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1.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(3): 465-472, ago.2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293373

ABSTRACT

| INTRODUÇÃO: O vírus linfotrópico de células T humana tipo 1 (HTLV-1) é classificado como retrovírus e pode estar diretamente associado às doenças neurológicas. Por ser uma doença negligenciada pelas autoridades sanitárias e governamentais num panorama mundial, ainda existe uma carência de evidências científicas que investigam o impacto do HTLV-1 no âmbito da participação social dessa população. OBJETIVO: Analisar o impacto da pandemia da COVID-19 na participação social de indivíduos com HTLV-1. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional do tipo transversal realizado com indivíduos com HTLV-1 vinculados à Associação HTLVida. A coleta de dados foi realizada através de entrevistas via videoconferência; a primeira entrevista teve como objetivo explorar as características clínicas e sociodemográficas dos participantes, já a segunda investigou a participação social dos indivíduos comparando dois períodos (antes e durante a pandemia de COVID-19), através da aplicação do Questionário de Integração na Comunidade (QIC). RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 11 indivíduos, com predominância do sexo feminino (72,7%), com mediana de idade de 57 (52- 66) anos. No que tange os resultados referentes à participação social avaliada pelo QIC, observou-se a manutenção do escore do domínio de integração no ambiente doméstico, uma diferença de 3.00 pontos no domínio de integração no ambiente social, uma diferença de 2.00 pontos no domínio de integração no ambiente do trabalho e escola, além de uma diferença de 6.00 pontos no escore total do QIC. CONCLUSÃO: Identificou-se uma diminuição da participação social de indivíduos com HTLV-1 durante a pandemia da COVID-19, quando comparado ao período prévio de início da pandemia.


INTRODUCTION: Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is classified as a retrovirus and may be directly associated with neurological diseases. As it is a disease neglected by health and governmental authorities in a world panorama, there is still a lack of scientific evidence that investigates the impact of HTLV-1 in the scope of the social participation of this population. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the social participation of individuals with HTLV-1. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a transversal observational study carried out with individuals with HTLV-1, linked to the HTLVida Association. The data collection was carried out through interviews in a videoconference. The first interview aimed to explore the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of the participants. In contrast, the second one investigated the social participation of individuals comparing two periods (before and during the COVID-19 pandemic) through the application of the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ). RESULTS: Eleven individuals were interviewed, predominantly female (72.7%), with a median age of 57 (52-66). About the results regarding social participation evaluated by the CIQ, was observed maintenance of the score in the domain of Integration in the home environment, a difference of 3.00 points in the domain of Integration in the social environment, a difference of 2.00 points in the domain of Integration in the work and school environment, and a difference of 6.00 points in the total CIQ score. CONCLUSION: A decrease in the social participation of individuals with HTLV-1 during the COVID-19 pandemic was compared to the period before the start of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Social Participation
2.
Infectio ; 25(1): 28-32, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154398

ABSTRACT

Summary The Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a retrovirus with oncogenic properties, affects around ten to twenty million people worldwide. The most common disorders associated with HTLV-1 infection are T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ALT) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Studies have reported other clinical manifestations in HTLV-1 seropositive patients, including inflammatory disorders, co-infections with opportunistic agents, and pulmonary diseases. Objective: Here, we aim to describe a cohort of juvenile patients with confirmed HTLV-1 infection that showed clinical manifestations other than neurological symptoms. Methodology and patients: Retrospective analysis of clinical data describing background and clinical findings of 12 juvenile patients with confirmed HTLV-1 infection, attended during January 2018 to February 2020 in a pediatric referral hospital in Cali, Colombia. Results: 11 out 12 patients were from Colombia´s Pacific coast, 10 suffered from significant nutritional deficiencies. Six exhibited dermatological findings, 3 compatible with infective dermatitis. None of the cases exhibited clinical or laboratory findings suggesting ALT or HAM/TPS. Eight patients had structural lung disease assessed by chest Computed Tomography (CT) scans; 4 of them tested positive for galactomannan antigen in bronchoalveolar fluid suggesting pulmonary aspergillosis, and 2 others exhibited a positive PCR testing for tuberculosis. Three patients were diagnosed with autoimmune disorders; 1 patient with Crohn´s Diseases, 1 case of autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, and a patient with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (non-granulomatous uveitis). Conclusions: There is a broad range of clinical manifestations in pediatric HTLV-1 patients, and the clinician should consider structural pulmonary disease, opportunistic co-infections and autoimmune disorders in the diagnostic algorithm.


Resumen El Virus Linfotrópico de células T humanas tipo 1 (HTLV-1), retrovirus con propiedades oncogénicas, afecta alrededor de 10-20 millones de personas mundialmente. Las manifestaciónes más comúnmente asociadas a HTLV-1 incluyen leucemia/linfoma de células T (ALT) y mielopatía asociada a HTLV-1/ paraparesia espástica tropical (HAM/TSP). Estudios han reportado otras manifestaciones clínicas en pacientes positivos para HTLV-1, incluyendo enfermedades inflamatorias, coinfecciones con gérmenes oportunistas y enfermedad pulmonar. Objetivo: es describir clínicamente una cohorte de pacientes pediátricos con infección por HTLV-1 confirmada que presentan manifestaciones clínicas diferentes a síntomas neurológicos. Metogolodía y pacientes: Análisis retrospectivo de historia clínica describiendo procedencia y hallazgos clínicos en 12 pacientes con infección por HTLV-1 confirmada, atendidos durante el periodo de Enero de 2018 a Febrero de 2020 en un hospital pediátrico de referencia en Cali, Colombia. Resultados: Once de 12 pacientes procedían de la costa Pacífica Colombiana, 10 con deficiencias nutricionales significativas. Seis mostraron compromiso dermatológico, 3 compatibles con dermatitis infectiva. Ningún paciente presentó hallazgos clínicos o paraclínicos sugestivos de ALT o HAM/TPS. Ocho pacientes presentaron enfermedad pulmonar estructural evidenciada por TAC de tórax; 4 de ellos con antígeno galactomanan positivo en lavado broncoalveolar, sugiriendo aspergilosis pulmonar, y otros 2 resultaron con PCR positiva para tuberculosis. Tres pacientes presentaron enfermedades autoinmunes concomitantes: uno con Enfermedad de Crohn, uno con Púrpura Trombocitopénica Autoinmune, y un paciente con Síndrome de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada. Conclusiones: Existe un amplio rango de manifestaciones clínicas en pacientes pediátricos con HTLV-1, considerando enfermedad pulmonar estructural, coinfecciones oportunistas y enfermedades autoinmunes dentro del algoritmo diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Viruses , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Infections , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic , Leukemia , Crohn Disease , Coasts , Concurrent Symptoms , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Malnutrition , Dermatitis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Lung Diseases
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 111-114, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287250

ABSTRACT

Resumen La leucemia/linfoma a células T del adulto (ATLL) es una enfermedad hematológica causada por el virus linfotrópico T humano tipo 1 (HTLV-1) que se desarrolla luego de 20 años de incubación, preferencialmente cuando la infección se adquiere por transmisión vertical. Este tiempo se reduce de 3 meses a 3 años cuando la transmisión del virus es por transfusión o trasplante de órganos. La ATLL aguda es de difícil diagnóstico por ser inusual y tener una rápida progresión a la muerte. En el Noroeste argentino, donde el virus es endémico, la ATLL es más frecuente, sin embargo, también se la detecta continuamente en el resto del país. El tratamiento de elección, en primera instancia, es el uso combinado de antivirales. Presentamos un caso de ATLL aguda desarrollada en un hombre de 59 años de Santiago del Estero a partir del cual se identificó transmisión intrafamiliar de la infección por HTLV-1.


Abstract Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an hematological disease caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) that develops after 20 years of incubation preferentially when the infection is acquired by vertical transmission. In cases of transmission by transfusion or organ transplant, this time is reduced from 3 months to 3 years. Acute ATLL is difficult to diagnose because it is unusual and has a rapid progression to death. In the Argentine Northwest, where the virus is endemic, ATLL is more frequent, however it is also detected continuously in the rest of the country. The treatment of choice, in the first instance, is the combined use of antivirals. We present a case of acute ATLL developed in a 59-year-old man from Santiago del Estero from which intrafamilial transmission of HTLV-1 infection was identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/diagnosis , T-Lymphocytes
4.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(6): 549-559, Jan 6, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283603

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Vírus Linfotrópico de Células T Humana do Tipo-1 (HTLV-1) é um retrovírus que afeta os linfócitos T humano e desencadeia inflamação na medula, levando à paraparesia espástica tropical/mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1 (PET/MAH) com prejuízos funcionais. Tais disfunções podem influenciar nos efeitos da fisioterapia, gerando diferentes níveis de fadiga. Objetivo: Avaliar a percepção subjetiva de esforço e de recuperação de indivíduos com PET/MAH após sessão única de fisioterapia. Métodos: Incluíram-se 12 participantes sintomáticos para PET/MAH, de ambos os sexos, que foram submetidos uma vez ao protocolo fisioterapêutico. Os instrumentos avaliativos foram: Escala Modificada de Borg, Escala de Percepção Subjetiva de Recuperação (1º, 5º e 10º minuto após a sessão) e Escala de Incapacidade Neurológica do Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas ­ 2 (EIPEC). Resultados: Encontrou-se correlação moderada entre idade e taxa de percepção subjetiva de recuperação ao 1º (r = - 0,4923) e 5º (r = - 0,4913) minuto e entre índice do EIPEC-2 e taxa de percepção subjetiva de recuperação ao 1º (r = 0,3592) e 5º (r = - 0,3772) minuto. Conclusão: Indivíduos deste estudo com maior idade e grau de incapacidade neurológica têm menor percepção subjetiva de recuperação. (AU)


Introduction: Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that affects human T lymphocytes and triggers inflammation in the spinal cord, leading to tropical spastic paraparesis / HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) with functional impairments. Such dysfunctions can influence the effects of physical therapy, generating different levels of fatigue. Objective: To evaluate the subjective perception of effort and recovery of individuals with TSP/HAM after a single session of physical therapy. Methods: 12 symptomatic participants for TSP/HAM, of both sexes, who were submitted once to a physiotherapeutic protocol were included. The evaluative instruments were: Modified Borg Scale, Scale of Subjective Perception of Recovery (1st, 5th and 10th minute after the session) and Scale of Neurological Disability at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute - 2 (EIPEC). Results: A moderate correlation was found between age and subjective perception rate of recovery at the 1st (r = - 0.4923) and 5th (r = - 0.4913) minute and between the EIPEC-2 index and the subjective perception rate of recovery at the 1st (r = 0.3592) and 5th (r = - 0.3772) minute. Conclusion: Individuals in this study with older age and degree of neurological disability have less subjective perception of recovery. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic , Physical Therapy Modalities , Fatigue , Exercise , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200066, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136919

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We investigated the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) infection in patients with hematological diseases from the western Amazon region of Brazil. METHODS: Samples from 306 patients were submitted for the molecular diagnosis of HTLV-1/2 infection by real time PCR (qPCR), with amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the long terminal repeat (LTR) region. RESULTS: A 29-year-old male carrier of sickle cell anemia with a history of multiple blood transfusions was diagnosed with the HTLV-2c subtype. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the first known occurrence of HTLV-2c in the urban area of Brazil's western Amazon region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Adult , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-II Infections/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Brazil/epidemiology , Human T-lymphotropic virus 2/genetics
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) activates inflammatory cascades by activating the NF-κB pathway. The minor allele of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in breast cancer suppressor BRCA1-associated protein (BRAP), which has a common etiology with HTLV-1 infection, has been reported to be positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis, but inversely associated with hypertension. Therefore, HTLV-1 infection may be inversely associated with hypertension by activating endothelial maintenance, including atherosclerosis. To clarify these associations, a cross-sectional study was conducted using 2989 Japanese individuals aged 60-99 years participating in a general health check-up.@*METHODS@#Logistic regression models were used to clarify the association between HTLV-1 and hypertension. Platelet levels stratified analyses were also performed since platelet production, which plays a crucial role in endothelium maintenance, can be stimulated by activating the NF-κB pathway.@*RESULTS@#HTLV-1 infection was found to be significantly inversely associated with hypertension, particularly in subjects with high platelet levels (≥ second tertiles of platelet levels); the fully adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 0.75 (0.62, 0.92) for total and 0.64 (0.50, 0.82) for high platelet levels, respectively. Further analysis of the non-hypertensive subjects demonstrated that HTLV-1 infection was significantly positively associated with atherosclerosis in subjects with the highest tertile of platelet levels (2.11 [1.15, 3.86]) but not in subjects with low platelet levels (first and second tertiles of platelet level) (0.89 [0.57, 1.39]).@*CONCLUSION@#Asymptomatic HTLV-1 infection is inversely associated with hypertension, possibly by activating endothelial maintenance, including atherosclerosis progression.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carotid Artery Diseases/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HTLV-I Infections/complications , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/virology , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1308-1311, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type-I/II infection among voluntary blood donors in Jiangsu (Nanjing, Suzhou, Xuzhou).@*METHODS@#From 2016 to 2019, 408 262 samples of voluntary blood donors from four blood stations in Jiangsu Province (Jiangsu Province Blood Center, Nanjing Red Cross Blood Center, Suzhou Central Blood Station, and Xuzhou Central Blood Station) were screened for HTLV-I/II antibody by ELISA. The positive samples were sent to National Center for Clinical Laboratories for confirmation by RT-PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The positive rate of HTLV-I/II screened by ELISA was 0.20‰ (82/408 262), and three HTLV-I positive samples were confirmed. The prevalence of HTLV-1 infection was 0.74 per 100 000 (3/408 262). All three donors were female repeated blood donors of childbearing ages.@*CONCLUSION@#Jiangsu is a low prevalence area of HTLV, and a reasonable blood screening strategy for HTLV can further reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted virus infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Female , HTLV-II Infections/epidemiology , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Humans , Prevalence , T-Lymphocytes
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(5): 101631, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350325

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Brazil has a high number of HTLV-1/2 infections which are unequally distributed in the country. Most prevalence studies have focused on specific populations, such as blood donors and pregnant women. Some areas, for example the state of Bahia, have robust information about HTLV-1/2 infection, however there is no information available about this infection in the general population of Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection in adults from the municipality of Vitoria, ES. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed from September 2010 to December 2011, in individuals of both sexes, aged 18 or older living in Vitoria-ES. Venous blood samples were collected and tested for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CMIA). Individuals with CMIA reactive results were submitted to a new blood collection for retesting by CMIA, followed by PCR to confirm infection and discriminate the viral type. Results: From 1502 tested samples, eight were reactive in CMIA and all were confirmed by PCR. Therefore, the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was 0.53% (8/1502, 95% CI: 0.2-1.0%). The infection rate was 0.7% in men (5/711, 95% CI: 0.17-1.51%), and 0.38% in women (3/791, 95% CI: 0 -0.81%). Conclusions: The prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection was 0.53% (8/1502; 95% CI: 0.2 -0.9%). Confirmatory test using real-time PCR (qPCR) identified seven individuals positive for HTLV-1 and one for HTLV-2. Considering the risk of infected individuals to develop high morbidity and mortality diseases, it would be important to implement public health policies aimed at stopping transmission of these viruses in this municipality. 2021 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , HTLV-I Infections/diagnostic imaging , Human T-lymphotropic virus 2/genetics , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , T-Lymphocytes , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(3): 101594, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339431

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Infection by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) occurs in lymphocytes, which travel throughout the body, thus affecting several target organs and causing varied clinical outcomes, particularly in populations that are underserved and do not have access to healthcare. However, the mechanism of pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. The TAX and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) proteins maintain viral persistence and affect pathogenesis through cell proliferation and immune and inflammatory responses that accompany each clinical manifestation. TAX expression leads to inhibition of transcription error control, OX40 overexpression, and cell proliferation in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). OX40 levels are elevated in the central nervous system (CNS), and the expression of TAX in the CNS causes neuronal damage and loss of immune reactivity among patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM). HBZ reduces viral replication and suppresses the immune response. Its cell compartmentalization has been associated with the pathogenesis of HAM (cytoplasmic localization) and ATL (nuclear localization). TAX and HBZ seem to act antagonistically in immune responses, affecting the pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection. The progression from HTLV-1 infection to disease is a consequence of HTLV-1 replication in CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes and the imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The compartmentalization of HBZ suggests that this protein may be an additional tool for assessing immune and inflammatory responses, in addition to those already recognized as potential biomarkers associated with progression from infection to disease (including human leukocyte antigen (HLA), killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-28, Fas, Fas ligand, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and mannose-binding lectin).


Subject(s)
Humans , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections , Biomarkers , Retroviridae Proteins , Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01752021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250822

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We present a data analysis and review of recent studies regarding the laboratory diagnosis of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) infections in Brazil. METHODS Target populations, available diagnostic serological assays (screening and complementary tests), molecular assays (in-house), causes of false-positive and false-negative results, and flowcharts were analyzed. RESULTS A table presents the target populations, two diagnostic flowcharts (depending on laboratory infrastructure and study population), and recent research that may improve how HTLV-1/2 is diagnosed in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the implementation of public policies to reduce HTLV-1/2 transmission and its associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Software Design , Brazil , Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 , HTLV-II Infections/epidemiology
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020605, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250842

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article addresses the Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). This subject comprises the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. HTLV-1/2 infection is a public health problem globally, and Brazil has the largest number of individuals living with the virus. HTLV-1 causes several clinical manifestations of neoplasm (adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma) and inflammatory nature, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy and other manifestations such as uveitis, arthritis, and infective dermatitis. These pathologies have high morbidity and mortality and negatively impact the quality of life of infected individuals. This review includes relevant information for health authorities professionals regarding viral transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of individuals living with HTLV-1 and 2 in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Quality of Life , Brazil , Review Literature as Topic , T-Lymphocytes
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e06232020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155605

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Individuals with human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) experience sensorimotor alterations, which can affect functional performance. Virtual reality (VR) videogaming is a therapeutic option, though there is scarce evidence for its use in this population. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of a VR video game on functional mobility, balance, and gait speed in individuals with HAM/TSP. METHODS: We conducted a blinded, crossover clinical trial comprising 29 individuals with HAM/TSP and randomized them into two groups: (1) early therapy: rehabilitative protocol started immediately after the initial evaluation and (2) late therapy: rehabilitative protocol started 10 weeks later. We assessed all participants for balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) scores, functional mobility using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and gait speed using video camera and CvMob software. Differences were considered significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: The early therapy group individuals presented with higher BBS scores (p=0.415), less TUG times (p=0.290), and greater gait speed (p=0.296) than the late therapy group individuals. CONCLUSIONS: VR videogaming is a useful option for rehabilitative therapy in individuals with HAM/TSP; it positively affects balance, functional mobility, and gait speed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/therapy , Video Games , Virtual Reality , Walking Speed
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0759-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155599

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) viruses are associated with a high global burden of disease, and coinfection is a frequently reported event. We aimed to compare the functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients infected with HTLV-1, HIV, and HIV-HTLV-1. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients older than 18 years who had an HTLV-1 infection (Group A), HIV infection (Group B), or HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection (Group C). The functioning profiles were evaluated using handgrip strength, Berg balance scale (BBS), timed "up and go" (TUG) test, and 5-m walk test (m/s). We used the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) questionnaire to measure disability. The HRQoL was evaluated using a 36-item short-form health survey. For data with parametric and non-parametric distribution, we used analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction and the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's pairwise tests with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: We enrolled 68 patients in Group A, 39 in Group B, and 29 in Group C. The scores for handgrip strength, BBS, TUG test, all the WHODAS domains, and HRQoL were poorer for Groups A and C than for Group B. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to patients with HIV infection, those with HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection and HTLV-1 infection had poor functioning and HRQoL scores. HTLV-1 infection was associated with reduced functioning and HRQoL in patients with a single HTLV-1 infection and HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Coinfection , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0853-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155565

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil ranks first in the number of HTLV-1/-2-infected individuals worldwide. The high morbidity and mortality of HTLV-1-associated diseases, especially following infection in infancy, requires strong action to reduce vertical transmission. METHODS: To facilitate the appraisal of the implementation of the HTLV antenatal screening program by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, we determined the costs in distinct scenarios according to HTLV seroprevalence, specificity of the screening test, and type of confirmatory test. RESULTS: HTLV antenatal screening would cost R$ 55,777,012-R$ 77,082,123/year. Screening assays with high specificity reduce the need and cost of confirmatory assays by up to 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Careful selection of the screening assay is required to optimize the program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis , Brazil , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Delivery of Health Care
15.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021307, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285426

ABSTRACT

Adult T- lymphocyte leukemia/ lymphoma (ATLL), described by Uchiyama et al. in 1977, is a distinct neoplasia of peripheral T-lymphocytes caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The authors describe the case of a 75-year-old female patient who presented with fever, chills, and altered mental status. The peripheral blood morphology showed large atypical lymphocytes with multilobed nuclei and flow cytometry consistent with ATLL. The authors discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and subtypes of ATLL in addition to the diagnostic approach using flow cytometry when bone marrow biopsy is not available and modalities of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell , Diagnosis, Differential , Flow Cytometry
17.
MSphere ; 5(5): e00923-20, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1128430

ABSTRACT

Provirus mutations of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), mostly the lack of the 5= long terminal repeat (LTR) genomic region, have been described and associated with severe adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), non-sense point mutations with low proviral load, and Western blotting indeterminate results. Until now, no information concerning provirus mutations of HTLV-2 and its consequences, as well as those of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-coinfected individuals, had been described. Therefore, we searched for these mutations in provirus samples of 44 HIV/HTLV-1- and 25 HIV/HTLV-2-coinfected individuals. Using protocols well established for amplification and sequencing of segments of the LTR, env, and tax regions, we searched for defective type 1 particles that retain LTRs and lack internal sequences and type 2 particles that lack the 5=LTR region. In addition, using as references the prototypes ATK (HTLV-1) and Mo (HTLV-2), we searched for point mutations in the LTR and synonyms and nonsynonymous mutations and non-sense mutations in env and tax regions. Defective HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 provirus type 1 or 2 was detected in 31.8% of HIV/HTLV-1- and 32.0% of HIV/HTLV-2-coinfected individuals. Synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations were identified mostly in HTLV-2 and associated with lower levels of specific antibodies. No non-sense mutations that resulted in premature termination of Env and Tax proteins were detected. On the contrary, mutation in the stop codon of Tax2a produced a long protein characteristic of the HTLV-2c subtype. The clinical significance of these mutations in coinfected individuals remains to be defined, but they confirmed the lower sensitivity of serological and molecular diagnostic tests in HIV/HTLV-1/2 coinfections. IMPORTANCE HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are endemic to Brazil, and they have different effects in HIV/AIDS disease progression. HIV/HTLV-1 has been described as accelerating the progression to AIDS and death, while HIV/HTLV-2 slows the progression to AIDS. Provirus mutations of HTLV-1 were implicated in severe leukemia development and in problems in the diagnosis of HTLV-1; in contrast, provirus mutations of HTLV-2 had not been confirmed and associated with problems in HTLV-2 diagnosis or disease outcome. Nevertheless, data obtained here allowed us to recognize and understand the false-negative results in serologic and molecular tests applied for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 diagnosis. Defective proviruses, as well as synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations, were associated with the diagnosis deficiencies. Additionally, since HIV-1 and HTLV-1 infect the same cells (CD4 positive), the production of HIV-1 pseudotypes with HTLV-1 envelope glycoprotein during HIV/HTLV-1 coinfection cannot be excluded. Defective provirus of HTLV-2 and Tax2c is speculated to influence progression to AIDS. (AU)


Subject(s)
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Proviruses , Coinfection , Mutation
18.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(4): 372-379, Ago 08, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283306

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a influência da fisioterapia pélvica na função urinária e sexual de mulheres infectadas com HTLV-1. Métodos: Estudo quasi-experimental, com protocolo de 16 sessões em nove mulheres, que foram categorizadas em grupo sintomático e assintomático. Realizou-se teste de força muscular do assoalho pélvico com esquema PERFECT modificado, aplicou-se os questionários King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) e Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). O protocolo de fisioterapia pélvica consistiu em eletroestimulação do nervo tibial, eletroestimulação transvaginal e exercícios de cinesioterapia pélvica. Resultados: No grupo assintomático, segundo esquema PERFECT houve melhora da Endurance e Resistência do assoalho pélvico. No KHQ, verificou-se melhora geral no impacto da incontinência na qualidade de vida. No FSFI, houve aumento significativo no escore geral (p = 0,01), com influência nos domínios Desejo, Excitação, Lubrificação e Orgasmo. No grupo sintomático, o esquema PERFECT obteve melhora significativa em todos os domínios, assim como nos domínios de Limitação física, Sono/Energia e Medidas de Gravidade do KHQ e dos domínios de Desejo, Excitação e o Escore geral (p = 0,01) do FSFI. Conclusão: Sugere-se que o programa de fisioterapia pélvica aplicado melhorou a funcionalidade do assoalho pélvico, a qualidade de vida, reduziu os sintomas urinários e aprimorou a função sexual. (AU)


Objective: To evaluate the influence of pelvic physical therapy on the urinary and sexual function of women infected with HTLV-1. Methods: A quasi-experimental study in 16 sessions with nine women, divided into a symptomatic and asymptomatic group. The muscle strength test was performed with modified PERFECT scheme and were applied the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The protocol of pelvic physical therapy consisted of electrostimulation of the tibial nerve, transvaginal electrostimulation and pelvic kinesiotherapy exercises. Results: In the asymptomatic group, the main results in PERFECT scheme were the improvement of the endurance and pelvic floor strength. In relation to KHQ, we observed a general improvement in the impact of incontinence on quality of life. In the FSFI, there was a significant increase in the Overall Score (p = 0.01), with influence in the domains Desire, Excitation, Lubrication and Orgasm. In the symptomatic group, the PERFECT scheme obtained significant improvement in all domains. As well as in domains Physical Limitation, Sleep/Energy and Severity measures in KHQ and in domains Desire, Excitation and Overall Score (p = 0,01) of FSFI. Conclusion: The pelvic physical therapy protocol improved the pelvic floor functionality, quality of life, reduced urinary symptoms and improved the sexual function. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Incontinence , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Physical Therapy Modalities , Quality of Life , Pelvic Floor
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008245, May 26, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1128443

ABSTRACT

The human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) are endemic and neglected in Brazil, and although these viruses were considered to have prognostic value when associated with HIV, e.g., HTLV-1 has been associated with fast progression and death to AIDS and more cases of lymphoma and neurological disorders, and HTLV-2 has been associated with slow progression to AIDS, their impact on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) outcomes remain unknown. The present study analyzed the influence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 coinfection on HBV and HCV virological outcomes (viral load levels and virus clearance during follow-up) in serum samples from 1,910 patients with hepatitis B and 1,315 patients with hepatitis C from São Paulo, southeast Brazil. The results obtained confirmed the positive impact of HTLV-2 on HBV and HCV virological outcomes (lower HBV and HCV viral loads and increased HCV clearance when compared with HCV-monoinfected patients) and the opposite effect of HTLV-1; these findings are similar to the effects observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Taking into consideration these results and the differential impact of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in viral hepatitis B and C, we suggest including the serology of HTLV-1/2 in the follow-up of such patients in Brazil. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Serology , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Human T-lymphotropic virus 2 , Hepatitis, Viral, Human
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200388, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143860

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: A good rating of the device in people with HTLV-1 in this population is essential for accuracy in prescribing data (walking). Thus, this study aimed to analyze the counterpart assessment methods that are best suited to patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). METHODS: This cross-sectional study related stabilometric and kinematic variables of postural oscillations with Berg's balance scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) in subjects with HAM/TSP compared to asymptomatic subjects. To assess the posterior and lateral postural projection, baropodometry and the Footwork® system was used, and the CVMob system was applied to kinematic parameters. The means comparison tests and correlations were applied with an alpha of 5%. RESULTS: Thirty-nine subjects (predominantly female) made up the sample. There was an increase in barodopometric oscillations, in the total oscillation area (p = 0.004), in the anteroposterior oscillation in the left (p = 0.015) and right views (p = 0.036), and in the lateral oscillation (p = 0.039) in the HAM/TSP group. Moderate correlations were found between oscillation baropodometry and the angular variation of the ankle, as well as with the BBS in the three angles and the TUG for lateral oscillation (p = 0.406). CONCLUSIONS: Each method has advantages and disadvantages, including cost accuracy. The best resources available at no additional cost for outpatient to use are the kinematic evaluation using a simple smartphone camera and free analysis software, and the TUG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic , Cross-Sectional Studies
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