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1.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(2): e232, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347401

ABSTRACT

La aparición de nódulos tiroideos en las personas con acromegalia es una consecuencia de la elevación crónica de la hormona de crecimiento y el factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina tipo 1. Su naturaleza varía según la zona geográfica, suficiencia de yodo y antecedentes patológicos familiares, entre otros factores. No se han publicado estudios cubanos sobre la enfermedad nodular tiroidea en estas personas. Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas, bioquímicas y ultrasonográficas de la glándula tiroidea, según la presencia o no de la enfermedad nodular tiroidea. Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo, transversal, que incluyó 73 pacientes con acromegalia entre enero de 2003 y diciembre de 2017. Se estudiaron las variables: edad, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes familiares de la enfermedad nodular tiroidea, niveles de la hormona de crecimiento, hormona estimulante del tiroides, T4 libre, anticuerpos contra la peroxidasa tiroidea y contra la tiroglobulina, volumen tiroideo, patrón ecográfico nodular y estudio citológico. Resultados: La enfermedad nodular tiroidea se presentó en el 75,3 por ciento de los casos, con predominio del bocio multinodular. La edad al diagnóstico fue menor en los pacientes con la enfermedad (43,53 ± 9,67), que en los que no la tenían (49,33 ± 6,96 años) (p = 0,02). La hormona de crecimiento al diagnóstico de acromegalia, resultó menor en los pacientes con este padecimiento (18,73 ± 11,33 µg/L vs. 35,91 ± 21,68 µg/L; (p = 0,00). El volumen tiroideo mostró diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos (14,2 ± 4,5 mL en los casos positivos de la enfermedad nodular tiroidea y 10,5 ± 2,8 mL en los casos negativos; p = 0,002), siendo el nódulo de baja sospecha de malignidad el más frecuente. El resto de las variables resultaron similares entre los pacientes con y sin la enfermedad. La citología se informó como benigna en el 75 por ciento en los nódulos únicos, el 80 por ciento de los bocios nodulares y el 90 por ciento de los bocios multinodulares (p = 0,51). Conclusiones: La enfermedad nodular tiroidea fue frecuente en los casos de acromegalia, y se asoció a la menor edad y los niveles inferiores de la hormona de crecimiento al diagnóstico. El bocio multinodular constituyó la forma clínica más frecuente y los parámetros hormonales y de autoinmunidad no se asociaron al tipo de la enfermedad nodular tiroidea(AU)


The appearance of thyroid nodules in people with acromegaly is a consequence of chronic elevation of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1). Its nature varies according to the geographical area, the iodine sufficiency and family pathological history, among other factors. No Cuban studies on thyroid nodular disease (TND) in these people have been published. Objectives: Describe some clinical characteristics, as well as biochemical and ultrasonographic ones related to the thyroid gland, according to the presence or not of TND, and to identify the possible association of clinical, biochemical, ultrasonographic and cytological factors with the different types of TND in patients with acromegaly. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional observational study that included 73 patients with acromegaly between January 2003 and December 2017. The following variables were studied: age, sex, skin color, family history of TND, GH levels, thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, thyroid volume, nodular ultrasound pattern and cytological study. Results: TND occurred in 75.3 percent of cases, with a predominance of multinodular goiter. The age at diagnosis time was lower in patients with TND (43.53 ± 9.67) than in those who did not have it (49.33 ± 6.96 years) (p=0.02). GH at diagnosis time of acromegaly was lower in patients with TND (18.73±11.33µg/L vs 35.91±21.68µg/L; (p=0.00). The thyroid volume showed significant differences between both groups (14.2±4.5mL in positive cases of TND and 10.5±2.8mL in negative cases; p=0.002), being the most frequent the nodule with low suspicion of malignancy. The rest of the variables were similar between patients with and without TNDs. Cytology was reported as benign in 75 percent in single nodules, 80 percent of nodular goiters and 90 percent of multinodular goiters (p=0.51). Conclusions: TND was frequent in cases of acromegaly, and was associated with lower age and lower GH levels at diagnosis time. Multinodular goiter was the most frequent clinical form and hormonal and autoimmunity parameters were not associated with the type of TND(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Acromegaly/diagnosis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/adverse effects , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Human Growth Hormone , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 574-580, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346509

ABSTRACT

Abstract The growth hormone receptor (GHR) mediates the effect of growth hormone (GH) on linear growth and metabolism. In humans, it exists as two isoforms differing by the retention or exclusion of exon 3; a full-length GHR isoform (GHRfl) and the exon 3-deleted isoform (GHRd3). The genotypic frequency of this polymorphism was analyzed in several studies and in different human populations. However scarce information in Argentinean population is available. Associations between GHRd3 and growth have been reported previously. Some studies have shown that the presence of GHRd3 polymorphism might be a potential variant that improves growth response to recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy in patients born small for gestational age (SGA), among others. However, over the years the results have been controversial and inconclusive. Based on this, it would be proposed that variants at the genomic level are not completely reflected at the mRNA level. Our aim was to evaluate the genotypic frequencies (%) of the GHR gene polymorphism (GHRfl/GHRfl; GHRfl/GHRd3; GHRd3/GHRd3) in normal Argentinean population (n = 94) and SGA patients (n = 65), and the expression of these polymorphisms at mRNA level in the fetal side of placenta tissues was analyzed. In addition, their asso ciation with spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth in SGA patients was also evaluated. In this study, we show a significant increment of compensatory growth in small for gestational age children (SGA) associated to the presence of the GHRd3 allele polymorphism. In addition, the expression of GHR in healthy placentas revealed that no alternative splicing mechanism occurs.


Resumen El receptor de la hormona de creci miento (GHR) media la acción de la hormona de crecimiento (GH) en el crecimiento lineal y el metabolismo. En los seres humanos, existen dos isoformas que difieren en la retención (GHRfl) o exclusión del exón 3 (GHRd3). La frecuencia genotípica de este polimorfismo fue analizada en varios estudios y en diferentes poblaciones. Sin embargo, la información disponible en la población argentina es escasa. Se ha reportado anteriormente asociación entre el polimorfismo GHRd3 y el crecimiento. Varios estudios ha n demostrado que la presencia del polimorfismo GHRd3 podría mejorar, en pacientes nacidos pequeños para la edad gestacional, entre otros, la respuesta a la terapia con GH humana recombinante (rhGH). Sin embargo, a lo largo de los años los resultados han sido con trovertidos y no concluyentes. En base a esto, se propondría que las variantes a nivel genómico no se reflejan completamente a nivel del ARNm. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la frecuencia genotípica de los polimorfismos del gen del GHR (GHRfl/GHRfl; GHRfl/GHRd3; GHRd3/GHRd3) en la población argentina normal (n = 94) y en niños pequeños para la edad gestacional (n = 65), y se analizó la expresión de estos polimorfismos a nivel de ARNm en la porción fetal de placentas sanas. Además, se evaluó la asociación de este polimorfismo con el cre cimiento postnatal espontáneo en pacientes pequeños para la edad gestacional. En este estudio, mostramos un incremento significativo del crecimiento compensatorio en niños pequeños para la edad gestacional asociado a la presencia del polimorfismo del alelo GHRd3. Además, los ensayos de expresión de GHR en placentas sanas revelaron que no se produciría ningún mecanismo de splicing alternativo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Receptors, Somatotropin/genetics , Human Growth Hormone , Polymorphism, Genetic , Carrier Proteins , Exons , Gestational Age
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 82-88, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088767

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The insulin tolerance test (ITT) has been accepted as the gold standard test for assessing the integrity of the growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The goal of the test is to achieve clinical and biochemical hypoglycemia at a blood glucose level ≤ 40 mg/dL to effectively and correctly assess the HPA and GH-IGF-1 axes. In this study, the GH and cortisol responses of patients who achieved and failed to achieve biochemical hypoglycemia during an ITT were compared. Subjects and methods One hundred thirty-five patients with pituitary disorders were included in the study. Samples for blood glucose levels were obtained after clear symptoms of clinical hypoglycemia developed. The patients were enrolled in the hypoglycemic and nonhypoglycemic groups according to whether their plasma glucose level ≤ 40 mg/dL or > 40 mg/dL during an ITT, and the groups were compared in terms of their GH and cortisol responses. Results The mean age, body mass index and waist circumference of the two patient groups were found to be similar. The mean blood glucose level was significantly lower in the hypoglycemic group than in the nonhypoglycemic group (19.3 and 52.0 mg/dL, respectively). When the two groups were compared in terms of peak cortisol and GH responses, no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusion The data presented suggest that clinically symptomatic hypoglycemia is as effective as biochemically confirmed hypoglycemia during an ITT. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):82-8


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Hydrocortisone/blood , Human Growth Hormone/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Retrospective Studies , Glucose Tolerance Test/adverse effects , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the efficacy and safety of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) combined growth hormone in treatment of adolescent boys with short stature.@*METHODS@#One hundred and fifty-one short stature pubertal boys with age of 10-14 years and bone age of 13-15 years, who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, were included in this trial. According to their own or parents' intention, the children were divided into recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH)+AI group ( =108) and rhGH group ( =43). All children were injected subcutaneously with rhGH 0.15-0.2 IU·kg ·d , and those in rhGH+AI group were additionally given 2.5 mg/d letrozole or 1 mg/d anastrozole, orally for 12 months or longer. The children were followed-up every 3 months. During the follow-up visit, the predicted adult height (PAH), sex hormone level, glucose and lipid metabolism, and other indicators were measured, and adverse reactions were monitored.@*RESULTS@#After intervention, there were significant differences in ΔBA(bone age)/ΔCA(chronological age), ΔHtSDS (height standard deviation score based on bone age)and ΔPAH between rhGH+AI group and the rhGH group( < 0.05 or < 0.01). During follow-up, 63.9%of the children in the rhGH+AI group had elevated uric acid and 51.9%had decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL); 25.9%showed severe acne, excitement, hyperactivity and irritability, 11.1%had knee pain; 4.6%had fracture; 2.8%had mild renal dysfunction; 1.9%had inactivity, drowsiness, memory loss and performance decline; 1.9%showed mild abnormal liver function; 0.9%showed impaired fasting glucose; 0.9%showed granulocytopenia. In the rhGH group, 11.6%of the children presented with knee pain and 2.3%with impaired fasting glucose.@*CONCLUSIONS@#AI combined with rhGH can delay the growth of BA and effectively improve the PAH of adolescent boys with larger bone age. However, the occurrence of adverse reactions of AI should be closely monitored during treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aromatase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Body Height , Child , Growth Disorders , Human Growth Hormone , Humans , Male , Recombinant Proteins
5.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(6): 598-605, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058190

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La radioterapia, quimioterapia y la cirugía empleada en el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales tienen efectos en el eje hipotálamo-hipofisario y pueden resultar en disfunción endocrina hasta en el 96% de los casos. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo en pacientes diagnos ticados de meduloblastoma sometidos a tratamiento con quimio y radioterapia en los últimos 20 años en un hospital terciario. Se analizan variables edad, sexo, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC) al final del seguimiento, estadio de maduración sexual, niveles séricos de TSH y T4 libre, ACTH/cortisol e IGF-1, FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterona, perfil lipídico (colesterol total) y prueba de función dinámica de hormona de crecimiento. RESULTADOS: Muestra total de 23 pacientes. El déficit de hormona de crecimiento es la secuela más frecuente (82 %) seguido de disfunción ti roidea (44,8%) y disfunción puberal (24,1%). Solo se diagnosticó un caso de diabetes insípida y 2 casos de déficit de corticotrofina. CONCLUSIONES: El seguimiento a largo plazo de los supervivientes de meduloblastoma tratados con quimio y radioterapia revela una prevalencia muy alta de disfun ción endocrina, particularmente de deficiencia de hormona del crecimiento y de hipotiroidismo. Creemos oportuna la monitorización y el seguimiento a largo plazo de estos pacientes con el fin de garantizar un manejo terapéutico adecuado de aquellas disfunciones tratables.


INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery used to treat brain tumors have effects on the hy pothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and can result in endocrine dysfunction in up to 96% of cases. PATIENTS Y METHOD: Retrospective and descriptive study in patients diagnosed with medulloblasto ma who underwent treatment with chemo and radiotherapy in the last 20 years in a tertiary hospital. The variables analyzed were age, sex, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) at the end of follow-up, sexual maturity stage, serum levels of TSH and free T4, ACTH/cortisol and IGF-1, FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterone, lipid profile (total cholesterol), and growth hormone dynamic function test. RESULTS: Total sample of 23 patients. Growth hormone deficiency is the most frequent sequelae (82%) fo llowed by thyroid dysfunction (44.8%), and disorders of puberty (24.1%). Only one case of diabetes insipidus and two cases of corticotropin deficiency were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow- up of medulloblastoma survivors treated with chemo and radiotherapy reveals a very high prevalence of endocrine dysfunction, especially growth hormone deficiency and hypothyroidism. We believe that monitoring and long-term follow-up of these patients is necessary in order to ensure adequate therapeutic management of those treatable dysfunctions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cerebellar Neoplasms/therapy , Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects , Medulloblastoma/therapy , Puberty, Precocious/etiology , Thyroid Diseases/etiology , Cerebellar Neoplasms/blood , Retrospective Studies , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/deficiency , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Diabetes Insipidus/etiology , Endocrine System Diseases/etiology , Overweight/etiology , Cancer Survivors , Hypogonadism/etiology , Medulloblastoma/blood
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 608-617, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055027

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The somatotropic axis is the main hormonal regulator of growth. Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are the key components of the somatotropic axis. This axis has been studied for a long time and the knowledge of how some molecules could promote or impair hormones production and action has been growing over the last decade. The enhancement of large-scale sequencing techniques has expanded the spectrum of known genes and several other candidate genes that could affect the GH-IGF1-bone pathway. To date, defects in more than forty genes were associated with an impairment of the somatotropic axis. These defects can affect from the secretion of GH to the bioavailability and action of IGF-1. Affected patients present a large heterogeneous group of conditions associated with growth retardation. In this review, we focus on the description of the GH-IGF axis genetic defects reported in the last decade. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):608-17


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Human Growth Hormone/genetics , Growth Disorders/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Phenotype , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Genotype , Growth Disorders/metabolism
7.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 568-575, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055025

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tumor development is a multistep process whereby local mechanisms enable somatic mutations during preneoplastic stages. Once a tumor develops, it becomes a complex organ composed of multiple cell types. Interactions between malignant and non-transformed cells and tissues create a tumor microenvironment (TME) comprising epithelial cancer cells, cancer stem cells, non-tumorous cells, stromal cells, immune-inflammatory cells, blood and lymphatic vascular network, and extracellular matrix. We review reports and present a hypothesis that postulates the involvement of growth hormone (GH) in field cancerization. We discuss GH contribution to TME, promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage, tumor vascularity, and resistance to therapy. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):568-75


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Damage/physiology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/physiology , Human Growth Hormone/physiology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/physiology , Tumor Microenvironment/physiology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/physiopathology
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 576-581, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055024

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Skeletal muscle is a target tissue of GH. Based on its anabolic properties, it is widely accepted that GH enhances muscle performance in sports. Athletic performance depends on muscle strength and the energy required to power muscle function. The energy required to power muscle function is derived from a continuum of anaerobic and aerobic sources. Molecular and functional studies provide evidence that in muscle GH stimulates the anaerobic and suppresses the aerobic energy system, in turn affecting power-based functional measures in a time-dependent manner. In recreational athletes, GH improves anaerobic capacity but has not been proven to significantly enhance muscle strength, power, or maximum rate of oxygen consumption. GH appears likely to selectively benefit sprint events and not physical performance that depends on strength and endurance. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):576-81


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Human Growth Hormone/pharmacology , Muscle Strength/drug effects , Athletes , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 549-556, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055020

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Growth hormone (GH) is best known for its effect stimulating tissue and somatic growth through the regulation of cell division, regeneration and proliferation. However, GH-responsive neurons are spread over the entire central nervous system, suggesting that they have important roles in the brain. The objective of the present review is to summarize and discuss the potential physiological importance of GH action in the central nervous system. We provide evidence that GH signaling in the brain regulates the physiology of numerous functions such as cognition, behavior, neuroendocrine changes and metabolism. Data obtained from experimental animal models have shown that disruptions in GH signaling in specific neuronal populations can affect the reproductive axis and impair food intake during glucoprivic conditions, neuroendocrine adaptions during food restriction, and counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, and they can modify gestational metabolic adaptions. Therefore, the brain is an important target tissue of GH, and changes in GH action in the central nervous system can explain some dysfunctions presented by individuals with excessive or deficient GH secretion. Furthermore, GH acts in specific neuronal populations during situations of metabolic stress to promote appropriate physiological adjustments that restore homeostasis. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):549-56


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/metabolism , Human Growth Hormone/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/physiology , Signal Transduction , Nerve Regeneration/physiology
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 582-591, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055018

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT GH is one of the insulin counterregulatory hormones which acts in the opposite way to insulin, increasing the glucose production by the liver and kidneys and decreasing glucose uptake from peripheral tissues, thus being a hyperglycemic hormone. When in excess, as in acromegaly, it induces glucose intolerance and diabetes. As expected, patients with GH deficiency (GHD) have hypoglycemia, especially in early childhood, but as GH is also a lipolytic hormone, these patients are becoming obese with higher percentages of body fat. Although obesity in general is directly related to insulin resistance, in patients with GH secretion disorders this relationship may be altered. In acromegaly there is a decrease in fat mass with worsening insulin sensitivity and mice with isolated GHD are characterized by greater insulin sensitivity despite excess fat mass. In humans with GHD, body composition shows increased body fat and decreased free fat mass, but the results regarding insulin sensitivity are still controversial in these patients. These discrepant results regarding insulin sensitivity in patients with GHD suggest the existence of other variables influencing these results. In the present review, we will try to follow the path of the different researches conducted on this subject, both in animal and human models, with the goal of understanding the current knowledge of insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of GHD. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):582-91


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Human Growth Hormone/physiology , Glucose/physiology , Glucose/metabolism
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 601-607, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055017

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Growth hormone therapy with daily injections of recombinant human growth hormone has been available since 1985, and is shown to be safe and effective treatment for short stature in children and for adult growth hormone deficiency. In an effort to produce a product that would improve patient adherence, there has been a strong effort from industry to create a long acting form of growth hormone to ease the burden of use. Technologies used to increase half-life include depot formulations, PEGylated formulations, pro-drug formulations, non-covalent albumin binding growth hormone and growth hormone fusion proteins. At present, two long acting formulations are on the market in China and South Korea, and several more promising agents are under clinical investigation at various stages of development throughout the world. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):601-7


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Growth Disorders/drug therapy , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Design , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Human Growth Hormone/pharmacokinetics , Human Growth Hormone/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 646-652, Nov.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Advances in combination medical treatment have offer new perspectives for acromegaly patients with persistent disease activity despite receiving the available medical monotherapies. The outcomes of combination medical treatment may reflect both additive and synergistic effects. This review focuses on combination medical treatment and its current position in acromegaly, based on clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of combined medical treatment(s) and our own experiences with combination therapy. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):646-52


Subject(s)
Humans , Somatostatin/analogs & derivatives , Receptors, Somatostatin/administration & dosage , Receptors, Somatostatin/antagonists & inhibitors , Dopamine Agonists/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Quality of Life , Acromegaly/drug therapy , Somatostatin/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 592-600, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adults is well-characterized and includes abnormal body composition, reduced bone mass, an adverse cardiovascular risk profile, and impaired quality of life. In the early 1990s, it was also shown that patients with hypopituitarism without GH replacement therapy (GHRT) had excess mortality. Today, GHRT has been shown to decrease or reverse the negative effects of GHD. In addition, recent papers have shown that mortality and morbidity are approaching normal in hypopituitary patients with GHD who receive modern endocrine therapy including GHRT. Since the first dose-finding studies, it has been clear that efficacy and side effects differ substantially between patients. Many factors have been suggested as affecting responsiveness, such as sex, age, age at GHD onset, adherence, and GH receptor polymorphisms, with sex and sex steroid replacement having the greatest impact. Therefore, the individual tailoring of GH dose is of great importance to achieve sufficient efficacy without side effects. One group that stands out is women receiving oral estrogen replacement, who needs the highest dose. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is still the most used biochemical biomarker for GH dose titration, although the best serum IGF-1 target is still debated. Patients with GHD due to acromegaly, Cushing's disease, or craniopharyngioma experience similar effects from GHRT as others. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):592-600


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Medication Adherence , Precision Medicine , Quality of Life , Age of Onset
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 618-629, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In addition to auxiological, clinical and metabolic features measurements of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) complement our tools in diagnosis and follow-up of GH-related disorders. While comparably robust during the pre-analytical phase, measurement and interpretation of concentrations of both hormones can be challenging due to analytical issues and biological confounders. Assay methods differ in terms of antibody specificity, interference from binding proteins, reference preparations and sensitivity. GH assays have different specificity towards different GH-isoforms (e.g. 20 kDa GH, placental GH) and interference from the GH antagonist Pegvisomant. The efficacy to prevent binding protein interference is most important in IGF-I assays. Methodological differences between assays require that reference intervals and diagnostic cut-offs are assay-specific. Among biological variables, pubertal development and age are most relevant for IGF-I, making detailed reference intervals mandatory for interpretation. GH has pulsatile secretion and short half-life. Its concentration is modified by acute factors such as stress, exercise and sleep, but also by intake of oral estrogens and anthropometric factors (e.g. BMI). Other GH dependent biomarkers such as free IGF-I, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP 3) and acid labile subunit (ALS) have been proposed. Their concentrations largely mirror the information obtained through measurement of IGF-I, but their measurement can be helpful in particular situations. In this review, we describe the evolution of analytical methods to measure biomarkers of GH action, the impact of the methodological changes on laboratory results and the need to include biological variables in their interpretation. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):618-29


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Human Growth Hormone/blood , Growth Disorders/diagnosis , Reference Values , Biomarkers/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 700-709, oct 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025979

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Achondroplasia (Ach) is the most frequent cause of dwarfism. The first therapeutic strategy offered to patients with Ach was. However, GH has played un important role in Ach and Hypochondroplasia (Hch), despite short-term and long-term effects. Purpose: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of GH in the height of patients with Ach and Hch in the short and long term. Methods: 12 studies were included selected from the Pubmed database (3 Randomized Clinical trials (RCTs) and 9 prospective studies) from 1993 to 2014. Comparing high and low doses of GH. The systematic review included 9 prospective studies and the high-dose GH arm of the 3 RCTs. Inclusion criteria was focused on paediatric patients with Ach and Hch treated with GH. Demographic variables were collected including age, gender, dose, height and follow-up. The height variables included height increase and height velocity. Finally, 363 patients with Ach and 41 patients with Hcb were included. A was performed with a follow-up from one to 3 years. Results: In patients with Ach the average height velocity at one, two and three years were 2.65, 1.07 and -0.87 cm/years respectively (p<0.05). The RCTs showed a significant increase in height velocity in patients treated with high dose of GH (MD= 1.38, 95% CI: 0.68-2.07, p=0.0001, I2=0%) . Height at one year increased 0.61 cm. The RCTs did not show significant differences (MD 0.11, 95% CI: 0.17-0.39, p=0.44, I2 = 0%). Finally, patients with Hch increased height velocity 4 cm/year at the first year (p<0.05). Conclusion: GH treatment is beneficial in the shor-term height of children with Ach and Hch. GH effect on different ages and subgroups is unknown, as well as its possible long--term consequences


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Achondroplasia/therapy , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 320-327, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the long term safety and efficacy of pegvisomant (PEGV), and the predictors of treatment response in patients with acromegaly in the real life setting. Subjects and methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, hormonal and radiological data of acromegalic patients treated with PEGV in 17 Argentine centers. Results Seventy-five patients (age range 22-77, 51 females) with acromegaly have been treated with PEGV for up to 118 months (median 27 months). Before PEGV, 97.3% of patients had been treated with medical therapy, surgery and/or radiotherapy, two patients had no previous treatment. At that time, all patients had an IGF-1 above the upper normal limit (ULN) (mean 2.4 x ULN ± 0.98, range 1.25-7). At diagnosis of acromegaly 84% presented macroadenomas, prior to PEGV only 23,5% of patients remained with tumor remnant > 1 cm, the remaining showed normal or less than 1 cm images. Disease control (IGF-1 ≤ 1.2 x ULN) was achieved in 62.9% of patients with a mean dose of 11.8 mg/day. Thirty-four patients (45%) received PEGV monotherapy, while 41 (55%) received combined therapy with either somatostatin analogues and/or cabergoline. Adverse events related to PEGV were: local injection site reaction in 5.3%, elevated liver enzymes in 9.3%, and tumor size growth in 9.8%. Pre-PEGV IGF-I level was the only predictor of treatment response: 2.1 x ULN vs 2.8 x ULN in controlled and uncontrolled patients respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion this long term experience indicates PEGV treatment was highly effective and safe in our series of Argentine patients with acromegaly refractory to standard therapies. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(4):320-7


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Acromegaly/drug therapy , Somatostatin/analogs & derivatives , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Human Growth Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Cabergoline/therapeutic use , Argentina , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dopamine Agonists/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Cabergoline/administration & dosage
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 328-336, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019350

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Investigate the therapeutic response of acromegaly patients to pegvisomant (PEGV) in a real-life, Brazilian multicenter study. Subjects and methods Characteristics of acromegaly patients treated with PEGV were reviewed at diagnosis, just before and during treatment. All patients with at least two IGF-I measurements on PEGV were included. Efficacy was defined as any normal IGF-I measurement during treatment. Safety data were reviewed. Predictors of response were determined by comparing controlled versus uncontrolled patients. Results 109 patients [61 women; median age at diagnosis 34 years; 95.3% macroadenomas] from 10 Brazilian centers were studied. Previous treatment included surgery (89%), radiotherapy (34%), somatostatin receptor ligands (99%), and cabergoline (67%). Before PEGV, median levels of GH, IGF-I and IGF-I % of upper limit of normal were 4.3 µg/L, 613 ng/mL, and 209%, respectively. Pre-diabetes/diabetes was present in 48.6% and tumor remnant in 71% of patients. Initial dose was 10 mg/day in all except 4 cases, maximum dose was 30 mg/day, and median exposure time was 30.5 months. PEGV was used as monotherapy in 11% of cases. Normal IGF-I levels was obtained in 74.1% of patients. Glycemic control improved in 56.6% of patients with pre-diabetes/diabetes. Exposure time, pre-treatment GH and IGF-I levels were predictors of response. Tumor enlargement occurred in 6.5% and elevation of liver enzymes in 9.2%. PEGV was discontinued in 6 patients and 3 deaths unrelated to the drug were reported. Conclusions In a real-life scenario, PEGV is a highly effective and safe treatment for acromegaly patients not controlled with other therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Acromegaly/drug therapy , Receptors, Somatostatin/therapeutic use , Human Growth Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Cabergoline/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Growth Hormone/blood , Adenoma/drug therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Cabergoline/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(2): 145-151, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003731

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El diagnóstico de deficiencia de hormona de crecimiento (DHC) es difícil de establecer, y se puede asociar a serias complicaciones, especialmente en el período neonatal. La prueba de estímulo de secreción de hormona de crecimiento (HC) se considera de elección para el diagnóstico, pero presenta complicaciones metodológicas y se asocia a efectos adversos. Los neonatos presentan aumento de la secreción de HC de forma fisiológica, siendo una ventana diagnóstica. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si la muestra de sangre en papel filtro tomada en el período neonatal, en contexto del tamizaje neonatal de hipotiroidismo congénito y fenilcetonuria, permite diferenciar pacientes con DHC, de los que no la presentan. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio de casos y controles mediante determinación de concentración de HC en sangre de papel filtro extraída en período neonatal, comparando controles con DHC con casos con deficiencia descartada. Se realizó extracción de la muestra del papel filtro, obteniendo dos discos de 0,125 pulgada por cada uno de los pacientes desde el centro de la mancha de sangre del papel, para un ELISA de HC humana altamente sensible basado en el uso de anticuerpos policlonales dirigidos contra la HC humana recombinante de 22kDa de peso molecular. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo un total de 7 casos de DHC y 10 controles. La mediana de concentración de HC de papel filtro en los casos es 2,0 ng/ml (Rango intercuartil 3,6 ng/ml) y controles 2,05 ng/mL (RIC 2,0 ng/ml), U de Mann-Withney 30,5 (p = 0,68). Los dos casos con deficiencia de hormonas hipofisarias múltiples (DHHM) presentan concentraciones menores a 1 ng/ml. CONCLUSIÓN: La muestra de papel filtro no permitió diferenciar a los pacientes con DHC de los casos controles, aunque los casos con DHHM presentaron concentraciones mucho menores, en comparación a la deficiencia de hormona de crecimiento aislada (DHCA).


INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is difficult to determine, and could be associated with severe complications, especially in the neonatal period. The stimulation test of growth hormone (GH) secretion is considered the gold standard for diagnosis, but it has methodological complications and is associated with adverse effects. Neonates present physiological increased secretion of GH, representing a diagnostic window. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the dried blood spot on filter paper obtained in the neonatal period, as part of a neonatal screening for con genital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria, allows differentiating patients with GHD from those who do not have it. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Study of cases and controls by measuring the GH concen tration in dried blood spot on filter paper obtained in the neonatal period, comparing controls with GHD with cases with discarded deficiency. The sample was extracted from the filter paper, obtaining two 0.125 inch discs per each patient from the center of the blood spot on the paper, for a highly sen sitive ELISA assay for human GH based on the use of polyclonal antibodies against 22 kDa recom binant human GH. RESULTS: Seven cases of GHD and ten controls were obtained. The median GH concentration of the dried blood spot in the cases is 2.0 ng/ml (Interquartile range 3.6 ng/ml) and 2.05 ng/ml (Interquartile range 2.0 ng/ml) in the controls, Mann-Whitney U test 30.5 (p = 0.68). The two cases with multiple pituitary-hormone deficiency (MPHD) present concentrations lower than 1 ng/ml. CONCLUSION: The dried blood spot sample did not differentiate GHD patients from control cases, although MPHD cases present much lower concentrations compared to isolated growth hor mone deficiency (IGHD).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Neonatal Screening , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Growth Disorders/diagnosis , Hypopituitarism/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Human Growth Hormone/blood , Dwarfism, Pituitary/diagnosis , Dwarfism, Pituitary/blood , Growth Disorders/etiology , Growth Disorders/blood , Hypopituitarism/complications , Hypopituitarism/blood
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