta todo ano, a maioria deles ocorridos na região Amazônica. Até o presente não há nenhuma vacina eficaz contra a malária. O controle dessa doença baseia-se principalmente no combate vetorial. Um dos desafios atuais é encontrar novas moléculas úteis para bloquear a transmissão da malária no vetor, sendo necessário para isso conhecer a biologia da interação entre os parasitos e seus hospedeiros. A maioria dos grupos de pesquisa utiliza como modelos de laboratórios combinações não naturais de Anopheles – Plasmodium. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a suscetibilidade ao P. vivax em espécies Amazônicas de Anopheles, fêmeas de Anopheles darlingi, An. albitarsis s.l., An. nuneztovari s.l. e An. triannulatus s.l. e An.aquasalis foram infectadas com P. vivax utilizando um sistema de infecção experimental por membrana artificial...


Todas as espécies de Anopheles estudadas foram suscetíveis à infecção por P. vivax, porém a taxa de infecção e o numero de oocistos variaram significativamente entre elas. An. aquasalis (Spearman rho = 0.255, n = 386, p < 0.01) e An. darlingi (rho =0.518; n = 54, p < 0.01) mostraram uma correlação positiva entre o número de gametócitos e o número de oocistos formados. Também foi avaliada a via JAK/STAT de resposta imune em A. aquasalis, durante a fase tardia da infecção, e em A. darlingi, no início da infecção. A expressão dos genes STAT, PIAS e NOS foi avaliada por q-PCR. Em An. aquasalis a expressão dos genes estudados foi induzida a partir de 8 dPI (PIAS e NOS) e 12 dPI (STAT),e começou a diminuir aos 14dPI, provavelmente indicando a indução transitória desses genes na fase tardia da infecção. Em An. darlingi não foi observada a ativação dessa via imune durante a fase inicial da infecção com P. vivax. Estudos futuros devem ser realizados para saber de que forma os genes regulados pela via JAK/STAT podem modular o desenvolvimento do P. vivax em An. aquasalis, e outras vias de sinalização devem ser estudadas na resposta de An. darlingi à infecção pelo Plasmodium...


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Malaria/prevention & control , Plasmodium vivax/pathogenicity
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(7): 640-644, jul. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644569

ABSTRACT

Myeloma cells Sp2/0-Ag14 and spleen cells from BALB/c mouse immunized with sonicated Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 were fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the selection of clones producing antibodies. Clones were obtained by limiting dilution and screened for the production of specific antibodies to C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 by indirect ELISA and western blot against a panel of bacteria: C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354, C. fetus subsp fetus ADRI 1812, C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647, C. lari NCTC 11352, and Arcobacter skirrowii LMG 6621 for the ELISA and C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 and C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647 for the western blotting. Fifteen clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) anti-C. fetus subsp. venerealis of the IgM (1) and IgG (14) classes were further screened for species-specificity. Four clones of the 15 obtained were producers of species-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs): two were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and two were specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus. None of the clones were reactive against C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647. All clones recognized a protein with molecular mass of approximately 148 kDa from lysed C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354.


Para a produção de anticorpos monoclonais contra Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis foram utilizadas as linhagens de células de mieloma Sp2/0-Ag14 e células de baço de camundongos BALB/c imunizados com sonicado de C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354. A detecção dos anticorpos monoclonais foi realizada por ELISA indireto utilizando antígeno sonicado de C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354. A clonagem foi realizada por diluição limitante e os clones foram caracterizados por ELISA indireto utilizando um painel de bactérias escolhidas em função da prevalência e habitats: C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354, C. fetus subsp. fetus ADRI 1812, C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647, C. lari NCTC 11352 e Arcobacter skirrowii LMG 6621; e no "western blotting" utilizando antígenos sonicados de C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 e C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647. Foram obtidos 15 clones produtores de anticorpos anti- C. fetus subsp. venerealis das classes IgM (1) e IgG (14). Quatro clones dentre os 15 clones obtidos foram produtores de anticorpos monoclonais espécie-específicos: dois clones reagiram com maior especificidade contra C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 e dois clones reagiram com maior especificidade contra C. fetus subsp. fetus ADRI 1812. Nenhum dos clones reagiu contra C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647, comprovando a especificidade dos anticorpos monoclonais testados. Todos os clones reconheceram uma proteína de massa molecular de aproximadamente 148 kDa no sonicado de C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Cattle/microbiology , Campylobacter fetus/isolation & purification , Antibody Formation/immunology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(1): 145-157, ene.-mar. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639819

ABSTRACT

Hay diversos vínculos entre las parasitosis, especialmente las helmintiasis, y las enfermedades alérgicas, ambas condiciones de importancia epidemiológica en las regiones tropicales. Mientras que se ha especulado con frecuencia los efectos de las enfermedades parasitarias sobre la evolución del sistema inmunitario, no se conocen las fuerzas selectivas que han moldeado la respuesta alérgica y pensamos que incluyen mecanismos evolutivos distintos a los tradicionalmente divulgados. Los helmintos, fuente infecciosa y antigénica inductora de una respuesta parecida a la alérgica, se establecieron como parásitos en huéspedes que ya tenían grupos celulares de inmunidad de tipo 2. Hoy sabemos que un componente esencial en la relación de parasitismo entre los helmintos y sus huéspedes es la inmunosupresión que los primeros inducen, al crear una especie de equilibrio que permite la supervivencia de ambos. El desarrollo de este equilibrio debió incluir adaptaciones de ambos organismos y la supervivencia del parásito podría ser el resultado de la adquisición de mecanismos supresores de la respuesta defensiva, la selección de los huéspedes con menor intensidad de la respuesta de tipo 2, o ambas. Esto, a su vez, sugiere que aunque las infecciones helmínticas hayan influido en la conformación de la inmunidad de tipo 2, no han sido una fuerza selectiva importante en el caso particular de la respuesta alérgica que, a su vez, está más ligada a una exagerada respuesta Th2/IgE.


A variety of links occur between parasites, particularly helminths, and allergic diseases--both common conditions of epidemiological importance in tropical regions. Although speculations are often made about the effects of parasitic diseases on the evolution of the immune system, the selective forces that have shaped the allergic response are unknown and probably include evolutionary mechanisms different to those traditionally reported. Helminths, infectious and antigenic sources that induce allergic-like responses, established themselves as parasites in organisms that already had cell groups related to the type 2 immunity. An essential component in the relationship between helminths and their hosts is that the former induce immunosuppression, creating a kind of balance that allows the survival of both. The development of this equilibrium undoubtedly includes adaptations in both organisms, and the survival of the parasite is the result of (a) acquiring immune suppressor mechanisms and (b) finding hosts with lower intensity of the type 2 response. This in turn suggests that although helminth infections have influenced the formation of type 2 immunity, they have not been an important selective force in the particular case of allergic response. The latter is more related to an exaggerated Th2/IgE response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Parasitic Diseases/immunology , /immunology , Adaptation, Physiological/immunology , Allergens/immunology , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Evolution, Molecular , Helminthiasis/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Invertebrates/immunology , Phylogeny , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , Species Specificity , Vertebrates/immunology
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4): 726-731, jul.-ago. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-600615

ABSTRACT

As micoses superficiais são prevalentes em todo o mundo, geralmente ocasionadas por dermatófitos e restritas à camada córnea. A resposta imunológica do hospedeiro às infecções dos fungos dermatófitos depende basicamente das defesas do hospedeiro a metabólitos do fungo, da virulência da cepa ou da espécie infectante e da localização anatômica da infecção. Serão revistos alguns dos fatores da defesa imunológica do hospedeiro que influenciam na eficácia da resposta imune. Em especial, a participação dos receptores de padrão de reconhecimento (PRRs), tais como os receptores toll-like ou os da família lectina (DC-SIGN e dectin-2), que participam da resposta imune inata, conferindo-lhe especificidade e definindo o padrão da resposta imune como um todo. O predomínio celular ou humoral da resposta imune definirá o quadro clínico e o prognóstico da infecção, levando à cura ou cronicidade.


Superficial mycoses are prevalent worldwide. They are often caused by dermatophytes and restricted to the stratum corneum. The host's immune response against infections caused by dermatophytes basically depends on the host's defense against metabolites of the fungi, virulence of the infecting strain or species and anatomical site of the infection. We will review some of the factors of the host's immune defense that influence the efficacy of the immune response. We will particularly review the role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as toll-like receptors or lectin receptors (DCSIGN and Dectin 2), which participate in the innate immune response, bringing specificity to the immune response and setting its pattern. The predominance of a cellular or humoral immune response determines the clinical manifestations and the prognosis of the infection, leading to healing or chronicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Risk Factors
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(4): 424-432, June 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592184

ABSTRACT

The outcome of the interaction between Biomphalaria and Schistosoma mansoni depends on the response of the host internal defence system (IDS) and the escape mechanisms of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the IDS (haemocytes and soluble haemolymph factors) of resistant and susceptible Biomphalaria tenagophila lineages and Biomphalaria glabrata lineages in the presence of in vitro-transformed primary sporocysts and secondary sporocysts obtained from infected B. glabrata. To do this, we assayed the cellular adhesion index (CAI), analysed viability/mortality, used fluorescent markers to evaluate the tegumental damage and transplanted secondary sporocysts. B. tenagophila Taim was more effective against primary and secondary sporocystes than the susceptible lineage and B. glabrata. Compared with secondary sporocysts exposed to B. tenagophila, primary sporocysts showed a higher CAI, a greater percentage of dead sporocysts and were labelled by lectin from Glycine max and Alexa-Fluor 488 fluorescent probes at a higher rate than the secondary sporocysts. However, the two B. tenagophila lineages showed no cercarial shedding after inoculation with secondary sporocysts. Our hypothesis that secondary sporocysts can escape the B. tenagophila IDS cannot be confirmed by the transplantation experiments. These data suggest that there are additional mechanisms involved in the lower susceptibilty of B. tenagophila to S. mansoni infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomphalaria , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Oocysts/physiology , Schistosoma mansoni/physiology , Biomphalaria/immunology , Hemocytes , Hemolymph , Oocysts/immunology , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(5): 418-420, May 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586507

ABSTRACT

Parasites are accountable for driving diversity within immune gene families. We identified and investigated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18 (TNFRSF18) gene by direct sequencing in a group of male Gabonese individuals exposed to a wide array of parasitic diseases such as malaria, filariasis and schistosomiasis. Two new promoter variants were identified in 40 individuals. Both novel variants were heterozygous and were linked to SNP #rs3753344 (C/T), which has been described. One of the SNP variants (ss2080581728) was close to the general transcription factor site, the TATA box. We further validated these new promoter variants for their allelic gene expression using transient transfection assays. One new promoter variant with two base changes (C/T - ss2080581728/rs3753344) displayed an altered expression of the marker gene. Both novel variants remained less active at the non-induced state in comparison to the major allele. The allele frequencies observed in this study were consistent with data for other African populations. The detection and analysis of these human immune gene polymorphisms contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between host-parasite and expression of Treg activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR-Related Protein/genetics , Host-Parasite Interactions/genetics , Parasitic Diseases/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Gabon , Gene Frequency , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Parasitic Diseases/immunology , Transfection
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(2): 84-90, Feb. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-573659

ABSTRACT

Infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi leads to Chagas disease, which affects millions of people in Latin America. Infection with T. cruzi cannot be eliminated by the immune system. A better understanding of immune evasion mechanisms is required in order to develop more effective vaccines. During the acute phase, parasites replicate extensively and release immunomodulatory molecules that delay parasite-specific responses mediated by T cells. This immune evasion allows the parasite to spread in the host. In the chronic phase, parasite evasion relies on its replication strategy of hijacking the TGF-β signaling pathway involved in inflammation and tissue regeneration. In this article, the mechanisms of immune evasion described for T. cruzi are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Disease/immunology , Immune Evasion/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Acute Disease , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 14(5): 476-482, Sept.-Oct. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-570562

ABSTRACT

The initial encounter of Leishmania with its host's immune system is important in the outcome of infection. Previous studies have shown that PBMCs from healthy volunteers (HV) exposed to Leishmania differ in IFN-γ production. We have expanded such observations evaluating the profile and kinetics of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-10, IL-13), chemokines (CCL5, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL10), and chemokine receptors (CCR1,CCR5, CXCR3, CCR4) in vitro L. amazonensis-stimulated of HV's PBMCs. HVs were divided in groups of high (HR) or low (LR) IFN-γ responders. In both groups, HR and LR, after L. amazonensis infection there was a predominance of IL-10 and IL-13 over IFN-γ production, while IL-12 was produced in similar amount. Regarding chemokines, a more striking difference was observed for CCL3 expression that was lower at 12 hours and 48 hours post infection in LR than in HR. Interestingly, a downregulation of CCR5 and a greater expression of CCR4 were found in low IFN-γ responders. These data suggest that early after L. amazonensis infection there is a cytokine milieu dominated by IL-13 and IL-10, and despite of this environment, IFN-γ is produced, supporting the complexity of the response. It is noteworthy that the pattern of immune response is mounted in first hours after Leishmania stimulation, with the definition of the differentiation of Th1 versus Th2 cells. It remains to be determined if such an in vitro difference has an in vivo counterpart in terms of susceptibility to infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , /biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , Leishmania mexicana/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/parasitology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , /immunology , /immunology , Leishmania mexicana/physiology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Protozoan/analysis
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(5): 605-610, Aug. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-557217

ABSTRACT

Bacteria, fungi and parasites are in constant contact with the insect gut environment and can influence different aspects of the host gut physiology. Usually, some of these microorganisms develop and survive in the digestive tract. Therefore, the gut environment must be able to tolerate certain populations of these organisms for the establishment of interactions between non-pathogenic bacteria, parasites and the gut. This review provides a brief overview of the biological and molecular mechanisms that microorganisms use to interact with the gut epithelia in mosquitoes and speculates on their significances for the development of bacteria and Trypanosoma cruzi in the guts of triatomines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae , Homeostasis/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Culicidae/immunology , Culicidae , Culicidae , Digestive System/immunology , Digestive System , Digestive System , Triatominae/immunology , Triatominae , Triatominae , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(4): 499-503, July 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-554821

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by the trematode Echinostoma paraensei has been shown to interfere in the natural resistance to infection by Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria glabrata is susceptible to infection, while Taim isolate Biomphalaria tenagophila is resistant to infection by S. mansoni. These two snail species were assessed for infection with E. paraensei two days after exposure to S. mansoni miracidia. The number of B. tenagophila and B. glabrata infected with E. paraensei was lower in co-infected group, suggesting an antagonistic relationship. B. glabrata showed an increase in its susceptibility to S. mansoni, whereas B. tenagophila maintained its refractoriness to S. mansoni infection. Weekly comparisons made between the E. paraensei cercariae released from B. tenagophila and B. glabrata mono-infected snails revealed no quantitative differences. In contrast, S. mansoni cercariae released were higher in the B. glabrata co-infected group. Mortality rates were significantly greater in both species pertaining to co-infected group and unexpected mortalities were also observed in B. tenagophila exposed only to S. mansoni miracidia. Our study revealed that the B. tenagophila Taim isolate is susceptible to E. paraensei infection, although infection did not alter its resistance to S. mansoni infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Biomphalaria , Echinostoma/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Schistosoma mansoni/physiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Biomphalaria/immunology , Echinostoma/immunology , Rodentia , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Time Factors
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(4): 381-385, July-Aug. 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-527177

ABSTRACT

Lagochilascaris minor is the etiological agent of lagochilascariosis, a disease that affects the neck region and causes exudative abscesses, with eggs, adult parasites and L3/L4 larvae in the purulent exudates. Mice are now considered to be intermediate hosts for the parasite. To determine the pattern of infection in B1 cell-deficient mice, experimental lagochilascariosis was studied in BALB/c and X-chromosome-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice. BALB.xid-infected mice showed lower numbers of larvae. Third-stage larvae, fourth-stage larvae and adult parasites were found in both strains. BALB/c mice produced IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE against the crude extract and secreted/excreted antigens of the parasite. On the other hand, BALB.xid mice did not produce IgM and produced lower levels of IgG and IgA, and similar quantities of IgE.


Lagochilascaris minor é o agente etiológico da lagochilascariose, uma doença que afeta a região de pescoço provocando abscessos exudativos contendo ovos, parasitas adultos e larvas L3/L4 nos exudates purulentos. Atualmente, camundongos são considerados hospedeiros intermediários do parasita. Para determinar o padrão de infecção em camundongos deficientes de células B1, a lagochilascariose experimental foi estudada em camundongos BALB/c e em camundongos com imunodeficiência ligada ao cromossomo X (xid). Camundongos BALB.xid infectados mostraram menor número de larvas. Larvas L3, L4 e parasitas adultos foram encontrados em ambas as linhagens. Camundongos BALB/c produziram IgM, IgG, IgA e IgE contra o extrato bruto e antígenos secretados/excretados do parasita; por outro lado, camundongos BALB.xid não produziram IgM, produziram baixos níveis de IgG e IgA, e quantidades semelhantes de IgE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Ascaridida Infections/immunology , Ascaridoidea/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Ascaridida Infections/parasitology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred mdx , Time Factors
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 246-251, July 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520885

ABSTRACT

There is a general consensus that during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the host immune system induces complex processes to ensure the control of parasite growth while preserving the potential to mount and maintain a life-long controlled humoral and cellular immune response against the invading pathogen. This review summarises evidence in an attempt to elucidate "what must be understood" to further clarify the role of innate immunity in the development/maintenance of clinical Chagas disease and the impact of etiological treatment on host immunity, highlighting the contributions of the innate immunity and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Recently, increasing focus on innate immunity suggest that chronic T. cruzi infection may cause morbidity when innate effector functions, or the down-regulation of adaptive regulatory mechanisms are lacking. In this context, stable asymptomatic host-parasite interactions seem to be influenced by the effector/regulatory balance with the participation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells in parallel with the establishment of regulatory mechanisms mediated by NKT and Treg cells. Moreover, a balanced innate immune activation state, apart from Treg cells, may play a role in controlling the adverse events triggered by the massive antigen release induced by trypanosomicidal agents during Chagas disease etiological treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Disease/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , /immunology , Chronic Disease , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 259-262, July 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520887

ABSTRACT

Host cell apoptosis plays an important immune regulatory role in parasitic infections. Infection of mice with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, induces lymphocyte apoptosis. In addition, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells stimulates the growth of T. cruzi inside host macrophages. In spite of progress made in this area, the importance of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of Chagas disease remains unclear. Here we review the evidence of apoptosis in mice and humans infected with T. cruzi. We also discuss the mechanisms by which apoptosis can influence underlying host responses and tissue damage during Chagas disease progression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis/immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/pathology , Disease Progression , Immunity, Cellular , Phagocytosis/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(1/2): 13-22, March-June 2009. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637695

ABSTRACT

The immunosuppressant effect of T. lewisi (Kinetoplastidae) infection on the multiplication of Toxoplasma gondii (Sarcocystidae) on alveolar and peritoneal macrophages of the white rat. The immunosuppressant effect of T. lewisi infection on the multiplication of T. gondii was compared in peritoneal (MP) and alveolar macrophages (MA) of white rat. Two animal groups were infected with T. lewisi and sacrificed after four days and seven days post infection. A group without infection was maintained as a control. The number of intracellular parasites (tachyzoites) (IT) was counted by light microscopy, calculating the rate infection rate per 100 total cells (TC) and per infected cells (IC) for each group of phagocyte cells. The relation quotient IT, TC or IC multiplied percent, provided a statistical ratio (RE) of the relative number of parasites in both cellular types for each time interval. MA as well as MP obtained after 4 days showed a significant increase in the multiplication of T. gondii with respect to the control. Unlike the MP (which had an increase in the multiplication of T. gondii the fourth day of infection with T. lewisi diminishing towards the seventh day), the MA had an increase in the multiplication of the parasite from the fourth to the seventh day. This difference can be related to the route of infection used for the experiments, that affect the MP directly with a greater effect in comparison with the MA of the lungs. Lung compartment will be affected later, when the infection becomes systemic between the fourth and sixth day of infection. The immunity against T. gondii is similar between both phagocytes, but the time of infection and the compartment where the cells are located, makes the difference in the response time against T. gondii. Supernatants from macrophage cultures or T. lewisi by rat did not induced any immunosuppression. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2): 13-22. Epub 2009 June 30.


El efecto inmunosupresor de la infección de T. lewisi sobre la multiplicación de T. gondii fue comparado en macrófagos peritoneales (MP) y alveolares (MA) de rata. El número de parásitos (taquizoitos) intracelulares (TI) fue contado por microscopía de luz. Los macrófagos alveolares y peritoneales (MP) de animales con 4 días de infección con T. lewisi muestran un aumento significativo en la multiplicación de T. gondii. A diferencia de los MP (que muestran un aumento en la multiplicación de T. gondii al cuarto día de infección con T. lewisi disminuyendo hacia el séptimo día), los MA mantienen un aumento en la multiplicación del parásito desde el cuarto, aumentando hacia el séptimo día de infección. Esta diferencia se puede deber a la ruta de infección utilizada para los experimentos que afectan directamente los MP donde se observa un efecto mayor y más temprano en comparación con los MA aislados de los pulmones, compartimiento afectado cuando la infección se vuelve sistémica entre el cuarto y sexto día de infección. La inmunidad contra T. gondii es similar entre ambas células fagocíticas, pero el tiempo de infección y el compartimiento donde se encuentren las células hace la diferencia en el tiempo de respuesta contra un parásito dado, en nuestro caso T. gondii. No hubo evidencia de que los sobrenadantes de cultivos de macrófagos provenientes de ratas infectadas ni el lisado de tripanosomas indujeran el efecto inmunosupresor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Macrophages, Alveolar/parasitology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Toxoplasma/growth & development , Trypanosoma lewisi/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(2): 234-240, Mar. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-533512

ABSTRACT

The Immunity Related GTPases (IRG proteins) constitute a large family of interferon-inducible proteins that mediate early resistance to Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice. At least six members of this family are required for resistance of mice to virulent T. gondii strains. Recent results have shown that the complexity of the resistance arises from complex regulatory interactions between different family members. The mode of action against T. gondii depends on the ability of IRG proteins to accumulate on the parasitophorous vacuole of invading tachyzoites and to induce local damage to the vacuole resulting in disruption of the vacuolar membrane. Virulent strains of T. gondiiovercome the IRG resistance system, probably by interfering with the loading of IRG proteins onto the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. It may be assumed that T. gondii strains highly virulent for mice will be disadvantaged in the wild due to the rapid extinction of the infected host, while it is self-evident that susceptibility to virulent strains is disadvantageous to the mouse host. We consider the possibility that this double disadvantage is compensated in wild populations by segregating alleles with different resistance and susceptibility properties in the IRG system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , GTP Phosphohydrolases/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/immunology , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/enzymology
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