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2.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 389-397, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152812

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Explorar la asociación entre consumo de estatinas (CE) y desarrollo de síndrome postrombótico (SPT). Método: Cohorte retrospectiva con pacientes con primer episodio de trombosis venosa profunda (TVP) entre el 06/2006 y el 12/2017, incluidos en el Registro Institucional de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIET) del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Se consideró exposición al CE entre los 30 días previos y hasta 180 días posterior al diagnóstico de TVP. Se definió SPT según constaba este dato en la base de seguimiento del RIET. Se evaluó el desarrollo de SPT con un modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox, reportando hazard ratios (HR) crudas y ajustadas. Se consideró la confusión por indicación del CE y se utilizó un propensity score (PS) para el ajuste del riesgo estimado, reportando los HR con sus intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC 95%). Resultados: Se incluyeron 905 pacientes, de los cuales 273 fueron CE y 632 no consumidor de estatinas (NCE). Al seguimiento, la incidencia de SPT fue: 6.59% (18) en el grupo CE y 8.07% (51) en el grupo NCE, con p = 0.412. La razón de riesgo para el desarrollo de SPT de CE resultó no significativa (HR cruda: 0.78; IC 95%: 0.43-1.41; p = 0.414). La HR de CE ajustada por edad, sexo, antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, corticosteroides, inmovilidad, anticoagulante, hipertensión arterial, diabetes, dislipidemia, insuficiencia renal crónica, enfermedad coronaria, accidente cerebrovascular, insuficiencia cardiaca y enfermedad oncológica fue 0.45 (IC 95%: 0.13-1.5; p = 0.196). La HR del CE ajustado por edad, sexo, antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, corticosteroides, inmovilidad, tratamiento anticoagulante, enfermedad oncológica y PS fue de 0.52 (IC 95%: 0.17-1.66; p = 0.272). Conclusiones: El CE no se asoció con menor SPT, aunque hubo escaso número de eventos detectados.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between statin consumption and development of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Methods: Retrospective cohort study which included patients with a first episode of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) between 06/2006 and 12/2017, included in the Institutional Registry of ThromboEmbolic Disease of the Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Exposure to statin use (SU) was considered between the 30 days before and up to 180 days after the diagnosis of DVT. PTS was defined as recorded dataset on registry. The development of PTS was evaluated with Cox proportional hazards model, raw and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were reported. Confusion was considered by indication of SU and a propensity score (PS) was used for adjustment. We reported HR with their 95% confidence interval (CI); p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 1393 patients, 905 were included for the analysis, of which 273 were SU and 632 non-statin users (NSU). At follow-up, incidence of PTS was: 6.59% (18) in the SU group and 8.07% (51) in the NSU group, with p = 0.412. Crude HR for PTS for SU was not significant (0.78; 95% CI: 0.43-1.41; p = 0.414). Adjusted HR of SU by age, sex, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, immobility, anticoagulant, high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, chronic renal failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and cancer disease was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.13-1.5; p = 0.196) for PTS. While HR for the development of PTS adjusted by age, sex, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, immobility, anticoagulant treatment, cancer disease and PS of the SU was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.17-1.66; p = 0.272). Conclusion: No statistically significant association was found between CE and the development of SPT, although there were a small number of events detected in both groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Postthrombotic Syndrome/prevention & control , Argentina , Registries , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Postthrombotic Syndrome/epidemiology
4.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 30(3): 238-251, 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051224

ABSTRACT

Prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia should therefore be considered as an integral part of individual cardiovascular prevention interventions, which should be addressed primarily to those at higher risk who will benefit most. Statins are the most commonly used options for the pharmacologic treatment of dyslipidemia. In recent decades, numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of these drugs to reduce cardiovascular mortality and major non-fatal atherothrombotic events in heterogeneous populations through both primary and secondary prevention. This group of drugs is part of the recommendations of both US and European guidelines, and should be prescribed to all patients who have already had a cardiovascular event and have no specific contraindication. However, a large percentage of patients that would benefit from a statin treatment do not receive them, have been prescribed a low dose or for a limited time. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(6): 810-821, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Children with familial hypercholesterolemia may develop early endothelial damage leading to a high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins have been shown to be effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels and cardiovascular events in adults. The effect of statin treatment in the pediatric population is not clearly demonstrated. Objective: To systematically review the literature to evaluate the effects of different statins and dosages in total cholesterol levels in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia. We also aimed to evaluate statin safety in this group. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Bireme, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO and LILACS databases, were searched for articles published from inception until February 2016. Two independent reviewers performed the quality assessment of the included studies. We performed a meta-analysis with random effects and inverse variance, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: Ten trials involving a total of 1543 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our study showed reductions in cholesterol levels according to the intensity of statin doses (high, intermediate and low): (-104.61 mg/dl, -67.60 mg/dl, -56.96 mg/dl) and in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: [-105.03 mg/dl (95% CI -115.76, -94.30), I2 19.2%], [-67.85 mg/dl (95% CI -83.36, -52.35), I2 99.8%], [-58.97 mg/dl (95% CI -67.83, -50.11), I2 93.8%. The duration of statin therapy in the studies ranged from 8 to 104 weeks, precluding conclusions about long-term effects. Conclusion: Statin treatment is efficient in lowering lipids in children with FH. There is need of large, long-term and randomized controlled trials to establish the long-term safety of statins.


Resumo Fundamentos: Crianças com hipercolesterolemia familiar podem desenvolver dano endotelial precoce, aumentando o risco de desenvolver doenças cardiovasculares. As estatinas tiveram sua eficácia em diminuir níveis de colesterol LDL e eventos cardiovasculares em adultos comprovada. O efeito das estatinas na população pediátrica não está claramente demonstrado. Objetivo: Revisar sistematicamente a literatura para avaliar os efeitos e a segurança de diferentes estatinas e suas dosagens nos níveis de colesterol total em crianças e adolescentes com hipercolesterolêmica familiar. Métodos: Artigos publicados desde o início até fevereiro de 2016 foram pesquisados nas bases PubMed, EMBASE, Bireme, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO e LILACS. Dois revisores independentes avaliaram a qualidade dos estudos incluídos. Realizamos meta-análise com efeitos aleatórios e variância inversa. Análises de subgrupos foram realizadas. Resultados: Dez ensaios envolvendo 1.543 pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Em nosso estudo, as análises demostraram reduções nos níveis de colesterol, de acordo com a intensidade das doses de estatina (alta, intermediária e baixa): (-104,61 mg/dl, -67,60 mg/dl, -56,96 mg/dl) e no nível de lipoproteínas de baixa densidade: [-105,03 mg/dl (IC95% -115.76, -94.30), I2 19.2%], [-67.85 mg/dl (IC95% -83.36, -52.35), I2 99.8%], [-58.97 mg/dl (IC95% -67.83, -50.11), I2 93,8%. A duração da terapia com estatina variou de 8 a 104 semanas, impedindo conclusões sobre os efeitos a longo prazo. Conclusão: O tratamento com estatinas é eficiente na redução de lipídios em crianças com hipercolesterolemia familiar. É necessário realizar ensaios controlados randomizados de longo prazo para estabelecer a segurança do uso de estatinas a longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage
7.
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-909277

ABSTRACT

A causa mais comum de mortalidade no paciente diabético é a doença cardiovascular, tendo como um de seus principais representantes a doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Homens acima de 40 anos e mulheres acima de 50 anos com DM tipo um ou tipo dois, geralmente, apresentam risco de eventos coronarianos > 2% ao ano. O risco de eventos cardiovasculares ou óbito será mais elevado quando houver diagnóstico clínico de DAC crônica após infarto do miocárdio, acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) ou ataque isquêmico transitório ou mesmo na presença de angina do peito, dispneia de origem isquêmica (equivalente anginoso), claudicação intermitente ou doença da aorta. Os objetivos fundamentais do tratamento da DAC crônica nos pacientes diabéticos não se diferenciam da população não diabética e incluem: prevenção do infarto do miocárdio e redução da mortalidade; redução dos sintomas e da ocorrência da isquemia miocárdica, proporcionando melhor qualidade de vida. Todos os pacientes diabéticos com doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica estabelecida devem receber terapia farmacológica otimizada, medicamentos que reduzam a incidência de infarto e aumentem a sobrevida e medicamentos que melhorem a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Dessa forma, é fundamental e de prioridade iniciar o tratamento com medicamentos que reduzam a morbimortalidade e associar, quando necessário, medicamentos que controlem a angina e reduzam a isquemia miocárdica. A intervenção de revascularização na DAC crônica em pacientes diabéticos, seja percutânea ou cirúrgica, não deve ser considerada como alternativa, mas sim, como complementar ao tratamento medicamentoso otimizado. O momento dessas intervenções ainda é motivo de diversas controvérsias dentro da cardiologia, mas deve ser considerado quando houver ineficácia desse tratamento medicamentoso otimizado. Portanto, a decisão quanto a intervenção diagnóstica e terapêutica invasiva vai depender, principalmente, do risco a que o paciente é submetido, dependendo da presença e extensão da isquemia miocárdica e da severidade da sintomatologia da dor ou outro sintoma que possa indicar um equivalente isquêmico (disfunção ventricular e/ou arritmia).


The most common cause of mortality among diabetic patients is cardiovascular disease, one of the main representatives of which is coronary artery disease (CAD). Men aged over 40 years and women over 50 years with type 1 or type 2 DM generally present risk of coronary events of >2% a year. The risk of cardiovascular events or death is higher when there is a clinical diagnosis of chronic CAD following myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or transitory ischemic attack, or even in the presence of angina of the chest, dyspnea of ischemic origin (anginal equivalent), intermittent claudication, or aortic disease. The fundamental objectives of treatment of chronic CAD in diabetic patients are no different from those in the non-diabetic population, and include: preventing myocardial infarction and reducing mortality; reducing the symptoms and occurrence of myocardial ischemia, improving quality of life. All diabetic patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease should receive optimized pharmacological therapy, medications that reduce the incidence of stroke and increase survival, and medications that improve the patients' quality of life. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to begin treatment with medications that reduce morbimortality and toassociate, where necessary, medications that control angina and reduce myocardial ischemia. Revascularization intervention in chronic CAD in diabetic patients, whether percutaneous or surgical, should not be considered as an alternative, but rather, as complementary to optimized drug treatment. The best time to perform these interventions is still a motive of various controversies within cardiology, but should be considered when this optimized drug treatment is ineffective. Therefore, the decision on diagnostic and invasive therapeutic intervention will depend, mainly, on the risk to which the patient is exposed, depending on the presence and extent of the myocardial ischemia and the severity of the pain or other symptoms that may indicate an ischemic equivalent (ventricular dysfunction and/or arrhythmia).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Chronic Disease/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage
8.
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(6): 508-517, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887889

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The best way to select individuals for lipid-lowering treatment in the population is controversial. Objective: In healthy individuals in primary prevention: to assess the relationship between cardiovascular risk categorized according to the V Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and the risk calculated by the pooled cohort equations (PCE); to compare the proportion of individuals eligible for statins, according to different criteria. Methods: In individuals aged 40-75 years consecutively submitted to routine health assessment at one single center, four criteria of eligibility for statin were defined: BR-1, BR-2 (LDL-c above or at least 30 mg/dL above the goal recommended by the Brazilian Guideline, respectively), USA-1 and USA-2 (10-year risk estimated by the PCE ≥ 5.0% or ≥ 7.5%, respectively). Results: The final sample consisted of 13,947 individuals (48 ± 6 years, 71% men). Most individuals at intermediate or high risk based on the V Brazilian Guideline had a low risk calculated by the PCE, and more than 70% of those who were considered at high risk had this categorization because of the presence of aggravating factors. Among women, 24%, 17%, 4% and 2% were eligible for statin use according to the BR-1, BR-2, USA-1 and USA-2 criteria, respectively (p < 0.01). The respective figures for men were 75%, 58%, 31% and 17% (p < 0.01). Eighty-five percent of women and 60% of men who were eligible for statin based on the BR-1 criterion would not be candidates for statin based on the USA-1 criterion. Conclusions: As compared to the North American Guideline, the V Brazilian Guideline considers a substantially higher proportion of the population as eligible for statin use in primary prevention. This results from discrepancies between the risk stratified by the Brazilian Guideline and that calculated by the PCE, particularly because of the risk reclassification based on aggravating factors.


Resumo Fundamento: Existe controvérsia sobre a melhor forma de selecionar indivíduos para tratamento hipolipemiante na população. Objetivos: Em indivíduos saudáveis em prevenção primária: avaliar a relação entre o risco cardiovascular segundo a V Diretriz Brasileira de Dislipidemias e o risco calculado pelas pooled cohort equations (PCE); comparar a proporção de indivíduos elegíveis para estatinas, de acordo com diferentes critérios. Métodos: Em indivíduos de 40 a 75 anos submetidos consecutivamente a avaliação rotineira de saúde em um único centro, quatro critérios de elegibilidade para estatina foram definidos: BR-1, BR-2 (LDL-c acima ou pelo menos 30 mg/dL acima da meta preconizada pela diretriz brasileira, respectivamente), EUA-1 e EUA-2 (risco estimado pelas PCE em 10 anos ≥ 5,0% ou ≥ 7,5%, respectivamente). Resultados: Foram estudados 13.947 indivíduos (48 ± 6 anos, 71% homens). A maioria dos indivíduos de risco intermediário ou alto pela V Diretriz apresentou risco calculado pelas PCE baixo e mais de 70% daqueles considerados de alto risco o foram devido à presença de fator agravante. Foram elegíveis para estatina 24%, 17%, 4% e 2% das mulheres pelos critérios BR-1, BR-2, EUA-1 e EUA-2, respectivamente (p < 0,01). Os respectivos valores para os homens foram 75%, 58%, 31% e 17% (p < 0,01). Oitenta e cinco por cento das mulheres e 60% dos homens elegíveis para estatina pelo critério BR-1 não seriam candidatos pelo critério EUA-1. Conclusões: Comparada à diretriz norte-americana, a V Diretriz Brasileira considera uma proporção substancialmente maior da população como elegível para estatina em prevenção primária. Isso se relaciona com discrepâncias entre o risco estratificado pela diretriz brasileira e o calculado pelas PCE, particularmente devido à reclassificação de risco baseada em fatores agravantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol/blood , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Societies, Medical , United States , Brazil , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Risk Factors , American Heart Association , Hypercholesterolemia/complications , Hypercholesterolemia/blood
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 255-262, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839220

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of statins on the development of sepsis and infection-related organ dysfunction and mortality in a hospitalized older Chinese population with bacterial infections. In this retrospective cohort study, 257 older patients with bacterial infection were divided into two groups: a statin group, those who had received statin therapy for ≥1 month before admission and continued receiving statin during hospitalization; and a non-statin group, those who had never received statin or used statin for <1 month prior to admission. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk and protective factors for severe sepsis. A significantly lower incidence of organ dysfunction was found in the statin group, as compared with the non-statin group (13.3% vs 31.1%, respectively; p = 0.002), corresponding to adjusted rates ratio of 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.75; p = 0.009). No significant difference was found between statin and non-statin groups in 30-day sepsis-related mortality (4.4% vs 10.2%, respectively; p = 0.109), incidence of intensive care unit admission (13.3% vs 16.8%, respectively; p = 0.469), or length of hospital stay (20.5 vs 25.9 days, respectively; p = 0.61). Statins significantly reduced the development of sepsis and infection-related organ dysfunction in hospitalized older Chinese patients but did not reduce 30-day mortality, ICU admission incidence, or length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/complications , Critical Illness , Sepsis/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , China , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Sepsis/mortality , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Length of Stay , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(12): 826-833, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837662

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of modified coconut water as fluid of resuscitation combined with simvastatin in hemorrhagic shock and sepsis model in rats. METHODS: Four groups of Wistar rats with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal sepsis were studied (n=8/group). Rats were bled and maintained at a mean blood pressure 35mmHg for 60min. They were then resuscitated with: 1) saline 0.9%; 2) coconut water+3% NaCl; 3) coconut water+NaCl 3%+simvastatin microemulsion (10 mg/kg i.v.; 4) normal coconut water. At 8h post-resuscitation, blood and lungs were collected for exams. RESULTS: Clinical scores, TNF-α, IL-1β, liver/kidney proof levels, and lung injury were significantly reduced in coconut water+NaCl 3%+simvastatin group treated rats, comparing with the other resuscitation treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Resuscitation with coconut water with Nacl 3%+simvastatin had a significant beneficial effect on downregulating cytokines and decreasing lung injury in a rat model of abdominal sepsis and hemorrhagic shock. We also demonstrated that coconut water with Nacl 3%+simvastatin administration clearly made liver and kidney function better and improved clinical score.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Shock, Hemorrhagic/drug therapy , Water , Cocos/chemistry , Sepsis/drug therapy , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Resuscitation/methods , Cacao , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Lung/drug effects
13.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(3): 180-189, jul.-set. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-832403

ABSTRACT

Nas últimas duas décadas, comprovou-se que a terapia com estatinas é o instrumento isolado mais potente para atenuar o risco cardiovascular, e seu uso frequente foi enfatizado como um dos elementos mais importantes para reduzir a mortalidade cardiovascular nos países desenvolvidos. Uma incidência igualmente frequente de sintomas musculares em usuários de estatinas levanta a possibilidade de um nexo de causalidade, que leva a uma entidade patológica conhecida como sintomas musculares associados a estatinas (SMAS). Estudos e ensaios clínicos mecanicistas destinados a estudar os SMAS levaram a uma definição clara da sua história natural e incidência exata. Essa informação é essencial para evitar riscos desnecessários de formas graves de SMAS. Ao mesmo tempo, essa compreensão concreta dos SMAS evita o diagnóstico exagerado e a suspensão desnecessária de uma das mais poderosas estratégias de prevenção atuais. Nesse contexto, este artigo de revisão reuniu todas as informações disponíveis sobre o assunto, que são apresentadas em detalhe neste documento como a base da identificação e tratamento dos SMAS


In the last 2 decades, statin therapy has proved to be the most potent isolated instrument for attenuating cardiovascular risk, and its frequent use has been highlighted as one of the most important elements for reducing cardiovascular mortality in developed countries. An equally frequent incidence of muscle symptoms in statin users raises the possibility of a causal link, leading to a disease entity known as statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). Mechanistic studies and clinical trials designed to the study of SAMS have led to a clear definition of its natural history and accurate incidence. This information is vital for avoiding unnecessary risk of severe forms of SAMS. At the same time, this concrete understanding of SAMS prevents over-diagnosis and unnecessary suspension of one of the most powerful prevention strategies available today. In this context, this review has gathered all the available information on the issue, which is presented in detail, in this document, as the basis for the identification and management of SAMS


Subject(s)
Humans , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Lovastatin/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Simvastatin/adverse effects , Creatine Kinase , Atorvastatin/adverse effects
14.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(3): 166-173, jul.-set. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-832393

ABSTRACT

A hipercolesterolemia familiar (HF) é uma doença genética relativamente comum caracterizada por níveis elevados de LDL-colesterol (LDL-C) e, por conseguinte, associada a risco de desenvolvimento prematuro de doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica. O tratamento hipolipemiante reduz significativamente o risco cardiovascular desses pacientes, tornando fundamental a identificação precoce desses indivíduos, seguida de tratamento adequado assim que possível. Para tanto, existem escores diagnósticos de HF, como o escore holandês Dutch Lipid Clinic Network, que avalia níveis de LDL-C, antecedente familiar e/ou pessoal de evento cardiovascular isquêmico e a presença de sinais físicos, como xantomas. Uma vez feito o diagnóstico de HF, torna-se muito importante a estratificação de risco desses pacientes. A identificação de fatores de risco associados (como tabagismo,diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial, aumento de Lp(a), entre outros) aliada ao uso de métodos para detecção de doença aterosclerótica subclínica em indivíduos com HF pode auxiliar na identificação daqueles que têm maior risco cardiovascular e são candidatos a estratégias mais agressivas de redução de LDL-C. Nesse artigo, revisamos os principais critérios diagnósticos de HF e a estratificação de risco desses pacientes


Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a relatively common genetic disease that is characterized by elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. As a consequence, it is associated with the risk of premature development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Lipid-lowering therapies significantly reduces the cardiovascular risk in these patients, making early identification of these individuals essential, followed by adequate treatment as soon as possible. There are diagnostic scores of FH for this purpose, such as the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score, which evaluates LDL-C levels, family history and/or personal history of ischemic cardiovascular event and the presence of physical signs, such as xanthomas. Once FH has been diagnosed, it is very important to stratify the risk in these patients. The identification of associated risk factors (such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, elevated Lp(a), among others), together with the use of methods to detect subclinical atherosclerotic disease in individuals with FH, can assist in the identification of those with a higher cardiovascular risk, and who are therefore candidates for more aggressive strategies to reduce LDL-C. This article gives a review of the main diagnostic criteria of FH, and the risk stratification in these patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/complications , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/diagnosis , Cholesterol, LDL/genetics , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Xanthomatosis/complications , Xanthomatosis/diagnosis , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Lipoproteins, LDL
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(4): f:280-l:287, jul.-ago. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831825

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: Diversos estudos experimentais têm mostrado redução de marcadores inflamatórios associados às doses mais elevadas de estatinas em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA). No entanto, a implicação clínica da dose de estatina na fase aguda da SCA ainda é incerta. Objetivo: Comparar desfechos em curto e longo prazo entre pacientes com SCA que receberam doses mais elevadas de atorvastatina versus baixas doses de atorvastatina iniciadas nas primeiras 24 horas da admissão hospitalar. Métodos: Para tal, os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I (N = 464): dose de atorvastatina 40 mg/dia. Foram obtidos dados demográficos, exames laboratoriais, medicações utilizadas e tratamento coronário adotado. Análise estatística: O desfecho primário foi mortalidade por todas as causas. A comparação entre grupos foi realizada através de Q-quadrado e teste T. A análise multivariada de desfechos intrahospitalares foi realizada por regressão logística, sendo considerado significativo p < 0,05. Em longo prazo foi avaliada a mortalidade e eventos combinados pelo método Kaplan-Meier com seguimento médio de 8,79 meses. Resultados: Na análise de desfechos intrahospitalares, não se observaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos I e II. Em longo prazo o grupo II apresentou menor mortalidade em relação ao grupo I (3,9% vs. 8,4%, p = 0,013), respectivamente. Conclusão: Diferenças favoráveis e significativas foram observadas em relação à mortalidade em longo prazo em pacientes com SCA que receberam desde a fase aguda doses elevadas de atorvastatina


Background: Recent experimental studies have described reduction in inflammatory markers related to higher doses of statins in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the clinical implication of the dose of statin in the acute phase of the ACS remains uncertain. Objective: To compare the outcomes in short and long terms among patients with acute coronary syndromes that received higher doses of atorvastatin versus low doses of atorvastatin started in the first 24 hours of hospital admission.Methods: For such, the patients were divided in two groups: group I (N = 464): atorvastatin dose: 40 mg/day. Demographic data, laboratory exams, medications used and coronary treatment adopted were obtained. Statistical analysis: The primary outcome was mortality from all causes. The comparison between groups was made by T-test and Q-square. Multivariative analysis of in-hospital outcomes were determined by logistic regression, considered significant when p < 0.05. In long-term, the mortality and combined events by the Kaplan-Meier method were assessed, with median follow-up of 8.79 months. Results: In the analysis of in-hospital outcomes, no significant differences were observed between groups I and II. In the long-term, group II presented lower mortality in comparison with group 9 (8.4% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Favorable and significant differences were observed in relation to long-term mortality in patients with ACS that received high doses of atorvastatin since the acute phase


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Patients , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cohort Studies , Heart Ventricles , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Stents , Treatment Outcome
16.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 23(2): 108-113, abr.-jun. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-786992

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O uso de estatinas previamente à intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) tem reduzidoeventos cardíacos na evolução de curto e longo prazos. Avaliamos o impacto do uso prévio de estatinas nosresultados hospitalares da ICP em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA).Métodos: Análise retrospectiva de registro multicêntrico com 6.288 pacientes submetidos consecutivamenteà ICP. Destes, 35% tinham SCA e foram avaliados de acordo com a utilização (Grupo 1, n = 1.203) ou não (Grupo2, n = 999) de estatinas.Resultados: O Grupo 1 mostrou maior prevalência de dislipidemia, infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) prévio,procedimentos de revascularização prévios, insuficiência renal crônica, acometimento multiarterial,lesões em bifurcação uso de stents farmacológicos. O Grupo 2 mostrou maior número de ICPs primária e deresgate, classe funcional Killip III/IV, lesões tipo B2/C, trombos, oclusões totais, fluxo TIMI pré 0/1, presençade circulação colateral, uso de inibidores da glicoproteína IIb/IIIa e de cateteres de aspiração. O sucesso daICP foi maior no Grupo 1 (95,1% vs. 92,5%; p = 0,01), e a ocorrência de eventos cardíacos e cerebrovascularesadversos maiores (ECCAM) (3,7% vs. 5,7%; p = 0,04) foi mais frequente no Grupo 2. Apesar da não utilizaçãode estatina ter apresentado associação com ECCAM na análise univariada, foram preditores independentesde ECCAM hospitalares apenas o IAM em Killip III/IV e a cirurgia de revascularização prévia.Conclusões: Pacientes com SCA submetidos à ICP e que estavam em uso prévio de estatinas apresentarammelhores resultados clínicos hospitalares, mas a utilização desses fármacos não foi preditora independentede ECCAM.


Background: The use of statins prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has reduced cardiacevents in both short and long-term follow-up. This study assessed the impact of prior statin use on inhospitalPCI outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).Methods: Retrospective analysis of a multicenter registry of 6,288 consecutive patients undergoing PCI. Ofthese, 35% had ACS and were evaluated according to statin use (Group 1, n = 1,203) or no use (Group 2, n = 999).Results: Group 1 showed higher prevalence of dyslipidemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), previouscoronary artery bypass graft, chronic renal failure, multivessel involvement, bifurcation lesions, and useof drug-eluting stents. Group 2 showed more primary and rescue PCIs, Killip functional class III/IV, B2/Clesions, thrombi, total occlusions, pre-procedural TIMI 0/1 flow, presence of collateral circulation, and useof glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and aspiration catheters. PCI success was higher in Group 1 (95.1% vs.92.5%; p = 0.01), and the occurrence of major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiac events (MACCE) (3.7% vs. 5.7%) was more frequent in Group 2. Although the non-use of statins showed an association with MACCEin the univariate analysis, independent predictors of in-hospital MACCE were limited to AMI in Killip III/IVand prior coronary artery bypass graft.Conclusions: ACS patients undergoing PCI who previously used statins had better in-hospital clinicaloutcomes; however, statin use was not an independent predictor of MACCE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Angiography/methods , Hospital Care/methods , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(4): 279-288, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780798

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The effect of statins on the endothelial function in humans remains under discussion. Particularly, it is still unclear if the improvement in endothelial function is due to a reduction in LDL-cholesterol or to an arterial pleiotropic effect. Objective: To test the hypothesis that modulation of the endothelial function promoted by statins is primarily mediated by the degree of reduction in LDL-cholesterol, independent of the dose of statin administered. Methods: Randomized clinical trial with two groups of lipid-lowering treatment (16 patients/each) and one placebo group (14 patients). The two active groups were designed to promote a similar degree of reduction in LDL-cholesterol: the first used statin at a high dose (80 mg, simvastatin 80 group) and the second used statin at a low dose (10 mg) associated with ezetimibe (10 mg, simvastatin 10/ezetimibe group) to optimize the hypolipidemic effect. The endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMV) before and 8 weeks after treatment. Results: The decrease in LDL-cholesterol was similar between the groups simvastatin 80 and simvastatin 10/ezetimibe (27% ± 31% and 30% ± 29%, respectively, p = 0.75). The simvastatin 80 group presented an increase in FMV from 8.4% ± 4.3% at baseline to 11% ± 4.2% after 8 weeks (p = 0.02). Similarly, the group simvastatin 10/ezetimibe showed improvement in FMV from 7.3% ± 3.9% to 12% ± 4.4% (p = 0.001). The placebo group showed no variation in LDL-cholesterol level or endothelial function. Conclusion: The improvement in endothelial function with statin seems to depend more on a reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels, independent of the dose of statin administered, than on pleiotropic mechanisms.


Resumo Fundamento: O efeito das estatinas na função endotelial em seres humanos permanece em discussão. Particularmente, ainda carece resposta se a melhora na função endotelial deve-se à redução do LDL-colesterol ou a um efeito pleiotrópico arterial. Objetivo: Testar a hipótese de que a modulação da função endotelial promovida por estatinas é prioritariamente mediada pelo grau de redução do LDL-colesterol, independente da dose de estatina utilizada. Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado com dois grupos de tratamento hipolipemiante (16 pacientes/cada) e um grupo placebo (14 pacientes). Os dois grupos ativos foram desenhados para promover graus semelhantes de redução de LDL-colesterol: o primeiro utilizou estatina em alta dose (80 mg, grupo sinvastatina 80) e o segundo em baixa dose (10 mg) associada a ezetimiba (10 mg, grupo sinvastatina 10/ezetimiba) para otimizar o efeito hipolipemiante. A função endotelial foi analisada pela vasodilatação mediada por fluxo (VMF) antes e após 8 semanas de tratamento. Resultados: A redução no LDL-colesterol foi semelhante entre os grupos sinvastatina 80 e sinvastatina 10/ezetimiba (27% ± 31% e 30% ± 29%, respectivamente, p = 0,75). O grupo sinvastatina 80 apresentou incremento da VMF de 8,4% ± 4,3% no basal para 11% ± 4,2% após 8 semanas (p = 0,02). Da mesma forma, o grupo sinvastatina 10/ezetimiba apresentou melhora da VMF de 7,3% ± 3,9% para 12% ± 4,4% (p = 0,001). O grupo placebo não apresentou variação no nível de LDL-colesterol ou da função endotelial. Conclusão: A melhora da função endotelial com uso de estatina parece depender mais da redução do LDL-colesterol, independente da dose de estatina utilizada, do que de mecanismos pleiotrópicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Ezetimibe/administration & dosage , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage , Reference Values , Time Factors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Brachial Artery/drug effects , Brachial Artery/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/drug effects , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1087-1094, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34057

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The effects of short-term intensive lipid-lowering treatment on coronary plaque composition have not yet been sufficiently evaluated. We investigated the influence of short-term intensive lipid-lowering treatment on quantitative and qualitative changes in plaque components of non-culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, single-center trial. Seventy patients who underwent both baseline and three-month follow-up virtual histology intravascular ultrasound were randomly assigned to either an intensive lipid-lowering treatment group (ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg, n=34) or a control statin treatment group (pravastatin 20 mg, n=36). Using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound, plaque was characterized as fibrous, fibro-fatty, dense calcium, or necrotic core. Changes in plaque components during the three-month lipid-lowering treatment were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared with the control statin treatment group, there was a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intensive lipid-lowering treatment group (-20.4±17.1 mg/dL vs. -36.8±17.4 mg/dL, respectively; p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in baseline, three-month follow-up, or serial changes of gray-scale intravascular ultrasound parameters between the two groups. The absolute volume of fibro-fatty plaque was significantly reduced in the intensive lipid-lowering treatment group compared with the control group (-1.5±3.4 mm3 vs. 0.8±4.7 mm3, respectively; p=0.024). A linear correlation was found between changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and changes in the absolute volumes of fibro-fatty plaque (p<0.001, R2=0.209). CONCLUSION: Modification of coronary plaque may be attainable after only three months of intensive lipid-lowering treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Drug Administration Schedule , Ezetimibe, Simvastatin Drug Combination/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Pravastatin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Interventional
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(1): 32-44, 01/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741128

ABSTRACT

Background: Statins have proven efficacy in the reduction of cardiovascular events, but the financial impact of its widespread use can be substantial. Objective: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of three statin dosing schemes in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) perspective. Methods: We developed a Markov model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of low, intermediate and high intensity dose regimens in secondary and four primary scenarios (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ten-year risk) of prevention of cardiovascular events. Regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below 30% (e.g. simvastatin 10mg) were considered as low dose; between 30-40%, (atorvastatin 10mg, simvastatin 40mg), intermediate dose; and above 40% (atorvastatin 20-80mg, rosuvastatin 20mg), high-dose statins. Effectiveness data were obtained from a systematic review with 136,000 patients. National data were used to estimate utilities and costs (expressed as International Dollars - Int$). A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold equal to the Brazilian gross domestic product per capita (circa Int$11,770) was applied. Results: Low dose was dominated by extension in the primary prevention scenarios. In the five scenarios, the ICER of intermediate dose was below Int$10,000 per QALY. The ICER of the high versus intermediate dose comparison was above Int$27,000 per QALY in all scenarios. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, intermediate dose had a probability above 50% of being cost-effective with ICERs between Int$ 9,000-20,000 per QALY in all scenarios. Conclusions: Considering a reasonable WTP threshold, intermediate dose statin therapy is economically attractive, and should be a priority intervention in prevention of cardiovascular events in Brazil. .


Fundamento: Estatinas tem eficácia comprovada na redução de eventos cardiovasculares, mas o impacto financeiro de seu uso disseminado pode ser substancial. Objetivo: Conduzir análise de custo-efetividade de três esquemas de doses de estatinas na perspectiva do SUS. Métodos: Foi desenvolvido modelo de Markov para avaliar a razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI) de regimes de dose baixa, intermediária e alta, em prevenção secundária e quatro cenários de prevenção primária (risco em 10 anos de 5%, 10%, 15% e 20%). Regimes com redução de LDL abaixo de 30% (ex: sinvastatina 10mg) foram considerados dose baixa; entre 30-40% (atorvastatina 10mg, sinvastatina 40mg), dose intermediária; e acima de 40% (atorvastatina 20-80 mg, rosuvastatina 20 mg), dose alta. Dados de efetividade foram obtidos de revisão sistemática com aproximadamente 136.000 pacientes. Dados nacionais foram usados para estimar utilidades e custos (expressos em dólares internacionais - Int$). Um limiar de disposição a pagar (LDP) igual ao produto interno bruto per capita nacional (aproximadamente Int$11.770) foi utilizado. Resultados: A dose baixa foi dominada por extensão nos cenários de prevenção primária. Nos cinco cenários, a RCEI da dose intermediária ficou abaixo de Int$10.000 por QALY. A RCEI de dose alta ficou acima de Int$27.000 por QALY em todos os cenários. Nas curvas de aceitabilidade de custo-efetividade, dose intermediária teve probabilidade de ser custo-efetiva acima de 50% com RCEIs entre Int$9.000-20.000 por QALY em todos os cenários. Conclusões: Considerando um LDP razoável, uso de estatinas em doses intermediárias é economicamente atrativo, e deveria ser intervenção prioritária na redução de eventos cardiovasculares no Brasil. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/economics , National Health Programs/economics , Atorvastatin , Brazil , Fluorobenzenes/administration & dosage , Fluorobenzenes/economics , Heptanoic Acids/administration & dosage , Heptanoic Acids/economics , Models, Economic , Primary Prevention/economics , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/economics , Pyrroles/administration & dosage , Pyrroles/economics , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Rosuvastatin Calcium , Secondary Prevention/economics , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Simvastatin/economics , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/economics
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