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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 566-568, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888787

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is recorded for the first time in the state of Rio Grande do Sul the occurrence of Scobina melanocephala (Lepeletier, 1823), Scobina thoracica (Jorgensen, 1913) and Scobina poeciloides (Ashmead, 1895), being this last the first record for Brazil. Scobina melanopyga (Klug, 1834) and Scobina torquata (Konow, 1903) were also found in the study. The analyzed material was collected utilizing Malaise traps in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields and is deposited at the Entomological Collection of Santa Cruz do Sul.


Resumo É registrado pela primeira no estado do Rio Grande do Sul a ocorrência de Scobina melanocephala (Lepeletier, 1823), Scobina thoracica (Jorgensen, 1913) e Scobina poeciloides (Ashmead, 1895), esta última sendo registrada pela primeira vez no Brasil. Scobina melanopyga (Klug, 1834) e Scobina torquata (Konow, 1903) também foram encontradas no estudo. O material analisado foi coletado utilizando armadilhas de Malaise em cultivo de tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) e estão depositados na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Animal Distribution , Hymenoptera/anatomy & histology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Brazil
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 774-781, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785026

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among the natural enemies of insect pests in rice fields, parasitoids are especially notable. To better understand the space-time dynamics of these insects, the objectives of this study were to describe and compare groups of parasitoids in organic irrigated rice fields using two management approaches for levee vegetation, and to relate them to the phenological stages of rice cultivation (the seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages). The samples were taken in a plantation located in Viamão, RS, Brazil. The total area of 18 ha was divided into two parts: a no-cut (NC) subarea in which the wild vegetation of the levees was maintained, and a cut (C) subarea in which the levee vegetation was cut monthly. In each subarea, four Malaise traps considered as pseudo-replicas were installed and remained in the field for 24 hours at each sampling location. Collections occurred twice a month from the beginning of cultivation (October 2012) until harvest (March 2013). A total of 3,184 Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected: 2,038 individuals in the NC subarea and 1,146 in the C subarea. We identified 458 morphospecies distributed in 24 families. Mymaridae was the most abundant and Eulophidae was the richest in both subareas. A total of 198 morphospecies was shared between the subareas, including Platygastridae, Eulophidae, and Mymaridae, which were the families with the highest number of shared species. The richness and abundance of parasitoids varied according to their phenological developmental stages, with peak abundance registering during the vegetative period. The Morisita index identified three groupings, indicating a similarity that was related to the three phases of rice growth and development: seedling, vegetative and post-harvest.


Resumo Entre os inimigos naturais de insetos pragas em campos de arroz, parasitoides são especialmente notáveis. Para melhor entender a dinâmica espaço-temporal destes insetos, os objetivos desse estudo foram descrever e comparar os grupos de parasitoides em campos de arroz orgânico irrigado utilizando duas abordagens de manejo da vegetação das taipas, e relacioná-los com os estádios fenológicos da cultura (plântula, vegetativo e reprodutivo). As amostragens foram realizadas em uma plantação localizada em Viamão, RS. A área total de 18 ha foi dividida em duas partes: uma subárea não roçada (NR) na qual a vegetação espontânea das taipas foi mantida, e uma roçada (R) subárea em que a vegetação das taipas foi roçada mensalmente. Em cada subárea, quatro armadilhas Malaise consideradas pseudo-réplicas foram instaladas e mantiveram-se no campo durante 24 horas, em cada local de amostragem. As coletas ocorreram duas vezes por mês, desde o início do cultivo (outubro de 2012) até a colheita (março de 2013). Um total de 3.184 himenópteros parasitoides foram coletados: 2.038 indivíduos na subárea NR e 1.146 na R. Foram identificadas 458 morfoespécies, distribuídas em 24 famílias. Mymaridae foi a mais abundante e Eulophidae a mais rica para ambas as subáreas. Um total de 198 morfoespécies foi compartilhado entre as subáreas, incluindo Platygastridae, Eulophidae e Mymaridae, que foram as famílias com o maior número de espécies compartilhadas. A riqueza e a abundância de parasitoides variou de acordo com as fases de desenvolvimento fenológico da cultura, com pico de abundância registrado no período vegetativo. O Índice de Morisita identificou três grupamentos indicando uma similaridade relacionada às fases da cultura, plântula, vegetativo e, na pós-colheita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/parasitology , Biodiversity , Agricultural Irrigation , Hymenoptera/physiology , Brazil , Population Dynamics , Population Density , Food Chain , Biota
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 250-255, Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.


Resumo Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) e o parasitoide associado Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) são registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil. Exemplares dessa cochonilha foram coletados sobre ramos e fustes de Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L.f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. e Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), em três municípios do Estado de Roraima. Todas as plantas aqui mencionadas são registradas pela primeira vez como hospedeiras de L. dendrobii. Caracteres morfológicos da cochonilha e sintomas das plantas hospedeiras infestadas por esta praga são incluídos neste trabalho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hemiptera/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Animal Distribution , Brazil , Citrus/growth & development , Hemiptera/growth & development , Hymenoptera/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Larva/parasitology , Larva/physiology , Ovum/classification , Pupa/growth & development , Pupa/physiology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(3,supl.1): S218-S222, 8/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732269

ABSTRACT

In the context of the modern agriculture, pest control is important in order to increase productivity in maize (Zea mays L.). However, this control should be done rationally, prioritising environmentally safer methods such as biological control. This paper aims to report the occurrence of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in maize subjected to different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS) in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using organic and conventional production. Ten plants were sampled from each of the 24 plots and for each production system, three times a week during the entire cycle of maize (variety BR 106). In the laboratory, larvae were distributed in individual rearing containers with artificial diet until the end of the biological cycle. An increased number of S. frugiperda larvae was observed in organic single crop maize; hence a higher percentage of S. frugiperda larvae parasitised by Hymenoptera and Diptera also occurred in the maize under this production system. Dolichozele koebelei had not yet been described in association with larvae of S. frugiperda. The percentage of parasitism of S. frugiperda larvae was high in both experiments, indicating the importance of natural control agents in reducing the population density of S. frugiperda, and especially the importance of an appropriate crop management.


No contexto agrícola moderno, o controle de pragas é importante para se obter aumento de produtividade na cultura do milho (Zea mays L.). No entanto, esse controle deve ser feito racionalmente, e deve priorizar métodos ambientalmente mais seguros, como o controle biológico. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar a ocorrência de Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) em larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) coletadas em milho sob diferentes formas de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS) em Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em áreas de produção orgânica e convencional. Durante todo o ciclo do milho (cultivar BR 106), três vezes por semana, foram amostradas em cada uma das 24 parcelas, 10 plantas, que foram avaliadas no laboratório. As larvas encontradas foram distribuídas individualmente em recipientes de criação com dieta artificial até o final do ciclo biológico. Maior número de larvas de S. frugiperda foi obtido no milho orgânico solteiro, com maior percentual de larvas de S. frugiperda parasitadas por Hymenoptera ou Diptera. Dolichozele koebelei ainda não havia sido descrita em associação com larvas de S. frugiperda. De uma forma geral nos dois experimentos o percentual de larvas de S. frugiperda parasitadas, foi alto, indicando a importância dos agentes de controle natural na redução da densidade populacional de S. frugiperda e, principalmente, a importância do manejo adequado da cultura do milho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hymenoptera/physiology , Spodoptera/parasitology , Zea mays/parasitology , Brazil , Hymenoptera/classification , Larva/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological , Population Density
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(3): 1021-1030, Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595542

ABSTRACT

Estudamos os efeitos da temperatura na reprodução de Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, ectoparasitóide do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, em câmaras climatizadas, em temperaturas constantes de 20, 25 and 30ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 70 ± 10 por cento e fotofase de 14 h. As fêmeas do parasitóide produziram mais ovos a 25ºC (124,65 ovos) do que aquelas expostas a 20 (43,40 ovos) e a 30ºC (49,60 ovos). O número médio de larvas parasitadas por fêmea de B. vulgaris a 25ºC(71,75 larvas) foi maior do que a 20ºC (31,40 larvas) e 30ºC (25,15 larvas). As taxas diárias de aumento (r m) foram -0,007 a 20ºC, 0,07 a 25ºC e 0,03 a 30ºC, indicando que a temperatura de 25ºC produziu aumento de 1100 e 133 por cento no valor de r m em relação às temperaturas de 20 e 30ºC, respectivamente. Nos programas de controle biológico do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, usando liberações inoculativas deve-se utilizar fêmeas adultasde B. vulgaris com aproximadamente 5 dias (a 25 ou 30ºC) ou 20 dias de idade (a 20ºC); quando usando liberações inundativas, utilizar fêmeas adultas de B. vulgaris , com idade entre 11 e 31 dias (a 20ºC); 9 e 29 dias (a 25ºC) ou 3 e 14 dias (a 30ºC).


This research studied the effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, an ectoparasitoid of cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis Boheman) at constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30ºC, 70 ± 10 percent RH and a photophase of 14 h. Females of the parasitoid produced a greater number of eggs when exposed to 25ºC (124.65 eggs) in relation to those exposed to 20 (43.40 eggs) and 30ºC (49.60 eggs). The number of parasitized larvae per female of B. vulgaris at 25ºC (71.75) was greater than at 20ºC (31.40) and 30ºC (25.15). The daily intrinsic rates of increase (r m) were - 0.007 at 20ºC, 0.07 at 25ºC and 0.03 at 30ºC, revealing that the temperature of 25ºC produced increases of 1,100 and 133 percent in the value r m in relation to temperatures of 20 and 30ºC, respectively. In programs of biological control of the boll weevil using innoculative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris with approximately five (at 25 or 30ºC) or 20 day old (at 20ºC) should be used; when using innundative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris , with ages between 11 and 31; 9 and 29 or 3 and 14 days, respectively, at 20, 25 or 30ºC should be used.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hymenoptera/physiology , Temperature , Weevils/parasitology , Hymenoptera/classification , Oviposition/physiology , Pest Control, Biological , Reproduction/physiology , Time Factors
8.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(4): 477-482, July-Aug. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599809

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) as hosts for the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh). Parasitization by D. rapae was higher on M. persicae than on L. erysimi and B. brassicae. The time of development of D. rapae from egg to mummy or egg to adult male or female were shorter on M. persicae than on L. erysimi and B. brassicae. Moreover, D. rapae showed no significant differences in the emergence rate, sex ratio and longevity when reared on the three aphid species. Myzus persicae was the largest aphid host, with B. brassicae and L. erysimi being of intermediate and of small size, respectively. Diaeretiella rapae reared on M. persicae was larger than when reared on L. erysimi and B. brassicae, and females of D. rapae were significantly larger than males on M. persicae, but males of D. rapae were larger than females when reared on L. erysimi. No difference in size was detected between males and females in parasitoids reared on B. brassicae. Among the aphid species studied, M. persicae was found to be the most suitable to D. rapae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Aphids/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hymenoptera/physiology , Parasitology/methods
9.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(3): 405-406, May-June 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-591342

ABSTRACT

The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hymenoptera/physiology , Plants/parasitology , Tephritidae/parasitology , Brazil
10.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(3): 412-414, May-June 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591345

ABSTRACT

We report the first record of Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitizing larvae of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), in tomato crops in Northern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Tomato moth larvae were sampled during four consecutive growing cycles, between 2003 and 2005, in 10 sites. Neochrysocharis formosa was present only in organic outdoor and protected crops, and predominantly during the late season. Parasitism rates varied from 1.5 percent to 5 percent. The finding of this species is a new record for Argentina and South America, and T. absoluta is a new host record.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hymenoptera/physiology , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitology , Moths/parasitology , Argentina
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(2): 431-436, maio 2011. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592578

ABSTRACT

To use Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in a biological control programme of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), it is necessary to study thermal requirements, because temperature can affect the metabolism and bioecological aspects. The objective was to determine the thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations of P. elaeisis in different Eucalyptus plantations regions. After 24 hours in contact with the parasitoid, the pupae was placed in 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C, 70 ± 10 percent of relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was reduced with the increase in the temperature. At 31 °C the parasitoid could not finish the cycle in T. arnobia pupae. The emergence of P. elaeisis was not affected by the temperature, except at 31 °C. The number of individuals was between six and 1238 per pupae, being higher at 16 °C. The thermal threshold of development (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) of this parasitoid were 3.92 °C and 478.85 degree-days (GD), respectively, allowing for the completion of 14.98 generations per year in Linhares, Espírito Santo State, 13.87 in Pompéu and 11.75 in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State and 14.10 in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State.


Para o uso de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare e LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) no controle biológico de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) em eucalipto, é necessário estudar suas exigências térmicas, pois a temperatura pode afetar o metabolismo e aspectos bioecológicos dos insetos. Objetivou-se assim, determinar as exigências térmicas e o número de gerações de P. elaeisis em diferentes regiões com florestas de Eucalyptus. Permitiu-se o parasitismo por 24 horas e, após esse período, as pupas foram transferidas para câmaras climatizadas a 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 e 31 °C, 70 ± 10 por cento de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas. Verificou-se que o aumento da temperatura reduziu a duração média do ciclo de vida de P. elaeisis, sendo que a 31 °C o parasitoide não concluiu seu ciclo de vida em pupas de T. arnobia. A progênie do parasitoide por pupa variou de 6 a 1238 indivíduos e foi maior a 16 °C. A temperatura base (Tb) e constante térmica (K) desse parasitoide foram de 3,92 °C e 478,85 graus-dia, respectivamente. O número estimado de gerações anuais de P. elaeisis, em pupas de T. arnobia, para os municípios de Linhares, ES, Pompéu e Viçosa, MG e Dourados, MS foi de 14,98; 13,87; 11,75; e 14,10, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Eucalyptus/parasitology , Hymenoptera/growth & development , Lepidoptera/parasitology , Temperature , Hymenoptera/physiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Pupa/parasitology
12.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(2): 238-243, Mar.-Apr. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-586662

ABSTRACT

The effects of the egg density of Diaphania hyalinata (L.) on several biological parameters of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner and T. pretiosum Riley were investigated. For that, 24h-old egg masses were isolated in glass tubes (15 replicates; 1 egg mass = 1 replicate), and offered to parasitization by a newly-emerged female of T. pretiosum or T. exiguum 24h at the proportion of one female to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 eggs of D. hyalinata. The following parameters were evaluated: number of parasitized eggs, number of individuals per egg, viability and sex ratio. Trichogramma exiguum parasitized more eggs than T. pretiosum when more than 25 eggs were available per female. The percentage of emergence was satisfactory to T. pretiosum in densities up to 15 eggs/female and up to 20 eggs/female for T. exiguum. The number of individuals per egg was not statistically different in both species except in the density of 25 eggs/female. It can be concluded that T. exiguum performed better than T. pretiosum at larger clutch sizes, as T. exiguum parasitization capacity increased as a result of the size of the host clutch size.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Clutch Size , Hymenoptera/physiology , Lepidoptera/parasitology , Ovum/parasitology
13.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(6): 892-897, nov.-dic. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-572467

ABSTRACT

Phymastichus coffea LaSalle is an African endoparasitoid of adults of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) that was introduced into Mexico for biological control purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the oviposition behavior of P. coffea on its host under laboratory conditions. The results indicate that P. coffea females exhibited 12 behavioral acts during and after oviposition, such as, walking, cleaning, flying, surface landing, resting, host landing, host antennation, touching the host with forelegs, host recognition, walking on the host, oviposition and cleaning after oviposition. The sequence of each behavior is described in an ethogram.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Behavior, Animal , Hymenoptera/anatomy & histology , Oviposition , Weevils/parasitology , Hymenoptera/physiology
14.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(5): 709-713, Sept.-Oct. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-566206

ABSTRACT

The suitability of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) and Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as hosts for the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday was evaluated by assessing host size, host preference, and host quality. Tests were carried out in an environmental chamber at 22 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10 percent RH and 12h photophase. Replicates (11) consisted of one 24h-old mated female of A. ervi without a previous oviposition experience. Female was released into a Petri dish (5 cm) with 20 2nd and 3rd instars of one of each aphid species tested on a leaf disc of the host plant onto a 1 percent water-agar layer. Parasitoid emergency was lower in A. kondoi (78.7 percent) compared to M. euphorbiae (92.2 percent) and A. solani (91.7 percent). Acyrthosiphon kondoi (0.36 mm) was the smallest host. The parasitoid showed preference (74.0 percent parasitism) for M. euphorbiae, the largest host (hind tibia length = 0.73 mm), which in turn yielded larger A. ervi females (0.75 mm).


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Aphids/parasitology , Hymenoptera/physiology
15.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(5): 714-719, Sept.-Oct. 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-566207

ABSTRACT

Social parasites exhibit several characteristics that allow them to exploit their host species efficiently. The smaller size of parasite species is a trait commonly found in ants. In this work, we investigated several aspects of the reproductive biology of Acromyrmex ameliae De Souza, Soares & Della Lucia, a recently discovered parasite of Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel. Sexuals of A. ameliae are substantially smaller than those from host species. Parasite queens laid significantly less worker eggs than host queens and inhibit sexual production of the host. The sex ratio of parasite species is highly female biased. Interestingly, we have observed parasite coupling on the laboratory, inside the nests and in the ground, opening the possibility to use controlled mating to study genetic approaches of parasitism in the ants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hymenoptera/parasitology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Reproduction , Social Behavior
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(3): 671-676, Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-555281

ABSTRACT

We present the first records on pollination biology of Jacquemontia montana (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae), a widespread climber in the Chapada Diamantina. Our objectives were to (1) characterise flower morphology and biology of J. montana; (2) sample flower visitors and (3) make inferences about potential pollinators, based on foraging behaviour. Observations and sampling were performed on two patches from 8:00 AM to 3:30 PM, May 15th to 16th, 2007. The corolla is bowl shaped, pentamerous, gamopetalous, actinomorphic, and yellow, with a mean diameter of 22.43 ± 1.81 mm, the depth being variable during flower phases. Stigma receptivity lasted from 8:00 AM-3:30 PM and pollen viability from 9:00 AM-3:30 PM Pollen. showed great decline in number but not in viability during anthesis. Nectarivorous (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera) and herbivorous (Orthoptera) insects were found on the flowers. Both male and female bees (Dialictus spp., Robertson 1902) were the most frequent flower visitor. The bees' behaviour, and time spent on flowers, varied according to the resource gathered (i.e., pollen or nectar). The Dialictus species are likely to be the main pollinator of J. montana, considering the frequency, contact with reproductive parts, and carrying only J. montana pollen spread over the ventral part of the thorax, abdomen and legs. Although not quantified, nectar may still be available in the afternoon, considering the behaviour of bees on flowers during this time. Pollen:ovule ration that was1.200:4, suggests facultative xenogamy.


Apresentamos os primeiros registros sobre a biologia da polinização de Jacquemontia montana (Moric.) Meisn. (Convolvulaceae), uma trepadeira com ampla distribuição na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (1) caracterizar a morfologia e biologia floral; (2) amostrar os visitantes; e (3) inferir os possíveis polinizadores, baseando-se no comportamento de forrageio. Observações e amostragens foram conduzidas em duas manchas das 8:00 às 15:30 horas, nos dias 15 e 16 de maio de 2007. A corola é amarela, tem forma de disco, pentâmera, gamopétala, actinomorfa. A corola exposta tem largura média de 22,43 ± 1,81 mm. A receptividade estigmática ocorre das 8:00 às 15:30 horas e a viabilidade polínica das 9:00 às 15:30 horas, se sobrepondo fortemente. O pólen, porém, apresentou forte declínio em número, devido à retirada pelos visitantes, mas não em viabilidade durante a antese. Insetos nectarívoros (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera) e herbívoros (Orthoptera) visitaram as flores. Hymenoptera incluiu representantes das famílias Formicidae (formigas) e Halictidae (Dialictus spp.). Machos e fêmeas de Dialictus spp. foram os visitantes mais frequentes. O comportamento e duração das visitas dessas abelhas variaram conforme o recurso coletado (i.e., pólen ou néctar). As espécies de Dialictus foram os polinizadores potenciais de J. montana, considerando sua frequência, contato com órgãos reprodutivos, e pelo fato de carregar apenas pólen de J. montana na superfície ventral do tórax, abdome e pernas. Embora não tenha sido quantificado, o néctar deve estar disponível até o final da tarde, considerando o comportamento das abelhas nas flores nesse período. A relação pólen:óvulo, no valor de 1.200:4, sugere a ocorrência de xenogamia facultativa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Convolvulaceae/physiology , Flowers/physiology , Pollination/physiology , Brazil , Coleoptera/physiology , Diptera/physiology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Orthoptera/physiology , Pollen/physiology , Reproduction/physiology
17.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(4): 612-617, July-Aug. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558850

ABSTRACT

The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1ºC, 14:10 photoperiod and 60 ± 10 percent RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r m). Survival of the T. bactrae immatures was higher than 90 percent on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hymenoptera/physiology , Lepidoptera/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological , Hymenoptera/growth & development , Ovum/parasitology
18.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(4): 671-673, July-Aug. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558858

ABSTRACT

Eucalyptus are hosts of several psyllid species. Among them, Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell) is considered the most harmful to Eucalyptus globulus plantations. In Brazil, this pest has been observed in the state of Parana, and in 2005, it was found causing damage to plantations of E. globulus in Arroio Grande and Piratini cities, RS. The monophagous endoparasitoid Psyllaephagus pilosus Noyes was also observed parasitizing nymphs of C. eucalypti. This parasitoid has been shown to be highly efficient in controlling this psyllid species, making unnecessary the use of any other control method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Eucalyptus/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Brazil
19.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(4): 678-679, July-Aug. 2010.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-558861

ABSTRACT

Adults of the tomato stink bug, Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer), from pasture lands at Londrina, Paraná state (latitude 23º 18' S; longitude 51º 09' W) and of Dichelops furcatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from field crops at Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul state (latitude 28º 38' S; longitude) southern Brazil were parasitized by Hexacladia smithii Ashmead , which are set as new host records for this parasitoid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heteroptera/parasitology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Brazil
20.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 77(2): 349-353, abr.-jun. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1391023

ABSTRACT

Foram avaliadas características biológicas de fêmeas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) linhagem bonagota com três idades sobre ovos deBonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) com cinco períodos de desenvolvimento embrionário. Ovos de B. salubricola com 0-24, 24-48, 48-72, 72-96, 96-120 horas de desenvolvimento embrionário foram oferecidos ao parasitismo por fêmeas de T. pretiosum com 0-24, 24-48 e 48-72 horas de idade, por 24 horas à 25 ± 1º C, 70 ± 10% de umidade relativa e 14 horas de fotofase. Fêmeas do parasitoide com 0-24 horas de vida apresentaram melhores taxas de parasitismo em ovos do hospedeiro com 24-48 horas de desenvolvimento embrionário. Fêmeas com 24-48 e 48-72 horas de vida apresentaram preferência por ovos com 0-24 horas de desenvolvimento embrionário. O percentual de emergência variou entre 20,0 e 60,0%, a razão sexual entre 0,56 e 0,85 e o número de parasitoides/ovo foi superior a um, sem diferença significativa. O ideal para programas de controle biológico de B. salubricola é utilizar o parasitoide na idade de 0-24 horas.


Biological characteristics ofTrichogramma pretiosumRiley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strain bonagota with three ages on eggs of Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at five embryonic developmental stages was studied under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1º C, 70 ± 10% of relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase). B. salubricola eggs with 0­24, 24­48, 48­72, 72­96, 96­120 hours of embryonic developmental stages were offered to T. pretiosum during 24 hours using parasitoid females with 0­24, 24­48 and 48­72 life hours. Parasitoid females with age of 0­ 24 hours showed a higher parasitism rate in eggs of B. salubricola with 24­48 hours of embryonic development. Females with age of 24­48 and 48­72 hours, showed a preference for eggs with 0­ 24 hours of embryonic development. Adult emergence and sex ratio ranged from 20.0 to 60.0% and from 0.56 to 0.85 respectively. The number of parasitoids/egg was always more than one, ranging from 1.03 to 1.14. The ideal for a biological control program of B. salubricola using T. pretiosum strain bonagota is to use parasitoids with a maximum of 24 hours of age.


Subject(s)
Parasites , Malus/parasitology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Lepidoptera/embryology
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