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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e189113, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363104

ABSTRACT

Animal shelters are places with a high risk of exposure to infectious diseases due to the high density, population dynamics of the shelter, and the stress to which dogs and cats are subjected. The immunization process through vaccines is an essential component in the prevention and health and welfare management program for these animals. This review aims to evaluate the guidelines on vaccination of dogs and cats in shelter environments, highlighting points of comparison with the Brazilian reality.(AU)


Os abrigos de animais são locais com um alto risco de exposição às doenças infecciosas devido à alta densidade, à dinâmica populacional do abrigo e ao estresse a que os cães e gatos estão submetidos. O processo de imunização por meio das vacinas é um componente essencial no programa de prevenção e gestão de saúde e bem-estar para esses animais. Esta revisão tem como objetivo revisar as diretrizes sobre a vacinação de cães e gatos em ambientes de abrigos, ressaltando pontos de comparação com a realidade brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization/veterinary , Vaccination/veterinary , Disease Prevention , Housing, Animal
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2355-2364, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142319

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate thermal energy consumption in broiler farms and provide solutions to reduce it. This study was performed with a completely randomized design under 4 climatic conditions, including Ardabil (cold climate representative), Khuzestan (warm climate representative), Isfahan (dry climate representative) and Guilan (temperate climate representative) in 4 replicates (4 broiler farms in each climate) and with 5 repetitions (5 periods of breeding per unit) and a capacity of 492,700, Ross 308 broiler in each breeding period. According to the results, in all climates, the proposed solutions to save thermal energy were able to create a significant difference (P<0.05). The experimental results also showed that the difference in thermal energy consumption in cold and dry climates wasmuch higher than in temperate and warm climates (P<0.05). Overall, the results of the present study show that, by optimizing andmodernizing construction equipment in broiler farms, thermal energy losses can be reduced in all climatic conditions.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o consumo de energia térmica em granjas de frangos de corte e fornecer soluções para reduzi-lo. Este estudo foi realizado com um desenho inteiramente casualizado em 4 condições climáticas, incluindo Ardabil (representante do clima frio), Khuzestan (representante do clima quente), Isfahan (representante do clima seco) e Guilan (representante do clima temperado) em 4 réplicas (4 granjas de frangos em cada clima), com 5 repetições (5 períodos de criação por unidade) e capacidade de 492.700 frangos Ross 308 em cada período de criação. De acordo com os resultados, em todos os climas, as soluções propostas para economizar energia térmica criaram diferença significativa (P <0,05). Os resultados experimentais também mostraram que a diferença no consumo de energia térmica em climas frios e secos foi muito maior do que em climas temperados e quentes (P <0,05). De forma geral, os resultados do presente estudo mostram que, com a otimização e modernização dos equipamentos de construção em granjas de frangos, as perdas de energia térmica podem ser reduzidas em todas as condições climáticas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/physiology , Thermal Energy/economics , Housing, Animal/economics , Temperature
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1675-1682, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131543

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate swine females of different genetic lines submitted to different reproductive management and housing systems during pregnancy on reproductive performance and animal welfare parameters. After artificial insemination protocol, 524 females were divided into two gestation housing systems: PEN1=animals housed in individual stalls during the breeding and after group-housed; PEN32=animals housed in individual stalls from breeding until 32 days of pregnancy and after group-housed. The number of piglets born, and the pregnancy and farrowing rates were evaluated. Welfare parameters related to the pregnancy phase were used. Females who weaned more piglets in the previous farrowing had a higher number of piglets born at the next farrowing. The pregnancy rate was affected by the number of semen doses. The farrowing rate was not influenced by the evaluated parameters, with average value of 91.36%. There was no effect of the gestation housing system and the genetic lines on pregnancy and farrowing rates, with values above 90.0%. The animal welfare indicators showed more compromised parameters in PEN1 system. PEN1 system did not impair the reproductive performance although it presented more compromised animal welfare parameters.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar fêmeas suínas de diferentes linhagens genéticas submetidas a diferentes sistemas reprodutivos de manejo e alojamento durante a prenhez sobre parâmetros de desempenho reprodutivo e bem-estar animal. Após o protocolo de inseminação artificial, 524 fêmeas foram divididas em dois sistemas de alojamento de gestação: PEN1=animais alojados em baias individuais durante o protocolo de inseminação artificial e, depois, alojados em grupo; PEN32=animais alojados em baias individuais desde o protocolo de inseminação artificial até 32 dias de prenhez e, depois, alojados em grupo. O número de leitões nascidos e as taxas de prenhez e parto foram avaliados. Parâmetros de bem-estar relacionados à fase gestacional foram utilizados. As fêmeas que desmamaram mais leitões no parto anterior tiveram um maior número de leitões nascidos no próximo parto. A taxa de prenhez foi afetada pelo número de doses de sêmen. A taxa de parto não foi influenciada pelos fatores avaliados, com valor médio de 91,36%. Não houve efeito do sistema de alojamento gestacional e das linhas genéticas sobre as taxas de prenhez e parto, com valores acima de 90,0%. Os indicadores de bem-estar animal mostraram parâmetros mais comprometidos no sistema PEN1. O sistema PEN1 não prejudicou o desempenho reprodutivo, embora tenha apresentado parâmetros de bem-estar animal mais comprometidos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Swine/genetics , Animal Welfare , Housing, Animal , Pedigree , Pregnancy Rate
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 346-354, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128185

ABSTRACT

O bem-estar dos animais, além dos aspectos individuais, depende do entendimento e dedicação dos responsáveis pelo abrigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o bem-estar dos cães mantidos em abrigos municipais do estado do Paraná, mediante a aplicação do protocolo Shelter Quality. Foram avaliados 16 abrigos, 439 cães e 165 recintos, na estação do outono de 2017. A maioria dos abrigos apresentou cães com condição corporal adequada e pelagem limpa, em recintos seguros, com metragem e suprimento de água adequados e conforto térmico. Além disso, a maioria dos cães eram mantidos em recintos coletivos e em ambientes abertos, com baixo nível de ruído e demonstravam mais emoções positivas, desejáveis na adoção. Como aspectos negativos, 58% (96/165) dos recintos avaliados tinham camas inadequadas ou inexistentes e 30% (50/165) dos recintos mantinham cães individualmente, sendo indicadores de baixo grau de bem-estar para os cães envolvidos. Além disso, nenhum abrigo disponibilizava ração para cães idosos e 81% (13/16) dos abrigos negligenciavam o diagnóstico e tratamento da dor. Apesar de a maioria dos abrigos apresentarem mais pontos positivos que negativos em sua avaliação, a gestão dos abrigos deve sempre visar à correção dos pontos críticos que comprometam o bem-estar dos animais.(AU)


Animal welfare, in addition to individual aspects, depends on the understanding and dedication of those responsible for the shelter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the welfare of dogs kept in municipal shelters in the state of Paraná, using the Shelter Quality protocol. A total of 16 shelters, 439 dogs and 165 enclosures were evaluated in the fall season of 2017. Most shelters presented dogs with adequate body condition and clean coat, in secure enclosures with adequate water supply and thermal comfort. In addition, most dogs were kept in collective enclosures and in open environments, with low noise levels and showing more positive, desirable emotions in adoption. As negative aspects, 58% (96/165) of the precincts evaluated had inadequate or inexistent beds and 30% (50/165) of the enclosures kept dogs individually, being indicators of a low degree of well-being for the dogs involved. In addition, no shelter provided elderly dog rations and 81% (13/16) of the shelters neglected the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Although most shelters present more positive than negative points in their evaluation, shelter management should always aim at correcting critical points that compromise animal welfare.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dogs , Quality of Life , Animal Welfare , Guidelines as Topic/methods , Housing, Animal/standards , Brazil , Drinking
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1781-1790, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055113

ABSTRACT

As afecções do sistema respiratório são a segunda causa de queda de desempenho e afastamento dos equinos do esporte ou trabalho, as quais estão atrás somente das desordens musculoesqueléticas. A estabulação e a alimentação à base de fenos predispõem os equinos à inalação de grande número de agentes irritantes às vias aéreas. No intuito de avaliar a influência dos tipos de cama utilizados em baias, estudaram-se três grupos de cinco equinos cada, durante 45 dias. Dois grupos foram mantidos em cocheiras com forrações diferentes à base de madeira (maravalha de pínus autoclavada-MA e serragem-SE) e o terceiro grupo permaneceu no pasto. Foram realizadas avaliações quinzenais, que incluíram exame físico, hemograma, hemogasometria e lavado broncoalveolar. Ao exame físico, notou-se a presença de tosse e espirros em animais do grupo SE. No lavado broncoalveolar, a contagem de células nucleadas totais apresentou maiores valores nos animais a pasto, seguido do grupo SE e, por último, o MA. Concluiu-se que as duas camas testadas neste estudo não apresentaram diferença com relação à capacidade irritativa das vias aéreas superiores no período analisado.(AU)


Respiratory system affections in horses are the second cause of decrease in performance and removal from the sport or farm work, which are behind only the musculoskeletal disorders. Stabling and hay feeding predisposes horses' airways to inhalation of large numbers of irritating agents. To evaluate the influence of bed types used in bays, 3 groups of 5 horses each were studied for 45 days. Two groups were kept in stables with different wood beds - based rafters (autoclaved pine - MA and sawdust - SE) and the third group remained in the pasture. Biweekly evaluations with physical examination, hemogram, hemogasometry and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed. On physical examination, the presence of cough and sneezing was observed in animals of the SE group. In the bronchoalveolar lavage, the total nucleated cell count presented higher values in the animals in the pasture, followed by the SE group and finally the MA. It was concluded that the different beds used presented no difference with respect to the irritative capacity of the upper airways.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory System/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/veterinary , Horses/physiology , Hypersensitivity/veterinary , Housing, Animal
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 905-912, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055041

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a precursor to the development of heart and renal failure, furthermore is associated with elevated oxidative markers. Environmental enrichment of rodents increases performance in memory tasks, also appears to exert an antioxidant effect in the hippocampus of normotensive rats. Objectives: Evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on oxidative stress in the ventrolateral medulla, heart, and kidneys of renovascular hypertensive rats. Methods: Forty male Fischer rats (6 weeks old) were divided into four groups: normotensive standard condition (Sham-St), normotensive enriched environment (Sham-EE), hypertensive standard condition (2K1C-St), and hypertensive enriched environment (2K1C-EE). Animals were kept in enriched or standard cages for four weeks after all animals were euthanized. The level of significance was at p < 0.05. Results: 2K1C-St group presented higher mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 147.0 (122.0; 187.0) compared to Sham-St 101.0 (94.0; 109.0) and Sham-EE 106.0 (90.8; 117.8). Ventrolateral medulla from 2K1C-EE had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) (49.1 ± 7.9 U/mg ptn) and catalase activity (0.8 ± 0.4 U/mg ptn) compared to SOD (24.1 ± 9.8 U/mg ptn) and catalase activity (0.3 ± 0.1 U/mg ptn) in 2K1C-St. 2K1C-EE presented lower lipid oxidation (0.39 ± 0.06 nmol/mg ptn) than 2K1C-St (0.53 ± 0.22 nmol/mg ptn) in ventrolateral medulla. Furthermore, the kidneys of 2K1C-EE (11.9 ± 2.3 U/mg ptn) animals presented higher superoxide-dismutase activity than those of 2K1C-St animals (9.1 ± 2.3 U/mg ptn). Conclusion: Environmental enrichment induced an antioxidant effect in the ventrolateral medulla and kidneys that contributes to reducing oxidative damage among hypertensive rats.


Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão arterial é um precursor para o desenvolvimento da insuficiência cardíaca e renal e, além disso, está associada com o aumento dos marcadores oxidativos. O enriquecimento ambiental dos roedores melhora o desempenho em tarefas de memória, e também parece ter um efeito antioxidante sobre o hipocampo dos ratos normotensos. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito do enriquecimento ambiental sobre o estresse oxidativo no bulbo ventrolateral, coração, e rins de ratos com hipertensão renovascular. Métodos: Quarenta ratos machos, tipo Fischer (6 semanas de idade), foram divididos em quatro grupos: normotensos em condições padrão (Sham-CP), normotensos em ambiente enriquecido (Sham-AE), hipertensos em condições padrão (2R1C-CP), e hipertensos em ambiente enriquecido (2R1C-AE). Os animais foram mantidos em gaiolas enriquecidas ou padrão durante quatro semanas e, por fim, todos os animais foram eutanasiados. O nível de significância foi p < 0,05. Resultados: O grupo 2R1C-CP apresentou pressão arterial média maior (mmHg) 147,0 (122,0; 187,0) quando comparado com os grupos Sham-CP 101,0 (94,0; 109,0) e Sham-AE 106,0 (90,8; 117,8). Observou-se maior atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase (SOD) (49,1 ± 7,9 U/mg ptn) e da catalase (0,8 ± 0,4 U/mg ptn) no bulbo ventrolateral do grupo 2R1C-AE, em relação à atividade da SOD (24,1 ± 9,8 U/mg ptn) e da catalase (0,3 ± 0,1 U/mg ptn) no grupo 2R1C-CP. No grupo 2R1C-AE, a oxidação lipídica no bulbo ventrolateral foi menor (0,39 ± 0,06 nmol/mg ptn) quando comparado com o grupo 2R1C-CP (0,53 ± 0,22 nmol/mg ptn). Ademais, foi observada maior atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase nos rins dos animais 2R1C-AE (11,9 ± 2,3 U/mg ptn) em relação aos animais 2R1C-CP (9,1 ± 2,3 U/mg ptn). Conclusão: O enriquecimento ambiental provocou efeito antioxidante no bulbo ventrolateral e nos rins, o que contribuiu para a redução do dano oxidante nos ratos hipertensos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Medulla Oblongata/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Environment , Housing, Animal , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Rats, Inbred F344 , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Medulla Oblongata/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/metabolism , Protein Carbonylation , Arterial Pressure , Heart Ventricles/enzymology , Hypertension, Renovascular/chemically induced , Kidney/enzymology
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1750-1758, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038659

ABSTRACT

The effects of housing lactating sows at different locations in a shed with evaporative cooling system (ECS) on their thermoregulation and reproductive and productive performance of the sow and the litter in summer were determined. 34 females were used in the three lines of cages at these locations: near the pad cooling; in the middle of the shed and near the exhaust fans. The air temperature and the temperature and humidity index (THI) were lower near the pad cooling (22.38ºC, 71.84) than the middle (24.56ºC, 74.82) and near the exhaust fans (25.00°C, 75.62). Respiratory rate, rectal and surface temperatures were lower in sows near the pad cooling (43.67 breaths.min -1 , 38.40°C; 29.51°C) than in the center (52.04 breaths.min -1 ; 38.48ºC; 32.02ºC) and near the exhaust fans (56.38 breaths.min-1, 38.93ºC; 32.52ºC). The backfat thickness, the weaning-estrus interval and daily average consumption of the sows, number of weaning piglets, corporal mass and daily average gain of the piglets were not influenced by the location of housing in the shed. Lactating sows housed in the middle and near the exhaust fans in the ECS presented increased thermoregulation physiological variables, however, this did not impair the performance.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Swine/growth & development , Temperature , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Animal Welfare/organization & administration , Heat Stress Disorders/prevention & control , Housing, Animal/organization & administration
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 630-634, Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040734

ABSTRACT

This study carried out a survey about enteropathogenic agents in domestic cats' shelter as a stage of investigation for the intermittent chronic diarrhea. Individual fecal samples from 39 cats with free access to the external environment were submitted to parasitological examination, parvovirus, and coronavirus by PCR, and Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. and Tritrichomonas foetus by real-time PCR. From the cats evaluated, 30 (76.9%) were positive for one or more enteric agents, and coinfections were observed in 11 cats samples (28.2%). Helminth eggs were observed in 48.7% of cats (19/30), 16 (41%) were positive for parvovirus or coronavirus and 25.6% (10/30) were infected by protozoa. From the positives for protozoa, five cats were positive to T. foetus (12.82%). The first finding of this protozoan through PCR was in the southern Brazil, and the second was in the whole country. Chronic diarrhea in cats may be multifactorial in shelter animals where the population density is high and the control of parasitic, and viral infections are deficient. Moreover, it is due to poor hygiene conditions in these shelters. The factors associated with the proliferation of infectious diseases in shelters are correlated with new pathogens infections such as T. foetus.(AU)


Uma pesquisa de agentes enteropatogênicos em gatos domésticos de um abrigo foi realizado como etapa da investigação das causas de diarreias crônicas intermitentes. Amostras fecais individuais de 39 gatos, com livre acesso ao ambiente externo, foram obtidas para pesquisa de helmintos através do exame parasitológico, investigação de parvovírus e coronavírus e de Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp. e Tritrichomonas foetus através de PCR em tempo real. Dos gatos avaliados, 30 (76,9%) foram positivos para algum ou mais de um destes agentes entéricos. Desses, 11 (28,2%) apresentaram co-infecções parasitárias. Ovos de helmintos foram observados em 48,7% dos gatos (19/30), 16 felinos (41%) foram positivos para parvovírus ou coronavírus e 25,6% (10/30) estavam infectados por protozoários. Dos positivos para protozoários, cinco apresentaram Tritrichomonas foetus (12,82%), um organismo pouco relatado no Brasil, sendo este o primeiro relato de detecção deste protozoário através de PCR em fezes de gatos no Sul do Brasil e o segundo no país. A diarreia crônica em gatos pode ser multifatorial em animais de abrigo onde a densidade populacional é elevada e os meios de controle parasitário e viral são deficitários, além das condições de higiene precárias. Os fatores associados à proliferação de doenças infecciosas em abrigos promovem o surgimento de infecções por novos patógenos como o Tritrichomonas foetus, até então pouco relatado no Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/diagnosis , Tritrichomonas foetus , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Coinfection/veterinary , Housing, Animal
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 516-522, July 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040716

ABSTRACT

Oral lesions are common problems in feline medicine worldwide, and may be associated with different causes, such as infectious agents. There are only a few studies reporting the chief oral diseases and the results for retrovirus tests in shelter cats in Brazil, especially in the South region. This study aimed to identify the main inflammatory oral lesions in shelter cats and verify the test results for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections. Forty-three felines from private shelters in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state (RS) that presented clinically evident oral lesions, regardless of age, breed, sex, and neuter status, were used in this survey. Serological tests for FIV and FeLV were performed in all cats, and data regarding the rearing system were collected. Sixteen cats (37.2%) were reared in a free system, whereas 27 (62.8%) were kept under a restrict system. Of the 43 cats with oral lesions, 29 (67.44%) presented only one type of lesion, characterized as periodontitis (n=22, 51.16%), followed by gingivitis (n=6, 13.95%), and stomatitis (n=1, 2.32%). Concomitant stomatitis and periodontitis were found in the 14 remaining cats (100%). With respect to the test results for retrovirus infections, nine (20.93%) of the 43 felines were positive for FIV alone. Co-infection with both viruses was observed in seven cats (16.28%). No cat was seropositive for FeLV valone. None of the six cats that presented gingivitis was positive for FIV and FeLV; one cat with stomatitis was positive for FIV and FeLV; of the 22 cats with periodontitis, six (27.27%) were FIV positive and two (9.09%) were FIV/FeLV positive; and of the 14 cats that presented stomatitis and periodontitis, three (21.43%) were FIV positive and four (28.57%) were FIV/FeLV positive. As for diagnosis, 28 cats (65.1%) presented solely periodontal disease (PD), one cat (2.32%) had feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCG) alone, and 14 (32.5%) had both PD and FCG. The results obtained show that the main oral lesions found in shelter cats in the central region of RS were gingivitis, stomatitis, and periodontitis. Periodontitis, in association or not with stomatitis, was the most frequently observed oral cavity lesion in FIV- and/or FeLV-positive cats. Other factors may contribute to installation of inflammatory oral diseases in shelter cats because most cats with oral cavity lesions tested negative for retrovirus infections.(AU)


As afecções orais são problemas comuns em medicina felina em diferentes locais do mundo e podem estar relacionadas a diferentes causas, como agentes infecciosos. Poucos estudos foram encontrados no Brasil sobre o levantamento das principais doenças orais e dos resultados de testes para retrovírus em gatos de abrigos, principalmente na região Sul. Diante disso, o objetivo deste artigo foi identificar as principais afecções orais inflamatórias em gatos de abrigos e verificar os resultados dos testes para o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV) e o vírus da leucemia felina (FeLV). Foram incluídos 43 felinos provenientes de abrigos privados localizados na região central do Rio Grande do Sul (RS) que apresentavam lesões orais clinicamente evidentes, independente de idade, raça, gênero e estado reprodutivo. Em todos os gatos foram realizados testes sorológicos para FIV e FeLV e obtidas informações referentes ao sistema de criação. Em 16 gatos (37,2%), o sistema de criação era livre, enquanto em 27 (62,8%) era restrito. Dos 43 gatos com lesões orais, em 29 (67,44%) foi verificado somente um tipo de lesão, caracterizado como periodontite (n=22, 51,16%), seguido de gengivite (n=6, 13,95%) e estomatite (n=1, 2,32%). Lesões concomitantes de estomatite e periodontite foram encontradas nos 14 gatos (100%) restantes. Quanto aos resultados dos testes para retrovírus, nove (20,93%) dos 43 felinos testados, foram positivos somente para FIV. Em sete gatos (16,28%) foi observada coinfecção pelos dois vírus. Em nenhum gato foi observado soropositividade somente para FeLV. Dos seis gatos com gengivite, nenhum foi positivo para FIV e FeLV; um gato com estomatite foi positivo para FIV e FeLV; dos 22 gatos com periodontite, seis (27,27%) foram FIV positivos e dois (9,09%) FIV/FeLV positivos; e dos 14 com estomatite e periodontite, três (21,43%) foram FIV positivos e quatro (28,57%) FIV/FeLV positivos. Quanto ao diagnóstico, em 28 gatos (65,1%) foi observada somente doença periodontal (DP), em um (2,32%) somente gengivoestomatite crônica felina (GECF) e em 14 gatos (32,5%) DP e GECF. Diante dos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que as principais lesões orais encontradas em gatos de abrigos da região central do RS foram gengivite, estomatite e periodontite; a periodontite associada ou não a estomatite foi a lesão oral mais frequente nos gatos positivos para FIV e/ou FeLV. Acredita-se que outros fatores possam contribuir na instalação de doenças orais em gatos de abrigos, já que houve predomínio de gatos com resultados negativos nos testes para os retrovírus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Retroviridae/isolation & purification , Stomatitis/veterinary , Leukemia/veterinary , Gingivitis/veterinary , Periodontal Diseases/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Housing, Animal , Immunity
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 232-242, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989365

ABSTRACT

Animais podem ser eventualmente recolhidos em abrigos públicos no Brasil e o ambiente de alojamento afeta diretamente sua qualidade de vida. Este trabalho estudou características relevantes das instalações físicas e da gestão dos estabelecimentos vinculados ao poder público municipal que abrigam cães, gatos e cavalos no estado do Paraná. Foram registrados 17 municípios com 20 abrigos, dos quais 18 participaram da pesquisa. Todos os municípios mantinham cães, sete (41,2%) mantinham gatos e oito (47,1%) mantinham cavalos. Todos os abrigos apresentavam recintos coletivos; dois (11,8%) de cães e cinco (71,5%) de gatos mantinham um animal por recinto; quatro (22,2%) mantinham recintos sem visualização além do próprio recinto; 11 (64,7%) realizavam limpeza adequadamente; cinco (29,4%) abrigos de cães e um (14,3%) de gatos não tinham área para quarentena ou isolamento sanitário; camas estavam disponíveis em 15 (88,2%), cinco (71,4%) e um (12,5%) dos recintos de cães, gatos e cavalos, respectivamente. Os abrigos de animais no Paraná devem banir recintos de isolamento social, incluir uma cama por animal e socializar os animais. Adicionalmente, há oportunidade de aumentar o grau de bem-estar animal por meio de melhorias no manejo dos animais e no manejo sanitário, as quais não dependem de reformas nas instalações.(AU)


Animals may be eventually collected by public shelters in Brazil and the shelter's environment directly affects their quality of life. This work studied relevant characteristics of the physical facilities and the management of establishments liked to the municipal public power that shelter dogs, cats and horses in the state of Paraná. It was registered 17 municipalities with 20 shelters, of which 18 participated in the research. All the municipalities maintained dogs, seven (41.2%) maintained cats and eight (47.1%) kept horses. All the shelters had social housing; two (11.8%) of dogs and five (71.5%) of cats housing one animal per pen; four (22,2%) there were pens that didn't have visualization for outside; 11 (64.7%) had cleaning correctly; five (29.4%) shelters that sheltered dogs and one (14.3%) that sheltered cats didn't have area for quarantine and isolation restroom; beds were available in 15 (88.2%), five (71.4%) and one (12.5%) of the pens of dogs, cats and horses, respectively. Animal shelters in Paraná should ban pens isolation, include one bedding per animal and socialize the animals. In addition, there is an opportunity to increase the animal welfare through improvements in animal management and sanitary management, which do not depend on the housing improvements.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Animal Welfare , Housing, Animal/classification , Housing, Animal/statistics & numerical data , Cats , Dogs , Horses
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739519

ABSTRACT

Circadian rhythm is defined as a 24-hour biological oscillation, which persists even without any external cues but also can be re-entrained by various environmental cues. One of the widely accepted circadian rhythm behavioral experiment is measuring the wheel-running activity (WRA) of rodents. However, the price for commercially available WRA recording system is not easily affordable for researchers due to high-cost implementation of sensors for wheel rotation. Here, we developed a cost-effective and comprehensive system for circadian rhythm recording by measuring the house-keeping activities (HKA). We have monitored animal's HKA as electrical signal by simply connecting animal housing cage with a standard analog/digital converter: input to the metal lid and ground to the metal grid floor. We show that acquired electrical signals are combined activities of eating, drinking and natural locomotor behaviors which are well-known indicators of circadian rhythm. Post-processing of measured electrical signals enabled us to draw actogram, which verifies HKA to be reliable circadian rhythm indicator. To provide easy access of HKA recording system for researchers, we have developed user-friendly MATLAB-based software, Circa Analysis. This software provides functions for easy extraction of scalable “touch activity” from raw data files by automating seven steps of post-processing and drawing actograms with highly intuitive user-interface and various options. With our cost-effective HKA circadian rhythm recording system, we have estimated the cost of our system to be less than $150 per channel. We anticipate our system will benefit many researchers who would like to study circadian rhythm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Rhythm , Cues , Drinking , Eating , Electrical Equipment and Supplies , Housing, Animal , Information Storage and Retrieval , Mice , Rodentia
13.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(2): 98-105, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904574

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation), or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.


Resumo Introdução: Comportamentos agonísticos ajudam a garantir a sobrevivência, oferecem vantagem na competição e comunicam status social. O paradigma residente-intruso, modelo animal baseado em confrontos intraespecíficos entre machos, pode ser uma ferramenta etológica relevante para investigar a neurobiologia do comportamento agressivo. Objetivos: Analisar os mecanismos comportamentais e neurobiológicos do comportamento agressivo em camundongos Swiss machos expostos a confrontos repetidos no paradigma residente-intruso. Métodos: A análise comportamental foi realizada em associação com medidas de corticosterona plasmática em camundongos expostos repetidamente a um rival em potencial próximo, porém inacessível (instigação social), ou a 10 sessões de instigação social seguidas de encontros agressivos diretos. Além disso, o fator de liberação de corticotrofina (CRF) e o fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BNDF) foram medidos no encéfalo desses animais. Camundongos controles não foram expostos à instigação social ou confrontos agressivos. Resultados: Os camundongos expostos a confrontos agressivos exibiram um padrão semelhante de comportamentos agressivos e não agressivos típicos da espécie na primeira e na última sessão. Em contraste com instigação social apenas, confrontos agressivos repetidos promoveram aumento na corticosterona plasmática. Após 10 sessões de confrontos agressivos, os camundongos apresentaram uma tendência não significativa de redução dos níveis de CRF no hipocampo, que se correlacionaram inversamente com os níveis plasmáticos de corticosterona. Por outro lado, sessões repetidas de instigação social ou confronto agressivo não alteraram as concentrações de BDNF no córtex pré-frontal e hipocampo. Conclusão: A exposição a episódios repetidos de encontros agressivos não promoveu habituação ao longo do tempo. Adicionalmente, o CRF parece estar envolvido nas respostas fisiológicas aos estressores sociais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Corticosterone/blood , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Aggression/physiology , Limbic System/metabolism , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Analysis of Variance , Habituation, Psychophysiologic/physiology , Housing, Animal , Mice
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 251-262, Mar. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837693

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To identify the most relevant flaws in standardization in husbandry practices and lack of transparency to report them. This review proposes some measures in order to improve transparency, reproducibility and eventually external validity in experimental surgery experiments with rat model. Methods: We performed a search of scientific articles in PUBMED data base. The survey was conducted from august 2016 to January 2017. The keywords used were "reproducibility", "external validity", "rat model", "rat husbandry", "rat housing", and the time frame was up to January 2017. Articles discarded were the ones which the abstract or the key words did not imply that the authors would discuss any relationship of husbandry and housing with the reproducibility and transparency of reporting animal experiment. Reviews and papers that discussed specifically reproducibility and data reporting transparency were laboriously explored, including references for other articles that could fulfil the inclusion criteria. A total of 246 articles were initially found but only 44 were selected. Results: Lack of transparency is the rule and not the exception when reporting results with rat model. This results in poor reproducibility and low external validity with the consequence of considerable loss of time and financial resources. There are still much to be done to improve compliance and adherence of researchers, editors and reviewers to adopt guidelines to mitigate some of the challenges that can impair reproducibility and external validity. Conclusions: Authors and reviewers should avoid pitfalls of absent, insufficient or inaccurate description of relevant information the rat model used. This information should be correctly published or reported on another source easily available for readers. Environmental conditions are well known by laboratory animal personnel and are well controlled in housing facilities, but usually neglected in experimental laboratories when the rat model is a novelty for the researcher.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Research Design/standards , Models, Animal , Animal Experimentation/standards , Housing, Animal/standards , Animal Husbandry/standards , Reference Standards , Lighting , Adaptation, Physiological , Sex Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Environment , Acclimatization , Intestines/microbiology , Animal Feed
15.
Clinics ; 72(3): 171-177, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory systems of male and female rats maintained in individually ventilated cages (IVCs) from birth until adulthood. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were housed in individually ventilated cages or conventional cages (CCs) and mated with male Wistar rats. After birth and weaning, the male offspring were separated from the females and kept in cages of the same type until 12 weeks of age. RESULTS: The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20) than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4), whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0) than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22) at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3) and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3) offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0) and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0) at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4) and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6) offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8), neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1) and macrophage (IVC=95.2±11.8; CC=170.0±18.8) counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were lower in the female offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental conditions that exist in individually ventilated cages should be considered when interpreting the results of studies involving laboratory animals. In this study, we observed gender dimorphism in both the water consumption and respiratory mechanics of rats kept in ventilated cages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Housing, Animal/standards , Models, Animal , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Ventilation , Age Factors , Animal Welfare , Blood Pressure/physiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Eating/physiology , Environment Design , Heart Rate/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Respiratory Function Tests , Sex Factors , Temperature , Time Factors
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 845-850, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828112

ABSTRACT

Abstract A geometric morphometrics approach was applied to evaluate differences in forewing patterns of the Jandaira bee (Melipona subnitida Ducke). For this, we studied the presence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in forewing shape and size of colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or natural tree trunks. We detected significant FA for wing size as well as wing shape independent of the type of housing (rational box or tree trunks), indicating the overall presence of stress during the development of the studied specimens. FA was also significant (p < 0.01) between rational boxes, possibly related to the use of various models of rational boxes used for keeping stingless bees. In addition, a Principal Component Analysis indicated morphometric variation between bee colonies kept in either rational hive boxes or in tree trunks, that may be related to the different origins of the bees: tree trunk colonies were relocated natural colonies while rational box colonies originated from multiplying other colonies. We conclude that adequate measures should be taken to reduce the amount of stress during bee handling by using standard models of rational boxes that cause the least disruption.


Resumo A abordagem da morfometria geométrica foi aplicada para avaliar as diferenças nos padrões das asas anteriores da abelha Jandaíra (Melipona subnitida Ducke). Para isso, estudou-se a presença de assimetria flutuante (AF) na forma das asas anteriores e tamanho das colônias mantidas tanto em caixas de colméia racional ou troncos de árvores naturais. Foi detectado AF significativa para o tamanho da asa, bem como a forma da asa independente do tipo de habitação (caixa racional ou cortiço), indicando a presença global de estresse durante o desenvolvimento dos espécimes estudados. AF também foi significativa (p < 0,01) entre as caixas racionais, possivelmente relacionados com a utilização de vários modelos de caixas racionais utilizados para a conservação de abelhas sem ferrão. Além disso, a Análise de Componentes Principais indicou variações morfométricas entre as colônias de abelhas mantidos em caixas racionais ou em cortiços, que podem estar relacionados com as diferentes origens das abelhas: os cortiços foram colônias naturais realocados, enquanto as colônias das caixas racionais foram originadas da multiplicação outras colônias. Conclui-se que devem ser tomadas medidas adequadas para reduzir a quantidade de estresse durante o manuseio abelha usando modelos padrão de caixas racionais que causam a menor perturbação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Wings, Animal/anatomy & histology , Bees/anatomy & histology , Housing, Animal , Analysis of Variance
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296574

ABSTRACT

There were 4 Acinetobacter lwoffii obtained from soil samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains to 16 antimicrobial agents was investigated using K-B method. Three isolates showed the multi-drug resistance. The presence of resistance genes and integrons was determined using PCR. The aadA1, aac(3')-IIc, aph(3')-VII, aac(6')-Ib, sul2, cat2, floR, and tet(K) genes were detected, respectively. Three class 1 integrons were obtained. The arr-3-aacA4 and blaPSE-1 gene cassette, which cause resistance to aminoglycoside and beta-lactamase antibiotics. Our results reported the detection of multi-drug resistant and carried resistant genes Acinetobacter lwoffii from soil. The findings suggested that we should pay close attention to the prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacterial species of environment.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Housing, Animal , Mink , Soil Microbiology
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761657

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide, and its complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also increasing. To avoid long-term damage caused by obesity and its complications, we must develop preventive measures and therapeutic agents based on the pathophysiology of human obesity. However, genetically-modified rodents are mainly used for obesity research. This type of animal model is not very suitable for the study of human obesity because environmental factors such as excessive food intake and sedentary lifestyle are major causes of the recent explosion in human obesity. Therefore, diet-induced obesity rodent models are more appropriate for research in human obesity. Type of diet, animal species, duration of food intake, age, and sex can play a role in determining body weight and levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin. Animal housing conditions such as the number of animals per cage, ambient temperature, and length of the light-dark cycle also influence body weight and metabolic parameters. As a result, many influencing factors should be considered in the development of an appropriate diet-induced obesity rodent model for successful obesity research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet , Eating , Explosions , Glucose , Housing, Animal , Humans , Insulin , Leptin , Models, Animal , Obesity , Photoperiod , Prevalence , Rodentia , Sedentary Behavior , Triglycerides
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86402

ABSTRACT

Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3-Ia+ B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry , Animals , Biomarkers/blood , Chickens/immunology , Dust/analysis , Endotoxins/analysis , Housing, Animal , Immunity, Cellular
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. x,69 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774272

ABSTRACT

O risco de infecção por agentes zoonóticos é considerado maior em profissionais quemanuseiam animais. O crescente aumento de animais abandonados nos grandes centrosurbanos e o seu recolhimento em abrigos, cujas condições sanitárias e de infraestruturasão precárias aumentam o risco de transmissão de tais agentes não somente entre osanimais, mas também para os profissionais, determinando, assim, a ocorrência dezoonoses ocupacionais. Neste cenário, cinco funcionários de um abrigo de animais domunicípio do Rio de Janeiro morreram, após um surto de febre maculosa, e um inquéritosorológico realizado entre os profissionais desse abrigo e nos cães demonstrou queempregados e cães eram sororreativos com elevados títulos sorológicos. Diante doexposto e da necessidade de complementar a pesquisa sobre outros agentes zoonóticosque pudessem estar associados com doença ocupacional, foi realizado um estudo com oobjetivo de investigar a presença de anticorpos anti-Coxiella burnetii, anti-Bartonella,anti-Hantavirus em profissionais de um abrigo, como parte das medidas instituídas nocontexto da vigilância epidemiológica do Laboratório de Hantavirose e Rickettsioses doInstituto Oswaldo Cruz, onde o estudo foi realizado. O resultado da análise mostrou umasoroprevalência de 8,7 por cento (8/92) para febre Q, uma prevalência superior à comparada àsoutras taxas encontradas na população geral brasileira. A prevalência de anticorpos antiBartonellaspp. foi de 1,7 por cento (2/118), muito inferior se comparada às taxas observadas emoutros estudos, principalmente no Brasil onde as taxas são superiores a 30 por cento. Todas as118 amostras foram negativas para hantavirose. Apesar das limitações de um estudoretrospectivo utilizando dados secundários, o presente estudo alerta para a necessidade dese instituir medidas de precauções efetivas nos abrigos de animais para diminuir o riscoocupacional de infecções zoonóticas em profissionais que manuseiam animais...


The risk of zoonotic agents infection is considered higher in professionals who care foranimals. The increasing of abandoned animals in the big cities and your accommodationin shelters (with poor sanitary conditions and inadequate infrastructure) increase the riskof transmission of zoonotic agents not only in animals but also for professionals, thusdetermining the occurrence of occupational zoonoses. In this scenario, five employees ofan animal shelter in a city of Rio de Janeiro died after an outbreak of Rocky Mountainspotted fever, in which a serological survey in the animal shelter workers and dogsdemonstrated that employees and dogs were seroreactive with high titers. Given the aboveand the need for additional research on other zoonotic agents that might be associatedwith occupational disease, an study was conducted in order to investigate the presence ofanti-Coxiella burnetii, anti-Bartonella, anti-Hantavirus in professional na an animalshelter as part of the measures imposed in the contexto of epidemiological surveillanceof Hantavirus and Rickettsiosis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, where the studywas conducted. The analisys showed a prevalence of 8.7 percent (8/92) for Q fever, a higherprevalence compared to the other rates found in the general Brasilian population. Theprevalence of antibodies anti-Bartonella spp. was 1.7 percent (2/118), much lower comparedto rates observed in other studies, particularly in Brazil where rates above 30 percent. All 118samples were negative for hantavirus. Despite the limitations of a retrospective studyusing secondary data, this study points to the need establish effective precautionmeansures in animal shelters to reduce occupational risk of zoonotic infections inprofessionals who care for animals...


Subject(s)
Humans , Societies , Q Fever/epidemiology , Q Fever/etiology , Housing, Animal , Bartonella Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Serologic Tests
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