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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(1): 37-43, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360694

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and validate a practical nomogram to predict the occurrence of post-traumatic hydrocephalus in patients who have undergone decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury. METHODS: A total of 516 cases were enrolled and divided into the training (n=364) and validation (n=152) cohorts. Optimal predictors were selected through least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis of the training cohort then used to develop a nomogram. Receiver operating characteristic, calibration plot, and decision curve analysis, respectively, were used to evaluate the discrimination, fitting performance, and clinical utility of the resulting nomogram in the validation cohort. RESULTS: Preoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage Fisher grade, type of decompressive craniectomy, transcalvarial herniation volume, subdural hygroma, and functional outcome were all identified as predictors and included in the predicting model. The nomogram exhibited good discrimination in the validation cohort and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80 (95%CI 0.72-0.88). The calibration plot demonstrated goodness-of-fit between the nomogram's prediction and actual observation in the validation cohort. Finally, decision curve analysis indicated significant clinical adaptability. CONCLUSION: The present study developed and validated a model to predict post-traumatic hydrocephalus. The nomogram that had good discrimination, calibration, and clinical practicality can be useful for screening patients at a high risk of post-traumatic hydrocephalus. The nomogram can also be used in clinical practice to develop better therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Decompressive Craniectomy/adverse effects , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/surgery , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Nomograms
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of surgical treatment on prognosis in preterm infants with obstructive hydrocephalus.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 49 preterm infants with obstructive hydrocephalus. According to the treatment regimen, they were divided into two groups: surgical treatment (@*RESULTS@#Among the 49 preterm infants with obstructive hydrocephalus, severe intracranial hemorrhage (37 cases; 76%) and central nervous system infection (10 cases, 20%) were the main causes of hydrocephalus. There was no significant difference in the composition of etiology between the two groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Surgical treatment can improve the survival rate of preterm infants with obstructive hydrocephalus and the prognosis of preterm infants with severe intracranial hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 9-12, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088986

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cerebral hydrodynamics complications in shunted patients are due to the malfunction of the system. The objective of this retrospective, single-center, single-arm cohort study is to confirm the safety and performance of Sphera® Duo when used in adult patients suffering from hydrocephalus, pseudotumor cerebri or arachnoid cysts. Methods: Data were generated by reviewing 112 adult patient's charts, who were submitted to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and followed for one year after surgery. Results: The results show us that 76% of patients had their neurological symptoms improved and that the reoperation rate was 15% in the first year following surgery. Discussion: Sphera Duo® shunt system is an applicable shunt option in routine neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus by several causes. It has presented good results while mitigating effects of overdrainage. Overdrainage is especially important in adults with non-hypertensive hydrocephalus and can cause functional shunt failure, which causes subnormal ICP (particularly in the upright position) and is associated with characteristic neurological symptoms, such as postural headache and nausea. Conclusion: Sphera Duo® shunt system is safe when used in adult patients suffering from hydrocephalus, pseudotumor cerebri or arachnoid cyst.


Resumo Introdução: As complicações da hidrodinâmica cerebral em pacientes com derivação ventriculoperitoneal são frequentemente relacionadas ao malfuncionamento do sistema. O objetivo deste estudo retrospectivo de coorte de centro único é avaliar a segurança e performance clínica do Sistema Sphera® Duo quando utilizado em adultos com hidrocefalia, pseudotumor cerebral ou cistos aracnoides. Métodos: Avaliamos os prontuários de 112 pacientes adultos submetidos a cirurgia de derivação ventriculoperitoneal e acompanhados por 1 ano após a cirurgia. Resultados: O resultado mostra que 76% dos pacientes melhoraram dos sintomas neurológicos e a taxa de reoperação foi de 15% no primeiro ano após a cirurgia. Discussão: O sistema de derivação Sphera Duo® é uma opção de shunt adequada a ser usada no tratamento neurocirúrgico da hidrocefalia por causas diversas. Ele demonstrou bons resultados clínicos enquanto reduziu riscos de hiperdrenagem. A hiperdrenagem é especialmente preocupante e mórbida em pacientes adultos com hidrocefalia não hipertensiva e pode levar a prejuízo clínico e disfunção da válvula, com sintomas de hipotensão craniana, como cefaléia ortostática e náuseas. Conclusão: O sistema de derivação Sphera Duo® é seguro para tratamento da hidrocefalia, pseudotumor cerebri ou cistos aracnóides em adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pseudotumor Cerebri/surgery , Arachnoid Cysts/surgery , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/instrumentation , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Reoperation , Time Factors , Pseudotumor Cerebri/physiopathology , Intracranial Pressure/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Arachnoid Cysts/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/methods , Equipment Design , Hydrodynamics , Hydrocephalus/physiopathology
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(7): 433-438, July 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888297

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The literature describes various cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage techniques to alleviate posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm newborns; however, consensus has not been reached. The scope of this study was describing a case series of premature neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and assessing the outcomes of different approaches used for CSF diversion. Methods A consecutive review of the medical records of neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus treated with CSF drainage was conducted. Results Forty premature neonates were included. Serial lumbar puncture, ventriculosubgaleal shunt, and ventriculoperitoneal shunt were the treatments of choice in 25%, 37.5% and 37.5% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion Cerebrospinal fluid diversion should be tailored to each case with preference given to temporary CSF drainage in neonates with lower age and lower birth-weight, while the permanent ventriculoperitoneal shunt should be considered in healthier, higher birth-weight neonates born closer to term.


RESUMO Objetivo A literatura descreve várias opções de drenagem liquórica (DL) para alivio da hidrocefalia pós-hemorrágica (HPH) em neonatos prematuros; contudo, não existe um consenso sobre a melhor abordagem. O escopo deste estudo foi descrever uma série de casos de neonatos prematuros, portadores de HPH, verificando os resultados de diferentes técnicas utilizadas para DL. Métodos Revisão consecutiva dos prontuários de neonatos com diagnostico de HPH submetidos a DL. Resultados Quarenta recém-nascidos prematuros foram incluídos. A punção lombar seriada (PL), a derivação ventriculosubgaleal (VSG) e a derivação ventrículo peritoneal (VP) foram o tratamento escolhido em 25%, 37,5% e 37,5% dos casos, respectivamente. Conclusão As opções de DL devem ser avaliadas caso a caso, sendo dada preferência às drenagens temporária em prematuros com idade e peso mais baixos ao nascer, enquanto o shunt definitivo (derivação VP) pode ser considerado naqueles prematuros mais saudáveis, com idade e peso superiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts/methods , Cerebral Hemorrhage/surgery , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Infant, Premature , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/diagnostic imaging
7.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 36(2): 108-116, 30/06/2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911176

ABSTRACT

Introduction Retrograde ventriculosinus shunt (RVSS) is a useful option in the daily routine of neurosurgeons dealing with hydrodynamics. The objective of this manuscript is to review the main data about RVSS. Methods We performed a critical review. The keywords used were hydrocephalus, shunt, venous sinus, ventriculosinus shunt, retrograde ventriculosinus shunt, and sagittal sinus. The search was performed in the Medline (Pubmed) and EMBASE databases. Results Van Canneyt et al (2008) and Pinto et al (2016) performed experimental studies confirming the effectiveness of RVSS. El Shafei et al (1985, 1987, 2001) authors reported several cases treated with efficacy and few complications. Oliveira et al (2015, 2016) compared RVSS and ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) in the treatment of hydrocephalus after myelomeningocele repair in infants, with similar functional results. Oliveira et al (2015, 2016) also described the applicability of RVSS in situations when VPS is not feasible, or when the peritoneum is not useful. Discussion Retrograde ventriculosinus shunt is a safe and more physiological option, which requires the use of less prosthetic material. It is feasible and applicable. Especially in children, it generates a normotensive state after shunting, allowing centrifugal head growth, once there is no intracranial hypotension due to overdrainage, which may reflect in long-term better psychomotor development. Conclusions The surgical technique of RVSS is feasible. The clinical results are comparable with those of the VPS.


Introdução A derivação ventriculosinusal retrógrada (DVSR) deve ser uma opção na rotina de neurocirurgiões que trabalham com hidrodinâmica. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar os principais dados sobre DVSR. Métodos Realizamos uma revisão crítica. As palavras-chave usadas foram hydrocephalus shunt, venous sinus, ventriculosinus shunt, retrograde ventriculosinus shunt, e sagittal sinus. A busca foi feita nas bases de dados Medline (Pubmed) e EMBASE. Resultados Van Canneyt et al (2008) e Pinto et al (2016) realizaram estudos experimentais confirmando a eficiência do DVSR. El Shafei et al (1985, 1987, 2001) relataram vários casos tratados com eficiência e poucas complicações. Oliveira et al (2015, 2016) compararam DVSR e derivação ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) no tratamento de hidrocefalia após reparo de mielomeningocele em crianças, obtendo resultados funcionais similares. Oliveira et al (2015, 2016) também descreveram a aplicabilidade do DVSR em situações em que o DVP não é possível, ou o peritônio é hostil. Discussão A DVSR é uma opção segura e mais fisiológica, que requer menos material protético; é factível e aplicável. Particularmente em crianças, gera um estado normotenso após o shunt, permitindo crescimento cefálico centrífugo, uma vez que não há mais hipotensão intracraniana devido à hiperdrenagem, o que pode refletir em melhor desenvolvimento psicomotor em longo prazo. Conclusões A técnica cirúrgica DVSR é viável. Os resultados clínicos se são comparáveis à DVP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hydrocephalus , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt , Cranial Sinuses/abnormalities
8.
Rev. chil. neurocir ; 42(1): 15-18, jul. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-869747

ABSTRACT

This study aims to review historical aspects and rebirth of the endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation (CPC) for pediatric hydrocephalus. The first CPC procedure goes back to early 1930s. After the development of other treatment methods and the understanding of CSF dynamics, the application of CPC dramatically decreased by 1970s. In 2000s, there was a rebirth of CPC in combination with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), and remains one of the options for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus in selected cases. CPC might provide a temporary reduction in CSF production to allow the further development of CSF absorption in infant, and adding to ETV for infants with communicating hydrocephalus may increase the shunt independent rate thus avoiding the consequence of late complication related to the shunt device. This is important for patients who are difficult to be followed up, due to geographical and/or socioeconomic difficulties. And also adding CPC to ETV for obstructive hydrocephalus in infants younger than 1 year of age may also increase the successful rate. Furthermore, CPC may be an option for cases with high chance of shunt complication such as multiloculated hydrocephalus, extreme hydrocephalus and hydranencephaly. In comparison with the traditional treatment of CSF shunting, the role of CPC needs to be further evaluated in particular concerning the neurocognitive development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Electrocoagulation , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Neuroendoscopy/methods , Choroid Plexus/surgery , Blood Coagulation , Cautery , Third Ventricle/surgery , Ventriculostomy/methods
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(12): 1019-1025, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767611

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Treatment of hydrocephalus is accomplished primarily through a ventricular-peritoneal shunt (VPS). This study aims to describe the application of retrograde ventricle-sinus shunt (RVSS) in patients with hydrocephalus after surgical treatment of myelomeningocele. Method A prospective, randomized and controlled pilot study. We consecutively enrolled 9 patients with hydrocephalus after surgical repair of myelomeningocele from January 2010 to January 2012. These patients underwent elective RVSS or VPS. Five underwent RVSS and 4 underwent VPS. Patients were followed for one year with quarterly evaluations and application of transcranial Doppler. Results RVSS group showed outcomes similar to those of VPS group. Doppler revealed significant improvement when comparing preoperative to postoperative period. RVSS group had significantly higher cephalic perimeter than VPS group. Neuropsychomotor development, complications and subjective outcomes did not differ between groups. Conclusion RVSS shunt is viable; it is an alternative option for the treatment of hydrocephalus.


RESUMO O tratamento da hidrocefalia é realizado principalmente através de uma derivação ventrículo-peritoneal (DVP). Nosso objetivo é descrever a aplicação da derivação ventrículo-sinusal retrógrada (DVSR) em pacientes com hidrocefalia após o tratamento cirúrgico de mielomeningocele. Método Estudo prospectivo, randomizado e controlado. Selecionados consecutivamente 9 pacientes com hidrocefalia após correção cirúrgica de mielomeningocele de janeiro de 2010 a janeiro de 2012. Eles foram submetidos à DVSR ou DVP. Cinco foram submetidos à DVSR e 4 à DVP. Foram seguidos por 1 ano com realização trimestral de avaliações e aplicação do Doppler transcraniano. Resultados O grupo DVSR apresentou desfechos semelhantes ao grupo DVP. O Doppler mostrou melhora significativa quando comparado o pré-operatório com o pós-operatório. O grupo DVSR apresentou perímetro cefálico significativamente maior que o grupo DVP. O desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e complicações não diferiram entre os grupos. Conclusão A derivação ventrículo-sinusal retrógrada é viável; ela é uma opção para o tratamento de hidrocefalia.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Meningomyelocele/surgery , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/methods , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Meningomyelocele/complications , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(5): 357-360, oct. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771650

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome del cráneo en trébol, o síndrome de Kleeblattschädel, es una malformación rara en la cual el cráneo presenta un aspecto de trébol. Es causado por el cierre prematuro de varias suturas, evidenciándose desde antes del nacimiento. Objetivo: presentar nuestra experiencia en un caso de síndrome del cráneo en trébol, y actualizar la información de la literatura. Caso clínico: lactante de sexo femenino, 5 meses de edad, diagnósticos al nacimiento de Fisura labio-Palatina e Hidrocefalia. A los 30 días de vida se instaló válvula ventrículo peritoneal, y se procedió a enucleación ocular bilateral por proceso infeccioso. Se controla en Genética donde se confirma macrocefalia y craneosinostosis tipo cráneo en trébol. El estudio citogenético 46XX, Ecocardiografía normal, TAC de cerebro mostró anomalias múltiples asociadas a hidrocefalia y malformaciones inespecíficas. Conclusión: El cráneo en trébol puede presentarse aisladamente o asociado a otras anomalías congénitas, conformando varios síndromes de craneosinostosis, como Crouzon, Pfeiffer o Carpenter. También puede ser componente de la secuencia de rotura amniótica o de diversas displasias, como la campomélica, tanatofórica tipo ii, o la distrofia torácica asfixiante de Jeune. El caso descrito no cumple con todas las características necesarias para incluirlo dentro de un síndrome específico, y no habiendo antecedentes familiares que sugieran patrón de herencia ni anomalías cromosómicas se concluye que se trata de un caso de anomalías congénitas de presentación esporádica.


Introduction: Cloverleaf skull syndrome, or Kleeblattschädel syndrome, is a rare malformation in which the skull has a cloverleaf appearance. It is caused by the premature closure of several sutures, being evident before birth. Objective: To present our experience in a case of cloverleaf skull syndrome, and update the information from the literature. Clinical case: A female infant of 5 months of age, diagnosed at birth with cleft lip and palate and hydrocephaly. A peritoneal ventricle valve was implanted at 30 days of life, and an ocular enucleation was performed due to an infectious process. The patient was followed-up in Genetics, where it confirmed a macrocephaly and craniosynostosis type cloverleaf skull. The 46XX cytogenetic study and echocardiography were normal. The brain CT scan showed multiple anomalies associated with hydrocephaly and non-specific malformations. Conclusion: Cloverleaf skull may be present in isolated form or associated with other congenital abnormalities, leading to various craniosynostosis syndromes, such as Crouzon, Pfeiffer or Carpenter. It may also be a component of the amniotic rupture sequence or to different dysplasias, such as campomelic dysplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia type 2, or the asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy of Jeune. The case presented does not fulfil all the characteristics needed to be included within a specific syndrome, and on not having a family history that suggests a hereditary pattern or chromosome abnormalities, it is concluded that it is a case of a congenital anomaly of sporadic presentation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Cleft Lip/pathology , Cleft Palate/pathology , Craniosynostoses/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/pathology , Cleft Lip/etiology , Cleft Palate/etiology , Craniosynostoses/surgery , Craniosynostoses/physiopathology , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hydrocephalus/etiology
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(9): 759-763, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757399

ABSTRACT

Objective Hydrocephalus is one of the main complications associated with myelomeningocele (MM). This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasonographic criteria for using ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts in this group of patients.Method A retrospective cohort study, based on established protocol for VP shunt implant in hydrocephalic children with MM. Parameters used to guide the indication of VP shunts included measurement of head circumference (HC), evaluation of fontanels, and measurement of lateral ventricular atrium (LVA) width by transcranial ultrasonography.Results 43 children were included in the analysis, of which 74% had hydrocephalus and required a VP shunt. These children had LVA width ≥ 15 mm, showed increased HC, or had bulging fontanels.Conclusion VP shunt is required in children with increased HC (≥ 2 standard deviation regarding age group), bulging fontanels, or LVA width of ≥ 15 mm after the closure of MM.


Objetivo Identificar os critérios clínicos e ultrassonográficos para a recomendação do implante de derivações ventrículo peritoneais (DVP) em neonatos portadores de mielomeningocele (MM).Método Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, com base no protocolo estabelecido para o implante de DVP em crianças com hidrocefalia associada a MM. Parâmetros utilizados para orientar a indicação de DVP incluíram a medida da circunferência craniana (CC), a avaliação das fontanelas e a medida da largura lateral do átrio ventricular (LAV), avaliado por ultrassonografia transcraniana.Resultados 43 crianças foram incluídas na análise, dos quais 74% tinham hidrocefalia com recomendações para uso de DVP.Conclusão O aumento da CC e o abaulamento de fontanelas foram os principais critérios para a indicação de DVP. A DVP é necessária em crianças com aumento da CC (≥ 2 desvios padrões para a idade), fontanelas abauladas, ou LAV ≥ 15 mm após o fechamento cirúrgico da MM.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Hydrocephalus , Meningomyelocele/complications , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 506-513, oct.-dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730933

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una afección polifacética producida por el hongo dimorfo Histoplasma capsulatum , cuyas esporas son inhaladas y llegan al pulmón, órgano primario de infección. La forma meníngea, considerada como una de las manifestaciones más graves de esta micosis, suele presentarse en individuos con alteraciones en la inmunidad celular: pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana adquirida, con lupus eritematoso sistémico o con trasplante de órgano sólido, así como en lactantes, debido a su inmadurez inmunológica. La forma de presentación más usual es de resolución espontánea y se observa en individuos inmunocompetentes que se han expuesto a altas concentraciones de conidias y fragmentos miceliares del hongo. En estas personas, la afección se manifiesta por trastornos pulmonares y por la posterior diseminación a otros órganos y sistemas. Se presenta un caso de histoplasmosis del sistema nervioso central en un niño inmunocompetente.


Histoplasmosis is a multifaceted condition caused by the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum whose infective spores are inhaled and reach the lungs, the primary organ of infection. The meningeal form, considered one of the most serious manifestations of this mycosis, is usually seen in individuals with impaired cellular immunity such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous or solid organ transplantation, and infants given their immunological immaturity. The most common presentation is self-limited and occurs in immunocompetent individuals who have been exposed to high concentrations of conidia and mycelia fragments of the fungi. In those people, the condition is manifested by pulmonary disorders and late dissemination to other organs and systems. We report a case of central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent child.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Diagnostic Errors , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Meningitis, Fungal/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Device Removal , Headache/etiology , Histoplasma/immunology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmin/blood , Histoplasmin/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Hydrocephalus/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hypokalemia/etiology , Immunocompetence , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Fungal/complications , Meningitis, Fungal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Vancomycin Resistance , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/adverse effects
13.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 33(4): 284-288, dez. 2014. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782243

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Descrever a técnica de coagulação neuroendoscópica do plexo coroide e divulgá-la como opção de tratamento primário da hidranencefalia e da hidrocefalia extrema. Mostrar a casuística de coagulação endoscópica de plexo coroide do Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital da Baleia em BeloHorizonte, MG, Brasil. Métodos: Imagens tomográficas foram avaliadas por um neurocirurgião, sendo selecionadas crianças portadoras de hidranencefalia e hidrocefalia extrema com cavidade ventricular única. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por até três anos no pós-operatório. Resultados: Foram tratadas seis crianças com hidranencefalia e seis com hidrocefalia extrema. Um paciente faleceu na primeira semana de pós-operatório em função de choque hipovolêmico e hipernatremia graves e outro cursou com aumento progressivo do perímetro cefálico e necessidade de derivação ventriculoperitoneal. Um terceiro paciente apresentou óbito tardio não relacionado à cirurgia endoscópica. Os demais apresentaram evolução adequada no pós-operatório. Conclusão: A coagulação endoscópica do plexo coroide mostrou-se alternativa eficaz no tratamento da hidranencefalia e da hidrocefalia extrema.


Objectives: Describing the neuroendoscopic technique for coagulation of the choroid plexus and publicize it as an option for the primary treatment of extreme hydrocephalus and hydranencephaly. Display the series of endoscopic coagulation of the choroid plexus of the Neurosurgery Department of the Hospital da Baleia in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Methods: Tomographic images were used to select children with hydranencephaly and extreme hydrocephalus with single ventricular cavity. Patients were followed for up to three years postoperatively. Results: Six children with hydranencephaly and six with extreme hydrocephalus were treated. One patient died in the first week postoperatively due to hypovolemic shock and severe hypernatremia and another developed progressive increase in head circumference and the need for ventriculoperitoneal shunt. A third patient had late death unrelated to endoscopic surgery. The others had adequate postoperative evolution. Conclusion: The endoscopiccoagulation of the choroid plexus is an effective alternative in the treatment of extreme hydrocephalus and hydranencephaly


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Choroid Plexus , Hydranencephaly/blood , Hydranencephaly/surgery , Hydrocephalus/blood , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Neuroendoscopy
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 72(7): 524-527, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714581

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the cost of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) compared to ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) in the treatment of hydrocephalus in children. Method: We studied 103 children with hydrocephalus, 52 of which were treated with ETV and 51 with VPS in a prospective cohort. Treatment costs were compared within the first year after surgery, including subsequent surgery or hospitalization. Results: Twenty (38.4%) of the 52 children treated with VPS needed another procedure due to shunt failure, compared to 11 (21.5%) of 51 children in the ETV group. The average costs per patient in the group treated with ETV was USD$ 2,177,66±517.73 compared to USD$ 2,890.68±2,835.02 for the VPS group. Conclusions: In this series there was no significant difference in costs between the ETV and VPS groups. .


Objetivo: Avaliar os custos da terceiro ventriculostomia endoscópica (TVE) comparada à derivação ventrículo peritoneal (DVP) no tratamento da hidrocefalia em crianças. Método: Foram estudadas 103 crianças com hidrocefalia, 52 das quais tratadas com TVE e 51 com DVP numa coorte prospectiva. Foram comparados os custos do tratamento no primeiro ano após a cirurgia, incluindo cirurgias ou internações subsequentes. Resultados: Vinte (38,4%) das 52 crianças tratadas com DVP necessitaram de outro procedimento por disfunção da válvula, em comparação a 11 (21,5%) das 51 crianças do grupo tratado com TVE. Os custos médios por paciente no grupo tratado com TVE foram de USD$ 2,177.66±517.73 comparados a USD$ 2.890,68±2.835,02 para o grupo DVP. Conclusões: Nesta série não houve diferença significativa de custos entre o grupo TVE e DVP. .


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Neuroendoscopy/methods , Third Ventricle/surgery , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/economics , Ventriculostomy/economics , Brazil , Costs and Cost Analysis , Hospitalization/economics , Hospitals, Public/economics , Prospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Ventriculostomy/methods
15.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 85(2): 265-272, abr.-jun. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-678139

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la agenesia sacra es una malformación congénita rara que forma parte del síndrome de regresión caudal. Se caracteriza por un grupo de anomalías en las cuales la columna caudal está ausente. Esta enfermedad es la malformación más frecuente en los hijos de madres diabéticas, además se ha relacionado con otros factores predisponentes, como deficiencias de ácido fólico, de vitaminas, uso de insulina en el embarazo, e incluso, la hipoxia. Entre un 30-40 por ciento de pacientes con agenesia sacra completa, pueden tener asociado un mielomeningocele, y el desplazamiento de las raíces nerviosas empeora los trastornos neurológicos. En estos casos, la hidrocefalia, muchas veces también asociada a malformación Chiari tipo II, está ya presente al nacer. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un neonato con agenesia sacra asociada a disrrafismo espinal e hidrocefalia. La intervención quirúrgica fue precoz, se le colocó derivación ventrículo peritoneal y se realizó la reparación del defecto del tubo neural. La evolución posoperatoria fue favorable, aunque persistieron los déficits neurológicos preoperatorios. Conclusiones: no se hallaron factores predisponentes en este paciente y el análisis del cariotipo fue normal. Las anomalías óseas de miembros inferiores fueron las más llamativas, así como la presencia de hidrocefalia asociada a malformación Chiari tipo II y mielomeningocele. El tratamiento a estos casos requiere de un enfoque multidisciplinar, y la reparación quirúrgica del mielomeningocele debe ser precoz para conseguir una evolución favorable. Las formas graves pueden ocasionar una muerte temprana neonatal, en cambio, los niños que sobreviven, generalmente presentan inteligencia normal


Introduction: sacra agenesia is a rare congenital malformation as part of the caudal regression syndrome. It is characterized by a group of anomalies in which the caudal cord is absent. This disease is the most common malformation found in children from diabetic mothers but it has also been related to other predisposing factors such as folic acid deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies, use of insulin at pregnancy and even hypoxia. Thirty to forty percent of patients with complete sacra agenesia can also have myelomeningocele, and the displacement of nerve roots worsens the neurological disorders. In these cases, hydrocephaly, many times associated to Chiari malformation type II, is also present at birth. Clinical case: a neonate with sacra agenesia associated to spinal dysraphism and hydrocephaly. Surgical intervention was performed early, a peritoneal ventricular derivation was placed and the neural tube defect was repaired. The post-surgery evolution was favorable, but the preoperative neurological deficits persisted. Conclusions: there were no predisposing factors in this patient and the analysis of the cariotype was normal. The bone anomalies of the lower members were the most remarkable aspects as well as the hydrocephaly associated to Chiari malformation type II and myelomeningocele. The treatment of these cases requires multidisciplinary approach and surgical repair of the myelomeningocele at early phase to achieve favorable evolution. The most severe forms can cause early neonatal death; however, those surviving children generally present normal intelligence coefficient


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hydrocephalus/congenital , Meningomyelocele/surgery , Meningomyelocele/complications , Sacrococcygeal Region/abnormalities , DiGeorge Syndrome/complications
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(3): 165-170, mar. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668762

ABSTRACT

Objective

Neuroendoscopic surgery in children has particular features and is associated with different success rates (SR). The aim of this study was to identify putative factors that could influence the outcome in pediatric patients. Methods

Clinical data of 177 patients under 18 years of age submitted to 200 consecutive neuroendoscopic procedures from January 2000 to January 2010 were reviewed. Results The overall success rate was 77%. Out of the patients with successful outcomes, 46% were under six months, 68% were between six months and one year of age, and 85% older than one year. Neuroendoscopic techniques provide very good results for a wide number of indications in children. Tumor-related cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation problems and aqueductal stenosis seem to be particularly well suited to neuroendoscopic treatment regardless of the patient's age. Conclusion Patients' age and etiology of hydrocephalus were associated with a different outcome. In all cases, surgical experience is extremely important to reduce complications. .


Objetivo A cirurgia neuroendoscópica em crianças apresenta particularidades e está associada a diferentes taxas de sucesso (TS). O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em identificar fatores que pudessem influir no resultado do tratamento em pacientes pediátricos. Métodos Dados clínicos de 177 pacientes com idade inferior a 18 anos submetidos a 200 procedimentos neuroendoscópicos consecutivos entre janeiro de 2000 e janeiro de 2010 foram revisados. Resultados A taxa de sucesso global foi de 77%. Os pacientes com idade inferior a seis meses apresentaram taxa de sucesso de 46%; pacientes entre seis meses e um ano de vida obtiveram êxito em 68% dos casos; dentre os maiores de um ano, 85% dos procedimentos foram bem-sucedidos. Técnicas neuroendoscópicas proporcionam muito bons resultados para uma grande variedade de indicações em crianças. Independentemente da faixa etária, o tratamento endoscópico apresenta-se particularmente adequado para problemas da circulação liquórica relacionados a tumores e à estenose aquedutal. Conclusão A faixa etária dos pacientes e a etiologia da hidrocefalia estão associadas a diferentes resultados. Em todos os casos, experiência neurocirúrgica é extremamente importante para a redução das complicações. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Neuroendoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Cerebrospinal Fluid/physiology , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Learning Curve , Neuroendoscopy/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
AJM-Alexandria Journal of Medicine. 2013; 49 (2): 105-110
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-145369

ABSTRACT

Cerebellar infarction is relatively uncommon. Small infarctions only cause cerebellar manifestations e.g. ataxia and nystagmus and are treated medically. Large cerebellar infarctions, however, can be life threatening. It cause brain stem compression and can obstruct the cerebrospinal fluid pathway causing obstructive hydrocephalus. It has to be treated promptly and may require besides the medical treatment surgical intervention as well. This is mainly in the form of posterior fossa decompression. In this study, we studied the beneficial effect of inserting a temporary ventriculoperitoneal shunt to relieve the supratentorial hydrocephalus in addition to posterior fossa decompression on the morbidity and mortality of patients in comparison to posterior fossa decompression alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ventriculosubgaleal shunt in cerebellar infarction causing supratentorial ventricular dilatation. This was a retrospective study that included ten patients having extensive cerebellar infarction causing spratentorial hydrocephalus. They were divided into two groups, group [1] was submitted to posterior fossa decompression alone and group [2] was submitted to posterior fossa decompression in addition to temporary ventriculosubgaleal shunt insertion. Group [2] which had posterior fossa decompression in addition to temporary. ventriculosubgaleal shunt hadmuch better results than group [1] which had only posterior fossa decompression. Group [2] had a lower morbidity and mortality and a shorter hospital stay than group [1]. Temporary insertion of ventriculosubgaleal shunt is recommended in patients having extensive cerebellar infarction causing supratentorial hydrocephalus in addition to posterior fossa decompression. It results in a lower morbidity and mortality and a shorter hospital stay


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Cerebellar Cortex , Brain Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
18.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 31(4)dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668428

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Averiguar se as características hidrodinâmicas das válvulas se alteram significativamente quando os dimensionamentos originais são violados e a possível repercussão clínica desse fato. Métodos: Foi utilizada uma bancada de testes automatizada, conforme a norma ISO 7197. Um sistema valvular foi testado inicialmente com os componentes reconizados e embalados originalmente com o produto. A seguir, substituiu-se o cateter peritoneal original por diversos dimensionamentos encontrados no mercado nacional. Nos testes para a avaliação da influência do diâmetro do cateter no escoamento, foi utilizado sempre o mesmo comprimento original do cateter. Aplicou-se o mesmo raciocínio lógico para a análise do comprimento do cateter. Nove perfis hidrodinâmicos foram obtidos para as diferentes montagens valvulares. Resultados: Diminuições imperceptíveis no diâmetro do cateter peritoneal alteraram o perfil hidrodinâmico do sistema valvular testado. Alterações de 0,1 mm no diâmetro de um cateter peritoneal aumentaram o efeito resistivo do sistema valvular suficientemente para que ele funcionasse fora do perfil hidrodinâmico preconizado; o efeito resistivo se acentuou conforme o diâmetro diminuiu, e vice-versa. A diminuição do comprimento do cateter também influenciou significativamente no desempenho hidráulico da válvula, de um regime inicial de alta pressão para um regime de média pressão. Conclusão: Alterações de dimensionamento em cateteres peritoneais trazem complicações para o paciente e desorientam o julgamento clínico do neurocirurgião no período pós-implante, pois o sistema valvular funcionará em regime hidráulico fora do especificado, e o raciocínio lógico do neurocirurgião também se torna comprometido. Esse fato pode ser crítico principalmente em crianças e neonatos. Não foram identificados relatos desse fato na literatura que antecede esta apresentação.


Objective: Check if the hydrodynamic characteristics of the valves change significantly when the original sizing are violated, and the possible clinical consequences of this fact. Methods: One shunt system was randomly submitted to hydraulic forces in a bench test according to ISO 7197, for 50, 40, 30, 20, 10 and 5 ml/h flow, in six sequential tests, and each sequential test was repeated 7 times. Results are the mean flow for the 7 events. Maintaining original peritoneal length of 1,200 mm, data were collected for i.d. catheter diameters of 1,5, 1,2, 1,1, and 1,0 mm. Maintaining original i.d., peritoneal catheter length was sequentially cut and tested every 10 cm down to 600 mm. Results: Changes in the order of 0,1 mm in catheter inner diameter changes the hydrodynamic profile of the shunt system. Cutting a peritoneal catheter by also changes its original hydrodynamic profile. Shunt will perform in a lower pressure setting from originally specified. Conclusion: Cutting peritoneal catheters upon implantation or revisions is a fact, especially in pediatric patients. Depending on the cutting length of the peritoneal catheter, the shunt system implanted will not perform according the its specifications, being a lower resistance shunt than preconized by the manufacturer, and the neurosurgeon may have misjudgments whenever the patient requires care for shunt malfunction.


Subject(s)
Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/instrumentation , Hydrodynamics , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Slit Ventricle Syndrome
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(9): 704-709, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649306

ABSTRACT

Patients with hydrocephalus and risk factors for overdrainage may be submitted to ventricular shunt (VS) implant with antisiphon device. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate for two years the clinical and tomographic results of the implant of fixed-pressure valves with antisiphon device SPHERA® in 35 adult patients, with hydrocephalus and risk factors for overdrainage. Of these, 3 had congenital hydrocephalus in adult patients with very dilated ventricles (Evans index >50%), 3 had symptomatic overdrainage after previous VS implant (subdural hematoma, hygroma or slit ventricle syndrome), 1 had previous chronic subdural hematoma, 15 had normal pressure hydrocephalus with final lumbar pressure <5 cm H2O after tap test (40 mL), 6 had pseudotumor cerebri, and 7 had hydrocephalus due to other causes. Clinical improvement was observed and sustained in 94.3% of the patients during the two-year period with no computed tomography (CT) evidence of hypo or overdrainage, and no immediate early or late significant complications.


Pacientes com hidrocefalia e fatores de risco para hiperdrenagem podem ser submetidos ao implante de derivação ventricular (VS) com mecanismo antissifão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar prospectivamente os resultados clínicos e tomográficos do implante de válvulas de pressão fixa com antissifão SPHERA® em 35 pacientes adultos, com hidrocefalia e risco de hiperdrenagem, acompanhados por dois anos. Destes, 3 apresentavam hidrocefalia congênita em adulto, com ventrículos muito dilatados (índice de Evans >50%); 3 tinham hiperdrenagem sintomática pós-derivação ventricular prévia (hematoma subdural, higroma ou síndrome dos ventrículos colabados; 1 apresentava hematoma subdural crônico pregresso; 15 apresentavam hidrocefalia de pressão normal com pressão lombar final <5 cm H2O após tap test (40 mL); 6 apresentavam pseudotumor cerebral; e 7, devido a outras causas. A melhoria clínica foi detectada e sustentada em 94,3% dos pacientes no período de dois anos, sem indícios tomográficos de hipo ou hiperdrenagem e sem complicações significativas imediatas, precoces ou tardias.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts/instrumentation , Drainage/instrumentation , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hydrostatic Pressure/adverse effects , Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure/physiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts/adverse effects , Equipment Design , Hematoma, Subdural/etiology , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure/physiopathology , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure/surgery , Hydrocephalus/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Pseudotumor Cerebri/etiology , Slit Ventricle Syndrome/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Pediatr. mod ; 48(7)jul. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-663139

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O fenômeno do olho do "sol poente" é um sinal oftalmológico em que os olhos se apresentam dirigidos para baixo, deixando a esclera bem visível, entre a pálpebra superior e a íris, geralmente está associado com hipertensão intracraniana e hidrocefalia na infância. Entretanto, pode ser decorrente de patologias benignas, representadas pela imaturidade dos sistemas de controle reflexo dos movimentos oculares. Pacientes e métodos: Trabalho retrospectivo e descritivo. Foram estudadas 25 crianças de ambos os gêneros, portadoras de hidrocefalia, que foram diagnosticadas através de exames de neuroimagem e tratamento cirúrgico. Resultados: O gênero masculino esteve presente em 16 casos e o feminino em 9 casos. As causas de hidrocefalia foram: estenose do aqueduto de Silvius 14 casos, pós-mielomeningocele lombossacra 8 casos e toxoplasmose congênita 3 casos. Todos foram submetidos a exame de tomografia computadorizada e seis a ressonância magnética. Dos pacientes, 12 apresentavam o fenômeno do ?sol poente?. Todos foram submetidos à derivação ventriculoperitoneal. Houve reintervenção cirúrgica em sete casos; dois pacientes foram a óbito. Conclusão: O fenômeno do ?sol poente? é um sinal de alerta que indica lesão cerebral grave subjacente. A patogênese deste sinal não está bem esclarecida; acredita-se estar relacionado à distensão do aqueduto cerebral, com compressão de estruturas periaquedutais, secundária ao aumento da pressão intracraniana. Pode estar associado com hidrocefalia e disfunção do sistema de derivação ventriculoperitoneal. O diagnóstico precoce, com a realização de exames de neuroimagem, proporciona uma intervenção cirúrgica imediata e evita complicações neurológicas graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hydrocephalus/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/pathology , Intracranial Hypertension/pathology
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