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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 38-50, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362691

ABSTRACT

Las urgencias oncológicas son complicaciones comunes de la evolución natural del tumor o de su manejo. Algunas pueden presentarse de manera sutil y ser pasadas por alto, lo que aumenta la morbimortalidad. El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa es recopilar información actualizada de las principales complicaciones oncológicas, para ello se realizó una revisión de artículos originales, revisiones sistemáticas y narrativas en bases de datos como Scopus, SciELO, PubMed, ScienceDirect y en el buscador Google Scholar. Se seleccionaron 63 referencias que mostraran información relevante acerca de las urgencias oncológicas planteadas para el desarrollo del artículo. En la revisión se discute que las complicaciones pueden clasificarse de acuerdo con su origen en infecciosas (neutropenia febril), metabólicas (síndrome de lisis tumoral e hipercalcemia maligna) y obstructivas (síndrome de vena cava superior, obstrucción intestinal, compresión medular y taponamiento cardiaco). El diagnóstico requiere un alto índice de sospecha, el médico debe tener la capacidad resolutiva y el conocimiento necesarios para el manejo y hacer uso racional de los recursos diagnósticos. Es necesario adoptar medidas terapéuticas que impacten positivamente en el pronóstico y que reduzcan la morbimortalidad.


Oncological emergencies are common complications resulting from the natural evolution of the tumor or its management; however, some of them may be subtle or even overlooked, which contributes to greater morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to gather updated information on the main oncological complications. A narrative literatura review was performed by searching for original articles, systematic reviews and narratives, in databases such as Scopus, SciELO, PubMed, ScienceDirect and in the Google Scholar search engine. 63 references were selected that addressed relevant information about the oncological emergencies raised for the development of the article. According to their origin, complications can be classified into infectious (febrile neutropenia), metabolic (tumor lysis syndrome and malignant hypercalcemia) and obstructive (superior vena cava syndrome, intestinal obstruction, spinal cord compression and cardiac tamponade). Facing these complications requires a high level of suspicion; the physician must be able to resolve each complication and have the necessary knowledge to approach each case, with a rational use of diagnostic resources. It is also necessary to adopt therapeutic measures that positively impact patients. patient prognosis, decreasing morbidity and death.


As urgências oncológicas são complicações comuns da evolução natural do tumor ou do seu manejo. Algumas podem apresentar-se de maneira sutil e ser passadaspor encima, o que aumenta a morbimortalidade. O objetivo desta revisão narrativa é recopilar informação atualizada das principais complicações oncológicas, para isso se realizou uma revisão de artigos originais, revisões sistemáticas e narrativas em bases de dados como Scopus, SciELO, PubMed, ScienceDirect e no buscador Google Scholar. Se selecionaram 63 referências que mostraram informação relevante sobre às urgências oncológicas apresentadas para o desenvolvimento do artigo. Na revisão se discuteque as complicações podem classificar-se de acordo com a sua origem em infecciosas (neutropenia febril), metabólicas (síndrome de lise tumoral e hipercalcemia maligna) e obstrutivas (síndrome de veia cava superior, obstrução intestinal, compressão medular e entupimento cardíaco). O diagnóstico requere um alto índice de suspeita, o médico deve ter a capacidade resolutiva e o conhecimento necessário para o manejo e fazer uso racional dos recursos diagnósticos. É necessário adotar medidas terapêuticas que impactem positivamente no prognóstico e que reduzam a morbimortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms , Spinal Cord Compression , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome , Cardiac Tamponade , Tumor Lysis Syndrome , Emergencies , Febrile Neutropenia , Hypercalcemia
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 226-236, 20220316. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362949

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La hipocalcemia es la complicación más frecuente de la tiroidectomía. La profilaxis con calcio/calcitriol es una alternativa costo-efectiva, sencilla y expedita para disminuir esta situación, sin alterar la función paratiroidea residual. Lo que no está claro es si hay superioridad de una dosis frente a otra, por lo que el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento entre diferentes esquemas de profilaxis para hipocalcemia. Métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de adultos operados en un hospital de cuarto nivel, entre febrero de 2017 y diciembre de 2020. Se calculó la tasa de síntomas, la hipocalcemia e hipercalcemia bioquímica en el control postquirúrgico durante las siguientes dos semanas. Se hizo análisis bivariado y multivariado entre dosis de calcio/calcitriol, otros factores asociados y los desenlaces mencionados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 967 pacientes. El 10 % presentaron síntomas. No hubo diferencias significativas en el calcio sérico del control posquirúrgico entre los grupos con distintas dosis de calcio. La dosis de carbonato de calcio >3600 mg/día y el calcio en las primeras 24 horas de cirugía se asociaron a la presencia de síntomas. La dosis de calcitriol <1 mcg/día y el bocio aumentaron el riesgo de hipocalcemia bioquímica, mientras que la dosis de 1,5 mcg/día lo disminuyó. Ninguna variable evaluada se asoció a hipercalcemia bioquímica. Conclusiones. Podemos establecer que dosis altas de carbonato de calcio no se asocian con menos hipocalcemia bioquímica, lo cual está a favor de usar dosis intermedias (3600 mg/día). De forma similar, la dosis de calcitriol de 1,5 mcg/día disminuye el riesgo de este desenlace. La identificación de variables que aumentan o disminuyen el riesgo de hipocalcemia posterior a tiroidectomía, como bocio o el nivel de calcio en las primeras 24 horas para este estudio, pueden determinar ajustes individuales en la dosis rutinaria profiláctica de calcio/calcitriol.


Introduction. Hypocalcemia is the most frequent complication of thyroidectomy. Calcium/calcitriol prophylaxis is a cost-effective, simple and expeditious alternative to reduce this situation, without altering residual parathyroid function. It is not clear whether there is superiority of one dose over another, so the objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior between prophylaxis doses for hypocalcemia. Methods. Retrospective cohort study of adults operated in a fourth level hospital, between February 2017 and December 2020. The rate of symptoms, biochemical hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia was calculated in the post-surgical control during the following two weeks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed between calcium/calcitriol dose, other associated factors, and the mentioned outcomes. Results. Out of the 967 patients included, 10% presented symptoms. There were no significant differences in postoperative control serum calcium between the groups with different doses of calcium. The dose of calcium carbonate > 3600 mg/day and calcium in the first 24 hours of surgery were associated with the presence of symptoms. The dose of calcitriol <1 mcg/day and goiter increased the risk of biochemical hypocalcemia, while the dose of 1.5 mcg / day decreased it. No variable evaluated was associated with biochemical hypercalcemia. Conclusion. We can establish that high doses of calcium are not less associated with biochemical hypocalcemia, which is in favor of intermediate doses (i.e. 3600mg/day). In a similar way, the calcitriol dose of 1.5mcg/day decreases the risk of this outcome. The identification of variables that increase or decrease the risk of this complication (goiter or the 24h serum calcium in this study) can decide settings in the rutinary prophylactic dose of calcium/calcitriol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications , Thyroidectomy , Hypocalcemia , Calcitriol , Calcium Carbonate , Hypercalcemia
3.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 347-352, 202112.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353591

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a rare inherited calcium metabolism disorder in which an alteration of the parathyroid hormone secretion set-point causes hypercalcemia with relative hypocalciuria. Some data suggest that its prevalence is around 74.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Often, patients are asymptomatic. However, they can develop mild symptoms and an overactive parathyroid adenoma, its main differential diagnosis. The objective was to describe a patient's case and highlight the importance of clinical suspicion and diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgical neck explorations for parathyroid adenomas. Case report. This is the case of a 40-year-old man with a biochemical profile compatible with primary hyperparathyroidism with anatomical and functional images negative for adenoma and a calcium/creatinine clearance ratio below 0.001, considering familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Genetic studies evidence a mutation in the calcium sensor receptor gene and confirm the diagnosis. Discussion. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia's main differential diagnosis is an overactive parathyroid adenoma. For both, mild or no symptoms may be present; serum calcium exceeds the upper limit, and parathormone is more than 25pg/ml. The calcium/creatinine clearance ratio should be used to differentiate one from the other and avoid unnecessary surgical neck explorations. Besides the lack of information on this topic, evidence supports the use of calcimimetics to treat symptomatic hypercalcemia. Conclusions. Patients with mild hypercalcemia with parathyroid hormone readings above 25pg/ml and a calcium/creatinine clearance ratio below 0.001, or patients with primary hyperparathyroidism with negative imaging, should not undergo surgical neck explorations. In these cases, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a reliable diagnosis; Cinacalcet may be administered in cases of symptomatic hypercalcemia.


Introducción. La hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar es un trastorno hereditario poco común del metabolismo del calcio en donde una alteración del punto de ajuste de la secreción de hormona paratiroidea ocasiona hipercalcemia con hipocalciuria relativa. Algunos datos sugieren que su prevalencia es de alrededor de 74.1 por 100,000 habitantes. Los pacientes muchas veces son asintomáticos. Sin embargo, pueden desarrollar síntomas leves y un adenoma paratiroideo hiperactivo, que representa su principal diagnóstico diferencial. El objetivo fue describir el caso de un paciente y resaltar la importancia de la sospecha y el diagnóstico clínico para evitar exploraciones quirúrgicas cervicales innecesarias en búsqueda de adenomas paratiroideos. Reporte de caso. Este es el caso de un hombre de 40 años con un perfil bioquímico compatible con hiperparatiroidismo primario, con imágenes anatómicas y funcionales negativas para adenoma, además de una relación de depuración de calcio/creatinina menor a 0.001, con consideración de hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar. Los estudios genéticos evidencian una mutación en el gen del receptor sensor del calcio y confirman el diagnóstico. Discusión. El principal diagnóstico diferencial de la hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar es un adenoma paratiroideo hiperactivo. En ambos casos, es posible que no haya síntomas o que estos sean leves; el calcio sérico excede al límite superior, y la paratohormona es mayor de 25pg/ml. Se debe usar la relación de depuración de calcio/creatinina para diferenciar entre estas patologías y evitar exploraciones quirúrgicas cervicales innecesarias. Aparte de la falta de información sobre este tema, la evidencia apoya el uso de calciomiméticos para tratar la hipercalcemia sintomática. Conclusiones. Los pacientes con hipercalcemia leve, con valores de hormona paratiroidea mayores de 25pg/ml y con una relación de depuración de calcio/creatinina menor de 0.001, o los pacientes con hiperparatiroidismo primario con imágenes negativas, no deben ser sometidos a exploraciones quirúrgicas cervicales. En estos casos, la hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar representa un diagnóstico confiable; se puede administrar Cinacalcet en casos de hipercalcemia sintomática.


Introdução. A hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar é um distúrbio hereditário raro do metabolismo do cálcio, no qual uma alteração no ponto de ajuste da secreção do hormônio da paratireóide causa hipercalcemia com hipocalciúria relativa. Alguns dados sugerem que sua prevalência gira em torno de 74.1 por 100,000 habitantes. Os pacientes geralmente são assintomáticos. No entanto, eles podem desenvolver sintomas leves e um adenoma de paratireoide hiperativo, que representa seu principal diagnóstico diferencial. O objetivo foi descrever o caso de um paciente e destacar a importância da suspeita clínica e do diagnóstico para evitar exploração cirúrgica cervical desnecessária em busca de adenomas de paratireoide. Relato de caso. É o caso de um homem de 40 anos com perfil bioquímico compatível com hiperparatireoidismo primário, com imagens anatômicas e funcionais negativas para adenoma, além de relação depuração de cálcio/creatinina menor que 0.001, considerando hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar. Estudos genéticos revelam uma mutação no gene receptor da sensibilidade ao cálcio e confirmam o diagnóstico. Discussão. O principal diagnóstico diferencial da hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar é um adenoma de paratireoide hiperativo. Em ambos os casos, os sintomas podem estar ausentes ou leves; o cálcio sérico excede o limite superior e o hormônio da paratireóide é superior a 25pg/ml. A relação depuração de cálcio/creatinina deve ser usada para diferenciar entre essas patologias e evitar exploração cirúrgica cervical desnecessária. Além da falta de informações sobre esta questão, as evidências apoiam o uso de calcimiméticos para tratar a hipercalcemia sintomática. Conclusões. Pacientes com hipercalcemia leve, com valores de hormônio da paratireóide maiores que 25pg/ml e uma relação de depuração de cálcio/creatinina menor que 0.001, ou pacientes com hiperparatireoidismo primário com imagens negativas, não devem ser submetidos a exploração cirúrgica cervical. Nesses casos, a hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar representa um diagnóstico confiável; Cinacalcet pode ser administrado em casos de hipercalcemia sintomática.


Subject(s)
Hypercalcemia , Case Reports , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Cinacalcet , Genetics
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 462-466, jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346486

ABSTRACT

Abstract PTH-independent hypercalcemia due to granulomatous disease is well-documented and sarcoidosis is the most characteristic disease, although there are others. We describe a case of sarcoid-like granulomatous myositis. An 87-year-old man was referred with tetraparesis and hypercalcemia (albumin-corrected calcium of 13.4 mg/dl) following a trip to the Caribbean. The evaluation showed a suppressed PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D of 7.5 ng/ml, 18F-FDG PET/CT showed markedly increased uptake in intercostal, back, shoulder, but tock and thigh muscles and a deltoid biopsy confirmed extensive granulomatous myositis. He was prescribed glucocorticoids which resulted in normalized plasma calcium levels and complete recovery from tetraparesis. Sarcoid-like granulomatous myositis should be incorporated into the differential diagnosis of PTH-independent hypercalcemia, especially in the absence of clinical features of sarcoidosis and with special emphasis on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT to ensure a correct approach.


Resumen La hipercalcemia PTH-independiente asociada a enfermedades granulomatosas está bien documentada y la sarcoidosis es la enfermedad más característica, a pesar de que existen otras. Des cribimos un caso de miositis granulomatosa simil-sarcoidea. Un hombre de 87 años consultó por tetraparesia e hipercalcemia (calcio corregido por albúmina 13.4 mg/dl) luego de un viaje al Caribe. La evaluación mostró una PTH suprimida, 25-hidroxivitamina D 7.5 ng/ml, 18F-FDG PET/CT mostró marcado aumento de captación a nivel de musculatura intercostal, dorsal, deltoidea, glúteos y muslos. Una biopsia deltoidea confirmó una miositis granulomatosa extensa. Se prescribieron glucocorticoides, resultando en normalización del calcio plasmático y completa recuperación de la tetraparesia. La miositis granulomatosa simil-sarcoidea debe ser incorporada den tro del diagnóstico diferencial de la hipercalcemia PTH-independiente, especialmente en ausencia de hallazgos clínicos de sarcoidosis y con especial énfasis en el uso de 18F-FDG PET/CT para su correcta aproximación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Sarcoidosis/complications , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Myositis/complications , Myositis/diagnosis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Granuloma/complications , Granuloma/diagnosis
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(2): 288-292, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286930

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cosmetic injections of fillers are common plastic surgery procedures worldwide. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a filler approved only for minimally invasive procedures in facial tissue and is among the most frequently used injectable substances for cosmetic purposes. Injection of a large volume of PMMA may lead to the development of severe hypercalcemia and chronic kidney damage in a probably underestimated frequency. In such cases, hypercalcemia develops due to a granulomatous foreign body reaction with extrarenal production of calcitriol. In the present report, we describe the cases of two patients who received injections of large volumes of PMMA and developed severe hypercalcemia and advanced chronic kidney disease. These reports highlight the importance of adhering to regulations regarding the use of PMMA and properly informing patients of the possibility of complications before undertaking such procedures.


Resumo Injeções de preenchimento de caráter estético são procedimentos comuns em cirurgia plástica em todo o mundo. O polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA) é um material de preenchimento aprovado apenas para procedimentos minimamente invasivos no tecido facial, e está entre as substâncias injetáveis mais frequentemente usadas para fins estéticos. A injeção de um grande volume de PMMA pode levar ao desenvolvimento de hipercalcemia grave e lesão renal crônica em uma frequência provavelmente subestimada. Nesses casos, a hipercalcemia se desenvolve devido a uma reação granulomatosa de corpo estranho, secundária à produção extrarenal de calcitriol. No presente artigo, descrevemos os casos de dois pacientes que receberam injeções de grandes volumes de PMMA e desenvolveram hipercalcemia grave e doença renal crônica avançada. Esses relatos destacam a importância de seguir as regulamentações sobre o uso do PMMA e informar adequadamente os pacientes sobre a possibilidade de complicações antes de realizar tais procedimentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cosmetic Techniques , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Hypercalcemia/chemically induced , Calcitriol , Polymethyl Methacrylate/adverse effects
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e545-e549, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292803

ABSTRACT

La hipercalcemia asociada a tumores malignos es una entidad poco frecuente en pediatría (0,5-1,3 % de los cánceres pediátricos). Es causada por diferentes mecanismos fisiopatológicos y los síntomas de presentación suelen ser inespecíficos, pero potencialmente graves. Presentamos un caso clínico de una paciente de 12 años con diagnóstico de disgerminoma ovárico bilateral. La enfermedad se presentó con hipercalcemia grave, tratada con hiperhidratación asociada a diuréticos de asa, bifosfonatos y, por último, la resección quirúrgica del tumor, que permitió la resolución definitiva del cuadro. A pesar de tratarse de un trastorno hidroeléctrico poco habitual en pediatría, dada la potencial gravedad de la hipercalcemia, es importante la detección y el tratamiento tempranos, con el fin de evitar complicaciones en el corto y el largo plazo


Hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors is a rare entity in pediatrics (0.5-1.3 % of pediatric cancers). It responds to different pathophysiological mechanisms and the typical symptoms shown are usually nonspecific, but potentially serious. We present a clinical case of a 12-year-old patient with a bilateral ovarian dysgerminoma who was diagnosed with severe hypercalcemia at the onset, which required hyperhydration associated with loop diuretics, bisphosphonates and, eventually, the tumor resection surgery that allowed the final resolution of the clinical picture.Despite being a rare hydroelectric disorder in pediatrics, given the potential severity of hypercalcemia, early detection and treatment are important in order to avoid potential short- and long-term complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Ovarian Neoplasms/complications , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Dysgerminoma/complications , Dysgerminoma/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Pediatrics
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10558, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249309

ABSTRACT

Hypercalcemia is common in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx) and is associated with persistent hyperparathyroidism in the majority of cases. This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the prevalence of hypercalcemia after KTx. KTx recipients were evaluated for 7 years after receiving kidneys from living or deceased donors. A total of 301 patients were evaluated; 67 patients had hypercalcemia at some point during the follow-up period. The median follow-up time for all 67 patients was 62 months (44; 80). Overall, 45 cases of hypercalcemia were classified as related to persistent post-transplant hyperparathyroidism (group A), 16 were classified as "transient post-transplant hypercalcemia" (group B), and 3 had causes secondary to other diseases (1 related to tuberculosis, 1 related to histoplasmosis, and 1 related to lymphoma). The other 3 patients had hypercalcemia of unknown etiology, which is still under investigation. In group A, the onset of hypercalcemia after KTx was not significantly different from that of the other groups, but the median duration of hypercalcemia in group A was 25 months (12.5; 53), longer than in group B, where the median duration of hypercalcemia was only 12 months (10; 15) (P<0.002). The median parathyroid hormone blood levels around 12 months after KTx were 210 pg/mL (141; 352) in group A and 72.5 pg/mL (54; 95) in group B (P<0.0001). Hypercalcemia post-KTx is not infrequent and its prevalence in this center was 22.2%. Persistent hyperparathyroidism was the most frequent cause, but other important etiologies must not be forgotten, especially granulomatous diseases and malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Hypercalcemia/epidemiology , Hyperparathyroidism , Parathyroid Hormone , Calcium , Retrospective Studies , Kidney
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021328, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339243

ABSTRACT

Background Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is a very rare paraneoplastic manifestation in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). It is an uncommon pattern of renal disease in such patients. Case presentation We report a case of an 82-year-old male who was admitted with acute kidney injury. Renal biopsy showed typical findings of light chain-associated ATIN with scattered inflammatory cells in the interstitium and associated active tubulitis. No other common manifestations of MM were present at the time of presentation, including hypercalcemia, hyperuricemia, proteinuria, bone pain or lytic bone lesions. Subsequent immunoassays revealed significant serum lambda light chain burden and Bence Jones protein in urine. Immunofluorescence demonstrated linear tubular basement membranes with positive staining for lambda light chain (3+). Electron microscopy (EM) further showed interstitial edema and inflammation. All the aforementioned findings are consistent with ATIN and supported the diagnosis of MM. Conclusions In conclusion, light chain-associated ATIN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. Henceforth, serum free light chains as well as serum and urine protein electrophoresis should be included in the workup of such patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Nephritis, Interstitial/complications , Proteinuria , Hyperuricemia , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrophoresis , Acute Kidney Injury , Hypercalcemia
9.
Actual. osteol ; 17(2): 92-103, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1370258

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma paratiroideo (CP) es una neoplasia maligna con una incidencia de 0,015 cada 100.000 habitantes por año. Representa el 1% de los diagnósticos de hiperparatiroidismo primario y se manifiesta entre la 4.a y 5.a década de la vida, con una incidencia similar entre hombres y mujeres. La etiología del CP es incierta, ha sido asociada a formas esporádicas o familiares. Está caracterizado por altos niveles séricos de calcio y PTH y el desafío clínico-quirúrgico es el diagnóstico diferencial con otras entidades benignas como el adenoma o la hiperplasia de paratiroides. Aunque el diagnóstico de certeza es anatomopatológico, la sospecha clínica y el uso de métodos de baja complejidad (ecografía) con operadores avezados permite una correcta localización y abordaje pertinente del paciente para dirigir el tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado (resección en bloque) evitando persistencias y recurrencias de enfermedad. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente masculino que ingresa por síndrome de impregnación asociado a hipercalcemia, su abordaje diagnóstico, tratamiento y manejo interdisciplinario con discusión y revisión bibliográfica. (AU)


Parathyroid carcinoma (CP) is a malignant disease with an incidence of 0.015 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. It accounts for 1% of primary hyperparathyroidism diagnoses and occurs between the 4th and 5th decade of life, with a similar incidence between men and women. The etiology of CP is uncertain and has been associated with sporadic or family forms. CP is characterized by high serum calcium and PTH levels and the clinical-surgical challenge is the differential diagnosis with other benign entities such as parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. Although the diagnosis of certainty is achieved by pathological anatomy examination, the clinical suspicion and the use of low complexity methods (ultrasound) by experienced operators allows a correct localization and a patient-specific approach to direct the appropriate surgical treatment (block resection), avoiding persistence and recurrences of disease. The clinical case of a male patient admitted for severe hypercalcemia with multiple organ disfunction, the diagnostic approaches, treatment, and interdisciplinary management, together with review and discussion of the current literature are presented. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Parathyroid Neoplasms/complications , Parathyroid Neoplasms/etiology , Parathyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/diagnosis , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Parathyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Parathyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Calcitriol/administration & dosage , Calcium Gluconate/administration & dosage , Radiography , Tomography , Calcium/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypercalcemia/blood
10.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.321-339, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344744
11.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(4): 166-170, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344802

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia es una enfermedad neurológica frecuente que afecta a cerca de 50.000 millones de personas en el mundo. En Chile, la prevalencia estimada es de 10.8 a 17 por 1.000 habitantes. La primera opción para su tratamiento son los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAE) los cuales logran un aceptable control de enfermedad en la mayoría de los casos, sin embargo, tienen la potencialidad de desencadenar una serie de efectos adversos destacando entre ellos el desarrollo de hipocalcemia (HC) secundaria a hipovitaminosis D (HD), alteración que por lo general es leve y asintomática. Presentamos el caso de una mujer perimenopausica con antecedente de epilepsia en tratamiento con anticonvulsivante que desarrolla hipocalcemia severa. Además revisamos los mecanismos descritos a través de los cuales los FAE afectan el metabolismo de esta vitamina.


Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that affects about 50,000 million people in the world. The estimated prevalence is 10.8 to 17 per 1.000 inhabitants in Chile. The first option for its treatment are antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which achieve an acceptable control of the disease in most cases, however, they have the potential to trigger a series of adverse effects (AE) highlighting among them the development of hypocalcemia (HC) secondary to hypovitaminosis D (HD), an alteration that is generally mild and asymptomatic. We present the case of a perimenopausal woman with a history of epilepsy under treatment with an anticonvulsant who develops severe hypocalcemia. We also review the mechanisms described through which AEDs affect the metabolism of this vitamin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Vitamin D/metabolism , Epilepsy/metabolism , Hypercalcemia/etiology
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 669-673, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345190

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Severe hypercalcemia is a medical emergency that requires immediate and aggressive management. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) often causes severe hypercalcemia. Volume resuscitation, parenteral salmon calcitonin, and administration of intravenous bisphosphonates are common measures used to stabilize patients. However, the use of these measures is inadequate in several patients and may even be contraindicated in individuals with renal insufficiency or severe systemic illness. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of denosumab in patients with severe hypercalcemia due to PHPT, when immediate surgery was not feasible. We present four patients with severe hypercalcemia due to PHPT. Immediate surgery was not feasible because the patients had severe systemic illness, such as seizures and altered sensorium (case 1); acute severe pancreatitis (cases 2 and 3); or coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia (case 4). Intravenous normal saline and parenteral salmon calcitonin were inadequate for controlling hypercalcemia. Intravenous bisphosphonates were avoided because of severe systemic illness in all cases and impaired renal function in three cases. Denosumab was administered to control hypercalcemia and allow the stabilization of patients for definitive surgical management. Following denosumab administration, serum calcium levels normalized, and general condition improved in all patients. Three patients underwent parathyroidectomy after two weeks and another patient after eight weeks. The use of denosumab for the management of severe hypercalcemia due to PHPT is efficacious and safe in patients when immediate surgical management is not feasible due to severe systemic illness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/drug therapy , Denosumab/therapeutic use , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Calcium , COVID-19
13.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(3): e1324, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139061

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hiperparatiroidismo es una de las causas más frecuente de hipercalcemia. El 85 por ciento de los pacientes son mayores de treinta años, su frecuencia más alta se encuentra por encima de 60 años, a largo plazo puede producir una serie de complicaciones. Objetivo: Describir el caso clínico de hiperparatiroidismo primario que resultó negativa al estudio de gammagrafía con localización ectópica del adenoma. Caso Clínico: Paciente femenina de 20 años con antecedentes de litiasis renal y uretral de 7 años de evolución, la cual se sometió a 13 sesiones de litotricia y dos cirugías renales con recidivas, hace 6 meses se detectó cifras elevadas de calcio. Se realiza protocolo de estudio de hipercalcemia determinándose hiperparatiroidismo primario, ultrasonido y tomografía de cuello reportan lesión que podría corresponder a un adenoma paratiroideo paratraqueal; sin embargo, la gammagrafía con metoxi-isobutilisonitrilo y tecnecio 99 fue negativa. Se realizó cirugía de cuello convencional ya que la cirugía radioguiada no fue útil para la localización del adenoma paratiroideo intraoperatorio. Estudio histopatológico reportó adenoma paratiroideo. Conclusiones: En adenomas paratiroideo con gammagrafía negativa se puede hacer el diagnostico con estudios de imagen convencional. La localización ectópica del adenoma paratiroideo constituye una causa de gammagrafía negativa. La cirugía radioguiada no es útil en los adenomas paratiroides ectópicos con gammagrafía negativa(AU)


Introduction: Hyperparathyroidism is one of the most frequent causes of hypercalcemia. 85 percent of patients are older than thirty years, its highest frequency is over 60 years, in the long term it can produce a series of complications. Objective: To describe a clinical case of primary hyperparathyroidism that was negative in the scintigraphy study with ectopic location of the adenoma. Clinical case report: A 20-year-old female patient with a 7-year history of renal and urethral lithiasis, who had undergone 13 lithotripsy sessions and two recurrent kidney surgeries. Six months ago, elevated calcium levels were detected. A study protocol for hypercalcemia was carried out, determining primary hyperparathyroidism. Ultrasound and neck tomography report a lesion that could correspond to a paratracheal parathyroid adenoma; however, methoxy-isobutylisonitrile and technetium-99 scintigraphy was negative. Conventional neck surgery was performed since radioguided surgery was not useful for locating the intraoperative parathyroid adenoma. Histopathological study reported parathyroid adenoma. Conclusions: In parathyroid adenomas with negative scintigraphy, the diagnosis can be reached with conventional imaging studies. The ectopic location of the parathyroid adenoma is a cause of negative scintigraphy. Radioguided surgery is not helpful in scan-negative ectopic parathyroid adenomas(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Adenoma/diagnostic imaging , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/diagnostic imaging , Hypercalcemia/complications
14.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(1): [11], jul. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1118902

ABSTRACT

Los tumores de células gigantes (TDG) llamados también osteoclastomas o tumores pardos cuando se hallan dentro la esfera endocrinológica, son uno de los tumores menos frecuentes, más controversial y menos predecible en su comportamiento. Se producen como consecuencia del exceso de la actividad osteoclastica, como ocurre en el caso del hiperparatiroidismo, mismo que es un desorden endocrino común, por lo general asintomático y diagnosticado por el hallazgo fortuito de hipercalcemia. El diagnóstico de los osteoclastomas suele ser un reto, el alto índice de sospecha es esencial y la biopsia es el estándar de oro para el diagnóstico. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 42 años quien presentó fracturas patológicas de radio derecho y tibia izquierda, gammagrama óseo con Tc ­ 99m con múltiples lesiones óseas , hormona paratiroidea (PTH) elevada, hipercalcemia, gammagrama de paratiroides con MIBI con presencia de adenoma paratiroideo, la biopsia de las lesiones óseas con presencia de células gigantes multinucleadas correspondientes a osteoclastomas; se llevó a cabo paratiroidectomia y el examen histopatológico confirmó la presencia de un adenoma paratiroideo.


Giant cell tumors (TDG), also called osteoclastomas or brown tumors when they are within the endocrinological sphere, are one of the least frequent, most controversial and least predictable tumors in their behavior. They occur as a consequence of excess osteoclastic activity, as occurs in the case of hyperparathyroidism, which is a common endocrine disorder, generally asymptomatic and diagnosed by the fortuitous finding of hypercalcemia. Diagnosing osteoclastomas is usually challenging, the high index of suspicion is essential, and biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis. We present the case of a 42-year-old man who presented pathological fractures of the right radius and left tibia, a bone scan with Tc-99m with multiple bone lesions, elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), hypercalcemia, parathyroid scan with MIBI with the presence of parathyroid adenoma, the biopsy of the bone lesions with the presence of multinucleated giant cells corresponding to osteoclastomas; parathyroidectomy was performed and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Wounds and Injuries , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Hypercalcemia
15.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 7(1): 121-129, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144379

ABSTRACT

Resumen El magnesio sérico es el "ion olvidado" en la práctica médica: la mayoría de veces no se tiene en cuenta en los estudios clínicos, sus alteraciones tienden a ser ignoradas y su aproximación terapéutica no está definida de forma adecuada. La sintomatologia producto de la hipomagnesemia es inespecífica y su aproximación diagnostica es compleja. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con hipomagnesemia sintomática severa asociada a daño renal por hipercalcemia durante la gestación.


Abstract Serum magnesium is the «forgotten ion¼ in medical practice. Most of the time it is not taken into account in clinical studies, its alterations tend to be ignored and its therapeutic approach is not well defined. The symptomatology produced by hypomagnesemia is nonspecific and its diagnostic approach is complex. We present the case of a pregnant patient with symptomatic hypomagnesemia secondary to renal damage due to hypercalcemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Kidney Diseases , Patients , Pregnancy , Colombia , Hypercalcemia , Hyperparathyroidism , Magnesium
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): s59-s63, abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100502

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de lisis tumoral representa una complicación potencialmente letal provocada por la liberación masiva de ácidos nucleicos, potasio y fosfato hacia la circulación como resultado de la lisis de células neoplásicas, las cuales se caracterizan por una rápida capacidad de proliferación y alta sensibilidad a fármacos. Esto puede ocurrir de forma espontánea antes del inicio del tratamiento y agravarse luego de haberse iniciado la quimioterapia. Presenta una alta mortalidad. Su prevención continúa siendo la medida terapéutica más importante. El cuadro clínico se caracteriza por la existencia de trastornos del metabolismo hidroelectrolítico, en particular, hipercalemia, hiperfosfatemia e hiperuricemia y por la aparición de una lesión renal aguda. Una adecuada intervención terapéutica implica hidratación intravenosa y medidas para prevenir o corregir las alteraciones metabólicas. En este artículo, se proponen lineamientos para seguir tanto en la etapa diagnóstica como en el tratamiento de esta complicación.


The tumor lysis syndrome represents a potentially lethal complication caused by the massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the circulation as a result of the lysis of neoplastic cells, which are characterized by a rapid proliferation capacity and high sensitivity to drugs. This may occur spontaneously prior to the start of treatment, becoming worse after the initiation of chemotherapy. It presents a high mortality; its prevention continues being the most important therapeutic measure. The clinical picture is characterized by the existence of hydroelectrolytic metabolism disorders, in particular hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hyperuricemia and by the appearance of an acute renal lesion. Adequate therapeutic intervention involves intravenous hydration and measures to prevent or correct metabolic alterations. This article proposes guidelines to follow both in the diagnostic stage and in the treatment of this complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/diagnosis , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/prevention & control , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/drug therapy , Risk Assessment , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Hyperphosphatemia/drug therapy , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Hypocalcemia/drug therapy
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 15-25, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease characterized by epithelioid noncaseating granulomas associated with clinical and radiologic findings. The cause of this disease is still uncertain. Sarcoidosis affects mostly lungs and lymph nodes and is not usually considered a urological disease, therefore, this etiology may be overlooked in several urological disorders, such as hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis. It affects all races and genders. This review aims to describe the urological manifestations of sarcoidosis and to elucidate how the disease may affect the management of numerous urological conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/therapy , Biopsy , Chronic Disease , Hypercalciuria/diagnosis , Hypercalciuria/pathology , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/pathology , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/therapy
18.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 87(2): 76-70, abr.-dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1097735

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: El hiperparatiroidismo primario, tercer trastorno metabólico más común a nivel mundial, provoca un aumento del calcio sérico y de la hormona paratiroidea, causado por una hiperactividad de las glándulas paratiroideas. En el 85% de los casos, se debe a un adenoma paratiroideo. Es predominantemente asintomático (>80%), pero sus manifestaciones pueden ser musculo-esqueléticas, neurológicas, psiquiátricas, renales, cardiovasculares, y gastrointestinales. Descripción del Caso Clínico: Paciente femenina de 53 años de edad, con antecedente de hipercolesterolemia familiar heterocigoto e hipertensión arterial; presenta insomnio, náuseas, pérdida de peso, mialgias, astenia, relujo gastroesofágico e irritabilidad. Ante indicación de exámenes de labo-ratorio muestra hipercalcemia leve. Se comprueba un adenoma paratiroideo derecho y nódulos tiroideos coloides benignos en lóbulo izquierdo mediante gammagrafía Tc99m MIBI, siendo sometida a su resección con posterior evolución satisfactoria. Conclusiones: Considerando la predilección asintomática del hiperparatiroidismo primario y su preferencia de presentación como adenoma, resulta indispensable su sospecha ante toda hipercalcemia. Requiere entonces una concientización amplia no solo en el ámbito médico sino también en la comunidad, ampliando esfuerzos entre el clínico, cirujano, y patólogo. Se recomienda medir el calcio y fósforo sérico de forma rutinaria en la evaluación clínica cotidiana de cada paciente para su detección...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Parathyroid Neoplasms/complications , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia
19.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 13(3): 173-176, jul-set.2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097058

ABSTRACT

As aging progresses, there is a consequent increase in chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteopenia, and vitamin D (cholecalciferol) supplementation is routinely prescribed. However, indiscriminate use of this supplement can lead to intoxication and systemic changes. Seeking to raise awareness among prescribing physicians and especially older patients, the purpose of this case report was to describe the systemic symptoms and damage that can occur from intoxication due to uncontrolled use of vitamin D, such as hypercalcemia and kidney injury. This report describes the case of an older woman who reported using a cholecalciferol- containing formula for ten years to treat osteoarthritis. She arrived at the hospital with weight loss, acute kidney injury and hypercalcemia. After ruling out neoplastic diseases, she was diagnosed with vitamin D poisoning. The symptoms and laboratory results improved after treatment. Based on this report, we conclude that geriatricians play a key role in demystifying the use of vitamins and should only prescribe them when medically indicated.


Com a progressão do envelhecimento e, consequentemente, o aumento de doenças crônicas, como osteoporose e osteopenia, a suplementação da vitamina D (colecalciferol) tem sido rotineiramente prescrita, no entanto o uso indiscriminado e o não controle dessa reposição podem levar à intoxicação e, consequentemente, a alterações sistêmicas. Buscando conscientizar médicos prescritores, e principalmente pacientes idosos, o objetivo do relato do caso foi de alertar sobre o uso desregrado e divulgar os diversos sintomas sistêmicos, além dos danos dessa intoxicação, como hipercalcemia e lesão renal. Este relato trata do caso de uma idosa que afirmava usar fórmula contendo colecalciferol há dez anos para tratar osteoartrite. Chegou ao hospital com emagrecimento, lesão renal aguda e hipercalcemia. Após descartar doenças neoplásicas, foi diagnosticada com intoxicação de vitamina D. Feito tratamento, houve remissão sintomatológica e laboratorial. Com base nesse relato, concluímos que o geriatra tem um papel fundamental de desmistificar o uso de vitaminas e prescrever estritamente quando há indicação médica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D/toxicity , Hypercalcemia/complications , Self Medication/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Hypercalcemia/rehabilitation
20.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 336-344, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040249

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Treating secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a common condition associated with death in patients with chronic kidney disease, is a challenge for nephrologists. Calcimimetics have allowed the introduction of drug therapies no longer based on phosphate binders and active vitamin D. This study aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of cinacalcet in managing chronic dialysis patients with severe SHPT. Methods: This retrospective study included 26 patients [age: 52 ± 12 years; 55% females; time on dialysis: 54 (4-236) months] on hemodialysis (N = 18) or peritoneal dialysis (N = 8) with severe SHPT (intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level > 600 pg/mL) and hyperphosphatemia and/or persistent hypercalcemia treated with cinacalcet. The patients were followed for 12 months. Their serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and iPTH levels were measured at baseline and on days 30, 60, 90, 180, and 365. Results: Patients with hyperphosphatemia (57.7%), hypercalcemia (23%), or both (19.3%) with iPTH > 600 pg/mL were prescribed cinacalcet. At the end of the study, decreases were observed in iPTH (1348 ± 422 vs. 440 ± 210 pg/mL; p < 0.001), Ca (9.5 ± 1.0 vs. 9.1 ± 0.6 mg/dl; p = 0.004), P (6.0 ± 1.3 vs. 4.9 ± 1.1 mg/dl; p < 0.001), and ALP (202 ± 135 vs. 155 ± 109 IU/L; p = 0.006) levels. Adverse events included hypocalcemia (26%) and digestive problems (23%). At the end of the study, 73% of the patients were on active vitamin D and cinacalcet. Three (11.5%) patients on peritoneal dialysis did not respond to therapy with cinacalcet, and their iPTH levels were never below 800 pg/mL. Conclusion: Cinacalcet combined with traditional therapy proved safe and effective and helped manage the mineral metabolism of patients with severe SHPT.


Resumo Introdução: O tratamento do hiperparatireoidismo secundário (HPTs), patologia comum e associada à mortalidade na doença renal crônica, é um desafio para o nefrologista. Advento dos calcimiméticos propiciou terapêutica medicamentosa diferente da usual, baseada em quelantes de fósforo e vitamina D ativa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar segurança e efetividade de cinacalcete no controle do HPTs grave de pacientes em diálise crônica. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo 26 pacientes [idade: 52 ± 12 anos; 55% mulheres; tempo em diálise: 54 (4-236) meses], em hemodiálise (N = 18) ou diálise peritoneal (N = 8), com HPTs grave (nível de paratormônio intacto (PTHi) > 600 pg/mL), com hiperfosfatemia e/ou hipercalcemia persistentes, em tratamento com cinacalcete. Período de seguimento de 12 meses. Avaliados níveis séricos de cálcio (Ca), fósforo (P), fosfatase alcalina (FA) e PTHi no início do seguimento, 30, 60, 90, 180 e 365 dias. Resultados: Indicações para início do cinacalcete: hiperfosfatemia (57,7%), hipercalcemia (23%), ou ambos (19,3%) com PTH > 600 pg/mL. Ao final do seguimento, observada redução dos níveis PTHi (1348 ± 422 vs. 440 ± 210 pg/mL; p < 0,001), Ca (9,5 ± 1,0 vs. 9,1 ± 0,6 mg/dl; p = 0,004), P (6,0 ± 1,3 vs. 4,9 ± 1,1 mg/dl; p < 0,001) e FA (202 ± 135 vs. 155 ± 109 UI/L; p = 0,006). Eventos adversos: hipocalcemia (26%) e queixas digestivas (23%). No fim do estudo, 73% pacientes utilizavam vitamina D ativada associada ao cinacalcete. Três (11,5%) pacientes, todos em DP, não responderam ao cinacalcete, mantendo níveis PTHi > 800 pg/mL. Conclusão: Utilização de cinacalcete, associado à terapia tradicional, em pacientes com HPTs grave foi segura, eficiente e associada a melhor controle do metabolismo mineral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis , Calcimimetic Agents/therapeutic use , Cinacalcet/therapeutic use , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/drug therapy , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/blood , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Calcium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Hyperphosphatemia/drug therapy , Calcimimetic Agents/adverse effects , Cinacalcet/adverse effects , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy
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