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Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 430-438, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377394


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Use of inhaled corticosteroids for managing acute asthma exacerbations has been tested since the 1990s. OBJECTIVE: To compare high doses of inhaled ciclesonide with systemic hydrocortisone for managing acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency department. DESIGN AND SETTING: Double-blind, randomized clinical trial in the public healthcare system of the city of São Paulo. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with moderate or severe asthma with peak flow < 50% of predicted were randomized into two groups. Over the course of four hours, one group received 1440 mcg of inhaled ciclesonide plus hydrocortisone-identical placebo (ciclesonide + placebo), while the other received 500 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone plus ciclesonide-identical placebo (hydrocortisone + placebo). Both groups received short-acting bronchodilators (fenoterol hydrobromide and ipratropium bromide). The research protocol included spirometry, clinical evaluation, vital signs and electrocardiogram monitoring. Data were obtained at 30 (baseline), 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. We compared data from baseline to hour 4, between and within groups. RESULTS: Overall, 31 patients received ciclesonide + placebo and 27 received hydrocortisone + placebo. Inhaled ciclesonide was as effective as intravenous hydrocortisone for improving clinical parameters (Borg-scored dyspnea, P = 0.95; sternocleidomastoid muscle use, P = 0.55; wheezing, P = 0.55; respiratory effort, P = 0.95); and spirometric parameters (forced vital capacity, P = 0.50; forced expiratory volume in the first second, P = 0.83; peak expiratory flow, P = 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled ciclesonide was not inferior to systemic hydrocortisone for managing acute asthma exacerbations, and it improved both clinical and spirometric parameters. TRIAL REGISTRATION: RBR-6XWC26 - Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (

Asthma/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/pharmacology , Pregnenediones , Brazil , Forced Expiratory Volume , Double-Blind Method , Emergency Service, Hospital
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE003202, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364208


Resumo Objetivo Identificar os principais biomarcadores salivares descritos, assim como as técnicas empregadas para coleta das amostras de saliva, em estudos relacionados à avaliação da dor em pacientes submetidos a procedimentos dolorosos ou portadores de patologias dolorosas. Métodos Revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada pelas buscas bibliográficas nas bases Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL e EMBASE, com recorte temporal de 2009 a 2019 e período de coleta de dados entre outubro e novembro de 2019. Foram utilizados Descritores em Saúde (DeCs)e Medical SubjectHeadings (MeSH), para responder à pergunta norteadora: Quais são e como são utilizados os biomarcadores salivares na avaliação da dor? Foi realizada uma análise descritiva dos artigos, sendo os dados extraídos e registrados em uma planilha desenvolvida para o presente estudo. Resultados Das 126 publicações identificadas, 22 artigos foram incluídos para a análise. Constatou-se que os artigos são, majoritariamente, desenvolvidos com adultos durante realização de procedimentos dolorosos ou portadores de patologias dolorosa. Os principais biomarcadores salivares avaliados foram a alfa-amilase e o cortisol, e as principais técnicas para coleta de saliva foram o Salivette® e a coleta passiva. Conclusão Os estudos indicam que a mensuração objetiva da dor é um desafio. Os principais biomarcadores salivares descritos são o cortisol e a alfa-amilase, sendo o Salivette®a principal técnica utilizada para coleta das amostras de saliva. A dosagem das moléculas salivares é incipiente e empregada de forma complementar na avaliação da dor em pacientes de diferentes faixas estárias, submetidos à procedimentos dolorosos ou portadores patologias dolorosas.

Resumen Objetivo Identificar los principales biomarcadores salivales descriptos, así como las técnicas utilizadas para la recolección de las muestras de saliva en estudios relacionados con la evaluación del dolor en pacientes sometidos a procedimientos dolorosos o con patologías dolorosas. Métodos Revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada por medio de búsquedas bibliográficas en las bases Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL y EMBASE, con un recorte temporal del 2009 al 2019 con un período de recolección de datos de octubre a noviembre de 2019. Se utilizaron Descriptores en Salud (DeCs) y Medical SubjectHeadings (MeSH), para responder a la pregunta orientadora: ¿Cuáles son los biomarcadores salivales en la evaluación del dolor y cómo se utilizan? Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los artículos y los datos extraídos y registrados en una planilla desarrollada para el presente estudio. Resultados De las 126 publicaciones identificadas, se incluyeron 22 artículos para análisis. Se constató que los artículos están, mayoritariamente, desarrollados con adultos durante la realización de procedimientos dolorosos o con patologías dolorosas. Los principales biomarcadores salivales evaluados fueron alfa-amilasa y cortisol, y las principales técnicas para la recolección de saliva fueron Salivette® y la recolección pasiva. Conclusión Los estudios indican que la medición objetiva del dolor es un desafío. Los principales biomarcadores salivales que se describen son el cortisol y la alfa-amilasa y Salivette® la principal técnica utilizada para la recolección de muestras de saliva. La dosificación de las moléculas salivales es incipiente y utilizada de forma complementaria en la evaluación del dolor en pacientes de distintos grupos de edad, sometidos a procedimientos dolorosos o con patologías dolorosas.

Abstract Objective To identify the main salivary biomarkers described and the techniques used for saliva sample collection in studies related to pain assessment in patients undergoing painful procedures or experiencing painful diseases Methods An integrative literature review was conducted via bibliographic searches in the Virtual Health Library (VHL), MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases for the period from 2009 to 2019; data were collected in October and November 2019. The DeCs health descriptors and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were used to answer the guiding question: "Which salivary biomarkers are used in pain assessment and how are they employed?" A descriptive analysis of the articles was performed; data were collected and recorded in a spreadsheet developed for the present study. Results Of the 126 published articles identified, 22 articles were included for analysis. The articles were mainly regarding adults undergoing painful procedures or patients experiencing painful diseases. The main salivary biomarkers evaluated were alpha-amylase and cortisol, and the main saliva collection techniques were Salivette® and passive collection. Conclusion The studies indicated that objective pain measurement is a challenge. The main salivary biomarkers evaluated were cortisol and alpha-amylase, and the main technique employed for saliva sample collection was Salivette®. The dosage of salivary molecules is emerging for use as a complement in pain assessment in patients of different ages undergoing painful procedures or experiencing painful diseases.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva , Pain Measurement , Hydrocortisone , Biomarkers , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , alpha-Amylases , Evidence-Based Practice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927418


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion on behavior, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cortisol in the serum, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus in rats with hypothyroidism complicated with depression, and to explore the possible mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion on improving depression in rats with hypothyroidism.@*METHODS@#A total of 32 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a medication group and a wheat-grain moxibustion group, 8 rats in each group. Except for the blank group, the rats in the remaining groups were treated with intragastric administration of 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) suspension at 1 mL/100 g, once a day for 4 weeks to establish the rat model of hypothyroidism, and whether the rats were accompanied with depression-like behavior determined through behavioristics evaluation. The rats in the medication group were intervened with euthyrox at 0.9 mL/100 g, once a day, for 4 weeks; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14), "Mingmen" (GV 4), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Pishu" (BL 20), 7 cones each acupoint, once a day, six times a week for 4 weeks. After the intervention, the depression status was observed by behavioristics test; the contents of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine (TT4), 5-HT and cortisol in the serum were detected by ELISA; the protein expressions of MR and GR in hippocampus were detected by Western blot; the expressions of MR mRNA and GR mRNA in the hippocampus were detected by real-time PCR.@*RESULTS@#Before the intervention, compared with the blank group, the scores of open field test (OFT) were decreased and the immobility time of tail suspension test (TST) was prolonged (P<0.05); the serum TSH contents were increased and TT4 contents were decreased (P<0.01) in the other three groups. After the intervention, compared with the model group, the vertical score of OFT was increased and the immobility time of forced swimming test (FST) was prolonged in the medication group (P<0.05), while the scores of three items of OFT were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the immobility time of FST and TST was shortened in the wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the medication group, the immobility time of TST and FST in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was shorter (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were increased (P<0.01, P<0.001), while the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.001). Compared with the model group, the contents of serum TT4 and 5-HT were increased, while the contents of serum TSH and cortisol were decreased in the medication group and wheat-grain moxibustion group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR, GR in the hippocampus in the model group was decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001); compared with the model group, the protein and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the medication group were increased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of MR, GR and mRNA expression of MR in the hippocampus in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the medication group, the expression of MR mRNA in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat-grain moxibustion could significantly improve thyroid function and depression in rats with hypothyroidism. Its mechanism may be related to up-regulating the protein and mRNA expression of MR and GR in the hippocampus, and then affecting the expression of serum cortisol and 5-HT.

Acupuncture Points , Animals , Depression/therapy , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Hypothyroidism/therapy , Moxibustion , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/metabolism , Serotonin , Thyrotropin/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1357-1360, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355680


Cortisol is a steroid hormone, one of the glucocorticoids, made in the cortex of the adrenal glands and then released into the blood, which transports it in the entire body. Almost every cell contains receptors for cortisol and so cortisol can have lots of different actions depending on which sort of cells it is acting upon. These effects include controlling the body's blood sugar levels and thus regulating metabolism, acting as an anti-inflammatory product, controlling salt and water balance and influencing blood pressure. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months, between March-August 2020, in 2 swine farms in Iasi county, Romania, on a total of 46 pigs, 3 to 4 months old, both males and females, in order to investigate stress levels in finishing facilities. The study revealed higher levels of cortisol while eosinophil counts severely decreased, changes which are associated with a strong reaction to stress for individuals that were housed in finishing facilities.(AU)

O cortisol é um hormônio esteroide, um dos glicocorticoides, produzido no córtex das glândulas suprarrenais e, em seguida, liberado no sangue, que o transporta por todo o corpo. Quase todas as células contêm receptores para o cortisol e, portanto, ele pode ter muitas ações diferentes, dependendo do tipo de célula sobre a qual atua. Esses efeitos incluem controlar os níveis de açúcar no sangue do corpo e, assim, regular o metabolismo, atuando como um produto anti-inflamatório, controlando o equilíbrio de sal e água e influenciando a pressão arterial. O presente estudo foi realizado durante um período de três meses, entre março-agosto de 2020, em duas granjas de suínos no condado de Iasi, Romênia, em um número total de 46 porcos, de três a quatro meses de idade, machos e fêmeas, a fim de investigar níveis de estresse nas instalações de acabamento. O estudo revelou níveis mais elevados de cortisol, enquanto a contagem de eosinófilos diminuiu severamente, mudanças que são consideradas associadas a uma forte reação ao estresse para indivíduos que foram alojados em instalações de acabamento.(AU)

Animals , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Swine/physiology , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Eosinophils , Leukocyte Count/veterinary , Romania , Farms
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 841-845, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350003


SUMMARY Ovarian adrenal rest tumors (OARTs) are very rare. We describe a case of a young woman with uncontrolled classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CCAH), presenting with bilateral OARTs, successfully treated with steroid replacement. A 20-year-old woman, known to have 21OH-CCAH, presented with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. As a result of poor compliance, 6 months before her admission hirsutism worsened and amenorrhea, hyperpigmentation, and weakness developed. ACTH levels were 278 < pmol/L and 17OHP 91.3 nmol/L. She was admitted for parenteral antibiotics and high-dose hydrocortisone treatment. CT revealed bilateral juxta-ovarian masses (6.2 x 3.6 x 7.4 cm left and 5 x 2.2 x 3.2 cm right) that on MRI were iso-intense in T1 and hypointense in T2, with early enhancement and rapid washout. One week of high-dose hydrocortisone resulted in significant clinical and laboratory improvement and the patient was discharged with 2 mg dexamethasone/day. One month later US revealed shrinkage of the masses and dexamethasone dose was decreased. At three months from discharge, she has resumed regular menses, and a repeated MRI revealed the para-ovarian masses have shrunk. One year after the diagnosis, the para-ovarian masses have shrunk more to 2.8 x 1.9 x 4.3 on the left and 2.1 x 0.9 x 1.2 on the right with less contrast enhancement in comparison to previous test possibly due to fibrotic changes of the tissue. OARTs are rare tumors with a poorly known natural history, and surgery has been the first option in the few reported cases. We demonstrate that medical treatment is a good alternative, leading to significant tumor shrinkage over a short period.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/complications , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/drug therapy , Adrenal Rest Tumor/drug therapy , Adrenal Rest Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 846-849, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351059


Resumen La crisis adrenal es la forma más extrema de presentación de la insuficiencia adrenal y representa una urgencia endocrinológica que llega a poner en riesgo la vida. Esta situación puede ser des encadenada por diferentes causas, entre las cuales se incluye el uso de fármacos inductores del CYP3A4, que aceleran la depuración de la hidrocortisona. Describimos el caso de una mujer de 85 años, con antecedentes de insuficiencia adrenal secundaria y enfermedad renal crónica, que presentó síntomas compatibles con crisis adrenal (astenia, adinamia, hiponatremia grave con síntomas neurológicos e hipotensión arterial) luego de nueve días del inicio de tratamiento con modafinilo. El cuadro clínico mejoró rápidamente con la suspensión del modafinilo y la administración de hidrocortisona endovenosa. Luego de descartar las posibles causas desencadenantes (infecciosas, isquémicas, tromboembolismo pulmonar y omisión en la toma de hidrocortisona), se interpretó que el modafinilo precipitó los síntomas de insuficiencia adrenal al aumentar la depuración del corticoide. El modafinilo tiene la capacidad de inducir la actividad del CYP3A4 y, en consecuencia, disminuir la biodisponibilidad de la hidrocortisona. Recalcamos la necesidad de ajustar la dosis de reemplazo de corticoides en sujetos que reciben fármacos inductores del metabolismo.

Abstract Adrenal crisis is the most extreme presentation form of adrenal insufficiency and represents a life-threatening endocrinological emergency. This situation can be triggered by different causes including the use of CYP3A4-inducing drugs, which accelerate hydrocortisone clearance. We describe the case of an 85-year-old woman with secondary adrenal insufficiency and chronic renal disease, who presented symptoms compatible with adrenal crisis (asthenia, adynamia, severe hyponatremia associated with neurological symptoms and hypotension) nine days after the start of modafinil treat ment. The clinical picture improved rapidly with the suspension of modafinil and the administration of intravenous hydrocortisone. After ruling out the possible triggering causes (infectious, ischemic, pulmonary thromboembo lism and failure to take hydrocortisone), it was interpreted that modafinil precipitated the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency by increasing the steroid clearance. Modafinil has the ability to induce the activity of CYP3A4 and consequently decrease the bioavailability of hydrocortisone. We emphasize the need to adjust steroid dose re placement in subjects receiving metabolism-inducing drugs.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Acute Disease , Modafinil/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e353-e356, agosto 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281861


La bibliografía no incluye frecuentemente alteraciones en el ritmo cardíaco de los pacientes que reciben corticoesteroides; se desconoce su mecanismo exacto. En este artículo, presentamos el caso de un paciente con bradicardia sinusal asociada con una dosis de estrés de corticoesteroides. Se ingresó a un niño de 9 años con antecedentes de panhipopituitarismo con gastroenteritis y neumonía y presentó choque septicémico el día de la hospitalización. El tratamiento con líquidos intravenosos, dosis de estrés de hidrocortisona y antibióticos permitió la recuperación. Sin embargo, luego se documentó bradicardia sinusal con una frecuencia cardíaca de 45 latidos por minuto. Esta se resolvió después de reducir gradualmente la hidrocortisona. La bradicardia sinusal inducida por corticoesteroides es un efecto adverso que suele resolverse tras interrumpir el tratamiento. Se debe considerar el monitoreo hemodinámico en estos casos. Este es el primer informe de bradicardia sinusal posterior al uso de hidrocortisona en niños con insuficiencia suprarrenal

The literature does not commonly describe cardiac rhythm disturbances, including bradycardia, in patients who are receiving corticosteroids, and the exact mechanism of such disturbances remains unknown. Herein, we present a case of sinus bradycardia associated with stress-dose corticosteroid therapy. A nine-year-old boy with a history of panhypopituitarism was admitted with gastroenteritis and pneumonia and developed septic shock on the day of admission. Management using intravenous fluids, stress doses of hydrocortisone, and antibiotics resulted in full recovery. However, within 24 hours following treatment, sinus bradycardia was documented, with a heart rate of 45 beats per minute (BPM). The bradycardia resolved after the dose of hydrocortisone was decreased gradually. Corticosteroidinduced sinus bradycardia is an adverse effect that usually resolves after corticosteroid treatment is discontinued. During stress-dose corticosteroid therapy, hemodynamic monitoring should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sinus bradycardia following the use of hydrocortisone in children who have adrenal insufficiency.

Humans , Male , Child , Sinoatrial Node , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Adrenal Insufficiency/complications , Sepsis/complications
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(4): 398-404, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290241


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Critical diseases usually cause hypercortisolemia via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between serum total cortisol level and mortality among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), at the time of their admission. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study developed in a pandemic hospital in the city of Şırnak, Turkey. METHODS: We compared the serum total cortisol levels of 285 patients (141 COVID-19-negative patients and 144 COVID-19-positive patients) followed up in the ICU. RESULTS: The median cortisol level of COVID-19-positive patients was higher than that of COVID-19 negative patients (21.84 μg/dl versus 16.47 μg/dl; P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, mortality was associated with higher cortisol level (odds ratio: 1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.35; P = 0.001). The cortisol cutoff point was 31 μg/dl (855 nmol/l) for predicting mortality among COVID-19-positive patients (area under the curve 0.932; sensitivity 59%; and specificity 95%). Among the COVID-19 positive patients with cortisol level ≤ 31 μg/dl (79%; 114 patients), the median survival was higher than among those with cortisol level > 31 μg/dl (21%; 30 patients) (32 days versus 19 days; log-rank test P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Very high cortisol levels are associated with severe illness and increased risk of death, among COVID-19 patients in the ICU.

Humans , Hydrocortisone , COVID-19 , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Intensive Care Units
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 488-494, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339103


ABSTRACT Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is characterized by the inability of the adrenal cortex to produce sufficient amounts of glucocorticoids and/or mineralocorticoids. Addison's disease (AD) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are the most frequent disorders in adults and children, respectively. Despite the diagnostic advances and the availability of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacements, adrenal crisis (AC) is still a potentially lethal condition contributing to the increased mortality, not only during the first year of life, but also throughout life. Failure in increasing glucocorticoid doses during acute stress, when greater amounts of glucocorticoids are required, can lead to AC and an increase morbimortality rate of PAI. Considering a mortality rate of 0.5 per 100 patient years, up to 1,500 deaths from AC are expected in Brazil in the coming decade, which represents an alarming situation. The major clinical features are hypotension and volume depletion. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, lack of energy, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are common. The main precipitating factors are gastrointestinal diseases, other infectious disease, stressful events (e.g., major pain, surgery, strenuous physical activity, heat, and pregnancy), and withdrawal of glucocorticoid therapy. Suspected AC requires immediate therapeutic action with intravenous (iv) hydrocortisone, fluid infusion, monitoring support, and antibiotics if necessary. AC is best prevented through patient education, precocious identification and by adjusting the glucocorticoid dosage in stressor situations. The emergency card, warning about acute glucocorticoid replacement, has high value in reducing the morbidity and mortality of AC.

Humans , Child , Adult , Addison Disease , Adrenal Insufficiency/etiology , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Hydrocortisone , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 69-75, mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287243


Abstract After a stressful event, adaptative mechanisms are carried out to support vital functions. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis plays a key role in stress response regulating metabolism, cardiovascular function and immune system. This review addresses pathophysiological changes of the adrenal axis during critical illness, recognizing limitations of methods applied for its evaluation in this special context and defining indications for corticosteroid replacement in critically ill patients. The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency should be abandoned; cosyntropin stimulation test should not be performed for diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in critical illness nor for establishing the need of treatment.

Resumen Diversos mecanismos adaptativos se ponen en marcha para sostener las funciones orgánicas vitales en el paciente crítico. El eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal tiene un papel clave en la respuesta al estrés al regular el metabolismo, la función cardiovascular y la respuesta inmune. Esta revisión tiene por objetivos analizar los cambios fisiopatológicos que se producen en el eje adrenal durante la enfermedad crítica, reconocer las limitaciones de los métodos diagnósticos y definir indicaciones de tratamiento de reemplazo corticoideo en este contexto. El concepto de insuficiencia adrenal relativa debe ser descartado y no se recomienda el test de estímulo con cosintropina para diagnóstico de insuficiencia adrenal durante enfermedad crítica ni para definir la necesidad de tratamiento.

Humans , Critical Illness , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921353


Objective@#To our knowledge, no definitive conclusion has been reached regarding the relationship between glucocorticoids and hypertension. Here, we aimed to explore the characteristics of glucocorticoids in participants with dysglycemia and hypertension, and to analyze their association with blood pressure indicators.@*Methods@#The participants of this study were from the Henan Rural Cohort study. A total of 1,688 patients 18-79 years of age were included in the matched case control study after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical methods were used to analyze the association between glucocorticoids and various indices of blood pressure, through approaches such as logistic regression analysis, trend tests, linear regression, and restricted cubic regression.@*Results@#The study population consisted of 552 patients with dysglycemia and hypertension (32.7%). The patients with co-morbidities had higher levels of serum cortisol ( @*Conclusions@#Serum deoxycortisol was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, mean blood pressure, and mean proportional arterial pressure. Glucocorticoids (deoxycortisol and cortisol) increase the risk of hypertension in people with dysglycemia, particularly in those with T2DM.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Pressure , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Glucocorticoids/blood , Glycemic Load , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , Hypertension/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Young Adult
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155004


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in students and to evaluate if any relationship existed between the stress levels, salivary cortisol levels, and TMD. Material and Methods: A total of 348 students, 187 female, and 161 male students, participated in this cross-sectional study. Students were evaluated based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. The stress levels were evaluated using the Perceived Stress Scale. The students were divided into the control and TMD groups. Salivary cortisol levels in the salivary samples were analyzed. Results: The prevalence rate of TMDs was 30.7% in the study population. Of the female students, 61% had TMD compared with 46% of male students. Muscle disorders were the most predominant disorder in 14.2% of the students with TMD. The TMD group showed significantly higher salivary cortisol and stress levels than the control group. The TMD group also showed a moderate positive correlation between cortisol and stress levels (p=0.01). Conclusion: The study showed a strong association between salivary cortisol levels, stress, and temporomandibular disorders. Salivary cortisol could be used as a prognostic biomarker for stress while assessing the severity of TMJ problems in stressed individuals.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Saliva/immunology , Students, Dental , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Temporomandibular Joint/abnormalities , Biomarkers , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnosis , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , India/epidemiology
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(3): e188, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156391


Introducción: La terapia de reemplazo con glucocorticoides sigue siendo el paradigma de tratamiento en las formas clásicas de la hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita. Sus efectos sobre la mineralización ósea no están totalmente claros. Objetivo: Describir las variables relacionadas con la masa ósea en pacientes con HSC que reciben tratamiento esteroideo sustitutivo. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal que exploró variables clínicas, bioquímicas, hormonales y de mineralización óseaen 25 pacientes con hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita por déficit de 21OHasa y tratamiento esteroideo. Resultados: 21 (84,0 por ciento) femeninas, el mayor grupo correspondió a los adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años (52 por ciento). Predominaron las formas clásicas con 22 pacientes (88,0 por ciento), de ellas 13 (52 por ciento) fueron perdedoras de sal, 9 virilizantes simples (36,0 por ciento) y solo 3 (12,0 por ciento) formas no clásicas. El esteroide más utilizado fue la hidrocortisona en 16 pacientes (64 por ciento), a una dosis media de 22,10±12,00 mg diarios, correspondiendo con 17,09±5,71 mg/m2sc/día y como promedio llevaban 14,02±6,57 años de terapéutica sustitutiva. No se detectaron alteraciones del metabolismo fosfocálcico. La densidad y el contenido mineral óseo en columna y en fémur mostraron valores superiores en las formas no clásicas de la enfermedad, seguidos de la virilizante simple y finalmente los pacientes perdedores de sal, en ninguno de los casos con significación estadística. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita del presente estudio mostraron en su mayoría una masa ósea conservada(AU)

Introduction: Glucocorticoid replacement therapy is still the treatment´s paradigm in the classic forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Its effects on bone mineralization are not entirely clear. Objective: Describe bone mass-related variables in congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients receiving substitute steroid treatment. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted exploring clinical, biochemical, hormonal and bone mineralization variables in 25 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21OHase deficiency and steroid treatments. Results: 21 women (84.0 percent); the largest group was of adolescents between the age of 10 and 19 years (52 percent).Classical forms predominated with 22 patients (88.0 percent), including 13 of them (52 percent) that were salt losers, 9 simple virilizers (36.0 percent) and only 3 (12.0 percent) of non-classical forms. The most commonly used steroid was hydrocortisone in 16 patients (64 percent), at an average dose of 22.10±12.00 mg daily, corresponding to 17.09±5.71 mg/m2sc/day and on average carried 14.02±6.57 years of substitute therapy. No alterations in the phosphocalcic metabolism were detected. Density and bone mineral content in the spinal column and femur showed higher values in non-classical forms of the disease, followed by simple virilizing and finally the salt loser patients, in none of the cases with statistical significance. Conclusions: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in this study showed mostly preserved bone mass(AU)

Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Calcification, Physiologic/physiology , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Bone Density , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 223-231, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118832


We assessed the effect of stocking density on physiological parameters (blood lactate, glucose, cortisol, hematocrit), water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, unionized ammonia, carbon dioxide), and survival during the transportation of fingerling (24.5 ± 4.7 g) and juvenile (615.8 ± 122.2 g) pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) for six hours in plastic bags. The tested densities were 65, 80, 95, 110 and 125 g L-1 for fingerlings, and 50, 80, 110, 140 and 170 g L-1 for juveniles (three replicates each). Parameters were measured prior to and immediately after transportation, and at 24 and 96 hours recovery after transportation. No mortality was observed, except for fingerlings (< 3%) at densities of 110 and 125 g L-1 during recovery. All the water quality parameters were significantly altered after the transportation of fingerlings and juveniles. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and unionized ammonia increased, but pH decreased. Only carbon dioxide and unionized ammonia differed among densities. Cortisol levels did not increase over time, except for the juveniles at 170 g L-1, which still had high cortisol after 96 hours. Glucose significantly increased after transportation for all the treatments and returned to the initial values during the recovery period. Conversely, the lactate values were still high after 96 hours. Hematocrit was assessed only for juveniles and was significantly lower after transportation. We conclude that fingerling and juvenile pirarucu can be safely transported at densities up to 95 g L-1 and 140 g L-1, respectively. (AU)

Hydrocortisone , Lactic Acid , Glucose , Water Quality , Hematocrit
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1839-1844, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131545


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as implicações sobre o bem-estar animal e a eficiência da sangria no abate halal com e sem insensibilização em ovinos. Foram avaliados 102 ovinos, em abate comercial, separados randomicamente pelo peso em dois grupos: com insensibilização (CI) e sem insensibilização (SI). Verificou-se que os animais sem insensibilização apresentaram sinais de endireitamento e vocalização após 20 segundos da degola. Houve diferença significativa para hemácias (P<0,01), hemoglobina (P<0,01), leucócitos totais (P<0,001), bem como para os biomarcadores de estresse, como CK (P<0,01) e lactato (P<0,001). Apesar de não apresentarem diferença estatística significativa, o LDH e o cortisol ficaram acima dos valores basais em ambos os grupos. Não foram observadas alterações séricas para glicose e AST. Houve diferença estatística significativa para eficiência da sangria (P<0,01). Os resultados demonstraram que houve estresse no abate halal com e sem insensibilização e melhor eficiência da sangria em animais não insensibilizados.(AU)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the implications on animal welfare and the sangria efficiency in halal slaugther with and without stunning in sheep. 102 sheep were appraised in a commercial slaugthter, divided randomly for the weight in two groups: with stunning (CI) and without stunning (SI). It was verified that the animals without stunning presented straighten signs and vocalization after 20 seconds of decapitation. There was significant difference for erythrocytes (P<0.05), hemoglobin (P<0.01), leucocytes (P<0.01), stress of biomarkers CK (P<0.01) and lactate (P<0.01). Alterations in serum were not observed for glucose and AST. There was significant statistical difference for bleeding efficiency (P<0.01). The results demonstrated that there was stress in the halal slaugther with and without stunning and better bleeding efficiency in animals with traditional religious slaughter without stunning.(AU)

Animals , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Sheep , Exsanguination/veterinary , Animal Culling/methods , Animal Culling/ethics , Animal Welfare/ethics , Islam
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 25(3): 244-252, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1339885


Although it is generally considered that quality of life (QoL) is related to blood markers, there are different approaches to the relation between these variables. We proposed here a dynamic interaction test. The aim was to ascertain which blood indicators relate to QoL through a network perspective in a common population. Answered a questionnaire and conducted blood exams 108 Brazilians. Of these, 84 were female, with a mean age of 43.85 years old (SD = 16.20). Data analysis indicated that CRP, T4 (FT4), Thyroid-stimulating hormone, and Cortisol bridges with QoL dimensions. The data suggest that QoL is related to blood markers, but some trends were less than the literature has indicated. This present study is exploratory. The relations are complex, and our findings suggest that the dynamic network structure expands the range of QoL and blood markers research, making it possible to investigate a new range of questions and analyses.

Embora se considere geralmente que a qualidade de vida (QV) está relacionada a marcadores sanguíneos, existem diferentes abordagens para a relação entre essas variáveis. Propomos aqui um teste de interação dinâmica. O objetivo foi verificar quais indicadores de sangue se relacionam com a QV através de uma perspectiva de rede em uma população comum. Respondeu a um questionário e realizou exames de sangue 108 brasileiros. Desses, 84 eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 43,85 anos (DP = 16,20). A análise dos dados indicou que a PCR, T4 (FT4), hormônio estimulante da tireoide e cortisol fazem pontes com dimensões de QV. Os dados sugerem que a QV está relacionada a determinados marcadores sanguíneos, mas algumas tendências foram inferiores às indicadas pela literatura. O presente trabalho é exploratório. As relações são complexas e nossos achados sugerem que a estrutura dinâmica da rede expande a gama de pesquisas sobre QV e marcadores sanguíneos, possibilitando a investigação de um novo espectro de perguntas e análises.

Aunque generalmente se considera que la calidad de vida (QoL) esté relacionada con los marcadores sanguíneos, existen diferentes enfoques para la relación entre estas variables. Propusimos aquí una prueba de interacción dinámica. El objetivo era determinar qué indicadores sanguíneos se relacionan con la calidad de vida a través de una perspectiva de red en una población común. Respondieron a un cuestionario y realizaron exámenes de sangre a 108 brasileños. De estos, 84 eran mujeres, con una edad media de 43,85 años (DE = 16,20). El análisis de datos indicó que CRP, T4 (FT4), hormona estimulante de la tiroides y cortisol hacen puentes con dimensiones de calidad de vida. Los datos sugieren que la calidad de vida está relacionada con ciertos marcadores sanguíneos, pero algunas tendencias fueron menores de lo que la literatura ha indicado. El presente trabajo es exploratorio. Las relaciones son complejas, y nuestros hallazgos sugieren que la estructura dinámica de la red amplía el rango de QoL y las investigaciones de marcadores sanguíneos, lo que permite investigar un nuevo rango de preguntas y análisis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Quality of Life/psychology , Brazil , Hydrocortisone/physiology , Hormones/physiology
Buenos Aires; s.n; 16 jun. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1116497


CONTEXTO CLÍNICO: La Enfermedad por el Coronavirus 2019 (COVID­19, por su sigla en inglés Coronavirus Disease 2019) es una enfermedad respiratoria de humanos producida por un nuevo coronavirus identificado con la sigla SARS-CoV-2. El 11 de marzo de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaro la COVID-19 como una pandemia. Desde ese momento hasta el 15 de junio su circulación se ha reportado en 205 países reportándose más de 7.800.000 casos y la muerte 430.000 personas. El período de incubación de la infección es de 2 a 14 días. La mayor parte de los contagios se producen persona a persona, siendo altamente transmisible.(3) La clínica varía desde casos asintomáticos a cuadros febriles con tos y dificultad respiratoria, neumonía y distrés respiratorio. También puede acompañarse de alteraciones gastrointestinales. En los casos con mal pronóstico, el paciente presenta un importante deterioro respiratorio en 4-8 días. Las imágenes radiológicas muestran generalmente neumonía focal o generalizada semejante al síndrome de distress respiratorio agudo. (3) La mayoría de los casos graves requieren ingreso hospitalario, siendo mayoritariamente casos primarios en pacientes de edad avanzada y con comorbilidades (diabetes, enfermedad crónica renal, hipertensión, enfermedad cardiaca y enfermedad pulmonar crónica). La tasa media de letalidad de los pacientes ingresados a UTI es cercana al 49%, siendo los valores más elevados en pacientes masculinos de más de 50 años con comorbilidades múltiples. Actualmente el tratamiento de la COVID­19 es sintomático y de sostén no existiendo hasta el momento tratamiento farmacológico específico curativo. Debido a la evidencia que sugiere que el daño pulmonar agudo observado en la infección por SARS-CoV-2 estaría asociada a la activación de las células inmunes circulantes, incluyendo células T y las citoquinas que conducen a un síndrome de liberación de citoquinas (similar al síndrome de activación macrofágica y hemofagocítico) por lo que se plantea que el uso de corticoides sistémicos podría disminuir la mortalidad y/o necesidad de soporte ventilatorio invasivo. TECNOLOGÍA: Los glucocorticoides (GCS) son una familia de medicamentos antiinflamatorios e inmunomoduladores que se utilizan en el tratamiento de diversas patologías cuyo principal componente etiopatogénico es la inflamación. Dentro de los mecanismos de acción propuestos se encuentran: inhibición de citoquinas inflamatorias (IL-1 y IL-2), inhibición de la migración de leucocitaria, inhibición de la desgranulación de mastocitos, depleción linfocitaria (principalmente linfocitos T), incremento de citoquinas anti-inflamatorias (IL-10). Dentro de las alternativas para la administración sistémica se pueden mencionar a la hidrocortisona, dexametasona, betametasona, prednisona, prednisolona, metilprednisolona y deflazacort. Todos ellos difieren principalmente en el grado de actividad mineralocorticorticoide y vida media. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar la evidencia disponible acerca de la eficacia, seguridad y aspectos relacionados a las políticas de cobertura del uso de corticoides sistémicos en COVID­19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas, en buscadores genéricos de internet, y financiadores de salud. Se priorizó la inclusión de revisiones sistemáticas (RS), ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados (ECAs), evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS), evaluaciones económicas, guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y recomendaciones de diferentes organizaciones de salud. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron un ECA, una RS, dos estudios observacionales, un documento de evaluación de tecnología sanitaria, 12 guías de práctica clínica, recomendaciones de organismos gubernamentales o sociedades científicas acerca del uso de corticoides sistémicos en pacientes con diagnóstico de COVID­19. CONCLUSIONES: Evidencia de alta calidad proveniente de los resultados de un ensayo clínico aleatorizado aún no publicado sugiere que el uso de corticoides sistémicos se asocia a una disminución en el riesgo de mortalidad principalmente en pacientes con requerimientos de oxigeno suplementario o asistencia mecánica invasiva. Evidencia de muy baja calidad también sugiere que podría tener el mismo beneficio en aquellos pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo. Múltiples ensayos clínicos aleatorizados en pacientes con cuadros moderados o severos se encuentran en curso. Las guías de práctica clínica de diferentes sociedades internacionales y organismos gubernamentales que lo recomiendan indican su utilización para el tratamiento de pacientes con criterios de síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo. Si bien no se encontraron estudios de costo-efectividad en Latinoamérica, el costo total del tratamiento al igual que su impacto presupuestario sería muy bajo.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betamethasone/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation , Cost-Benefit Analysis
Brasília; s.n; 26 abr. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097411


Essa é uma produção do Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia (Decit) da Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Insumos Estratégicos em Saúde (SCTIE) do Ministério da Saúde (Decit/SCTIE/MS), que tem como missão promover a ciência e tecnologia e o uso de evidências científicas para a tomada de decisão do SUS, tendo como principal atribuição o incentivo ao desenvolvimento de pesquisas em saúde no Brasil, de modo a direcionar os investimentos realizados em pesquisa pelo Governo Federal às necessidades de saúde pública. Informar sobre as principais evidências científicas descritas na literatura internacional sobre tratamento farmacológico para a COVID-19. Além de resumir cada estudo identificado, o informe apresenta também uma avaliação da qualidade metodológica e a quantidade de artigos publicados, de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, entre outros). Foram encontrados 25 artigos e 47 protocolos.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/instrumentation , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Dipyridamole/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 371-378, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128217


The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic, inflammatory, and hepatic aspects, as well as the milk yield in heifers submitted to protocol for induction of lactation compared to primiparous cows. Sixty Holstein heifers were selected and enrolled into two groups: Control (n= 30), pregnant heifers and Induction heifers (n= 30), non-pregnant femeales, submitted to a lactation induction protocol. Blood samples were collected at: pre-lactation period (weeks -3, -2 and -1) and post-lactation period (weeks 1, 2 and 3), aiming to evaluate glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, paraoxonase-1, albumin, ALT, GGT and cortisol. The protocol efficiently induced lactation in all the heifers, which produced 74.54% of the total production of milk from primiparous cows. In the pre-lactation period, induced animals presented higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids than the Control heifers, and the opposite was observed in the post lactation period. In both moments albumin and ALT were lower in the Induction group, and paraoxonase-1 activity and GGT concentrations were higher, compared to the Control. Thus, lactation induction protocol is efficient to initiate milk production in dairy heifers with no considerable changes in energetic, metabolic and hepatic profile when compared to heifers in physiological lactation.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os perfis metabólico, inflamatório, hepático e a produção de leite de novilhas induzidas à lactação comparadas a primíparas. Sessenta novilhas da raça Holandês foram selecionadas e alocadas em grupos: controle (n=30), novilhas prenhas, e indução (n=30), novilhas vazias submetidas a um protocolo de indução de lactação. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas nas semanas -3, -2 e -1 (pré-lactação) e nas semanas 1, 2 e 3 (pós-início de lactação) para avaliação de glicose, ácidos graxos não esterificados, paraoxonase-1, albumina, ALT, GGT e cortisol. O protocolo induziu eficientemente a lactação em todas as novilhas, que produziram 74,54% da produção total de leite do controle. No período pré-lactação, o grupo indução apresentou maiores concentrações de ácidos graxos não esterificados que o controle, e o oposto foi observado pós-lactação. Em ambos os momentos, albumina e ALT foram menores no grupo indução, e a atividade da paraoxonase-1 e as concentrações de GGT foram maiores, em comparação ao controle. Assim, o protocolo de indução de lactação foi eficiente para iniciar a produção de leite em novilhas induzidas, além de terem sido observadas alterações nos perfis energético, metabólico e hepático em comparação a novilhas em lactação fisiológica.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Lactation/physiology , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Albumins/analysis , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/analysis , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis , Milk
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 7-12, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088740


Abstract Objectives This study aimed to explore the effect of antidepressant treatment on the HPA axis, changes in depression score, and serum levels of TNF-α in depressed infertile women. Methods In this randomized controlled trial research, 60 infertile women who had undergone in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with depression scores between 16-47 were divided into two groups. The intervention group with fluoxetine capsule was under treatment for two months before the embryo transfer, while the control group was given placebo. Depression score, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as cortisol hormone levels were measured and recorded both before and after the intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. Results We analyzed the data related to 55 subjects who had undergone embryo transfer. 7 subjects in the intervention group and 3 in the control group got pregnant. We observed a significant decrease in the depression score (p < 0/001) and serum levels of cortisol (p = 0/001) in the intervention group. There was a significant increase in the serum levels of TNF-α in the intervention group (p < 0/001). There was a significant difference between the two groups in the number of pregnancies (p = 0.04). However, there was no statistical difference between them with regard to the number of harvested oocytes (p = 0.174). Discussion Decrease in depression score and cortisol level, and an increase in the levels of TNF-α in the intervention group caused any changes in the number of oocytes in comparison with the control group. However, the number of pregnancies was larger in the intervention group.

Humans , Female , Adult , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Depression/drug therapy , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/drug effects , Infertility, Female/psychology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/blood , Fertilization in Vitro , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Infertility, Female/therapy