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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 159-168, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134329

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Epidemiological studies reported conflicting results about preoperative hydronephrosis in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). This study aimed to investigate the association between preoperative hydronephrosis and pathologic features and oncologic outcomes in patients with UTUC treated by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study of 377 patients treated by RNU without perioperative chemotherapy between January 2001 and December 2014. Logistic regression, Cox regression, and survival analyses were performed. Results: Among the 226 patients with high-grade UTUC, 132 (58%) had preoperative hydronephrosis. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that hydronephrosis was independently associated with advanced pT stage (P=0.017) and lymph node or lymphovascular invasion (P=0.002). Median follow-up was 36 months (interquartile range: 20-48 months). The 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates in patients with hydronephrosis were significantly lower than in those without hydronephrosis (both P <0.001). The 3- and 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates in patients with hydronephrosis were significantly lower than in those without hydronephrosis (both P=0.001). Hydronephrosis was independently associated with OS and CSS (P=0.001 and P=0.004, respectively). Among the 151 patients with low-grade UTUC, hydronephrosis was not associated with pathologic features and postoperative survival. Conclusions: Preoperative hydronephrosis was significantly associated with adverse pathologic features and postoperative survival in patients with high-grade UTUC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/complications , Urologic Neoplasms/surgery , Urologic Neoplasms/complications , Hydronephrosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021283, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249017

ABSTRACT

Villous adenoma is uncommonly seen in the urogenital tract and is even more rarely seen in the upper urinary tract and renal pelvis. Like colorectal adenomas, these neoplasms can transform into adenocarcinoma. The preoperative diagnosis is challenging due to their frequent association with hydronephrosis. Herein, we present the case of a villous adenoma of the renal pelvis in a 62-year-old man presenting with recurrent urinary tract infection. The computed tomography scan showed marked hydronephrosis but no suspicious mass in the right kidney. A laparoscopic right nephrectomy was performed. Gross examination revealed a dilated renal pelvis with an irregular exophytic lesion in the renal pelvis's upper surface. The histopathological examination showed slender, elongated villi with thin fibrovascular cores, consistent with villous adenoma morphology. Isolated villous adenomas have a favorable prognosis. However, the pathologist should undertake a search for an invasive component.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urologic Neoplasms , Adenoma, Villous/pathology , Kidney Pelvis/abnormalities , Pyonephrosis , Hydronephrosis
3.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 59-62, dic.2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117902

ABSTRACT

La hidronefrosis gigante se considera una entidad rara, caracterizada por la presencia de al menos 1 litro de líquido dentro del sistema pielocalicial, más frecuente en pacientes masculinos, generalmente asintomático. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 85 años de edad quien refiere desde hace 6 años dolor lumbar izquierdo y aumento de la circunferencia abdominal; en la TAC abdomino-pélvica contrastada se evidencia bolsa hidronefrótica izquierda gigante con corteza renal adelgazada que no concentra ni elimina el contraste. Se presenta el caso de paciente masculino de 85 años de edad quien refiere desde hace 5 años aumento de la circunferencia abdominal y la TAC abdomino-pélvica contrastada muestra importante dilatación del riñón y sistema colector derecho secundario a litiasis ureteral. A ambos pacientes se les practicó nefrectomía simple. Con respecto a la hidronefrosis gigante, la etiología más frecuente es la estenosis de la unión ureteropélvica seguido por la patología litiásica y tumoral; es importante considerar esta entidad como diagnóstico diferencial en caso de masas quísticas abdominales(AU)


Giant hydronephrosis is considered a rare entity, characterized by the presence of at least 1 liter of fluid within the pielocalicial system; is more frequent in males and often asymptomatic. We present an 85-year-old female patient who has a 6-year complain of left lumbar pain associated with increase in abdominal circumference. On CT scan, a giant left hydronephrotic pouch is evidenced, with a thinned renal wall that does not concentrate or eliminate contrast. We present a 61 year-old male who refers a 5-year asymptomatic increase in abdominal circumference. The CT scan reveals significant dilatation of the kidney and right collecting system secondary to ureteral lithiasis. Both patients undergo simple nephrectomy. The most frequent etiology of giant hydronephrosis is ureteropelvic junction stenosis followed by lithiasic and tumor pathology. It is important to consider this entity as a differential diagnosis in the case of abdominal cystic masses(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Pyelocystitis/physiopathology , Hydronephrosis/etiology , Urologic Diseases , Nephrectomy
4.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(2, cont.): e2309, jul-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1141378

ABSTRACT

A pionefrose consiste em uma hidronefrose contaminada, associada à destruição do parênquima renal. Tem como causas o bloqueio ureteral ou uretral por urólitos, inflamação crônica, neoplasia e ureter ectópico, seguidos de contaminação. O diagnóstico é realizado através de exames de imagem, principalmente a ultrassonografia e também através de urinálise e urocultura. Em casos avançados o tratamento preconizado é a nefrectomia. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo relatar um caso de um cão com suspeita inicial de hidronefrose. O paciente passou por nefrectomia, no pós-operatório observou-se melhora do seu quadro clínico, porém permanecendo a anemia. O diagnóstico definitivo, realizado por exame histopatológico, revelou pionefrose, entretanto sua causa não foi estabelecida.(AU)


Pyonephrosis consists of a contaminated hydronephrosis associated with the destruction of the renal parenchyma. Its causes include ureter or urethra blockage by uroliths, chronic inflammation, neoplasm, and ectopic ureter, followed by contamination. The diagnosis is made through image exams, mainly ultrasound, and also through urinalysis and uroculture. In advanced cases, nephrectomy is the recommended treatment. The objective of this study is to report a case of a dog with initial suspicion of hydronephrosis. The patient underwent nephrectomy, and during the postoperative period, an improvement in the clinical scenario was observed, despite the persistent anemia. The definitive diagnosis, carried out by histopathological examination, revealed pyonephrosis; however, its cause was not established.(AU)


La pionefrosis es una hidronefrosis contaminada, asociada con la destrucción del parénquima renal. Sus causas son el bloqueo ureteral o uretral por urolitos, inflamación crónica, neoplasia y uréter ectópico, seguido de contaminación. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante exámenes de imágenes, principalmente ultrasonografía y también mediante análisis de orina y urocultivo. En casos avanzados el tratamiento recomendado es la nefrectomía. Este artículo tiene como objetivo informar un caso de un perro con sospecha inicial de hidronefrosis. El paciente se sometió a nefrectomía; después de la operación, su estado clínico mejoró, pero la anemia permaneció. El diagnóstico definitivo realizado por el examen histopatológico reveló pionfrosis, sin embargo, su causa no se ha establecido.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Pyonephrosis , Hydronephrosis , Nephrectomy , Postoperative Period
5.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(3): 96-99, jul.-set. 2020. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129409

ABSTRACT

Contexto: O ureter circuncaval, também conhecido como pré-ureter ou ureter retrocaval, é uma rara anomalia congênita com a qual os pacientes raramente relatam sintomas até a terceira ou quarta décadas de vida. A anomalia envolve predominantemente o ureter direito. Um ureter retrocaval à esquerda é visto apenas com persistência da veia cardinal esquerda, com situs inversus completo ou duplicação da veia cava inferior. A compressão do ureter entre a veia cava inferior e as vértebras resulta em hidronefrose e ureteronefrose progressiva. Descrição do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 31 anos de idade, com dor lombar recorrente à direita há dois anos. Apresenta exame físico sem alterações evidentes, inclusive testes específicos para a coluna vertebral. Exame de tomografia computadorizada da coluna lombar realizada há 18 meses, sem alterações significativas. Discussão: O ureter circuncaval, na maioria dos casos, é assintomático. Os sintomas dependem do grau de obstrução ureteral ou da presença de complicações e consistem em dor no flanco ­ ocasionalmente a dor intermitente é a primeira queixa ­, infecções recorrentes do trato urinário, hematúria macroscópica ou microscópica. Deve ser levado em conta que o ureter retrocaval pode coexistir com outras anomalias congênitas ­ 20% dos pacientes com ureter retrocaval apresentam anomalias congênitas concomitantes. O procedimento cirúrgico geralmente consiste na divisão ureteral, ressecção do ureter estenótico e redundante com realocação e reanastomose ureteroureteral ou ureteropélvica. Conclusão: Relatamos um caso de ureter circuncaval que é uma rara anomalia congênita predominantemente


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Congenital Abnormalities , Ureter , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrocaval Ureter , Hydronephrosis
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(2): 253-259, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090581

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objetive Pelvicureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction is the main cause of hydronephrosis in childhood. Open pyeloplasty has been the gold standard treatment of this condition with success rate above 90%. The role of laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) in children is less well defined and has slowly emerged as an alternative procedure. We report outcomes of our initial experience with LP in 38 children from 2 months of age. Materials and Methods From June 2015 to December 2017 38 children aged 2-60 months (mean age 1.7 years) underwent LP for correction of PUJ obstruction. The mean pre operative anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis (APD) was 43,5mm and all patients had hydronephrosis (APD 21.4-76 mm) and obstructed curve on diuretic renogram. Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty was the performed technique. Results are reported. Results Mean operative time was 107 minutes (70-180) with no conversion to open procedure. Pain control was needed mainly in the first 12hs. Mean hospitalization was 2 days (1-5). There were complications in 5 children not affecting the final outcome. Two patients had a re-obstruction requiring a second procedure with good result. The mean follow up was 18 months (13-36). The mean reduction on the postoperative APD was 41% - p<0,001 (end APD 5 to 41mm). Overall success rate was 94,7%. All children had good cosmetic results. Conclusions This is a small series limited by short follow up, however its data suggest that LP has good functional and cosmetic results, not compromising the success of the open procedure, regardless patient age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Urologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Ureteral Obstruction/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Hydronephrosis/surgery , Kidney Pelvis/surgery , Ureteral Obstruction/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hydronephrosis/etiology , Kidney Pelvis/pathology
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e16-e21, 2020-02-00. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095573

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo fue evaluar las características clínicas y la evolución del reflujo vesicoureteral (RVU) según el sexo y grado de RVU.Población y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes con RVU vistos durante el seguimiento de rutina entre enero de 2014 y enero de 2015. Se registraron las características demográficas, la evolución, los laboratorios y las imágenes.Resultados. Se seleccionó a 220 pacientes, cuya media de edad del diagnóstico era 3,17 ± 3,08 años; en ese momento, los varones eran menores que las niñas (2,00 ± 2,59 vs. 3,81 ± 3,15, p < 0,001). La infección urinaria fue la presentación más frecuente, seguida de hidronefrosis prenatal (HNP). El 22 % de los pacientes tuvo reflujo de grado 1-2; el 51 %, de grado 3; y el 27 %, de grado 4-5. En el reflujo de grado 4-5, las ecografías y gammagrafías con ácido dimercaptosuccínico (DMSA) marcado con 99mTc presentaron más anomalías, y se realizaron más cirugías (p < 0,001). En los varones, fueron más comunes el reflujo de grado 4-5 (43,6 % vs. 18,3 %) y las anomalías ecográficas (77 % vs. 54 %) y en la DMSA (77 % vs. 59 %) (p < 0,05). En las niñas, hubo mayores tasas de infección urinaria, disfunción de las vías urinarias inferiores y resolución espontánea (p < 0,05).Conclusiones. A pesar de la menor edad al momento del diagnóstico, la resolución espontánea fue menor en los varones, y estos presentaron HNP, reflujo grave y anomalías radiológicas más frecuentemente.


Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical features and outcome parameters of children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) based on gender and VUR grade.Population and methods. Patients with VUR who were seen during routine follow-up visits at Ankara University Children's Hospital between January 2014-January 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Patient demographics, clinical course, laboratory investigations, imaging were noted.Results. Two hundred and twenty patients were recruited. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 3,17 ± 3,08 years. Boys were diagnosed at younger ages as compared to girls (2.00 ± 2,59 vs. 3,81 ± 3.15, p < 0.001). Urinary tract infection (UTI) was the most common presentation. The second presentation form was antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN) which was more common in males (25.6 %, p < 0.001). Twenty-two percent of the patients had grade 1-2, 51 % grade 3 and 27 % grade 4-5 reflux. Patients with grade 4-5 reflux had more abnormal ultrasound (US) and Tech 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) findings and surgery was performed more frequently in this group (p < 0.001). In males, grade 4-5 reflux (43.6 % vs. 18.3 %), abnormal US (77 % vs. 54 %) and DMSA (77 % vs. 59 %) findings were more frequent (p < 0.05). In girls higher rates of UTIs, lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and spontaneous reflux resolution were seen (p < 0.05).Conclusions: Despite younger age at diagnosis, spontaneous resolution was found lower in boys and they had more frequent AHN, more severe reflux, and radiological abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/diagnosis , Signs and Symptoms , Turkey/epidemiology , Urinary Tract/abnormalities , Urinary Tract Infections/surgery , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Demographic Data , Hydronephrosis
9.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; Vol.3(2): 3-8, ene. 27, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050912

ABSTRACT

La pielonefritis enfisematosa, más que una entidad poco frecuente, se considera subdiagnosticada, pues requiere gran agudeza clínica para su identificación. Se define como una complicación necrotizante del riñón, que pone en peligro la vida del paciente y que se caracteriza por la acumulación de gas en el parénquima renal y los tejidos vecinos. Este caso se presentó de forma epidemiológicamente atípica por tratarse de un hombre con una anomalía renal y del tracto urinario, el riñón en herradura, lo que vuelve aún más complejo el abordaje diagnóstico y manejo de esta patología. Este caso es una referencia de la experiencia en el abordaje con catéter percutáneo como opción no tradicional de tratamiento. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura para tratar de comprender mejor las opciones en estudios de imagen para su diagnóstico y las características clínicas de esta afección, la cual sigue siendo controversial por tener una mortalidad tan alta.


Emphysematous pyelonephritis, rather than a rare entity, is considered underdiagnosed because it requires great clinical acuity for its identification; It is defined as a necrotizing complication of the kidney, which threats the life of the patient and is characterized by the accumulation of gas in the renal parenchyma and neighboring tissues. This case was presented epidemiologically atypical because it is a man with an abnormality of the kidney and urinary tract, such as the horseshoe kidney, which makes the diagnostic approach and management of this pathology even more complex. This case is a reference of the experience in the approach with percutaneous catheter as a non-traditional treatment option; conducting a review of the literature to try to better understand the options in imaging studies for diagnosis and the clinical characteristics of this condition, which remains controversial for having such a high mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pyelonephritis , Drainage , Kidney , Hydronephrosis
10.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 6(2): 159-165, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1093040

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fibrosis retroperitoneal es una patología rara, en la mayoría de los casos idiopática, aunque se ha asociado a medicamentos, neoplasias y otras enfermedades de tejido conectivo. Histopatológicamente se evidencia inflamación y depósito de tejido fibrótico en el retroperitoneo y se caracteriza por cubrir los uréteres provocando lesión renal aguda obstructiva siendo ésta, la manifestación más frecuente; el diagnóstico definitivo se obtiene únicamente con biopsia y la base del tratamiento es la corticoterapia, aunque en casos severos y en resistencia a los corticoides se han usado otras terapias como los inmunomuladores. En ocasiones son necesarias las intervenciones quirúrgicas para el manejo de las complicaciones. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 50 años que ingresó al servicio de urgencias del Hospital San José por dolor abdominal, los paraclínicos demostraron elevación de los azoados y en las imágenes diagnósticas hidronefrosis izquierda con componente de tejido blando interaortocava y periaórtico, se realizó biopsia retroperitoneal y se hizo diagnóstico de fibrosis retroperitoneal idiopática, se instauraron nefrostomías bilaterales y se inició manejo con corticoide.


Abstract Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare, in most cases idiopathic, pathology, although it has been associated with medications, neoplasms and other connective tissue diseases. In terms of histopathology, inflammation and deposits of fibrotic tissue in the retroperitoneum are observed and, characteristically, this covers the urethra, provoking acute obstructive kidney damage, the most frequent manifestation of the disease. The definitive diagnosis is obtained solely via biopsy, and the basis of treatment is corticotherapy, although in severe cases, and where resistance to corticosteroids exists, other treatments have been used, such as immunomodulators. Occasionally, surgical interventions are necessary to manage complications. The case of a 50-year-old man who came to the Hospital emergency service due to abdominal pain is presented. Paraclinical studies showed azotemia, and diagnostic images showed left hydronephrosis with a component of interaortocaval and periaortic soft tissue. A retroperitoneal biopsy was conducted, and a diagnosis of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis was made. Bilateral nephrostomies were put in place and treatment with corticosteroids was initiated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Retroperitoneal Fibrosis , Acute Kidney Injury , Urethra , Colombia , Connective Tissue , Nephrotomy , Hydronephrosis
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1266-1269, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe the rare case of a 61-year-old female with right ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction caused by metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. Her past medical history was notable for cholangiocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation and two orthotopic liver transplants six years earlier. Urology was consulted when she presented with flank pain and urinary tract infection. Diagnostic workup demonstrated right UPJ obstruction. She was managed acutely with percutaneous nephrostomy. She subsequently underwent robotic pyeloplasty and intrinsic obstruction of the UPJ was discovered. Histological examination revealed adenocarcinoma, consistent with systemic recurrence of the patient's known cholangiocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pelvic Neoplasms/complications , Ureteral Neoplasms/complications , Ureteral Obstruction/etiology , Cholangiocarcinoma/complications , Pelvic Neoplasms/secondary , Ureteral Neoplasms/secondary , Ureteral Obstruction/pathology , Ureteral Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Bile Duct Neoplasms/pathology , Urography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cholangiocarcinoma/secondary , Hydronephrosis/etiology , Hydronephrosis/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 965-973, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040084

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective We aimed to evaluate the results of laparoscopic pyeloplasty with concomitant pyelolithotomy and compare results with a cohort of patients undergoing laparoscopic pyeloplasty without pyelolithotomy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of 43 patients undergoing transperitoneal laparoscopic Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty between December 2012 and July 2018 at our department. Eighteen patients (42%) underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty with concomitant pyelolithotomy. The results of patients with renal stones were compared with 25 matched patients undergoing laparoscopic pyeloplasty without concomitant renal stones. Demographic data, operative and stone parameters were compared between the groups. Results The groups were similar regarding to demographic characteristics. All operations were completed laparoscopically with no conversions to open surgery. In 3 cases without renal stones and 15 cases with renal stones, transposition of the ureter due to crossing vessels was performed. The mean stone size was 13±5.24 mm, and the median number of stones was 1 (1-18). The success of laparoscopic pyeloplasty with and without pyelolithotomy was 93.3% and 92.9%, respectively, as confirmed by negative diuretic renogram at postoperative 3rd months. Overall stone-free rate after laparoscopic pyelolithotomy was 93.3%. Mean operative time was 222.6765.71 minutes vs. 219.11±75.63 minutes for the pyeloplasty with concomitant pyelolithotomy vs. pyeloplasty, respectively (p=0.88). Conclusions Laparoscopic pyeloplasty with concomitant pyelolithotomy is a safe and effective intervention with associated good cosmetic results and high stone-free rates without significant increase in operative time or complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Ureteral Obstruction/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Nephrolithiasis/surgery , Nephrotomy/methods , Kidney Pelvis/surgery , Urologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Nephrolithiasis/pathology , Operative Time , Hydronephrosis/surgery , Length of Stay , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 45(3): e484, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093659

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las malformaciones congénitas, como defectos estructurales primarios de un órgano, parte de él o de zonas más extensas del organismo, resultan de una alteración inherente en el desarrollo, que se hace evidente al examen físico del feto y del recién nacido, antes o posterior al nacimiento, cuando se hace patente el defecto funcional de un órgano interno afectado anatómicamente. Objetivo: Caracterizar las malformaciones congénitas renales fetales diagnosticadas por ultrasonografía bidimensional, atendidas durante 2015 y 2016. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo en el Centro Provincial de Genética Médica de Santiago de Cuba. Se seleccionó la muestra por el método aleatorio simple para un total de 59 gestantes (34 de 2015 y 25 de 2016), a las que se les diagnosticó algún tipo de malformación congénita renal embriofetal. Resultados: La malformación congénita renal que predominó fue la hidronefrosis, seguida de riñón poliquístico. En los hallazgos morfológicos por ecosonografía predominaron las afecciones del parénquima renal. El sexo fetal de mayor incidencia fue el masculino. La edad gestacional donde incidieron las afecciones renales en gestantes fue de 25 y más semanas, con edad materna entre 20 y 35 años, sin reportar factores genéticos. Los factores de riesgo externos de origen materno que más incidieron fueron la hipertensión arterial, el hábito de fumar y la diabetes. Conclusiones: Se mostraron los principales hallazgos morfológicos ultrasonográficos de los diferentes tipos de malformaciones congénitas renales encontradas, así como se identificaron los diferentes factores de riesgo presentes en las embarazadas. Se observó un predominio de las gestantes a temprana edad con hidronefrosis como el tipo de malformación congénita más frecuente(AU)


Introduction: Congenital malformations, as primary structural defects of an organ, part of it or larger areas of the organism, result from an inherent alteration in development, which is evident from the physical examination of the fetus and the newborn, before or after birth, when the functional defect of an anatomically affected internal organ becomes apparent. Objective: To characterize fetal renal congenital malformations diagnosed by two-dimensional ultrasonography during 2015 and 2016. Methods: A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was conducted at the Provincial Center of Medical Genetics in Santiago de Cuba. The sample was selected by simple random method for a total of 59 pregnant women (34 from 2015 and 25 from 2016). They were diagnosed with some type of embryo-fetal renal congenital malformation. Results: The congenital renal malformation that predominated was hydronephrosis, followed by polycystic kidney. In the morphological findings by echocardiography, renal parenchymal conditions predominated. Male fetal sex had the highest incidence. The gestational age where renal conditions affected pregnant women was 25 weeks and more, with maternal age ranging 20 and 35 years, without reporting genetic factors. Smoking and diabetes were the external risk factors of maternal origin that most affected high blood pressure. Conclusions: The main ultrasonographic morphological findings of the different types of congenital renal malformations found were shown, as well as the different risk factors present in pregnant women. A predominance of pregnant women at early age with hydronephrosis was observed as the most common type of congenital malformation(AU)


Subject(s)
Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive/epidemiology , Hydronephrosis/epidemiology , Kidney/abnormalities , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 828-832, May-June 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011304

ABSTRACT

Retrocaval ureter (RU) is an abnormal embryonic development of the caudal vena cava (CVC) that leads the ureter to be entrapped dorsal to the CVC. In most cases there is no clinical impact; however, it can cause hydronephrosis. We report a rare case of type II symptomatic retrocaval ureter in a feline treated with nephroureterectomy. A 4-year-old, intact male, mixed breed cat was submitted to abdominal ultrasound and severe right hydronephrosis was diagnosed, with no signs of obstruction. We performed an exploratory celiotomy, in which a displacement of the right ureter dorsal to the CVC was observed. The animal was treated with ureteronephrectomy and recovered well. No intraluminal cause was found, and a urethral catheter could be easily inserted across the ureter length. The real clinical relevance of the RU is unknown, since it is a common find in post-mortem examination without kidney impact and, when significant, is often associated to other causes of ureteral obstructions, such as calculi and strictures. Additionally, in humans, type II RU seldom develops obstruction and hydronephrosis. In our case, due to absence of other causes of obstruction, probably mechanical compression of the CVC against the psoas muscle caused the hydronephrosis.(AU)


O ureter retrocava (UR) é originado por uma falha na formação embriológica da veia cava caudal (VCC), que leva ao aprisionamento do ureter dorsal à VCC. Na maioria dos casos, não há impacto clínico; entretanto, essa anomalia pode causar hidronefrose. Relata-se um raro caso de UR tipo II sintomático em um felino, tratado com nefroureterectomia. O referido animal, sem raça definida, macho intacto de quatro anos de idade, foi submetido à ultrassonografia abdominal, que revelou acentuada hidronefrose direita, sem sinais de obstrução. Realizou-se celiotomia exploratória, na qual foi possível observar o ureter direito dorsal à VCC. O animal foi tratado com nefroureterectomia e se recuperou satisfatoriamente. Nenhuma causa intraluminal foi encontrada e um cateter uretral pôde ser facilmente inserido por todo o comprimento do ureter. A real relevância clínica do UR é desconhecida, visto que é um achado comum em exames post mortem, sem impacto aos rins e, quando significante, frequentemente está associado a outras causas de obstrução ureteral, como cálculos e estenoses. Adicionalmente, em humanos, o UR tipo II raramente desenvolve obstrução e hidronefrose. Neste caso, devido à ausência de outros motivos de obstrução, acredita-se que a compressão mecânica da VCC contra o músculo psoas foi a causa da hidronefrose.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cat Diseases/congenital , Retrocaval Ureter/veterinary , Hydronephrosis/veterinary , Nephrectomy/veterinary
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 617-620, May-June 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012325

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Pyeloplasty is considered the gold standard treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). However, the failure rate of pyeloplasty is as high as 10% and repeat pyeloplasty is more difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of balloon dilatation for failed pyeloplasty in children. Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2017, 15 patients, aged 6 months to 14 years, were treated with balloon dilation for restenosis of UPJO after a failed pyeloplasty. Ultrasound and intravenous urography were used to evaluate the primary outcome. Success was defined as the relief of symptoms and improvement of hydronephrosis, which was identified by ultrasound at the last follow-up. Results: All patients successfully completed the operation, 13 patients by retrograde approach and 2 patients by antegrade approach. Thirteen patients were followed for a median of 15 (4 to 57) months and 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Resolution of the hydronephrosis was observed in 5 cases. The anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the pelvis decreased by an average of 12.4 ± 14.4mm. Eight patients needed another surgery. The average postoperative hospital stay was 1.78 ± 1.4 days. Two patients experienced fever after balloon dilation. No other complications were found. Conclusions: Balloon dilatation surgery is safe for children, but it is not recommended for failed pyeloplasty in that group of patients, owing to the low success rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Urologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Ureteral Obstruction/surgery , Urinary Catheterization/methods , Kidney Pelvis/surgery , Urologic Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Ureteral Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Urinary Catheterization/instrumentation , Urography/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography/methods , Treatment Outcome , Hydronephrosis/surgery , Kidney Pelvis/diagnostic imaging
16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(2): e2018085, Abr.-Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-999245

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among females worldwide. Despite all therapeutic advances, metastatic breast cancer is still associated with a median overall survival of 3 years. Alongside this condition, bladder metastases of solid neoplasms are rarely observed. In this setting, the secondary bladder tumors with an origin in breast cancer occur in 2.5% of cases in some series. The authors report the case of a 68-year-old female with stage IV breast cancer (bone metastasis) treated with anastrozole, who presented with peripheral edema and renal failure with a creatinine clearance of 12.5 mL/min. After hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with new liver lesions and bladder involvement with bilateral hydronephrosis. She was submitted to bilateral percutaneous nephrostomies with improvement in renal function. There was a high suspicion of primary bladder tumor in this patient who was a previous smoker, with a family history of high-grade bladder carcinoma (her mother). Liver and transurethral biopsies were performed, and histological examination was consistent with breast cancer metastases. The patient started treatment with capecitabine and denosumab, remaining clinically stable after 3 months of treatment. This case report underlines the diagnostic challenges of bladder metastases in a patient with multiple risk factors for bladder cancer and without evident clinical symptoms. Even though this is a rare entity, the close surveillance of metastatic breast cancer is important in order to allow early detection of new metastatic sites and their treatment to preserve the quality of life in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/secondary , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Hydronephrosis/etiology
17.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(1): 19-21, mar. 2019. ilus., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022121

ABSTRACT

La policitemia primaria es producida por una mutación adquirida o heredada en las células progenitoras de los glóbulos rojos, mientras que la poliglobulia secundaria está relacionada con un aumento de la eritropoyetina sérica como respuesta a la hipoxia tisular o a la producción autónoma tumoral. Hace más de medio siglo que se conoce que la hidronefrosis puede actuar como una rara causa de eritrocitosis debido al aumento de producción de eritropoyetina por un riñón que censa una disminución de oxígeno, mecanismo también observado en la estenosis de la arteria renal y en los quistes renales. Se describe a continuación el caso de un paciente de 38 años con poliglobulia atendido en el Hospital Italiano de San Justo (Argentina), que presenta como hallazgo una hidronefrosis unilateral severa y cuya resolución quirúrgica a través de una nefrectomía revierte el cuadro hematológico de base. (AU)


Primary polycythemia is produced by an acquired or inherited mutation in progenitor cells of red blood cells, while secondary polyglobulia is related to an increase in serum erythropoietin in response to tissue hypoxia or autonomous tumor production. Since the middle of the twentieth century, the hydronephrosis is known to be a rare etiology of secondary polycythemia, with increased erythropoietin production caused by diminished oxygen sensing by the kidney, also seen in renal artery stenosis and kidney cysts. We describe a case of a 38 year old patient with polycythemia studied in the "Hospital Italiano de San Justo" (Argentina) that presented an incidental severe unilateral hydronephrosis, and nephrectomy was carried out as a final resolution of the hematological disorder. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Polycythemia/diagnosis , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Erythropoietin/blood , Hydronephrosis/diagnosis , Nephrectomy/trends , Polycythemia/complications , Polycythemia/etiology , Pyelonephritis/blood , Renal Artery Obstruction/pathology , Low Back Pain , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Erythrocytes/physiology , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/pathology , Dysuria , Fever , Hydronephrosis/surgery , Hydronephrosis/complications , Anemia , Nephrectomy/methods
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability of the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) and Onen grading systems for fetal hydronephrosis in prenatal ultrasound according to the level of experience of the examiner. METHODS: We reviewed the prenatal ultrasound images of 146 fetuses (292 kidneys) that were diagnosed as having hydronephrosis between January 2005 and December 2014. One expert and two trainees assessed the prenatal renal ultrasound images using the SFU and Onen grading systems. The three examiners independently assessed each ultrasound image with both grading systems and reassessed the same images after 7 to 14 days. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to estimate intra- and inter-observer reliability in prenatal ultrasound images according to training level. RESULTS: The intra-observer reliability of the SFU grading system (κ 0.873–0.945) showed almost perfect agreement and that of the Onen grading system (κ 0.749–0.913) showed substantial to almost perfect agreement. The overall inter-observer reliability of the SFU grading system (κ 0.620–0.825) showed substantial to almost perfect agreement and that of the Onen grading system (κ 0.618–0.724) showed substantial agreement. The weighted kappa value of inter-observer agreement was 0.223 to 0.400 for SFU grade 1 and 0.064 to 0.346 for SFU grade 3. For Onen grading, the inter-observer agreement was 0.012 to 0.214 for grade 2 and 0.193 to 0.334 for grade 3. CONCLUSION: Both the SFU and Onen grading systems showed good intra-observer agreement in prenatal ultrasonography. The inter-observer agreement was decreased in SFU grades 1 and 3 and Onen grades 2 and 3. Therefore, more focus should be given to SFU grades 1 and 3 and Onen grades 2 and 3 for trainees.


Subject(s)
Fetus , Hydronephrosis , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Urology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of fetal anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APD) in predicting antenatal hydronephrosis requiring surgical treatment after birth.@*METHODS@#A total of 525 cases of antenatal hydronephrosis detected by prenatal ultrasonography (ultrasound index APD ≥ 4 mm in the second trimester and APD ≥ 7 mm in the third trimester) in Zhejiang Prenatal Diagnosis Center from June 2007 to June 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. ROC curve was used to analyze the relationship between these ultrasound indicators and the requirement for surgical treatment after birth.@*RESULTS@#There were 162 cases (30.9%) diagnosed in the second trimester and 363 cases (69.1%) diagnosed in the third trimester; 131 cases were diagnosed pathologically after birth, of which 121 finally underwent surgical treatment. The area under ROC curve (AUC) of APD in middle pregnancy for prediction of requiring surgery 1-12 years after birth was 0.910; the cut-off value of APD was 8.45 mm with a sensitivity of 97.1%, specificity of 70.9%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 47.9%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.9%. The AUC of APD in late pregnancy for prediction of requiring surgery 1-12 years after birth was 0.800; the cut-off value of APD was 12.25 mm with a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 81.2%, PPV of 51.7%, and NPV of 89.1%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#APD in pregnancy can be used to predict whether the fetus with hydronephrosis needs surgical treatment after birth, and the prediction value of APD in the middle pregnancy is better.


Subject(s)
Female , Fetus , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Hydronephrosis , Diagnostic Imaging , General Surgery , Kidney Pelvis , Diagnostic Imaging , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
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