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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 26-31, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248982

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) and gastric cancer (GC) are the third and the fifth most prevalent, respectively. Diarrhea is a common symptom in patients on chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment and can reduce treatment tolerance. Surgical resections and chemotherapy change the intestinal microbiota that can lead to lactose intolerance, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of diarrhea in patients with CRC and GC on chemotherapy with SIBO or intolerance of lactose. METHODS: This is a descriptive and observational study with patients of both sexes, over 18 years old, in treatment in the Gastro-Oncology outpatient clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CRC or GC during chemotherapy treatment were included. To detect bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance, breath hydrogen test with lactulose and lactose was done. Number and aspects of the evacuations and toxicity degree were collected. For the nutritional assessment, weight and height were performed to calculate the BMI. and the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). RESULTS: A total of 33 patients were included, 29 with CRC and 3 with GC. Most of them were male (57.57%), mean age of 60.03±10.01 years and in chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin (54.5%). Diarrhea was present in 57.6% and 30.3% had toxicity grade 2. According to the BMI, 78.9% were eutrophics, obese or overweight, but according to PG-SGA, 84.9% had moderate or severe nutritional risk grade. Between patients, 45% had lactose intolerance and 9% SIBO. Diarrhea grade 2-3 was observed in 66.6% of patients with SIBO and 66.7% of that with lactose intolerance. No statistical difference was observed between patients with SIBO or lactose intolerance and grade of diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea was a frequent symptom in chemotherapy patients with gastric or colorectal cancer independent of the presence of SIBO or lactose intolerance. Surgery and chemotherapy treatment impacted in the intestinal habit of patients. Diagnosis of other causes of diarrhea may contribute to a better tolerance to treatment and quality of life.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Mundialmente, o câncer colorretal (CCR) e gástrico (CG) são a terceira e a quinta causa de câncer mais prevalente, respectivamente. A diarreia é um sintoma comum entre os pacientes em quimioterapia ou radioterapia e pode reduzir a tolerância ao tratamento. Quimioterapia e ressecções cirúrgicas causam alterações da microbiota intestinal que podem levar a intolerância à lactose e ao supercrescimento bacteriano do intestino delgado (SBID). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de diarreia nos pacientes com câncer colorretal e gástrico em quimioterapia e a presença de SBID ou intolerância à lactose. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, observacional com pacientes ambulatoriais de ambos os sexos, maiores de 18 anos, em tratamento no ambulatório de gastro-oncologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Foram incluídos pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de CCR ou CG durante tratamento quimioterápico. Para detectar supercrescimento bacteriano e intolerância à lactose, foram realizados testes respiratórios com lactulose e lactose respectivamente. Número, aspecto das evacuações e grau de toxicidade foram coletados. Para a avaliação nutricional foram aferidos peso e altura para cálculo do IMC e para avaliação do risco nutricional foi realizada a avaliação subjetiva global produzida pelo próprio paciente (ASG-PPP). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 33 pacientes, 29 com CCR e 3 com CG. A maioria era do sexo masculino (57,5%) com média de idade 60,03±10,01 anos e em tratamento quimioterápico com fluoropirimidina e oxaliplatina (54,5%). Diarreia foi relatada por 57,6% dos pacientes sendo em 30% grau 2. Pelo IMC, 78,9% apresentavam eutrofia, sobrepeso ou obesidade grau 1, mas pela ASG-PPP 84,9 apresentavam risco nutricional moderado ou severo. Entre os pacientes 9% apresentavam SBID e 45% intolerância à lactose. Diarreia grau 2-3 foi observada em 66,6% daqueles pacientes com SBID e 66,7% dos com intolerância à lactose. Não encontramos diferenças estatísticas entre os pacientes com SBID ou intolerância à lactose e intensidade de diarreia. CONCLUSÃO: Diarreia foi um sintoma frequente entre os pacientes com câncer gástrico ou colorretal em quimioterapia independente da presença de SBID ou intolerância à lactose. Cirurgia e quimioterapia impactaram no hábito intestinal dos pacientes. O diagnóstico de outras causas de diarreia pode contribuir para a melhor tolerância do tratamento e qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lactose Intolerance/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Breath Tests , Hydrogen , Intestine, Small , Lactose , Middle Aged
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200045, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278460

ABSTRACT

Abstract Natural gas steam reforming is commonly used for hydrogen production. However, research has shown that ethanol autothermal reforming can produce cleaner hydrogen gas efficiently. Despite this, there is a lack of studies on the energy self-sufficiency conditions of the ethanol autothermal reform. In this paper, we use simulations and the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the multivariate analysis of the energy self-sufficiency conditions in this process. First, we constructed and validated an industrial flowchart. After that, RSM allowed us to assess the process variables effects. The process variables studied were temperature (0 to 1000 ºC), pressure (20 to 30 bar), steam/ethanol ratio (2 to 5 mol/mol) and O2/ethanol ratio (0 to 1.5 mol/mol). We observe that the temperature and steam/ethanol ratio increase have a positive effect on hydrogen production. On the contrary, the O2/ethanol ratio increase has a negative effect, and the pressure increase is not statistically significant on hydrogen production. Therefore, the pressure was used at its minimum level (20 bar) while the temperature and the steam/ethanol ratio at its maximum levels (1000 ºC and 5 mol/mol). We also evaluated the energy consumption for the Autothermal Reactor (ATR). The reactor consumed 477.92 kJ/mol ethanol to produce 5.12 mol H2/mol ethanol when we use 1000 ºC, 20 bar, steam/ethanol 5 mol/mol, and O2/ethanol 0 mol/mol. ATR's energy self-sufficiency is achieved by using 1000 ºC, 20 bar, steam/ethanol 5 mol/mol, and O2/ethanol 0.86 mol/mol. In these conditions, 3.95 mol H2/mol ethanol is produced with 0 kJ/mol ethanol.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Natural Gas , Renewable Energy , Hydrogen , Simulation Technique , Models, Anatomic
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Reduction-oxidation reaction homeostasis is vital for regulating inflammatory conditions and its dysregulation may affect the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Peroxiredoxin-6, an important intracellular anti-oxidant molecule, is reported to be highly expressed in the airways and lungs. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression pattern of peroxiredoxin-6 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatic patients and in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs).METHODS: The expression levels and modifications of peroxiredoxin-6 were evaluated in PBMCs from 22 asthmatic patients. Phosphorylated and acetylated peroxiredoxin-6 in hydrogen peroxide-treated human BECs was detected using immunoprecipitation analysis. The expression level of peroxiredoxin-6 was also investigated in BECs treated with hydrogen peroxide. Cycloheximide and proteasome inhibitors were used to determine whether peroxiredoxin-6 is degraded by proteasomes.RESULTS: Peroxiredoxin-6 expression was significantly reduced in the PBMCs of asthmatic patients compared to control subjects. Distinct modification patterns for peroxiredoxin-6 were observed in the PBMCs of asthmatic patients using 2-dimensional-electrophoresis. The levels of phosphorylated serine and acetylated lysine in peroxiredoxin-6 were significantly increased in the BECs following hydrogen peroxide treatment. The level of peroxiredoxin-6 expression was reduced in hydrogen peroxide-stimulated BECs, presumably due to proteasomes.CONCLUSIONS: The expression of peroxiredoxin-6, which is down-regulated in the immune cells of asthmatic patients and BECs, can be modified by oxidative stress. This phenomenon may have an effect on asthmatic airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cycloheximide , Epithelial Cells , Homeostasis , Humans , Hydrogen , Hydrogen Peroxide , Immunoprecipitation , Inflammation , Lung , Lysine , Oxidative Stress , Proteasome Inhibitors , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Serine
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of hydrogen-rich Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) water (HRGW) mixture on the spermatogenesis and sperm motility of mice of different ages.@*METHODS@#Eighty young (3 month-old) and aged (12 month-old) male mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n =10 per group) including control group, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) group (10 mL/kg daily), KRG group (50 mg/kg daily) and HRGW group (10 mL/kg and 50 mg/kg daily) by an oral zoned needle for 4 weeks. Sperm count and motility were measured using sperm suspension released from cauda epididymis. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum have also been estimated. Tubular changes were examined through histological hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of antioxidation (PPx3, PPx4, GSTm5 and GPx4), spermatogenesis (inhibin-a, neptin-2 and CREM), antiaging (SIRT1 and SIRT2), and angiogenesis [visfatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] related genes were examined through real-time polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#HRW and KRG treatment stimulated spermatogenesis followed by increasing sperm production and sperm motility (P <0.05). These effects were strengthened synergistically by a HRGW mixture (P <0.05 or P <0.01). HRGW greatly increased the expressions of antioxidation, antiaging, spermatogenesis related genes and VEGF especially in aged mice (P <0.05). Serum testosterone and FSH levels also increased, while serum ROS level decreased (all P <0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HRGW increases sperm production and motility by enhancing antioxidation and stimulating spermatogenesis and sex hormone production, particularly in aged mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hydrogen , Pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Panax , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Sperm Motility , Spermatogenesis , Water
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with positive breath-test results and to assess the relationship between hydrogen and methane production in patients with suspected irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).METHODS: The demographic and clinical factors of 268 patients with suspected IBS, who had undergone a lactulose breath test, were analyzed.RESULTS: Of 268 patients included in this study, 143 (53.4%) were females. The median age and BMI of the patients was 58.0 years (range, 18.0–80.0 years) and 22.5 kg/m² (range, 14.4–34.3 kg/m²), respectively. A weak positive correlation was observed between the BMI and baseline hydrogen level (rho=0.134, p=0.031). Women were significantly more likely to show a ≥20 ppm increase in hydrogen within 90 min (early hydrogen increase, p=0.049), a ≥10 ppm increase in methane within 90 min (early methane increase, p=0.001), and a ≥10 ppm increase in methane between 90 min and 180 min (late methane increase, p=0.002) compared to men. The baseline hydrogen level was related to the baseline methane level (rho=0.592, p<0.001) and the maximal hydrogen level within 90 min was related to maximal methane level within 90 min (rho=0.721, p<0.001). Patients with an early hydrogen increase (43.8%) were more likely to show a positive result for an early methane increase compared to patients without an early increase in hydrogen (0%, p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Women were associated with high rates of positive lactulose breath-test results. In addition, methane production was correlated with hydrogen production.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests , Female , Humans , Hydrogen , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Lactulose , Male , Methane , Sex Characteristics
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the antifungal effects of neutral electrolysis hydrogen water, an agent known for its oral anti-bacterial effects on the growth of C. albicans in vitro.METHODS: Hydrogen water, denture cleansing agent, and Listerine® were compared to a tap water control. We serially cultured C. albicans KCTC 27239 in SD media to analyze the inhibitory effect of each treatment on growth. We evaluated the data using repeated-measures ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA test, and a significant difference was defined as P < 0.05.RESULTS: Hydrogen water significantly inhibited the growth, but not the biofilm formation, of C. albicans compared to tap water control at 1-, 5-, and 10-minute time points (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The growth of C. albicans was slower in hydrogen water than in tap water, thereby suggesting an inhibitory effect of hydrogen water. Hydrogen water may, therefore, be utilized as an antibacterial and preventive agent without any harmful effect on denture and oral tissues.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Candida albicans , Candida , Dentures , Detergents , Electrolysis , Hydrogen , In Vitro Techniques , Water
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the tooth whitening effects of a 3% hydrogen peroxide gel.METHODS: Twenty participants were given experimental tooth whitening gels containing 3% hydrogen peroxide, and another 20 participants, who served as the control group, were given tooth whitening gels that contained no hydrogen peroxide. Both groups used their respective whitening agents for 1 week, and tooth lightness was examined at baseline and 4 and 7 days after the experiment.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, in the experimental group, lightness values, determined using VITA classical A1-D4® and VITA SYSTEM 3D-MASTER®, were significantly increased after using the 3% hydrogen peroxide whitening agent (P < 0.01) both 5 and 7 days post-application (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirmed that an improved tooth whitening effect could be expected with the use of a new type of whitening gel containing 3% hydrogen peroxide.


Subject(s)
Bleaching Agents , Gels , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Tooth Bleaching , Tooth , Toothpastes
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 371-377, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777177

ABSTRACT

Molecular hydrogen (H) has been shown to have diverse biomedical effects. As a small molecular gas, hydrogen can be diffused to the target without hindrance. A variety of related hydrogen products used in medical research and public health have been developed. There are various methods of administration of H, mainly including inhaling hydrogen gas, drinking hydrogen water, injecting hydrogen-saline, orally taking solid-state H sustained-release agents, and stimulating intestinal microbiomes to produce hydrogen. Pharmacokinetics of H in vivo vary with methods of administration and thus influence its biomedical effects. This review summarizes the types of H donors and their pharmacokinetics in vivo.


Subject(s)
Hydrogen , Pharmacokinetics
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the hypothesis that hydrogen could ameliorate cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced lung injury of rats by inhibiting cystathionine-gamma-lyase/hydrogen sulfide (CSE/HS) system.@*METHODS@#A total number of 24 healthy male SD rats weighting 250~300 g were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 in each group): sham operation group(sham group), hydrogen-rich saline control group(H group), CLP group and hydrogen-rich saline treatment group(CLP+H group). The rats were treated with hydrogen-rich saline or saline 10 min before CLP or sham operation. At 8 h of sham or CLP operation, lung samples were obtained to detect the changes of the CSE/HS system using biochemical and RT-PCR methods. In order to further confirm the role of HS during hydrogen improve the lung injury of CLP rats, we also observed the effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the lung injury induced by HS donor-sodium sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Thirty-two healthy male SD rats (250~300 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 in each group): control group, HS group, HS+H group and H group. Saline(10 mg/kg) or NaHS(HS donor, 56 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg) respectively into rats in the control rats or HS group. For rats in the HS+H and H group, hydrogen-rich saline (10 mg/kg) was injected 10 min before saline or NaHS administration. Eight hours after the LPS saline or NaHS administration, lung coefficient, MDA content, and MPO activity were detected. The contents of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in lung tissue were measured, and the morphological changes of lung tissue were also observed.@*RESULTS@#CSE/HS system up-regulating were observed in animals exposed to CLP. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly inhibited CSE/HS system as indicated by significantly reduced HS production in lung, along with a decreased CSE activity and CSE mRNA expression (all P<0.05). Importantly, the results showed that lung injury and lung tissue inflammation were observed in animals exposed to NaHS. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated lung injury as indicated by significantly improved histological changes in lung, significantly reduced index of quantitative assessment (IQA), MDA content and lung coefficient (all P<0.05). MPO activity in lung tissue was significantly reduced along with decreased productions of TNF-α and IL-6, and an increased production of IL-10 in the presence of hydrogen (all P<0.05), demonstrating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen in NaHS-induced ALI.@*CONCLUSION@#These results indicate that hydrogen-rich saline peritoneal injection improves the lung injury induced by CLP operation. The therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich saline may be related to suppressing the production of HS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cecum , General Surgery , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase , Metabolism , Cytokines , Metabolism , Hydrogen , Pharmacology , Hydrogen Sulfide , Metabolism , Ligation , Lung Injury , Therapeutics , Male , Punctures , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saline Solution , Pharmacology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764986

ABSTRACT

We analyzed Clonorchis sinensis ancient DNA (aDNA) acquired from the specimens of the Joseon mummies. The target regions were cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) dehydrogenase subunits 2 (NAD2) and 5 (NAD5). The sequences of C. sinensis aDNA was completely or almost identical to modern C. sinensis sequences in GenBank. We also found that ITS1, NAD2 and NAD5 could be good markers for molecular diagnosis between C. sinensis and the other trematode parasite species. The current result could improve our knowledge about genetic history of C. sinensis.


Subject(s)
Clonorchis sinensis , Cytochromes c , Cytochromes , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Diagnosis , DNA , Electron Transport Complex IV , Hydrogen , Mummies , NAD , Niacinamide , Oxidoreductases , Parasites , Republic of Korea
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in various cellular diseases. Excessive ROS can cause intracellular oxidative stress, resulting in a calcium imbalance and even aging. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of esculetin on oxidative stress-induced aging in human HaCaT keratinocytes. METHODS: Human keratinocytes were pretreated with esculetin for 30 minutes and treated with H₂O₂. Then, the protective effects on oxidative stress-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 were detected by Flou-4-AM staining, reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and quantitative fluorescence assay. RESULTS: Esculetin prevented H₂O₂-induced aging by inhibiting MMP-1 mRNA, protein, and activity levels. In addition, esculetin decreased abnormal levels of phospho-MEK1, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-SEK1, phospho-JNK1/2, c-Fos, and phospho-c-Jun and inhibited activator protein 1 binding activity. CONCLUSIONS: Esculetin prevented excessive levels of intracellular calcium and reduced the expression levels of aging-related proteins.


Subject(s)
Aging , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Fluorescence , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Keratinocytes , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Transcription Factor AP-1
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766834

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of hydrogen sulfide in the survival and collagen gel contraction of cultured human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTCFs). METHODS: Primarily cultured HTCFs were exposed to 0, 100, 200, or 300 µM hydrogen sulfide (sodium hydrogen sulfide, NaHS) for 2 days. Cellular survival was assessed by MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Degree of apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. To evaluate the effect of NaHS on cellular transdifferentiation, HTCFs were stimulated with 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 and the level of expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) mRNA was assessed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The cells were embedded in collagen gel, and the amount of gel contraction was measured. RESULTS: NaHS at 300 µM reduced HTCF survival (p = 0.013); NaHS at both 200 and 300 µM increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.013 and p = 0.016). TGF-β1 increased the expression of α-SMA mRNA (p = 0.041); co-treatment with 100 µM NaHS decreased TGF-β1-induced α-SMA mRNA expression (p = 0.039) and inhibited collagen gel contraction. CONCLUSIONS: NaHS at high concentration reduced cellular survival and increased HTCF apoptosis. NaHS decreased TGF-β 1-induced increases in α-SMA mRNA expression and collagen gel contraction. Thus, hydrogen sulfide may suppress scar formation by inhibiting HTCF transdifferentiation and contraction of collagen gels.


Subject(s)
Actins , Apoptosis , Cicatrix , Collagen , Fibroblasts , Flow Cytometry , Gels , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hydrogen , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Tenon Capsule
13.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 312-323, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762231

ABSTRACT

Cyclosporin A (CsA) does not only exert a toxic effect on kidney parenchymal cells, but also protects them against necrotic cell death by inhibiting opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. However, whether CsA plays a role in hydrogen peroxide-induced kidney proximal tubular cell death is currently unclear. In the present study, treatment with CsA further increased apoptosis and necrosis in HK-2 human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells during exposure to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, hydrogen peroxide-induced p53 activation and BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) expression were higher in CsA-treated cells than those in non-treated cells, whereas hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and activation of protein kinase B were not significantly altered by treatment with CsA. In oxidant-antioxidant system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by hydrogen peroxide was further enhanced by treatment with CsA. However, expression levels of antioxidant enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and catalase were not altered by treatment with hydrogen peroxide or CsA. Treatment with CsA further enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide, although it did not alter endoplasmic reticulum stress based on expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 and 94. Taken together, these data suggest that CsA can aggravate hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death through p53 activation, BID expression, and ROS production.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Catalase , Cell Death , Cyclosporine , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Kidney , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Necrosis , Permeability , Phosphotransferases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758892

ABSTRACT

We prepared a polymorphic form of valnemulin hydrogen tartrate (Form I) to overcome the instability and irritating odor of valnemulin hydrochloride that affect its use in the production and application of veterinary drugs. The physicochemical properties of Form I were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed the crystal structure and thermal properties of Form I were very different from those of a commercially available form of valnemulin hydrogen tartrate (Form II). Form I and Form II were more stable than valnemulin hydrochloride after storage under irradiation and high humidity conditions, respectively. The solubility of Form I was 2.6 times that of Form II, and Form I was selected for use in pharmaceutical kinetics experiments in vivo. Compared to valnemulin hydrochloride, after oral administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg in pigs, Form I had similar pharmaceutical kinetic behavior but a slightly higher area under the concentration–time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration. Consequently, Form I should be suitable for the development of simple formulations and be effective in the clinical application of veterinary drugs.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Humidity , Hydrogen , Kinetics , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Odorants , Pharmacokinetics , Powder Diffraction , Solubility , Spectrum Analysis , Swine , Veterinary Drugs
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl (·OH), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is reported to induce oxidative stress. ROS generated by oxidative stress can potentially damage glial cells in the nervous system. Cordyceps militaris (CM), a kind of natural herb widely found in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the free radical scavenging activity of the CM extract and its neuroprotective effects in H2O2-induced C6 glial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: The ethanol extract of CM (100–1,000 µg/mL) was used to measure DPPH, ·OH, and NO radical scavenging activities. In addition, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced C6 glial cells were treated with CM at 0.5–2.5 µg/mL for measurement of cell viability, ROS production, and protein expression resulting from oxidative stress. RESULTS: The CM extract showed high scavenging activities against DPPH, ·OH, and NO radicals at concentration of 1,000 µg/mL. Treatment of CM with H2O2-induced oxidative stress in C6 glial cells significantly increased cell viability, and decreased ROS production. Cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was down-regulated in CM-treated groups. In addition, the protein expression level of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK), phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) in H2O2-induced C6 glial cells was down-regulated upon CM administration. CONCLUSION: CM exhibited radical scavenging activity and protective effect against H2O2 as indicated by the increased cell viability, decreased ROS production, down-regulation of inflammation-related proteins as well as p-p38, p-JNK, and p-ERK protein levels. Therefore, we suggest that CM could play the protective role from oxidative stress in glial cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Cordyceps , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Down-Regulation , Ethanol , Far East , Free Radicals , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , In Vitro Techniques , Nervous System , Neuroglia , Neuroprotective Agents , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Oxidative Stress , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Reactive Oxygen Species
16.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 115-121, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760555

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with no curative treatment. The commercially available drugs, which target acetylcholinesterase, are not satisfactory. The aim of this study was to investigate the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Solenostemma argel aerial part. Eight compounds were isolated and identified by NMR: kaempferol-3-O-glucopyranoside (1), kaempferol (2), kaempferol-3-glucopyranosyl(1→6)rhamnopyranose (3) p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), dehydrovomifoliol (5), 14,15-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (6), 14,15-dihydroxy-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione-15β-D-glucopyranoside (7) and solargin I (8). Two of them (compounds 2 and 3) could inhibit over 50 % of butyrylcholinesterase activity at 100 µM. Compound (2) displayed the highest inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with a slight selectivity towards the latter. Molecular docking studies supported the in vitro results and revealed that (2) had made several hydrogen and π-π stacking interactions which could explain the compound potency to inhibit AChE and BChE.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Alzheimer Disease , Butyrylcholinesterase , Cholinesterases , Hydrogen , In Vitro Techniques , Neurodegenerative Diseases
17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(6): 609-615, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976017

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study fructose malabsorption in children and adolescents with abdominal pain associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. As an additional objective, the association between intestinal fructose malabsorption and food intake, including the estimated fructose consumption, weight, height, and lactulose fermentability were also studied. Methods: The study included 31 patients with abdominal pain (11 with functional dyspepsia, 10 with irritable bowel syndrome, and 10 with functional abdominal pain). The hydrogen breath test was used to investigate fructose malabsorption and lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen. Food consumption was assessed by food registry. Weight and height were measured. Results: Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 21 (67.7%) patients (nine with irritable bowel syndrome, seven with functional abdominal pain, and five with functional dyspepsia). Intolerance after fructose administration was observed in six (28.6%) of the 21 patients with fructose malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption was associated with higher (p < 0.05) hydrogen production after lactulose ingestion, higher (p < 0.05) energy and carbohydrate consumption, and higher (p < 0.05) body mass index z-score value for age. Median estimates of daily fructose intake by patients with and without fructose malabsorption were, respectively, 16.1 and 10.5 g/day (p = 0.087). Conclusion: Fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentability in the intestinal lumen. Body mass index was higher in patients with fructose malabsorption.


Resumo Objetivo: Pesquisar a má absorção de frutose em crianças e adolescentes com dor abdominal associada com distúrbios funcionais gastrintestinais. Como objetivo adicional, estudou-se a relação entre a má absorção intestinal de frutose e a ingestão alimentar, inclusive a estimativa de consumo de frutose, o peso e a estatura dos pacientes e a capacidade de fermentação de lactulose. Métodos: Foram incluídos 31 pacientes com dor abdominal (11 com dispepsia funcional, 10 com síndrome do intestino irritável e 10 com dor abdominal funcional). O teste de hidrogênio no ar expirado foi usado para pesquisar a má absorção de frutose e a fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por registro alimentar. Foram mensurados também o peso e a estatura dos pacientes. Resultados: Má absorção de frutose foi caracterizada em 21 (67,7%) pacientes (nove com síndrome do intestino irritável, sete com dor abdominal funcional e cinco com dispepsia funcional). Intolerância após administração de frutose foi observada em seis (28,6%) dos 21 pacientes com má absorção de frutose. Má absorção de frutose associou-se com maior produção de hidrogênio após ingestão de lactulose (p < 0,05), maior consumo de energia e carboidratos (p < 0,05) e maior valor de escore z de IMC para a idade (p < 0,05). As medianas da estimativa de ingestão diária de frutose pelos pacientes com e sem má absorção de frutose foram, respectivamente, 16,1 e 10,5 g/dia (p = 0,087). Conclusão: Má absorção de frutose associa-se com maior capacidade de fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O índice de massa corporal foi maior nos pacientes com má absorção de frutose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Abdominal Pain/metabolism , Fermentation/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Lactulose/metabolism , Malabsorption Syndromes/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Breath Tests , Fructose Intolerance/metabolism , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Eating/physiology , Hydrogen/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Malabsorption Syndromes/physiopathology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773802

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of hydrogen on liver injury in chronic intermittent hypoxia rats and the related oxidative stress mechanism.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four male adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups(=8):the normoxia group (Norm), the chronic intermittent hypoxia group (CIH), the chronic intermittent hypoxia and hydrogen group (H + CIH). Rats in Norm group were exposed in air, those in the other 2 groups suffered from chronic intermittent hypoxia conditions for 5 weeks. Before the CIH treatment, rats in H+CIH group inhaled hydrogen gas at 67% concentration for 1 hour. The serum biochemical indicators of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine, liver enzyme and blood lipid were inspected after five weeks treatment, the pathological changes of liver tissue were also observed in the transmission electron microscope.@*RESULTS@#Compared with Norm group, the microstructure of liver cells was severely injured, and the serum levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase(ALT),glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (AST) were significantly higher in CIH group (<0.05); the serum level of 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) and interleukin-6(IL-6) was significantly higher, the serum level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower. Compared with CIH group, the pathology of liver microstructure were significantly improved and the serum levels of ALT, AST were significantly lower in H+CIH group (<0.05); the serum levels of 8-OHdG and IL-6 were significantly lower, the serum level of SOD was significantly higher. Compared with Norm group, the serum level of IL-1 was higher, the serum level of TC, TG, and low density lipoprotein(LDL) were lower, but there was no statistical difference with those in CIH group. There was no statistical difference in the serum level of high density lipoprotein (HDL)among the three groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pre-treatment with hydrogen could improve the liver injury caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia, and reducing oxidative stress level for protecting the liver cells damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hydrogen , Pharmacology , Hypoxia , Liver , Liver Diseases , Therapeutics , Male , Oxidative Stress , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739499

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the regulatory role of nerve growth factor (NGF) in sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression in cholestatic livers. We evaluated the expression of NGF and its cognate receptors in human livers with hepatolithiasis and the effects of NGF therapy on liver injury and hepatic SIRT1 expression in a bile duct ligation (BDL) mouse model. Histopathological and molecular analyses showed that the hepatocytes of human diseased livers expressed NGF, proNGF (a precursor of NGF), TrkA and p75NTR, whereas only p75NTR was upregulated in hepatolithiasis, compared with non-hepatolithiasis livers. In the BDL model without NGF therapy, p75NTR, but not TrkA antagonism, significantly deteriorated BDL-induced liver injury. By contrast, the hepatoprotective effect of NGF was abrogated only by TrkA and not by p75NTR antagonism in animals receiving NGF therapy. Intriguingly, a positive correlation between hepatic SIRT1 and NGF expression was found in human livers. In vitro studies demonstrated that NGF upregulated SIRT1 expression in mouse livers and human Huh-7 and rodent hepatocytes. Both NGF and proNGF induced protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in Huh-7 cells, whereas inhibition of TrkA and p75NTR activity prevented oxidative cell death. Mechanistically, NGF, but not proNGF, upregulated SIRT1 expression in human Huh-7 and rodent hepatocytes via nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, whereas NGF-induced phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt, extracellular signal–regulated kinase and NF-κB signaling and SIRT1 activity were involved in its hepatoprotective effects against oxidative injury. These findings suggest that pharmacological manipulation of the NGF/SIRT1 axis might serve as a novel approach for the treatment of cholestatic disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Ducts , Cell Death , Cholestasis , Hepatocytes , Humans , Hydrogen , In Vitro Techniques , Ligation , Liver , Mice , Nerve Growth Factor , Phosphotransferases , Rodentia , Sirtuin 1
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