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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253084, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345551


Abstract Repeatedly frying process of dietary edible oil has a potential role in the generation of free radicals. Therefore, questions have always been raised as to whether, there is an efficient and economical method to reduce the harmful effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Since hibiscus has been stated to have a wide variety of therapeutic effects, it was important to investigate its properties against harmful effects of free radicals. The current study aspires to find out whether irradiated powder of hibiscus has a protective role against adverse effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Thirty-five adult male albino rats were equally assigned into five groups. First group"G1" was fed with normal diet as control group, meanwhile, group"G2" the diet mixed with fresh oil, "G3" diet mixed with repeatedly frying oil only, "G4" diet mixed with frying oil treated with hibiscus and "G5" diet mixed with frying oil treated with irradiated hibiscus. Feeding duration was six weeks. Fatty acid analyses of oil as well as peroxide values were determined. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses as well as histological study. Repeatedly heated cooked oil has significant increases in peroxide value, acid value, free fatty acid and both conjugated diene and triene compared with repeatedly frying oil treated with hibiscus. Also there are significant increases in cholesterol and triglyceride and impaired in liver functions in "G3"compared with others. In addition, relative to the hibiscus groups, there is a substantial reduction in oxygen consumption in "G3". Both hibiscus as well as irradiated hibiscus attract attention in order to play a vital and economical role against harmful effects of frequent use of frying edible oil on some biological functions but, irradiated hibiscus was more effective.

Resumo O processo de fritura repetida de óleo comestível da dieta tem papel potencial na geração de radicais livres que podem ter efeitos prejudiciais em algumas funções biológicas. Portanto, sempre se questionou se existe uma maneira eficiente e econômica de prevenir ou pelo menos reduzir os efeitos nocivos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Como o hibisco tem ampla variedade de efeitos terapêuticos, foi importante investigar suas propriedades como agente antioxidante contra os efeitos nocivos dos radicais livres. O presente estudo pretende descobrir se o pó irradiado de hibisco tem papel protetor contra os efeitos adversos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Trinta e cinco ratos albinos machos adultos foram divididos igualmente em cinco grupos. O primeiro grupo "G1" foi alimentado com dieta normal como grupo controle, enquanto o grupo "G2" dieta misturada com óleo fresco, dieta "G3" misturada com óleo de fritura repetida, dieta "G4" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco e dieta "G5" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco irradiado. A duração da alimentação foi de seis semanas. Foram determinadas as análises de ácidos graxos de óleo, bem como os valores de peróxidos. Amostras de sangue e fígado foram coletadas para análises bioquímicas e estudo histológico. O óleo cozido repetidamente aquecido tem aumentos significativos no valor de peróxido, valor de ácido, ácido graxo livre e dieno e trieno conjugados em comparação com óleo de fritura repetidamente tratado com hibisco. Também há aumentos significativos no colesterol e triglicérides e comprometimento das funções hepáticas no "G3" em comparação com outros. Além disso, em relação aos grupos de hibiscos, há uma redução substancial no consumo de oxigênio no "G3". Tanto o hibisco como o hibisco irradiado chamam atenção por desempenhar papel vital e econômico contra os efeitos nocivos do uso frequente de óleo comestível para fritar em algumas funções biológicas, mas o hibisco irradiado foi mais eficaz.

Animals , Rats , Hibiscus , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Cholesterol , Cooking , Hot Temperature
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 528-534, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984768


Objective: To study the effect of diurnal temperature range on the number of elderly inpatients with ischemic stroke in Hunan Province. Method: Demographic and disease data, meteorological data, air quality data, population, economic and health resource data of elderly inpatients with ischemic stroke were collected in 122 districts/counties of Hunan Province from January to December 2019. The relationships between the diurnal temperature range and the number of elderly inpatients with ischemic stroke were analyzed by using the distributed lag non-linear model, including the cumulative lag effect of the diurnal temperature range in different seasons, extremely high diurnal temperature range and extremely low diurnal temperature range. Results: In 2019, 152 875 person-times were admitted to the hospital for ischemic stroke in the elderly in Hunan Province. There was a non-linear relationship between the diurnal temperature range and the number of elderly patients with ischemic stroke, with different lag periods. In spring and winter, with the decrease in diurnal temperature range, the risk of admission of elderly patients with ischemic stroke increased (Ptrend<0.001, Ptrend=0.002);in summer, with the increase in diurnal temperature range, the risk of admission of elderly patients with ischemic stroke increased (Ptrend=0.024);in autumn, the change in the diurnal temperature range would not cause a change in admission risk (Ptrend=0.089). Except that the lag effect of the extremely low diurnal temperature range in autumn was not obvious, the lag effect occurred in other seasons under extremely low and extremely high diurnal temperature ranges. Conclusion: The high diurnal temperature range in summer and the low diurnal temperature range in spring and winter will increase the risk of admission of elderly patients with ischemic stroke, and the risk of admission of elderly patients with ischemic stroke will lag under the extremely low and extremely high diurnal temperature ranges in the above three seasons.

Humans , Aged , Temperature , Ischemic Stroke , Inpatients , Cold Temperature , Hot Temperature , Seasons , China/epidemiology
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 191-198, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971514


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of different manners of heat exposure on thoracic aorta injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Normal 6 to 7-week-old male SHRs were randomized into control group (cage at room temperature), intermittent heat exposure group (SHR-8 group, exposed to 32 ℃ for 8 h daily for 7 days) and SHR-24 group (with continuous exposure to 32 ℃ for 7 days). After the treatments, the pathologies of the thoracic aorta of the rats were observed with HE staining, and the expressions of Beclin1, LC3B and p62 were detected with Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis in the thoracic aorta, and the expressions of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were detected using Western blotting. The effects of intraperitoneal injections of 3-MA (an autophagy agonist), rapamycin (an autophagy inhibitor) or compound C 30 min before intermittent heat exposure on the expressions of proteins associated with autophagy, apoptosis and the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway in the aorta were examined with immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#In SHR-8 group, the rats showed incomplete aortic intima with disordered cell distribution and significantly increased expressions of Beclin1, LC3II/LC3I and Bax, lowered expressions of p62 and Bcl-2, and increased apoptotic cells in the thoracic aorta (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with 3-MA obviously inhibited the expressions of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins, whereas rapamycin promoted their expressions. Compared with the control group, the rats in SHR-8 group had significantly down-regulated p-mTOR and up-regulated p-AMPK and p-ULK1 expression of in the aorta; Treatment with compound C obviously lowered the expressions of p-AMPK and p-ULK1 and those of LC3B and Beclin1 as well.@*CONCLUSION@#In SHRs, intermittent heat exposure causes significant pathologies and promotes autophagy and apoptosis in the thoracic aorta possibly by activating the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway.

Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Inbred SHR , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic , Beclin-1 , Hot Temperature , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Aortic Diseases , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog/metabolism
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 721-726, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980785


A multifunctional moxibustion treatment machine is designed and developed to assist the heat-sensitive moxibustion therapy. Through the motion control of the stepping motor by programmable logic controller (PLC), the automatic control is obtained for the acupoint detection of heat-sensitive moxibustion therapy and the manual operation of moxibustion. The skin temperature is monitored in real-time, using infrared non-contact temperature measurement technology. Based on the deviation of the temperature set value and the monitoring one, the distance between the moxibustion device and the exerted region is adjusted automatically by PLC so that the temperature is controlled practically. The multifunctional moxibustion treatment machine based on the heat-sensitive moxibustion therapy is capable of the operation control of mild moxibustion, circling moxibustion, sparrow-pecking moxibustion and along-meridian moxibustion techniques, as well as real-time monitoring of skin temperature. The temperature change curve of this machine is coincident with that obtained by the manual operation of heat-sensitive moxibustion. This multifunctional moxibustion treatment machine assists the delivery of heat-sensitive moxibustion therapy and it is satisfactory in temperature control and precise in operation.

Hot Temperature , Moxibustion , Pain Management , Acupuncture Points , Meridians
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 597-599, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980765


An automatic ash-removal heat-sensitive moxibustion device was developed, which could keep relatively constant temperature of heat-sensitive moxibustion, and realize the automatic ignition and automatic ash removal of moxa sticks during heat-sensitive moxibustion. The automatic ash-removal heat-sensitive moxibustion device comprises a bracket and a moxibustion box fixed on the top of the bracket; the bracket is composed of a base and a movable telescopic arm. This device can solve the problems of temperature instability, moxa ash blocking heat transfer and moxa ash falling during heat-sensitive moxibustion, avoiding the scalding caused by moxa ash falling, and reduce the workload of medical staff.

Humans , Hot Temperature , Moxibustion , Temperature
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 504-508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980752


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of meridian sinew releasing technique on moxibustion sensation of heat-sensitive moxibustion in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA).@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with KOA were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases each group. In the observation group, on the basis of the meridian sinew releasing technique, moxibustion sensation exploration method was applied at Dubi (ST 35) area on the affected side. In the control group, moxibustion sensation exploration method was applied at Dubi (ST 35) area on the affected side. The meridian sinew releasing technique was performed for 20 min each time, the moxibustion sensation exploration method was performed for 60 min each time, once a day for 3 days. The excitation rate, latency, duration time and intensity value of moxibustion sensation of heat-sensitive moxibustion were recorded on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd days of exploration in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The excitation rate on the 3rd day of exploration and total excitation rate in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). On the 1st, 2nd and 3rd days of exploration, the latency of moxibustion sensation of heat-sensitive moxibustion in the observation group was shorter than the control group (P<0.05), the duration time was longer than the control group (P<0.05), and the intensity value was higher than the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Meridian sinew releasing technique could improve the excitation rate of moxibustion sensation of heat-sensitive moxibustion in patients with KOA, shorten the latency, prolong the duration time, and improve the intensity value.

Humans , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Hot Temperature , Meridians , Moxibustion , Sensation
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 483-488, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980748


The paper reviews the inheritance, innovation and development of heat-sensitive moxibustion; and explores the path for the clinical development of moxibustion of traditional Chinese medicine moxibustion (TCM). Practice has shown that the laws of clinical research on TCM moxibustion refer to phenomenon discovery, exploration of rules, technological innovation, verification of curative effects, theory sublimation, returning to clinical practice, discipline construction, and experimental research. It is deeply realized that TCM research should be based on clinical practice, originated from classics, focused on theoretical innovation and in serve of clinical practice.

Moxibustion , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Hot Temperature
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 112-117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970721


Objective: To investigate the effect of oxidative stress caused by heat exposure on the blood pressure increase of treadmill rats and the intervention of antioxidants. Methods: In June 2021, Twenty-four healthy SD male rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal temperature feeding, normal temperature treadmill, high temperature treadmill and high temperature treadmill supplementation with vitamin C groups, 6 rats in each group. The rats run on the platform in normal temperature or heat exposure environment for 30 min in the morning and in the afternoon daily, 6 days per week. The daily vitamin C supplement dose of high temperature treadmill supplementation with vitamin C group was 10 mg/kg. BP recordings were done at the end of the week. The rat vascular lipofuscin (LF) was detected by ELISA, the rat serum nitric oxide (NO) was detected by nitrate reductase method, the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was detected by thibabituric acid method, the serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by chemiluminescence method, and the serum catalase (CAT) was detected by ammonium molybdate method. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of serum was measured by iron reduction/antioxidant capacity method, and the content of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in vascular tissue was measured by Western blot. The intra-group mean was compared by repeated measurement analysis of variance, and the inter-group mean was compared by single-factor analysis of variance and post-event LSD-t test. Results: Compared with the previous time point, the systolic BP and diastolic BP of the high temperature treadmill group were significantly increased at 7, 14 and 21 d, and decreased at 28 d which were higher than the initial level (P<0.05), and the systolic BP and diastolic BP values at each experimental time point were significantly higher than those of normal temperature treadmill group (P<0.001). The changes of thickening of the artery wall, no smoothing of the endodermis and irregular arrangement of muscle cells in high temperature treadmill group were observed. Compared with the normal temperature treadmill group, the content of MDA in serum, and LF in vascular tissue were significantly increased, the activities of SOD, CAT, T-AOC, the content of NO in serum, and the expression of Nrf2 in vascular tissue were significantly decreased in high temperature treadmill group (P<0.05). Compared with the high temperature treadmill group, the systolic BP and diastolic BP values at 7, 14, 21 and 28 d, the content of serum MDA and LF in vascular tissue were significantly decreased, the activities of CAT and T-AOC, and the expression of Nrf2 in vascular tissue significantly increased (P<0.05), the histopathological changes of the artery wall improved in high temperature treadmill supplementation with vitamin C group. Conclusion: Heat exposure has effect on oxidative stress, which may be related to the increase of BP. Vitamin C as an anti-oxidative enhancer can prevent those negative effects, which could alleviate the pathological changes of vessel intima in heat-exposed rats. And the Nrf2 may be a regulated factor to vascular protection.

Male , Animals , Rats , Ascorbic Acid , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Hot Temperature , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidative Stress , Fever
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1124-1131, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970584


A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center phase Ⅱ clinical trial design was used in this study to recruit subjects who were in line with the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin, and were diagnosed as recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, and acute pharyngitis. A total of 240 cases were included and randomly divided into a placebo group and a Huanglian Jiedu Pills group. The clinical efficacy of Huanglian Jiedu Pills in treating the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin was evaluated by using the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndrome scale. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to determine and evaluate the levels of adenosine triphosphate(ATP), 4-hydroxynonenal(4-HNE), and adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) in plasma of the two groups before and after administration and to predict their application value as clinical biomarkers. The results showed that the disappearance rate of main symptoms in the Huanglian Jiedu Pills group was 69.17%, and that in the placebo group was 50.83%. The comparison between the Huanglian Jiedu Pills group and the placebo group showed that 4-HNE before and after administration was statistically significant(P<0.05). The content of 4-HNE in the Huanglian Jiedu Pills group decreased significantly after administration(P<0.05), but that in the placebo group had no statistical significance and showed an upward trend. After administration, the content of ATP in both Huanglian Jiedu Pills group and placebo group decreased significantly(P<0.05), indicating that the energy metabolism disorder was significantly improved after administration of Huanglian Jiedu Pills and the body's self-healing ability also alleviated the increase in ATP level caused by the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin to a certain extent. ACTH in both Huanglian Jiedu Pills group and placebo group decreased significantly after administration(P<0.05). It is concluded that Huanglian Jiedu Pills has a significant clinical effect, and can significantly improve the abnormal levels of ATP and 4-HNE in plasma caused by the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin, which are speculated to be the effective clinical biomarkers for Huanglian Jiedu Pills to treat the syndrome of excess heat and fire toxin.

Humans , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Hot Temperature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Adenosine Triphosphate
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 811-822, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970551


Children's fever is often accompanied by food accumulation. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that removing food stagnation while clearing heat of children can effectively avoid heat damage. To systematically evaluate the efficacy of Xiaoer Chiqiao Qingre Granules(XRCQ) in clearing heat and removing food accumulation and explore its potential mechanism, this study combined suckling SD rats fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet with injection of carrageenan to induce rat model of fever and food accumulation. This study provided references for the study on the pharmacodynamics and mechanism of XRCQ. The results showed that XRCQ effectively reduced the rectal temperature of suckling rats, improved the inflammatory environment such as the content of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-2(IL-2), interferon-γ(IFN-γ), white blood cells, and monocytes. XRCQ also effectively repaired intestinal injury and enhanced intestinal propulsion function. According to the confirmation of its efficacy of clearing heat, the thermolytic mechanism of XRCQ was further explored by non-targeted and targeted metabolomics methods based on LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS and UPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. Non-target metabolomics analysis of brain tissue samples was performed by QI software combined with SIMCA-P software, and 22 endogenous metabolites that could be significantly regulated were screened out. MetaboAnalyst pathway enrichment results showed that the intervention mechanism was mainly focused on tyrosine metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, inositol phosphate metabolism, and other pathways. At the same time, the results of targeted metabolomics of brain tissue samples showed that XRCQ changed the vitality of digestive system, and inhibited abnormal energy metabolism and inflammatory response, playing a role in clearing heat and removing food stagnation from multiple levels.

Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hot Temperature , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Food , Fever , Interferon-gamma
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 222-230, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970311


OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to estimate spatiotemporal variations of global heat-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden from 1990 to 2019.@*METHODS@#Data on the burden of heat-related CVD were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were used to quantify heat-induced CVD burden. We calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) and DALY rate (ASDR) per 100,000 population to compare this burden across regions. Generalized linear models were applied to evaluate estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) for temporal trends from 1990 to 2019. The correlation between the socio-demographic index (SDI) and age-standardized rate was measured using the Spearman rank test.@*RESULTS@#Heat-induced CVD caused approximately 90 thousand deaths worldwide in 2019. Global ASMR and ASDR of heat-related CVD in 2019 were 1.17 [95% confidence interval ( CI): 0.13-1.98] and 25.59 (95% CI: 2.07-44.17) per 100,000 population, respectively. The burden was significantly increased in middle and low-SDI regions and slightly decreased in high-SDI regions from 1990 to 2019. ASMR showed an upward trend, with the most considerable increase in low-latitude countries. We observed a negative correlation between SDI and EAPC in ASMR ( r s = -0.57, P < 0.01) and ASDR ( r s = -0.59, P < 0.01) among 204 countries.@*CONCLUSION@#Heat-attributable CVD burden substantially increased in most developing countries and tropical regions.

Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hot Temperature , Temperature , Global Health , Global Burden of Disease
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1711-1723, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981388


Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM), a common chronic metabolic disease, is often accompanied by internal heat syndrome. Heat-clearing prescriptions are widely used to treat different heat syndromes of T2DM from the aspects of clearing stagnant heat, excess heat, damp heat, phlegm heat, and heat toxin, demonstrating remarkable effects. The mechanism of blood sugar-lowering agents has always been a hotspot of research. Recently, the basic studies of heat-clearing prescriptions from different perspectives have been increasing year by year. To clarify the mechanisms of heat-clearing prescriptions and find specific mechanisms, we systematically reviewed the basic studies of heat-clearing prescriptions commonly used for the treatment of T2DM in the past decade, intending to provide a reference for related research.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Hot Temperature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Syndrome
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2233-2240, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981354


Regan Syrup has the effect of clearing heat, releasing exterior, benefiting pharynx and relieving cough, and previous phase Ⅱ clinical trial showed that the efficacy of Regan Syrup high-dose and low-dose groups was better than that of the placebo group, and there was no statistically significant difference in the safety between the three groups. The present study was conducted to further investigate the efficacy and safety of the recommended dose(20 mL) of Regan Syrup in the treatment of common cold(wind-heat syndrome). Patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and divided into the test group(Regan Syrup+Shufeng Jiedu Capsules placebo), positive drug group(Regan Syrup placebo+Shufeng Jiedu Capsules) and placebo group(Regan Syrup placebo+Shufeng Jiedu Capsules placebo) at a 1∶1∶1 using a block randomization method. The course of treatment was 3 days. A total of 119 subjects were included from six study centers, 39 in the test group, 40 in the positive drug group and 40 in the placebo group. The onset time of antipyretic effect was shorter in the test group than in the placebo group(P≤0.01) and the positive drug group, but the difference between the test group and the positive drug group was not significant. The test group was superior to the positive drug group in terms of fever resolution(P<0.05), and had a shorter onset time of fever resolution than the placebo group, but without obvious difference between the two groups. Compared to the positive drug group, the test group had shortened disappearance time of all symptoms(P≤0.000 1). In addition, the test group was better than the positive drug group and the placebo group in relieving symptoms of sore throat and fever(P<0.05), and in terms of clinical efficacy, the recovery rate of common cold(wind-heat syndrome) was improved in the test group compared to that in the placebo group(P<0.05). On the fourth day after treatment, the total TCM syndrome score in both test group and positive drug group was lower than that in the placebo group(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between three groups and none of them experienced any serious adverse events related to the study drug. The results indicated that Regan Syrup could shorten the onset time of antipyretic effect, reduce the time of fever resolution, alleviate the symptoms such as sore throat and fever caused by wind-heat cold, reduce the total score of Chinese medicine symptoms, and improve the clinical recovery rate with good safety.

Humans , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Capsules , Common Cold/diagnosis , Double-Blind Method , Fever/drug therapy , Hot Temperature , Pharyngitis , Treatment Outcome
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3693-3700, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981501


The quality of moxa is an important factor affecting moxibustion therapy, and traditionally, 3-year moxa is considered optimal, although scientific data are lacking. This study focused on 1-year and 3-year moxa from Artemisia stolonifera and A. argyi(leaf-to-moxa ratio of 10∶1) as research objects. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Van Soest method, and simultaneous thermal analysis were used to investigate the differences in the combustion heat quality of 1-year and 3-year moxa and their influencing factors. The results showed that the combustion of A. stolonifera moxa exhibited a balanced heat release pattern. The 3-year moxa released a concentrated heat of 9 998.84 mJ·mg~(-1)(accounting for 54% of the total heat release) in the temperature range of 140-302 ℃, with a heat production efficiency of 122 mW·mg~(-1). It further released 7 512.51 mJ·mg~(-1)(accounting for 41% of the total heat release) in the temperature range of 302-519 ℃. The combustion of A. argyi moxa showed a rapid heat release pattern. The 3-year moxa released a heat of 16 695.28 mJ·mg~(-1)(accounting for 70% of the total heat release) in the temperature range of 140-311 ℃, with an instantaneous power output of 218 mW·mg~(-1). It further released 5 996.95 mJ·mg~(-1)(accounting for 25% of the total heat release) in the temperature range of 311-483 ℃. Combustion parameters such as-R_p,-R_v, D_i, C, and D_b indicated that the combustion heat quality of 3-year moxa was superior to that of 1-year moxa. It exhibited greater combustion heat, heat production efficiency, flammability, mild and sustained burning, and higher instantaneous combustion efficiency. This study utilized scientific data to demonstrate that A. stolonifera could be used as excellent moxa, and the quality of 3-year moxa surpassed that of 1-year moxa. The research results provide a scientific basis for the in-depth development of A. stolonifera moxa and the improvement of moxa quality standards.

Artemisia , Hot Temperature , Moxibustion , Plant Leaves
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(2): 1-11, may. 23, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400730


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and compare the accuracy of pulp tests in the diagnosis of teeth pulpal health. Material and Methods: Traumatized (n=71) and non-traumatized (n=71) teeth from 42 patients were evaluated. Each tooth underwent cold, heat, electric and oximetry tests, followed by radiographic examination and calculation of the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy. Results: Clinical and radiographic examination showed no alteration for the 71 teeth from the intact contralateral group. From the traumatized group, 29 teeth presented complete endodontic treatment, 17 presented periapical alterations that required endodontic treatment and 25 teeth did not present conclusive radiographic alteration. The cold test showed a significantly higher proportion of correct results, while the electric test showed a significantly lower proportion. The data showed higher accuracy for the cold, followed by oximeter and heat tests, while the electric test presented the lowest accuracy. Cold and oximeter tests proved superior over the electric and heat tests, while the electric test showed better parameters when diagnosing diseased pulp. Conclusion: Combining two pulp tests seems reasonable for improving the pulp diagnoses using both oximeter and cold or oximeter and heat tests to detect healthy pulp; or cold and electric tests to define diseased pulp.

Introducción: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la efectividad y comparar la precisión de las pruebas pulpares en el diagnóstico de la salud pulpar de los dientes. Material y Métodos: Se evaluaron dientes traumatizados (n=71) y no traumatizados (n=71) de 42 pacientes. Cada diente se sometió a pruebas de frío, calor, eléctricas y de oximetría, seguidas de examen radiográfico y cálculo de la sensibilidad, especificidad, VPP, VPN y precisión. Resultados: El examen clínico y radiográfico no mostró alteración en los 71 dientes del grupo contralateral intacto. Del grupo traumatizado, 29 dientes presentaron tratamiento endodóntico completo, 17 presentaron alteraciones peri-apicales que requirieron tratamiento endodóntico y 25 dientes no presentaron alteración radiográfica concluyente. La prueba en frío mostró una proporción significativamente mayor de resultados correctos, mientras que la prueba eléctrica mostró una proporción significativamente menor. Los datos mostraron mayor precisión para la prueba de frío, seguida de las pruebas de oxímetro y calor, mientras que la prueba eléctrica presentó la menor precisión. Las pruebas de frío y oxímetro demostraron ser superiores a las pruebas eléctricas y de calor, mientras que la prueba eléctrica mostró mejores parámetros al momento de diagnosticar pulpa enferma. Conclusión: La combinación de dos pruebas pulpares parece razonable para mejorar los diagnósticos pulpares utilizando tanto el oxímetro como las pruebas de frío u oxímetro y calor para detectar una pulpa sana; o pruebas de frío y eléctricas para definir pulpa enferma.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dental Pulp/diagnostic imaging , Dental Pulp Diseases , Dental Pulp Test , Oximetry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cold Temperature , Hot Temperature
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(2): 187-193, abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402956


Resumen El objetivo del estudio fue comparar la extracción de ADN de quistes de Acanthamoeba sp. con un método disponible comercialmente y cuatro no comerciales utilizando tratamiento térmico y ultrasonido para la amplificación por una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) convencional, reduciendo tiempos de preparación y extracción de las muestras, como una herramienta para el diagnóstico en el laboratorio clínico. Se utilizó una cepa de Acanthamoeba, genotipo T4, cultivada en agar no nutritivo. Los quistes para analizar, en tres períodos de enquistamiento, se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente. Se extrajo ADN mediante cinco métodos: pretratamiento térmico, ultrasonido y combinaciones de ellos. La PCR se llevó a cabo utilizando cebadores específicos JDP1/JDP2. La concentración y pureza del ADN extraído con los protocolos evaluados revelaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,0001). El método E (comercial), el A (térmico) y el B (ultrasonido) lograron los mejores rendimientos en la amplificación del fragmento específico de Acanthamoeba sp. por la PCR convencional.

Abstract The objective of the study was to compare the DNA extraction of Acanthamoeba sp. cysts with a commercially available method and four non-commercial ones, with heat and ultrasound treatment that allows amplification by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reducing sample preparation and extraction times, such as a tool for diagnosis in the clinical laboratory. To this aim, a strain of Acanthamoeba T4 grown on non-nutrient agar was used. Plates with cysts at three different encystation times were stored at room temperature until the study was carried out. DNA was extracted with five methods that included pretreatments (thermal and ultrasound) or combinations of them. PCR was performed using specific primers JDP1/JDP2. Concentration and purity of DNA revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) between methods. Method E (commercial), method A (thermal) and B (ultrasound) got the best yields in amplifying the specific fragment of Acanthamoeba sp. by conventional PCR.

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a extração de DNA de cistos de Acanthamoeba sp. com um método comercialmente disponível e quatro não comerciais utilizando tratamento térmico e ultrassom para amplificação por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) convencional, reduzindo os tempos de preparo e extração das amostras, como ferramenta para o diagnóstico no laboratório clínico. Foi utilizada uma cepa de Acanthamoeba, genótipo T4, cultivada em ágar não nutritivo. Os cistos para analisar foram armazenados em temperatura ambiente, correspondendo a três períodos de encistamento. O DNA foi extraído por cinco métodos: pré-tratamento térmico, ultrassom e combinações deles. A PCR foi realizada usando iniciadores específicos JDP1/JDP2. A concentração e a pureza do DNA extraído com os protocolos avaliados revelaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p<0,0001). Os métodos E (comercial), A (térmico) e B (ultrassom) alcançaram os melhores rendimentos na amplificação do fragmento específico de Acanthamoeba sp. por PCR convencional.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , DNA , Acanthamoeba , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Parasitology , Temperature , Ultrasonics , Thermic Treatment , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cysts , Agar , Laboratories, Clinical , Hot Temperature , Laboratories , Methods
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 41(1): 51-64, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388115


Resumen: El panel intergubernamental sobre cambio climático estima que para el año 2100 74% de la población estará expuesta a olas de calor en el peor escenario (definido como 3 días consecutivos con temperaturas igual o sobre el percentil 95 de un periodo de tiempo), abarcando en Santiago hasta 40% de los días de verano con temperaturas extremas. Producto de la crisis climática también pueden ocurrir eventos de frío extremo. Ambos fenómenos constituyen un riesgo para la salud, particularmente para las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Estudiar la asociación entre temperaturas extremas y enfermedades cardiovasculares (mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares, infarto agudo al miocardio, accidente cerebrovascular, hipertensión y paro cardíaco extra hospitalario). Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en los buscadores ISI-Web of Science, Scopus y Nature utilizando los términos de búsqueda heatwave, cardiovascular disease y extreme heat entre los años 2016-2021 incluyendo trabajos que presenten medidas de asociación entre temperaturas extremas (percentil 5 para temperaturas bajas y percentil 90 para temperaturas altas) y enfermedades cardiovasculares, arrojando 130 resultados de los cuales se seleccionaron 19. Resultados: Tanto las temperaturas altas como bajas aumentaron el riesgo de muerte por infarto agudo al miocardio (IAM) (RR: 2,29 [2,18-2,40] y RR: 2,3 [1,2-4,6], respectivamente) y paro cardíaco (OR 3,34 [1,90-3,58] y OR: 1,75 [1,23-2,49], respectivamente). La mortalidad por hipertensión arterial se asoció a temperaturas altas (OR 1,91 [1,2-3,1]), mientras que la mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) en general a bajas (RR: 1,79 [1,64 - 1,95]). En hospitalizaciones por ECV el riesgo por temperaturas altas (P99) fue RR: 1,74 [IC95%: 1,30-2,32]. Se identificaron diferencias por sexo y mayor riesgo en los mayores de 75 años y quienes presentaron exposiciones prolongadas. Conclusión: Hay una fuerte asociación entre hospitalizaciones y muerte por ECV y temperaturas extremas. Las mujeres y los adultos mayores son los más afectados.

Abstract: The Inter governmental panel estimates that in a worst case scenario, by 2100 74% of people will be exposed to heat waves (3 consecutive days with temperatures at or above the 95% percentile). This might be the case in up to 40% of days in Santiago. As a consequence of climate change there will also be periods with extremely low temperatures. Both conditions increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aim: to study the association of extreme temperatures with the incidence of cardiovascular disease (death, myocardial infarction, stroke and out of hospital sudden death). Method: The ISI-Web of Science, Scopus and Nature databases were searched using the terms "heat wave", "cardiovascular disease" and "extreme heat" for articles published between 2016 and 2021.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hot Temperature , Climate Change , Public Health , Global Health
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 139 f p. tab, graf, fig.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425414


As ondas de calor têm sido associadas a morbimortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório em diferentes locais, principalmente nos grupos considerados vulneráveis. Esta tese apresenta estudos sobre as características das ondas de calor e abordou seus efeitos nas doenças do aparelho circulatório nas capitais brasileiras no período de 2000 a 2016. O primeiro estudo teve como objetivo examinar a intensidade, a frequência e a duração dos eventos de ondas de calor nas capitais brasileiras, por meio das análises de séries temporais foi possível caracterizar a ocorrência das ondas de calor, os resultados mostraram que estão mais frequentes, duradouras e intensas e ocorrem durante todo o ano, inclusive no inverno em cidades das regiões Sudeste e Sul. O segundo estudo teve como objetivo identificar as capitais brasileiras que apresentaram desconforto térmico para população, por meio da caracterização do índice de calor. Os resultados mostraram que se utilizando as definições de temperatura aparente e conforto e desconforto térmico do diagrama do conforto humano, na maioria das capitais foram constatadas condições de desconforto para a saúde humana. Algumas capitais localizadas no Sudeste e no Sul apresentaram condições definidas por conforto térmico. O terceiro estudo teve como objetivo estimar os efeitos de ondas de calor na mortalidade do aparelho circulatório no município do Rio de Janeiro no ano de 2010. A análise de séries temporais foi utilizada para estimar o percentual do Risco Relativo (%RR) do efeito das ondas de calor na mortalidade de pessoas adultas a partir de ≥ 30 anos de idade. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram o aumento do %RR nas mortalidades por DAC associadas às ondas de calor no município do Rio de Janeiro. O quarto estudo teve como objetivo estimar os efeitos de ondas de calor na mortalidade por doenças do aparelho cardiovascular nas capitais brasileiras, a análise de séries temporais foi utilizada para estimar o percentual do Risco Relativo (%RR) do efeito das ondas de calor na mortalidade de pessoas adultas ≥ 30 anos de idade. Os resultados indicam uma associação entre ondas de calor e a mortalidade por doenças cerebrovasculares e doenças isquêmicas do coração na população adulta. Os achados deste conjunto de estudo permitem concluir que as ondas de calor estão mais frequentes, intensas e duradouras nas capitais brasileiras e, as doenças do aparelho circulatório estão associadas com este fenômeno.

Heat waves have been associated with circulatory disease morbidity and mortality in different locations, especially in groups considered vulnerable. This thesis present studies on the characteristics of heat waves and addressed its effects on circulatory diseases in Brazilian capitals from 2000 to 2016. The first study aimed to examine the intensity, frequency and duration of heat wave events in the Brazilian capitals, through temporal series analysis, it was possible to characterize the occurrence of heat waves, the results showed that they are more frequent, lasting and intense and occur throughout the year, including winter in cities in the Southeast and South regions. The second study aimed to identify the Brazilian capitals that presented thermal discomfort for the population, through the characterization of the heat index. The results showed that using the apparent temperature definitions and comfort and thermal discomfort of the human comfort diagram, most capitals were found conditions of discomfort for human health. Some capitals located in the Southeast and South had conditions defined by thermal comfort. The third study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves on the mortality of the circulatory system in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in 2010. Time series analysis was used to estimate the percentage of relative risk (%RR) of the effect of heat waves on adult mortality from ≥ 30 years of age. The results of this study showed the increase of %RR in DAC mortality associated with heat waves in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The fourth study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves on mortality from cardiovascular disease in Brazilian capitals, timely series analysis was used to estimate the percentage of relative risk (%RR) of the effect of heat waves on mortality of adults ≥ 30 years of age. The results indicate an association between heat waves and mortality from cerebrovascular diseases and ischemic heart disease in the adult population. The findings of this study set allow you to conclude that heat waves are more frequent, intense and lasting in Brazilian capitals and circulatory diseases are associated with this phenomenon.

Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hot Temperature , Brazil , Time Series Studies
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1476-1483, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928077


This study systematically sorted out the evidence data of the safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) of Reyanning Mixture in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection(heat-toxin attacking lung syndrome) with the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods adopted. Based on evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, evidence-based pharmacy, pharmacoeconomics, and health technology evalua-tion(HTA), the clinical value of Reyanning Mixture was evaluated using multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model, Chinese patent medicine clinical evidence, and value evaluation software(CSC v2.0). The SRS monitoring data, Meta-analysis, and other safety evidence showed that the main adverse reactions of Reyanning Mixture were nausea, diarrhea, and rash, and no serious adverse reactions were found. The pharmacovigilance system was sound, and the system was perfect. There was no recall, notification, or interview for unqualified products. Based on the existing research, the evidence was sufficient, and the risk was controllable. Hence, its safety was grade A. Meta-analysis showed that in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection, Reyanning Mixture combined with Amoxicillin Capsules was better than Amoxicillin Capsules alone in shortening the complete fever relief time and improving the cure rate. Besides, it was superior to Shuanghuanglian Granules in shortening the complete fever relief time, cough relief time, nasal congestion relief time, and pharyngeal congestion relief time. The Meta-analysis was conducted based on AMSTAR standard, and its ove-rall quality was proved good. The evidence quality in GRADE system evaluation was medium and low. The quality of evidence was medium, and the clinical value was obvious. Hence, its effectiveness was grade A. The results of pharmacoeconomic research showed that compared with Amoxicillin Capsules, Reyanning Mixture alone or in combination with Amoxicillin Capsules had cost-effectiveness advantages in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection, and the results were stable in sensitivity analysis. According to the CASP economic evaluation checklist, the research problems were clear and the results were reliable. As revealed by the comprehensive evaluation, the evidence quality was sufficient and the result was clear. Its economy was grade B. Reyanning Mixture had multiple therapeutic targets like anti-virus, anti-bacteria, antipyresis, and anti-cough, with good clinical innovation. There were many innovative initiatives in ensuring drug supply, especially at the grass roots, drug safety, and effectiveness, and also multiple innovative contributions to production technology, quality control, scientific and technological research and development, and enterprise management and marketing. Therefore, its innovation was grade B. The dosage form of Reyanning was mixture, which made it convenient for storage and transportation. The usage was easy to be mastered and accepted by doctors and nurses, exhibiting good suitability for clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and patients who received this drug and basically meeting the needs of clinical medication. The suitability was grade B. The average daily cost of this drug was 8.082 yuan, and the price was low. The treatment cost accounted for a small proportion of the annual disposable income of urban and rural residents, indicating that it was affordable. Reyanning Mixture was available in 31 provinces, cities and autonomous regions, covering 6 910 hospitals. The allocation of hospitals at all levels was more than 50%. There was no shortage or supply restriction of medicinal material resources. The annual production capacity was sufficient to meet the supply demand, so its accessibility was grade A. Reyanning Mixture, sourced from "pneumonia Ⅲ", has been subjected to a real-world study of its clinical application, with 4 367 cases involved, and the characteristic of TCM was grade B. The comprehensive evaluation results demonstrated that the clinical value score of Reyanning Mixture in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection(heat-toxin attacking lung syndrome) was 0.80, making it rated class A. According to the Guidelines for Management of Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), it is recommended to convert it into the relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management according to the procedures.

Humans , Hot Temperature , Lung , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Syndrome
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 922-930, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928010


The present study explored the kinetics and variation of volatile components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma during the hot-air drying process to obtain the optimal process parameters under multiple goals such as drying efficiency and drying quality. The dry basis moisture content and drying rate curves along with the change of drying time of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were investigated at five levels of drying air temperatures(30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ℃). The relationship between moisture ratio and time in the drying process of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma was fitted and verified by Midilli model, Page model, Overhults model, Modified Page model, Logaritmic model, Two terms Exponential model, and Newton model. Meanwhile, the effective diffusion coefficient of moisture(D_(eff)) and activation energy(E_a) in Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were calculated under different drying air temperatures. GC-MS was used to determine the volatile components and content changes of the fresh Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and dried products at different temperatures. The dry basis moisture content and drying rate of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were closely related to the temperature of the drying medium, and the moisture of the Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma decreased with the prolonged drying time. As revealed by the drying rate curve, the drying rate increased with the increase in hot air temperature, and the migration of moisture was accelerated. The comparison of the correlation coefficient(R~2), chi-square(χ~2), and root mean standard error(RMSE) of each model indicated that the parameter average of the Midilli model had the highest degree of fit, with R~2=0.999 2, χ~2=8.78×10~(-5), and RMSE=8.20×10~(-3). Besides, the D_(eff) at 30-70 ℃ was in the range of 1.04×10~(-9)-6.28×10~(-9) m~2·s~(-1), and E_a was 37.47 kJ·mol~(-1). The volatile components of fresh Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and dried products at different temperatures were determined by GC-MS, and 18, 18, 18, 17, 17, and 18 compounds were identified respectively, which accounted for more than 84.76% of the volatile components. In conclusion, the hot-air drying of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma can be model-fitted and verified and the variation law of the moisture and volatile components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with temperature is obtained. This study is expected to provide new ideas for exploring the drying characteristics and quality of aromatic Chinese medicine.

Atractylodes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hot Temperature , Kinetics , Rhizome