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1.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 26: e51119, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1155138

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. Este trabalho apresenta dados preliminares de pesquisa pós-doutoral que investiga, a partir da psicanálise, a noção de 'desamparo' em jovens em situação de vulnerabilidade, na busca por 'ações específicas' de cuidado na prática institucional em dispositivos de políticas públicas. Partimos da interface entre psicanálise e direito, bem como da supervisão de caso sob ação da Justiça Restaurativa. Analisamos, pela metodologia do caso único, um caso de adolescente sob medida protetiva e socioeducativa, do qual são extraídas duas observações orientadoras: a dimensão da transmissão e filiação e do 'desamparo' e da 'ação específica' na adolescência. Como resultado, sistematizamos quatro lógicas de orientação para composição da 'ação específica': o sujeito e a dimensão simbólica, o sujeito e o circuito pulsional, a implicação e a retificação no campo do Outro, e as inflexões sobre a equipe. Concluímos que o desamparo é uma chave de leitura psicanalítica para a noção de vulnerabilidade e que a supervisão institucional favorece a construção melhor orientada para a ação específica de cuidados.


RESUMEN. El documento presenta datos preliminares de la investigación postdoctoral que investiga, desde el psicoanálisis, la noción de impotencia en los jóvenes vulnerables, en busca de coordinadas que establezcan acciones específicas de atención en la práctica clínica e institucional en dispositivos de políticas públicas. Partimos de la interfaz entre el Psicoanálisis y la ley, basada en la supervisión de casos bajo la acción de justicia restaurativa. El estudio de caso analizó un caso de adolescente bajo medidas protectoras y socioeducativas, de las cuales se toman tres observaciones para guiar la discusión: la dimensión de transmisión y afiliación; impotencia y acción específica ante la adolescencia. Como resultado de la supervisión institucional, hemos reunido cuatro planes de lectura guía para su composición: el sujeto y la dimensión simbólica, el sujeto y el circuito de conducción, la implicación y rectificación en el campo del Otro, y las inflexiones en el equipo. Concluimos que la impotencia es una lectura psicoanalítica clave para la noción de vulnerabilidad y que la supervisión institucional favorece una mejor construcción de la atención orientada a la acción.


ABSTRACT This paper presents preliminary data from a postdoctoral research that investigates, from psychoanalysis, the notion of helplessness in vulnerable young people, in the search for specific care actions in clinical and institutional practice in public policy devices. We start from the interface between Psychoanalysis and law, based on a case under supervision for restorative justice action. The study analyzed a case of an adolescent under protective and socio-educational measures, from which two observations are taken to guide the discussion: the dimension of transmission and affiliation, and the helplessness and specific action in the face of adolescence. As a result, we have gathered from institutional supervising four guiding plans for its lecture: the subject and the symbolic dimension, the subject and the drive circuit, the implication and rectification in the Other's field, and the inflections on the team. We conclude that helplessness is a psychoanalytic key for the notion of vulnerability and that institutional supervision favors the construction better oriented towards specific care actions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Psychoanalysis/education , Adolescent , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Helplessness, Learned , Violence/psychology , Affect , Education/standards , Family Relations/psychology , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4473-4478, dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055733

ABSTRACT

Resumo Ao longo das três décadas de vigência da Constituição Federal, redesenhos normativos e fiscais foram introduzidos pela União nas garantias de organização federativa solidária e de custeio dos direitos sociais, a pretexto de resguardar a sustentabilidade intertemporal da dívida pública brasileira. Para equalizar a tensão entre estabilidade econômica e efetividade dos direitos sociais e sua repercussão para o processo de endividamento, foram mitigados paulatinamente os pisos de custeio da saúde e educação e o orçamento da seguridade social, os quais operavam, tanto no campo simbólico, quanto no pragmático, como uma espécie de contrapeso fiscal à necessidade de custo alegadamente ilimitado para as políticas monetária e cambial. Desvincular receitas, reduzir o escopo dos regimes de gasto mínimo e restringir o alcance interpretativo de transferências intergovernamentais equalizadoras das distorções federativas tornou-se estratégia, assumida - direta ou indiretamente - pela União desde o início da década de 1990, de estabilização macroeconômica, sobretudo, monetária. Assim tem sido empreendido um longo e ainda atual processo de desconstrução orçamentário-financeira dos direitos sociais, que restringe a identidade estrutural da CF/1988, a pretexto de consolidação fiscal cada vez mais exigente da redução do tamanho do Estado.


Abstract Throughout the three decades of the Federal Constitution, normative and fiscal redesigns were introduced by the Union in the guarantees of solidary federative organization and of social rights costing, under the pretext of safeguarding the intertemporal sustainability of the Brazilian public debt. In order to equalize the tension between economic stability and the effectiveness of social rights and their repercussion for the indebtedness process, the health and education minimum spending and the social security budget were gradually mitigated, which operated both in the symbolic field and in the pragmatic, as a kind of fiscal balance to the need for allegedly unlimited cost for monetary and cambial policies. Unlink taxes, reduce the scope of minimum spending regimes and restrict the interpretative scope of intergovernmental equalization transfers of federative distortions has become a strategy, assumed - directly or indirectly - by the Union since the early 1990s, of macroeconomic stabilization policy, above all, monetary. Thus, a long and still ongoing process of budgetary and financial deconstruction of social rights has been undertaken, which restricts the structural identity of the FC/1988, under the pretext of increasingly demanding fiscal consolidation of the reduction of the size of the state.


Subject(s)
Humans , Budgets/legislation & jurisprudence , Federal Government , Healthcare Financing , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Social Security/economics , Social Security/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Education/economics , Education/legislation & jurisprudence , Human Rights/economics
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 3997-4008, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039516

ABSTRACT

Resumo A violência praticada contra crianças é tema complexo e polissêmico. Estudo de coorte retrospectiva buscou caracterizar o perfil das crianças vítimas de violência doméstica e de seus agressores e avaliar a eficácia das intervenções judiciais. Analisou-se 98 processos da Vara da Infância e Juventude, envolvendo 179 crianças e 121 agressores. Negligência/abandono e violência física foram as violações mais frequentes. Revelou-se a mãe como principal agressora; renda mensal de até um salário mínimo e história de uso de álcool mostraram-se associados à violência. Encontrou-se 71% das vítimas matriculadas em instituições de ensino. Em 25% a gravidade da situação determinou o afastamento da família. Um terço das crianças foram incluídas em programas de apoio, orientação e acompanhamento à família. A intervenção judicial garantiu 93% de interrupção da violência em até dois anos, tempo ainda longo, pelo risco da criança ser revitimizada. Ações efetivas pressupõem o envolvimento da família, da sociedade, das instituições escolares e de saúde. A garantia de direitos tem na execução das políticas públicas, e não na judicialização, o lócus privilegiado de efetivação.


Abstract Child abuse is a complex, multi-faceted and controversial topic. A retrospective cohort study aimed to characterize the profile of children victims of domestic violence and their aggressors and to evaluate the efficiency of judicial interventions. Ninety-eight cases lodged with the Infancy and Childhood Court involving 179 children and 121 perpetrators were analyzed. Negligence/abandonment (62%) and physical violence (30%) were the most frequent violations. Mothers were identified as the most frequent aggressor; monthly income of up to one minimum wage and history of alcohol use have been associated with violence. Seventy-one percent of victims were enrolled in educational institutions. In 25% of the cases the severity of the abuse required the removal of the child from the family. A third of the children were enrolled in official programs designed to provide the family with support, orientation and follow-up. This protective judicial intervention was successful in reducing abuse in 93% of the cases within 2 years. Prevention of child abuse requires the involvement of professionals of multiple fields at an early stage. The promotion and safeguarding of children's rights must come primarily from the implementation of public policy not judicial intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Child Abuse/legislation & jurisprudence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Income/statistics & numerical data , Mothers/statistics & numerical data
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(6): 2167-2172, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011799

ABSTRACT

Resumo Apresenta-se a questão da judicialização do direito à saúde no Brasil, por meio da análise de estatísticas governamentais e revisão bibliográfica. Demonstra-se, a partir de dados do Conselho Nacional de Justiça, a existência de um incremento substancial no número de ações judiciais tratando do direito à saúde. Ressalta-se que a doutrina nacional discute efusivamente meios de tornar a prestação jurisdicional mais efetiva, mas não se discute, via de regra, o aspecto econômico da judicialização na saúde. Utilizando-se o conceito de custo de oportunidade, extraído da ciência da Economia, passa-se a demonstrar que o magistrado, ao deferir o pleito formulado pelo autor da ação judicial, automaticamente força o Poder Executivo a reduzir o escopo de outras políticas para gerar recursos visando custear o cumprimento da decisão judicial. Tal cenário, em determinados contextos, acaba por privilegiar o direito individual à custa dos da coletividade usuária do SUS, em ofensa ao princípio da isonomia e da eficiência. Por fim, apresenta-se o caso da judicialização promovida pelos pacientes hemofílicos no Distrito Federal como uma forma de demonstrar, no plano fático, as consequências da judicialização nas políticas do SUS.


Abstract This paper presents the issue of judicialization of the right to health in Brazil. Data from the National Council of Justice evidence a substantial increase in the number of lawsuits concerning the right to health. We emphasize that the national doctrine exhaustively discusses ways to make the authority more effective, but it does not, as a general rule, discuss the economic aspect of health judicialization. Using the concept of opportunity cost extracted from economics science, it is shown that the judge, by deferring the lawsuit formulated by the plaintiff, automatically forces the Executive Branch to reduce the scope of other policies to generate resources to meet the court order. In specific contexts, this setting ends up favoring individual rights at the expense of the collective rights of SUS users, in violation of the principle of isonomy and efficiency. Finally, the case of the judicialization promoted by the hemophiliac patients in the Federal District is shown as a way of evidencing, at the factual level, the consequences of judicialization in the SUS policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Hemophilia A/therapy , National Health Programs/economics
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 71-80, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996654

ABSTRACT

O Brasil apresenta a terceira maior população carcerária do mundo com 726.712 pessoas encarceradas. Verifica-se um déficit de 358.663 vagas no sistema prisional. A Constituição Brasileira de 1988 garante o direito à saúde as pessoas privadas de liberdade. Como estratégia para efetivar ações de saúde no âmbito prisional, em 2003, foi instituído o Plano Nacional de Saúde do Sistema Penitenciário no SUS. Durante 10 anos a sua execução buscou garantir cuidado de saúde à população carcerária. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo descritiva e exploratória. O objetivo principal foi compreender a assistência à saúde das pessoas residentes no CDP, na cidade de Pau dos Ferros/RN/Brasil. Participaram da pesquisa profissionais de saúde (n=4) e da justiça (n=9). Como instrumento de coleta de dados utilizou-se a entrevista semiestruturada, que após transcrição foram analisadas e interpretadas pelo método da Análise Temática. Ao final, quatro categorias emergiram: Conhecimento dos Trabalhadores da Saúde e da Justiça sobre a garantia da Saúde no Sistema Prisional. As ações de saúde realizadas para atender as necessidades e problemas das pessoas privadas de liberdade. O diálogo entre as instituições de saúde e da justiça no sentido de garantir o direito à saúde. A efetivação do direito à saúde no sistema prisional: limites e possibilidades. O estudo demonstrou o quanto é carente a assistência em saúde aos homens em situação de detenção provisória e, como é cogente a aplicação na prática dos princípios do SUS, somente assim, há de se conquistar a quimera que é o diálogo entre a saúde e a justiça para a real operacionalização da Política Nacional de Atenção Integral da Saúde Prisional, resultando assim numa melhoria da situação de saúde vivenciada no sistema prisional.


Brazil has the third largest prison population in the world with 726,712 people incarcerated. There is a deficit of 358,663 places in the prison system. The Brazilian 1988 Federal Constitution guarantees the right to health to persons deprived of their freedom. As a strategy to implement health actions in prison, in 2003, the National Health Plan of the Penitentiary System in the Single Health System was established. For 10 years, its execution sought to guarantee health care to the imprisoned population. This study presents a descriptive, exploratory qualitative research, where the main objective was to understand the health care provided to people living in CDP, in the city of Pau dos Ferros in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Health professionals (n = 4) and justice professionals (n = 9) participated in the research. A semi-structured interview was used as a data collection instrument, which, after transcription, was analyzed and interpreted by the Thematic Analysis method. In the end, four categories emerged: Knowledge of Health and Justice Professionals about Health Care in the Prison System. Health actions taken to address the needs and problems of persons deprived of their freedom. Dialogue between health and justice institutions in order to guarantee the right to health. The right to health accomplishment in the prison system: limits and possibilities. The study demonstrated the lack of health care for men in custody and, as the practical application of the SUS principles is required, it is the only way to conquer the chimera that is the dialogue between health and justice for the real operationalization of the National Policy of Integral Prison Health Care resulting in an improvement of the health situation experienced within the prison system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Prisoners/legislation & jurisprudence , Effectiveness , Rights of Prisoners , Prisons/legislation & jurisprudence , Unified Health System , Delivery of Health Care , Vulnerable Populations/legislation & jurisprudence , Right to Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 917-928, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989629

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Conselho Federal de Medicina (CFM) publicou em 1992 a resolução CFM nº 1.358/1992 com o objetivo de adotar normas éticas para utilização das técnicas de Reprodução Assistida (TRA). Esta resolução foi atualizada em 2010 (CFM nº 1.957/2010), em 2013 (CFM Nº 2.013/13) e teve sua última atualização 2015 (CFM nº 2.121/2015). O objetivo desse artigo é fazer uma análise crítica sobre a evolução das normas éticas propostas pelo CFM para a utilização de TRA no Brasil. Foi realizada uma análise documental do texto das quatro Resoluções publicadas onde estão descritas as normas éticas para utilização das TRA. Foi observado que a resolução evoluiu em relação aos direitos dos homossexuais, adotou medidas mais permissivas em relação a criopreservação, doação de gametas e embriões e cessão de útero e por fim autorizou alguns procedimentos em TRA como a reprodução post mortem, doação e gestação compartilhada. A partir de 2013 a resolução ganhou um caráter liberal estando atualizada com a prática clínica. Para as próximas atualizações seria interessante incluir procedimentos em TRA os quais não foram abordados como a transferência nuclear e citoplasmática. A frequência de atualização (a cada dois anos) deve ser mantida para as normas éticas que norteiam a TRA continuar evoluindo juntamente com o avanço da ciência.


Abstract The Federal Medical Council (FMC) published FMC Resolution No. 1,358/1992 with the aim of adopting ethical standards for the use of Assisted Reproduction Techniques (ART). This resolution was updated in 2010 (CFM No. 1957/2010), in 2013 (CFM No. 2,013/13) and the last update was in 2015 (CFM No. 2.121/2015). The scope of this article is to conduct a critical analysis of the evolution of the ethical norms proposed by FMC for the use of ART in Brazil. A documentary analysis of the text of the four published Resolutions was carried out, in which the ethical standards for the use of ART were described. It was observed that the resolution evolved in relation to the rights of homosexuals, adopted more permissive measures regarding cryopreservation, donation of gametes and embryos and uteruses on loan and lastly authorized some procedures in ART such as postmortem reproduction, donation and shared gestation. From 2013 onwards the resolution gained a liberal character being updated in terms of clinical practice. For the next updates it would be interesting to include procedures in ART not previously addressed such as nuclear and cytoplasmic transfer. The update frequency (every two years) should be kept to the ethical standards enabling the ART to continue evolving together with the advancement of science.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bioethics , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/ethics , Reproductive Rights/ethics , Tissue Donors/ethics , Brazil , Cryopreservation/ethics , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/legislation & jurisprudence , Reproductive Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Sexual and Gender Minorities/legislation & jurisprudence , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(9): 2859-2868, set. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952777

ABSTRACT

Resumo A efetivação do direito à saúde de adolescentes e jovens privados de liberdade no Brasil é tarefa complexa que nos coloca frente às iniquidades em saúde e às intervenções sobre seus determinantes sociais. Sendo assim, o presente estudo buscou contribuir com a discussão sobre o direito à saúde dessa população, a partir da análise da implementação da Política de Atenção Integral à Saúde de Adolescentes em Conflito com a Lei (PNAISARI). Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem analítica, utilizando análise documental dos marcos normativos e de dados de monitoramento e avaliação da política. Em suma, os resultados sugerem que a política fortalece a efetivação do direito a saúde dessa população. Entretanto, sua implementação necessita ser fomentada e qualificada para que o acesso aos cuidados em saúde seja de fato uma realidade em todos os estados e municípios.


Abstract The realization of the right to health of adolescents and young people deprived of their liberty in Brazil is a complex task that places us before health inequities and interventions on their social determinants of health. Therefore, this study sought to contribute to a discussion about the right to health of this population, based on the analysis of the implementation of the Comprehensive Healthcare Policy for Adolescent Offenders (PNAISARI). This is an analytical approach, using documentary analysis of legal frameworks and policy monitoring and evaluation data. In short, the results suggest that the policy strengthens the realization of the right to health of this population. However, its implementation must be promoted and qualified so that access to health care is, in fact, a reality in all states and municipalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Comprehensive Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Juvenile Delinquency/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Adolescent Health , Social Determinants of Health , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence
8.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(3): e000718, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955147

ABSTRACT

The Sao Paulo Declaration (1998) committed leisure professionals to extending Rights, Inclusion and Social Order in leisure customs and practice. The engine for this intervention consisted of the twin processes of globalization and cosmopolitanism. Both were seen as dissolving economic and political barriers. The Declaration did not make use of the term 'world society'. On the other hand it clearly defined itself to be part of a global movement that addressed leisure for all. In the last 20 years, the progress made n fulfilling the terms of the Declaration has been disappointing. Economic barriers of wealth inequality and uneven development in globalization and cosmopolitanism have blocked many aspects of the Rights, Inclusion and Order articulated in the Declaration. This paper examines how far globalization and cosmopolitanism have progressed in achieving the principle that 'all persons have the right to leisure.' It examines data on wealth inequality, debt and unemployment rates to consider some of the concrete impediments. It concludes by maintaining that there is a need to go beyond the Sao Paulo Declaration by addressing the economic and political barriers that currently prevent leisure from being a right for all.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Statements , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Leisure Activities
10.
Lima; Comisión de Salud y Población del Congreso de la República del Perú; 2018. 1-9 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-998293
11.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1256803

ABSTRACT

Background: The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities came into place in 2006, as the main instrument for advancing the human rights of persons with disabilities. For many African states, the Convention came amidst ubiquitous marginalisation and discrimination of persons with disabilities. As expected, the Convention has been hailed as a landmark in the struggle to reframe the needs and concerns of persons with disabilities. Objectives: This article reviews the implementation of the Convention by the Zimbabwean government.Method: The study relies on reviews of extant literature on disability rights. Reviewed documents include the Convention, constitution and other related national laws, policies and measures pertaining to disability rights. Results: This article lauds the state for promulgating a disability-friendly constitution that resembles the Convention to effectuate a human rights approach to disability issues. Relatedly, the state came up with institutions that collaborate with research institutes and disability organisations to conduct research, provide services to persons with disabilities, raise awareness and advocacy and litigate for disability rights.Conclusion: In spite of these efforts, this article shows that Zimbabwe has yet to close the gap on the ideals of the Convention, mainly because of limited resources amongst state-funded institutions for advancing disability issues. The government of Zimbabwe is challenged to domesticate all provisions of the Convention and to provide resources to institutions for progressive realisation of the rights of persons with disabilities


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic , Disabled Persons , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Social Discrimination
12.
Guatemala; Gobierno de Guatemala; dic. 2017. 64 p.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025839

ABSTRACT

El presente plan busca definir un modelo de intervención interinstitucional, que toma las recomendaciones internacionales y propone una forma de abordar algunas de ellas con el fin de formular una acción integrada para resolver esta problemática. En él cita que, el embarazo adolescente es resultado de la pobreza, la desigualdad de género, la discriminación, la falta de acceso a los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva que incluya la provisión de anticonceptivos, baja escolaridad, dificultades para el acceso a educación integral en sexualidad adecuada a la edad (en la escuela y comunidad), opiniones y valoraciones negativas sobre las niñas, adolescentes y las mujeres. Además señala que, a nivel mundial, el 11% de los nacimientos proceden de madres adolescentes, de los cuales el 95% ocurre en países en desarrollo (OMS, 2012). La región de América Latina tiene la segunda tasa más alta de embarazos en adolescentes del mundo (75.67 por cada 1,000 mujeres entre 15 y 19 años). En Guatemala se ha reportado un registro de embarazo en mujeres menores de 20 años desde el 2009, que correspondía al 18%, y que presentó un incremento en el 2012 al ubicarse en 22%. Estas cifras, que para el 2016 continúan aún en un 18% (INE, 2016b), se sitúan en la media establecida de la región (18%).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Pregnancy in Adolescence/prevention & control , Pregnancy in Adolescence/statistics & numerical data , Sex Education , Maternal Mortality , Family Planning Policy , Contraceptive Agents/supply & distribution , Reproductive Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Education/statistics & numerical data , Family Development Planning , Reproductive Health , Sex Offenses/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy/statistics & numerical data , Intersectoral Collaboration , Sexual Health , Gender Diversity , Guatemala , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(12): 3841-3848, Dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890241

ABSTRACT

Resumo As minorias encontram-se em uma posição de inferioridade na sociedade e, por isso, são vulneráveis em vários aspectos. Este estudo analisa a vulnerabilidade legislativa e visa categorizar como "fraca" ou "forte" a proteção conferida pela lei às minorias: idoso, deficiente, LGBT, índio, mulher, criança/adolescente e negros. Para tanto, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa documental em que se buscou, em 30 leis federais, dispositivos legais que conferissem proteção às minorias. Em seguida, os artigos foram organizados nas categorias: cível, criminal, administrativo, trabalhista e processual para, posteriormente, serem analisados. Considerou-se a proteção jurídica como "forte" quando houvesse dispositivos legais que contemplassem as cinco categorias, e "fraca", a que não atendia esse critério. Observou-se que seis grupos possuem uma proteção legislativa "forte", o que elide a afirmação de que as minorias estão à margem da lei. A exceção é o grupo LGBT, cujo amparo legal é "fraco" Ademais, consagrar direitos por meio de leis reforça os canais institucionais para que as minorias exijam seus direitos. Por fim, observou- se que o amparo legislativo conferido às minorias não é homogêneo e sim é discriminatório, além de existir uma interferência do grupo majoritário na regulação dos direitos dos grupos vulneráveis.


Abstract Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vulnerable Populations/legislation & jurisprudence , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Minority Groups/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Federal Government , Government Regulation
14.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(5): 1501-1508, maio 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-839975

ABSTRACT

Resumo A violência contra mulheres tem crescido, constituindo-se grave violação dos direitos humanos. Objetivou-se avaliar as políticas públicas, a legislação de proteção à mulher e os atendimentos de saúde às vítimas de violência sexual. Realizou-se estudo exploratório e descritivo, com entrevistas a profissionais do Serviço de Atendimento à Mulher Vítima de Violência de Teresina-PI, além de coleta de dados de prontuários das vítimas. Os dados foram analisados à luz da legislação e das diretrizes preconizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde, consoante com as políticas públicas instituídas. Observou-se evolução da legislação brasileira e crescente intervenção do poder público no intuito de controlar a violência. O serviço avaliado preconiza a humanização do atendimento, os princípios da dignidade, não discriminação, do sigilo e da privacidade, evitando a exposição e o desgaste das vítimas. São realizados exames físico e ginecológico, outros complementares como testes sorológicos e coleta de vestígios em busca da identificação do agressor, além de assistência farmacêutica e acompanhamento multiprofissional. Pode-se concluir que a legislação vigente, bem como as diretrizes e os procedimentos preconizados pelas políticas públicas de proteção à mulher são eficazes no serviço de referência estudado.


Abstract Violence against women has increased over the years and is a serious violation of human rights. This study aimed to evaluate public policies, women’s rights legislation and health care for victims of sexual violence. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, with interviews to professionals of the Care Center for Women Victims of Violence of Teresina-PI, and collection of medical records data of victims. We analyzed data in the light of legislation and guidelines recommended by the Ministry of Health, according to the established public policies. We noted an improvement of the Brazilian legislation and increasing intervention of government in order to control the violence. The evaluated service calls for the humanization of care, the principles of dignity, non-discrimination, confidentiality and privacy, avoiding exposure and distress of victims. Physical and gynecological examination are conducted, besides laboratory tests such as serological tests and collecting traces aiming at identifying the offender, as well as pharmaceutical care and multi-professional support. We can conclude that the current legislation and the guidelines and procedures recommended by public policies to protect women are effective in the referral service studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Crime Victims/rehabilitation , Delivery of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Policy , Sex Offenses/legislation & jurisprudence , Women's Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Crime Victims/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Policy , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Women's Health
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(supl.1): 750-764, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902254

ABSTRACT

Al abordar el tema del agua es fundamental hablar de la carencia o deficiencia de los recursos hídricos en el mundo, ya sea porque para consumo humano sólo se tiene el 3% de agua del planeta, o bien por la cantidad de gente que carece de agua a nivel mundial. Estos dos supuestos polariza la situación del agua, por una parte quienes la consideran como un derecho humano, el cual es un servicio a cargo del estado, porque al insertarse en el texto constitucional de México se vinculó al Estado; por el otro lado, ante la insuficiencia de agua, se le concede el carácter de mercancía, y como tal se pretende que pueda tener el justo valor que requiere, al tratarse de un bien que poco a poco se vuelve más preciado, requiriendo de inversiones para su obtención y prestación del servicio. En cuanto a equidad, la primera de las posturas buscaría beneficiar a toda la población; pero la segunda determina que solo aquellos con el suficiente recurso económico podrán disponer de agua. El último razonamiento provocaría limitación de la existencia y vida digna de muchas personas que carecen de los recursos económicos suficientes para pagar por ella (AU).


To approach the concept of water in the present, it is essential to speak of the lack or deficiency of the water resources in the world, either because for human consumption is only 3% of water on the planet, or by the number of people whom deficiency of water worldwide. These two assumptions polarizes the water situation, on the one hand those who considered it as a human right, which is a service in charge of the state, because when isintroduced into the text of the Constitution of Mexico already link up to the State; on the other hand, given the insufficiency of water, is granted the nature of goods, and as such it is intended that may have the fair value that requires to be a well that little by little becomes more precious, requiring investment for their collection and provision of the service. With regard to equity, the first of the positions would seek to benefit the entire population; but the second determines that only those with sufficient economic resource may have water. The last reasoning would lead to limitation of the existence and dignified life of many people who lack the economic resources to pay for it (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Equity in Water Access/analysis , Human Rights/economics , Water Supply/legislation & jurisprudence , Review Literature as Topic , Constitution and Bylaws , Equity in Water Access/ethnology , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence
16.
Clinics ; 71(10): 570-574, Oct. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the views of freshman students with senior students of the Faculty of Medicine- University of São Paulo concerning the respect for the mother’s freedom of choice, the need to protect the unborn child, the proportionality between the mother’s freedom of choice and the protection of the unborn child, and issues related to legal abortion. To determine whether the medical knowledge acquired throughout the academic years can influence the views of medical students on these issues. METHODS: First- and sixth-year students of the Faculty of Medicine - University of São Paulo answered a questionnaire; the inclusion criteria were as follows: a first- or sixth-year student of the medical school and a signature on the free informed consent form. To compare the proportions, a chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used. The significance level was set to 5%. RESULTS: Regarding the mother’s freedom of choice, in the case when a pregnant woman undergoes a cesarean section by means of a court order despite her intention to not have a cesarean, 55.7% of the first-year students have answered that the mother’s choice should be respected. Among the sixth-year students, only 28.9% believe that the mother’s intention should be considered (p<0.0001). With reference to the mother’s choice in connection with antiretroviral medication, 38.1% of the first-year students agreed that the mother’s intention should be respected, whereas 33% of sixth-year students believed that the mother’s intention should be respected (p=0.453). CONCLUSION: There was a tendency to consider the unborn child’s rights over the mother’s choice as students spent more time in medical school.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Choice Behavior , Fetus , Freedom , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mothers , Students, Medical , Abortion, Legal/legislation & jurisprudence , Age Factors , Brazil , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(5): 827-836, sep.-oct. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845848

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN A partir del año 1991, con el establecimiento de la actual Constitución Política colombiana y la designación de la Corte Constitucional como guardiana y protectora de la misma, los valores constitucionales han permeado todas las materias y áreas del derecho, inclusive aquellas que se entendían dispuestas a la autonomía de la voluntad de los particulares. El contrato de Medicina prepagada es un buen ejemplo de este fenómeno en la medida en que la Corte Constitucional colombiana, mediante sentencias de revisión de tutela, con la intención de proteger el derecho a la salud y reprender las conductas contrarias al principio de buena fe, ha limitado la libertad contractual de particulares -empresas de medicina prepagada-, en beneficio del usuario de este servicio. Esta protección se ha realizado imponiendo a las empresas obligaciones y cargas de verificación del estado de salud del paciente y prohibiendo la inclusión de cláusulas generales de preexistencias y exclusiones en los contratos. Sin embargo se encuentra un vacío en lo referente al deber de los usuarios de actuar de buena fe.(AU)


ABSTRACT Since 1991, when the current Colombian Constitution came into force and the Constitutional Court was appointed as its guardian and protector, constitutional values have permeated all subjects and areas of law, even those that were previously considered as private matters. Prepaid medicine contracts are a good example of this phenomenon, since the Colombian Constitutional Court has limited individual freedom of contract to private parties -prepaid medical companies- for the benefit of final users of this service through "acción de tutela", in order to protect the right to healthcare and to prevent some behaviors that violate the principle of good faith. The Court has demanded private companies to assess the health condition of patients and has prohibited pre-existent and exclusion clauses that diminish the responsibilities of said companies. Nevertheless, there is a gap in the law regarding the duties of good faith that concern the user, which will be addressed in this paper.(AU)


Subject(s)
Prepaid Health Plans/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Law , Contracts/legislation & jurisprudence , Patient Care , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(4): 355-360, ago. 2016. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838243

ABSTRACT

Este estudio de revisión tiene como objetivo promover la diseminación de la legislación vigente en nuestro país que protege los derechos de los pacientes con enfermedades que pueden producir discapacidad. Se analizan los artículos de las leyes que resguardan los derechos de estas familias para que sean más accesibles a los profesionales de la salud que las asisten. Argentina posee una amplia legislación dedicada a protegerlos, pero no es claramente reconocida por el ciudadano en general. La propuesta es difundir esta información en el ambiente médico para que los profesionales de la salud puedan ayudar al paciente a reconocer sus derechos a través del empoderamiento.


The objective of this review study is to promote the dissemination of the legislation in force in Argentina for the protection of the rights of persons with conditions that might cause disability. Articles of bills and laws that protect the rights of these families are reviewed, so that health care providers assisting them have better access to them. Argentina has a wide range of laws and regulations dedicated to protecting them, but they are generally not clearly recognized by citizens. The aim is to disseminate this information in the medical setting so that health care providers can help patients recognize their rights through empowerment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Disabled Children/legislation & jurisprudence , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Argentina
19.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 23(1): 173-192, enero-mar. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-777303

ABSTRACT

Resumo Esse estudo mostra a luta de pais para que filhos portadores de mucopolissacaridose tenham acesso a medicamentos caros, em nome do direito universal à saúde. O trabalho explora como, no Brasil, o litígio pelo direito à saúde tornou-se um caminho alternativo de acesso à saúde e evidencia a disputa de diferentes atores dos setores público e privado no processo de judicialização da saúde. Entende-se, portanto, que a biotecnologia recria valores humanos e mundos locais à medida que abre novos espaços de problematização ética, desejo e pertencimento político.


Abstract This study draw on the struggle of parents of children with mucopolysacchar idosis to access expensive drugs in the name of universal right to health. The work explores how, in Brazil, right-to-health litigation became an alternative pathway to access health care and shows that several public and private stakeholders dispute the judicialization of health. Biotechnology is, therefore, understood to remake human and social worlds as it opens up new spaces of ethical problematization, desire, and political belonging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Mucopolysaccharidoses/drug therapy , Drug Therapy/economics
20.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 37(spe): e70826, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-845204

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Conhecer a estrutura das representações sociais de direito à saúde e cidadania de conselheiros municipais de saúde. Método Estudo qualitativo, fundamentado nas Teorias das Representações Sociais e do Núcleo Central, realizado em oito municípios da Região Integrada de Desenvolvimento do Entorno do Distrito Federal, Brasil. A amostra intencional foi composta por conselheiros municipais de saúde. Entre junho e dezembro de 2012 aplicaram-se questionários de evocação livre, dos quais foram respondidos 68 com o termo indutor Direito à Saúde e 64 com o termo indutor Cidadania. Os dados foram analisados por meio do software EVOC e da análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Resultados O campo representacional de direito à saúde está associado à ideia de direito universal garantido pela Constituição e pelo SUS e de cidadania vinculado aos direitos e deveres. Conclusões As concepções de direito à saúde são entendidas enquanto condição para alcance da cidadania e cidadania como proteção social.


RESUMEN Objetivo Conocer la estructura de las representaciones sociales de la salud y el derecho a la ciudadanía de la salud de concejales. Estudio cualitativo basado en la teoría de las representaciones sociales y el núcleo central, realizado en los municipios de la región que rodea el Desarrollo Integrado del Distrito Federal, Brasil. Una muestra intencional fue compuesta por consejeros municipales de salud. Entre junio y diciembre de 2012 aplicaron cuestionarios de recuerdo libre, de los cuales fueron contestados 68 con el inductor del término derecho a la salud y 64 con el término ciudadanía inductor. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software EVOC y el análisis de contenido de Bardin. s El campo representacional derecho a la salud se asocia con la idea del derecho universal garantizado por la Constitución y el SUS y la ciudadanía vinculada a los derechos y deberes. El derecho de los conceptos de salud se entiende como condición para el logro de la ciudadanía y ciudadanía como protección social.


ABSTRACT Objective To know the structure of the social representations of right to health and citizenship of health municipal councilors. Method This is a qualitative study, based on the central nucleus theory of social representations, carried out in eight municipalities of the Integrated Region for the Development of the Surroundings of the Federal District, Brazil. The intentional sample consisted of municipal health councilors. Between June and December 2012, free recall questionnaires were used, of which 68 were answered with the inducing term health, and 64 with the inducing term citizenship. Data were analyzed using EVOC software and Bardin’s content analysis. Results The representational field of the right to health is associated with the idea of universal law guaranteed by the Constitution and the Unified Health System (SUS), and of citizenship linked to rights and duties. Conclusions The conceptions of right to health are understood as a condition for reaching citizenship, and citizenship as social protection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Values , Culture , Government Employees/psychology , Politics , Brazil , Attitude to Health , Urban Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Civil Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Community Health Services/legislation & jurisprudence , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Constitution and Bylaws , Community Participation , Health Policy , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence
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