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1.
Actual. osteol ; 19(2): 160-166, sept. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525671

ABSTRACT

Introducción: describir el caso de un paciente con pancreatitis aguda secundaria a hipercalcemia por hiperparatiroidismo prImario. Esta es una causa poco frecuente de pancreatitis, asociada a morbimortalidad significativa en caso de no ser diagnosticada oportunamente Caso clínico: un hombre de 44 años, con antecedente de pancreatitis de presunto origen biliar que había requerido previamente colecistectomía, consultó por dolor abdominal y náuseas. Los estudios complementarios fueron compatibles con un nuevo episodio de pancreatitis aguda. Presentaba hipercalcemia y hormona paratiroidea (PTH) elevada, configurando hiperparatiroidismo primario. La gammagrafía informó hallazgos compatibles con adenoma paratiroideo. Se inició tratamiento con reanimación hídrica y analgesia con adecuada disminución de calcio sérico y resolución de dolor abdominal. Después de la paratiroidectomía se logró normalizar los niveles de calcio y PTH. Discusión: la pancreatitis aguda es una condición potencialmente fatal, por lo que la sospecha de causas poco frecuentes como la hipercalcemia debe tenerse en cuenta. El tratamiento de la hipercalcemia por adenoma paratiroideo se basa en reanimación hídrica adecuada y manejo quirúrgico del adenoma, con el fin de evitar recurrencia de pancreatitis y mortalidad. (AU)


Introduction: we describe the case of a patient with acute pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism. This is a rare cause of pancreatitis associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed in time. Clinical case: a 44-year-old man with a history of pancreatitis of presumed biliary origin, which had previously required cholecystectomy, consulted for abdominal pain and nausea. The laboratory findings were compatible with a new episode of acute pancreatitis. He presented hypercalcemia and an elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), configuring primary hyperparathyroidism. Scintigraphy was performed, yielding findings compatible with parathyroid adenoma. Treatment with fluid resuscitation and analgesia was started, resulting in an adequate decrease in serum calcium and resolution of abdominal pain. After parathyroidectomy, calcium and PTH levels were normalized. Discussion: acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal condition; therefore the suspicion of rare causes, such as hypercalcemia, should be considered. The treatment of hypercalcemia due to parathyroid adenoma is based on adequate fluid resuscitation and surgical management of the adenoma, to avoid recurrence of pancreatitis and death. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pancreatitis/etiology , Parathyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/diagnostic imaging , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Pancreatitis/prevention & control , Parathyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Parathyroid Neoplasms/complications , Radionuclide Imaging , Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hypercalcemia/blood , Hypercalcemia/therapy
2.
Actual. osteol ; 18(3): 183-191, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509337

ABSTRACT

La crisis hipercalcémica (CH) es una emergencia endocrina inusual, definida por la presencia de calcemia > 14 mg/dl asociada a disfunción renal, alteraciones cardiovasculares, gastrointestinales y del sensorio; también podría considerarse en pacientes con síntomas graves y calcemia menor. El hiperparatiroidismo primario (HPTP) y las neoplasias malignas son las etiologías más comunes de la hipercalcemia (90% de los casos); sin embargo, rara vez el primero se presenta como CH. Debido a la alta mortalidad asociada a esta entidad, es de gran importancia establecer diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces. Presentamos dos pacientes con crisis hipercalcémica como primera manifestación del HPTP, el 1.° con bloqueo auriculoventricular (AV) completo y el 2.° con pancreatitis aguda. La anatomía patológica (AP) reveló adenoma oxifílico en ambos casos, que es una variante histológica poco frecuente y puede manifestarse clínicamente de forma grave. Conclusiones: los adenomas paratiroideos son causa poco frecuente de CH. Consideramos el tipo histológico observado (adenoma oxifílico) como probable factor condicionante. La pancreatitis y especialmente el bloqueo AV son manifestaciones poco frecuentes de la CH. Resaltamos la importancia de la determinación de los niveles de calcio dentro de la evaluación inicial de todo paciente con bloqueo AV. (AU)


Hypercalcemic crisis (HC) is an unusual endocrine emergency, defined as the presence of serum calcium > 14 mg/dl related to kidney dysfunction, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and sensory disturbances. It could also be considered in patients with severe symptoms and lower serum calcium levels. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and malignant neoplasms are the most common hypercalcemia etiologies (90% of cases), nevertheless, the former hardly ever occurs as HC. Due to the high mortality associated with HC, it is crucial to establish early diagnosis and treatment.We report two patients with HC as the first manifestation of PHPT; the former with atrioventricular (AV) block and the latter with acute pancreatitis. Pathology revealed oxyphilic adenoma in both cases, which is an infrequent histological variant that can have a severe clinical manifestation. Conclusions: parathyroid adenomas are a rare cause of HC. We consider the histological type observed (oxyphilic adenoma) as a probable conditioning factor. Pancreatitis and especially AV block are rare manifestations of HC. We emphasize the importance of determining calcium levels in the initial evaluation of all patients with AV block. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Parathyroid Neoplasms/complications , Adenoma/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Pancreatitis/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone/analysis , Parathyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenoma/pathology , Calcium/blood , Oxyphil Cells/pathology , Atrioventricular Block/etiology , Hypercalcemia/etiology
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 462-466, jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346486

ABSTRACT

Abstract PTH-independent hypercalcemia due to granulomatous disease is well-documented and sarcoidosis is the most characteristic disease, although there are others. We describe a case of sarcoid-like granulomatous myositis. An 87-year-old man was referred with tetraparesis and hypercalcemia (albumin-corrected calcium of 13.4 mg/dl) following a trip to the Caribbean. The evaluation showed a suppressed PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D of 7.5 ng/ml, 18F-FDG PET/CT showed markedly increased uptake in intercostal, back, shoulder, but tock and thigh muscles and a deltoid biopsy confirmed extensive granulomatous myositis. He was prescribed glucocorticoids which resulted in normalized plasma calcium levels and complete recovery from tetraparesis. Sarcoid-like granulomatous myositis should be incorporated into the differential diagnosis of PTH-independent hypercalcemia, especially in the absence of clinical features of sarcoidosis and with special emphasis on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT to ensure a correct approach.


Resumen La hipercalcemia PTH-independiente asociada a enfermedades granulomatosas está bien documentada y la sarcoidosis es la enfermedad más característica, a pesar de que existen otras. Des cribimos un caso de miositis granulomatosa simil-sarcoidea. Un hombre de 87 años consultó por tetraparesia e hipercalcemia (calcio corregido por albúmina 13.4 mg/dl) luego de un viaje al Caribe. La evaluación mostró una PTH suprimida, 25-hidroxivitamina D 7.5 ng/ml, 18F-FDG PET/CT mostró marcado aumento de captación a nivel de musculatura intercostal, dorsal, deltoidea, glúteos y muslos. Una biopsia deltoidea confirmó una miositis granulomatosa extensa. Se prescribieron glucocorticoides, resultando en normalización del calcio plasmático y completa recuperación de la tetraparesia. La miositis granulomatosa simil-sarcoidea debe ser incorporada den tro del diagnóstico diferencial de la hipercalcemia PTH-independiente, especialmente en ausencia de hallazgos clínicos de sarcoidosis y con especial énfasis en el uso de 18F-FDG PET/CT para su correcta aproximación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Sarcoidosis/complications , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Myositis/complications , Myositis/diagnosis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Granuloma/complications , Granuloma/diagnosis
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e545-e549, oct. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292803

ABSTRACT

La hipercalcemia asociada a tumores malignos es una entidad poco frecuente en pediatría (0,5-1,3 % de los cánceres pediátricos). Es causada por diferentes mecanismos fisiopatológicos y los síntomas de presentación suelen ser inespecíficos, pero potencialmente graves. Presentamos un caso clínico de una paciente de 12 años con diagnóstico de disgerminoma ovárico bilateral. La enfermedad se presentó con hipercalcemia grave, tratada con hiperhidratación asociada a diuréticos de asa, bifosfonatos y, por último, la resección quirúrgica del tumor, que permitió la resolución definitiva del cuadro. A pesar de tratarse de un trastorno hidroeléctrico poco habitual en pediatría, dada la potencial gravedad de la hipercalcemia, es importante la detección y el tratamiento tempranos, con el fin de evitar complicaciones en el corto y el largo plazo


Hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors is a rare entity in pediatrics (0.5-1.3 % of pediatric cancers). It responds to different pathophysiological mechanisms and the typical symptoms shown are usually nonspecific, but potentially serious. We present a clinical case of a 12-year-old patient with a bilateral ovarian dysgerminoma who was diagnosed with severe hypercalcemia at the onset, which required hyperhydration associated with loop diuretics, bisphosphonates and, eventually, the tumor resection surgery that allowed the final resolution of the clinical picture.Despite being a rare hydroelectric disorder in pediatrics, given the potential severity of hypercalcemia, early detection and treatment are important in order to avoid potential short- and long-term complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Ovarian Neoplasms/complications , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Dysgerminoma/complications , Dysgerminoma/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Pediatrics
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(3): 399-408, mar. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389472

ABSTRACT

Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant disease that presents as a sporadic or familial primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). The latter is associated with some genetic syndromes. It occurs with equal frequency in both sexes, unlike PHP caused by parathyroid adenoma that is more common in women. It should be suspected in cases of severe hypercalcemia, with high parathyroid hormone levels and a palpable cervical mass. Given the difficulty in distinguishing between parathyroid carcinoma and adenoma prior to the surgery, the diagnosis is often made after parathyroidectomy. The only curative treatment is complete surgical resection with oncologic block resection of the primary tumor to ensure free margins. Adjuvant therapies with chemotherapy or radiation therapy do not modify overall or disease-free survival. Recurrences are common and re-operation of resectable recurrent disease is recommended. The palliative treatment of symptomatic hypercalcemia is crucial in persistent or recurrent disease after surgery since morbidity and mortality are more associated with hypercalcemia than with tumor burden.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parathyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Parathyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroidectomy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10558, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249309

ABSTRACT

Hypercalcemia is common in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx) and is associated with persistent hyperparathyroidism in the majority of cases. This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the prevalence of hypercalcemia after KTx. KTx recipients were evaluated for 7 years after receiving kidneys from living or deceased donors. A total of 301 patients were evaluated; 67 patients had hypercalcemia at some point during the follow-up period. The median follow-up time for all 67 patients was 62 months (44; 80). Overall, 45 cases of hypercalcemia were classified as related to persistent post-transplant hyperparathyroidism (group A), 16 were classified as "transient post-transplant hypercalcemia" (group B), and 3 had causes secondary to other diseases (1 related to tuberculosis, 1 related to histoplasmosis, and 1 related to lymphoma). The other 3 patients had hypercalcemia of unknown etiology, which is still under investigation. In group A, the onset of hypercalcemia after KTx was not significantly different from that of the other groups, but the median duration of hypercalcemia in group A was 25 months (12.5; 53), longer than in group B, where the median duration of hypercalcemia was only 12 months (10; 15) (P<0.002). The median parathyroid hormone blood levels around 12 months after KTx were 210 pg/mL (141; 352) in group A and 72.5 pg/mL (54; 95) in group B (P<0.0001). Hypercalcemia post-KTx is not infrequent and its prevalence in this center was 22.2%. Persistent hyperparathyroidism was the most frequent cause, but other important etiologies must not be forgotten, especially granulomatous diseases and malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Hypercalcemia/epidemiology , Hyperparathyroidism , Parathyroid Hormone , Calcium , Retrospective Studies , Kidney
7.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.321-339, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1344744
8.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(4): 166-170, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344802

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia es una enfermedad neurológica frecuente que afecta a cerca de 50.000 millones de personas en el mundo. En Chile, la prevalencia estimada es de 10.8 a 17 por 1.000 habitantes. La primera opción para su tratamiento son los fármacos antiepilépticos (FAE) los cuales logran un aceptable control de enfermedad en la mayoría de los casos, sin embargo, tienen la potencialidad de desencadenar una serie de efectos adversos destacando entre ellos el desarrollo de hipocalcemia (HC) secundaria a hipovitaminosis D (HD), alteración que por lo general es leve y asintomática. Presentamos el caso de una mujer perimenopausica con antecedente de epilepsia en tratamiento con anticonvulsivante que desarrolla hipocalcemia severa. Además revisamos los mecanismos descritos a través de los cuales los FAE afectan el metabolismo de esta vitamina.


Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that affects about 50,000 million people in the world. The estimated prevalence is 10.8 to 17 per 1.000 inhabitants in Chile. The first option for its treatment are antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which achieve an acceptable control of the disease in most cases, however, they have the potential to trigger a series of adverse effects (AE) highlighting among them the development of hypocalcemia (HC) secondary to hypovitaminosis D (HD), an alteration that is generally mild and asymptomatic. We present the case of a perimenopausal woman with a history of epilepsy under treatment with an anticonvulsant who develops severe hypocalcemia. We also review the mechanisms described through which AEDs affect the metabolism of this vitamin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Vitamin D/metabolism , Epilepsy/metabolism , Hypercalcemia/etiology
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 669-673, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345190

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Severe hypercalcemia is a medical emergency that requires immediate and aggressive management. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) often causes severe hypercalcemia. Volume resuscitation, parenteral salmon calcitonin, and administration of intravenous bisphosphonates are common measures used to stabilize patients. However, the use of these measures is inadequate in several patients and may even be contraindicated in individuals with renal insufficiency or severe systemic illness. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of denosumab in patients with severe hypercalcemia due to PHPT, when immediate surgery was not feasible. We present four patients with severe hypercalcemia due to PHPT. Immediate surgery was not feasible because the patients had severe systemic illness, such as seizures and altered sensorium (case 1); acute severe pancreatitis (cases 2 and 3); or coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia (case 4). Intravenous normal saline and parenteral salmon calcitonin were inadequate for controlling hypercalcemia. Intravenous bisphosphonates were avoided because of severe systemic illness in all cases and impaired renal function in three cases. Denosumab was administered to control hypercalcemia and allow the stabilization of patients for definitive surgical management. Following denosumab administration, serum calcium levels normalized, and general condition improved in all patients. Three patients underwent parathyroidectomy after two weeks and another patient after eight weeks. The use of denosumab for the management of severe hypercalcemia due to PHPT is efficacious and safe in patients when immediate surgical management is not feasible due to severe systemic illness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/drug therapy , Denosumab/therapeutic use , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Calcium , COVID-19
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(3): 315-322, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134842

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Persistent hyperparathyroidism post-transplant is associated with increases in the incidence of cardiovascular events, fractures, and deaths. The aim of this study was to compare both therapeutic options available: parathyroidectomy (PTX) and the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet. Methods: A single center retrospective study including adult renal transplant recipients who developed hypercalcemia due to persistent hyperparathyroidism. Inclusion criteria: PTH > 65 pg/mL with serum calcium > 11.5 mg/dL at any time after transplant or serum calcium persistently higher than 10.2 mg/dL one year after transplant. Patients treated with cinacalcet (n=46) were compared to patients treated with parathyroidectomy (n=30). Follow-up period was one year. Clinical and laboratory data were analyzed to compare efficacy and safety of both therapeutic modalities. Results: PTX controlled calcemia faster (month 1 x month 6) and reached significantly lower levels at month 12 (9.1±1.2 vs 9.7±0.8 mg/dL, p < 0.05); PTX patients showed significantly higher levels of serum phosphate (3.8±1.0 vs 2.9±0.5 mg/dL, p < 0.05) and returned PTH to normal levels (45±51 pg/mL). Cinacalcet, despite controlling calcium and phosphate in the long term, decreased but did not correct PTH (197±97 pg/mL). The proportion of patients that remained with PTH above normal range was 95% in the cinacalcet group and 22% in the PTX group. Patients treated with cinacalcet had better renal function (creatinine 1.2±0.3 vs 1.7±0.7 mg/dL, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Surgical treatment was superior to cinacalcet to correct the metabolic disorders of hyperparathyroidism despite being associated with worse renal function in the long term. Cinacalcet proved to be a safe and well tolerated drug.


RESUMO Introdução: O hiperparatireoidismo persistente pós-transplante está associado a aumento na incidência de eventos cardiovasculares, fraturas e óbitos. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar as opções terapêuticas disponíveis: paratireoidectomia (PTX) e o agente calcimimético cinacalcete. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de um único centro incluiu pacientes transplantados renais adultos que desenvolveram hipercalcemia devido a hiperparatireoidismo persistente. Critérios de inclusão: PTH > 65 pg/mL com cálcio sérico > 11,5 mg/dL a qualquer momento após o transplante, ou cálcio sérico persistentemente superior a 10,2 mg/dL um ano após o transplante. Os pacientes tratados com cinacalcete (n = 46) foram comparados aos pacientes tratados com paratireoidectomia (n = 30). O período de acompanhamento foi de um ano. Dados clínicos e laboratoriais foram analisados para comparar a eficácia e a segurança de ambas as modalidades terapêuticas. Resultados: a PTX controlou a calcemia mais rapidamente (mês 1 x mês 6) e atingiu níveis significativamente mais baixos no mês 12 (9,1 ± 1,2 v.s. 9,7 ± 0,8 mg/dL, p < 0,05); pacientes submetidos à PTX apresentaram níveis significativamente mais altos de fósforo sérico (3,8 ± 1,0 v.s. 2,9 ± 0,5 mg/dL, p < 0,05) e retornaram aos níveis normais de PTH (45 ± 51 pg/mL). O cinacalcete, apesar de controlar o cálcio e o fósforo no longo prazo, diminuiu, mas não corrigiu o PTH (197 ± 97 pg/mL). A proporção de pacientes que permaneceram com PTH acima da faixa normal foi de 95% no grupo cinacalcete e 22% no grupo PTX. Os pacientes tratados com cinacalcete apresentaram melhor função renal (creatinina 1,2 ± 0,3 v.s. 1,7 ± 0,7 mg/dL, p < 0,05). Conclusões: O tratamento cirúrgico foi superior ao cinacalcete para corrigir os distúrbios metabólicos do hiperparatireoidismo, apesar de estar associado a pior função renal no longo prazo. Cinacalcete provou ser um medicamento seguro e bem tolerado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Hypercalcemia/surgery , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Hyperparathyroidism/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism/etiology , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/surgery , Parathyroid Hormone , Calcium , Retrospective Studies , Parathyroidectomy , Cinacalcet/therapeutic use , Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(1): 125-129, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991383

ABSTRACT

Rhabdomyolysis (RD) is the process that leads to cell destruction of striated muscle. Causes include inherited metabolic defects or acquired disorders. RD is frequently associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and disorders of calcium metabolism. We report a 33 year old man that after amphetamine consumption and an uninterrupted 3,000 km driving presented vomiting, muscle pain and dark urine. He had elevated creatinkinase levels, severe hypocalcemia and an acute renal failure. He was treated with hemodialysis and calcitriol. He was transferred to our hospital and on admission a serum calcium of 18 mg/dl was detected. He continued on hemodialysis, recovering renal function and with normalization of creatinkinase levels and serum calcium level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Calcium/blood , Renal Dialysis/methods , Creatine Kinase/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hypercalcemia/diagnostic imaging , Hypocalcemia/etiology
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(4): 205-207, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088026

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El carcinoma de paratiroides es una enfermedad de difícil diagnóstico, siendo perentorio una detección precoz y un tratamiento oportuno para prevenir las complicaciones. CASO CLÍNICO: Se presenta paciente de 42 años que debuta con hipercalcemia de 16.1 mg/dl, PTH 1573 pg/mL y lesión sugerente de adenoma de paratiroides. Biopsia quirúrgica identifica carcinoma paratiroideo sin invasión, realizándose posteriormente lobectomía derecha con foco de 0,1 mm de carcinoma paratiroideo, con bordes libres. En comité oncológico se decide seguimiento estricto; sin embargo, a los seis meses requiere hospitalización nuevamente por hipercalcemia, a la ecografía cervical presenta dos nódulos hipoecogénicos menores a 1 cm en lecho quirúrgico. Tomografía computada sin evidencia de lesiones. Con estos antecedentes, se decide exploración cervical, encontrándose tumor de 2 cm, multilobulado, paraesofágico. Biopsia evidencia carcinoma paratiroideo con invasión en tejido graso y músculo estriado. Se descarta radioterapia paliativa y quimioterapia debido a escasa evidencia, quedando en cuidados paliativos. DISCUSIÓN: El cáncer de paratiroides es una enfermedad de difícil diagnóstico. En muchos casos se ha descrito la crisis hipercalcémica como presentación inicial. La resección en bloque de la lesión de paratiroides con hemitiroidectomía ipsilateral es el tratamiento estándar. Es un tumor radio resistente y la quimioterapia adyuvante no ha demostrado aumento en la sobrevida. En pacientes con enfermedad inoperable, el pronóstico es pobre, siendo fundamental el control de calcemia y PTH, las cuales son la causa principal de morbimortalidad. CONCLUSIONES: El carcinoma paratiroideo es una enfermedad rara, cuyo diagnóstico y tratamiento representan un verdadero desafío clínico, siendo crucial el alto índice de sospecha. Su curso es crónico y de mal pronóstico, por lo que para pacientes de alto riesgo debe considerarse una cirugía radical desde el inicio.


INTRODUCTION: Parathyroid carcinoma is a difficult diagnosis, with early detection and timely treatment to prevent complications being imperative. CLINICAL CASE: A 42-year-old patient presenting with hypercalcemia of 16.1 mg / dl, PTH 1573 pg / mL and suggestive lesion of parathyroid adenoma is presented. Surgical biopsy identifies parathyroid carcinoma without invasion, subsequently performing right lobectomy with 0.1 mm focus of parathyroid carcinoma, with free borders. Oncological committee, strict follow-up is decided; However, at six months he requires hospitalization again for hypercalcemia, at cervical ultrasound he presents two hypoechogenic nodules smaller than 1 cm in the surgical bed. CT scan without evidence of injuries. With this background, cervical exploration is decided, finding a 2 cm, multilobed, paraesophageal tumor. Biopsy shows parathyroid carcinoma with invasion of fatty tissue and striated muscle. Palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy are ruled out due to limited evidence, remaining in palliative care. DISCUSSION: Parathyroid cancer is a difficult diagnosis disease. In many cases the hypercalcemic crisis has been described as an initial presentation. Block resection of the parathyroid lesion with ipsilateral hemitiroidectomy is the standard treatment. It is a radioresistant tumor and adjuvant chemotherapy has not shown an increase in survival. In patients with inoperable disease, the prognosis is poor, with the control of calcemia and PTH being essential, which are the main cause of morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease, the diagnosis and treatment of which represent a real clinical challenge, the high index of suspicion being crucial. Its course is chronic and has a poor prognosis, so for high-risk patients, radical surgery should be considered from the beginning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Parathyroid Neoplasms/complications , Parathyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenoma/complications , Adenoma/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Adenoma/surgery
13.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 65(4)20191216.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048480

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em crianças e a principal causa de morte por câncer nessa faixa etária. A hipercalcemia associada a lesões osteolíticas francas é uma rara apresentação da LLA. Relato do Caso: Paciente de 9 anos, sexo masculino, 37kg, apresentava cefaleia, dor e impotência funcional em membro inferior direito há 15 dias. Exames laboratoriais evidenciaram elevação de velocidade de hemossedimentação e proteína C reativa com hipercalcemia. Nos exames de imagem, apresentava desmineralização óssea e lesões osteolíticas difusas. Aspirado de medula óssea (MO) evidenciou 10% de blastos, o que não caracterizou leucemia. Pela melhora do quadro clínico, o paciente seguiu com investigação diagnóstica ambulatorialmente. Biópsia de lesão lítica em quadril e novo aspirado de MO detectaram maior número de blastos e confirmaram o diagnóstico de LLA. Iniciou tratamento com protocolo do Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento de Leucemias na Infância, 2009. Após dois anos, estava bem e sem doença. Conclusão:A hipercalcemia está associada a apenas 0,6% a 4,8% dos casos de LLA. O paciente em questão apresentava apenas dores ósseas difusas e hipercalcemia, sem a sintomatologia habitual, o que torna seu quadro clínico ainda mais raro, sendo tal apresentação muito escassa na literatura. Apesar de incomuns, hipercalcemia e lesões osteolíticas difusas podem ser as primeiras e únicas manifestações de LLA na faixa pediátrica. O presente relato torna-se importante ao auxiliar a formulação de diagnósticos precoces da leucemia infantil, mesmo na vigência de um quadro clínico atípico.


Introduction: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignant neoplasm in children and the leading cause of cancer death in this age group. Hypercalcemia associated with frank osteolytic lesions is a rare presentation of ALL. Case Report: 9-year-old male, 37 kg, presented with headache, pain and functional impotence in the lower right leg for 15 days. Laboratory tests showed elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein with hypercalcemia. Imaging studies revealed bone demineralization and diffuse osteolytic lesions. Bone marrow aspiration showed 10% of blasts, which did not characterize leukemia. Due to the improvement of his clinical condition, the patient continued the clinical investigation as an outpatient. Biopsy of lytic lesion in the hip and new bone marrow aspirations detected higher number of blasts and confirmed the diagnosis of ALL. Treatment was initiated, following the protocol of the Brazilian Group of Treatment of Leukemia in Childhood, 2009. After two years, he was well and without disease. Conclusion: Hypercalcemia is associated with only 0.6% to 4.8% of all ALL cases. The patient presented only diffuse bone pain and hypercalcemia, without the usual symptoms, which makes his clinical condition even rarer, with such presentation being very scarce in the literature. Although uncommon, hypercalcemia and diffuse osteolytic lesions may be the first and only manifestations of ALL in the pediatric range. The present report is important in helping to formulate early diagnosis of childhood leukemia, even in the presence of an atypical clinical condition.


Introducción: La leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) es la neoplasia maligna más común en los niños y principal causa de muerte por cáncer en ese grupo de edad. La hipercalcemia asociada a lesiones osteolíticas francas es una rara presentación de LLA. Relato del Caso: Paciente de 9 años, masculino, 37kg, presentaba cefalea, dolor e impotencia funcional en miembro inferior derecho hace 15 días. Los exámenes de laboratorio evidenciaron elevación de velocidad de sedimentación globular y proteína C reactiva con hipercalcemia. En los exámenes de imagen, presentaba esmineralización ósea y lesiones osteolíticas difusas. Aspirado de médula ósea (MO) evidenció el 10% de blastos, lo que no caracterizó la leucemia. Debido a la mejora del cuadro clínico, el paciente siguió la investigación diagnóstica ambulatoriamente. La biopsia de lesión lítica en cadera y nuevo aspirado de MO detectaron mayor número de blastos y confirmaron el diagnóstico de LLA. Se inició tratamiento con protocolo del Grupo Brasileño de Tratamiento de Leucemias en la Infancia, 2009. Conclusión: La hipercalcemia está asociada a sólo 0,6% a 4,8% de los casos de LLA. El paciente en cuestión presentaba sólo dolores óseos difusas e hipercalcemia, sin la sintomatología habitual, lo que hace el cuadro clínico del paciente aún más raro, siendo tal presentación muy escasa en la literatura. A pesar de inusual, hipercalcemia y lesiones osteolíticas difusas pueden ser las primeras y únicas manifestaciones de LLA en niños. El presente relato se vuelve importante al ayudar a la formulación de diagnósticos precoces de la leucemia infantil, incluso en la vigencia de un cuadro clínico atípico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Osteolysis/diagnostic imaging , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Early Detection of Cancer , Hypercalcemia/etiology
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 757-761, dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973692

ABSTRACT

La presencia de hipercalcemia mantenida obliga a realizar pruebas complementarias para determinar su origen. Es benigna y, generalmente, no requiere tratamiento. La secuenciación del gen CaSR confirma el diagnóstico y evita tratamientos innecesarios. Se presenta a un niño de 12 años, asintomático, con hipercalcemia persistente entre 11,4 y 12,2 mg/dl. El padre y dos hermanos tenían hipercalcemia asintomática. El análisis de laboratorio mostró valores de magnesio, fósforo y vitamina D normales y de hormona paratiroidea llamativamente normal para el valor de la hipercalcemia. Indice de calcio/creatinina urinario: 0,11 mg/mg; y calciuria de 24 h: 1,8 mg/kg/día. Ecografía abdominal, paratiroides, radiografías de huesos largos y densitometría ósea, normales. El estudio genético mostró mutación en exón 6 (c.1651A>G) del gen CaSR (en heterocigosis), confirmada en el padre y los hermanos.


The finding of persistent hypercalcemia suggests doing other medical tests to find the cause. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is usually benign and it requires no treatment. It is important to do CASR gene sequencing to avoid unnecessary treatments. We report a 12-year-old child, asymptomatic, with calcemia between 11.4 and 12.2 mg/dl. His father and two brothers presented asymptomatic hypercalcemia. The blood test with magnesium, phosphorus, 25(OH)Vit D was normal, remarkable normal parathyroid hormone for the level of hypercalcemia. Urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0,11 mg/dl and 24-hour urinary calcium was 1,8 mg/kg per day. Abdominal and parathyroid ecography, long bone radiographs and densitometry were normal. Genetic study showed a mutation, c.1651A>G, in exon 6 of the calciumsensing receptor gene, confirmed in father and brothers, too.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing/genetics , Hypercalcemia/congenital , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Exons , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/genetics , Mutation
15.
Acta ortop. mex ; 32(4): 229-233, Jul.-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124099

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Antecedentes: El carcinoma de las glándulas paratiroides (CP) descrito por De Quervain en 1909 representa la neoplasia menos frecuente, siendo su incidencia de 1.25/10,000,000 personas. Se han reportado aproximadamente 1,000 casos de carcinoma paratiroideo en la literatura mundial. En México existen dos series, una de ocho pacientes y otra de cuatro, además de tres reportes de casos aislados. Dado que el CP es funcionalmente activo el comportamiento clínico inicial es similar a las neoplasias paratiroideas benignas. Caso clínico: Femenino de 66 años de edad con dolor óseo en muslo y fractura espontánea de fémur, en la que se detectaron lesiones osteolíticas, hipercalcemia, niveles elevados de fosfatasa alcalina y de paratohormona; con gammagrama que mostró un tumor funcionante localizado en mediastino superior, fue sometida a extirpación en bloque con hemitiroidectomía derecha con tumor de la glándula paratiroides. El estudio histopatológico reportó CP. Discusión: El CP representa la neoplasia menos común; en pacientes con niveles de paratohormona mayores de 1,000 pg/ml e hipercalcemia mayor de 14 mg/dl debe sospecharse dicha patología.


Abstract: Background: Carcinoma of the parathyroid gland (PC) described by De Quervain since 1909, it represents the least common neoplasm, with an incidence of 1,25/10,000,000 peoples. It has been reported approximately 1,000 cases of CP in world literature. There are two series in Mexico, one of eight patients and other with four cases. Because CP is functionally active, its early clinical behavior is similar to that of parathyroid benign neoplasms. Clinical case: A 66-year-old female with history of thighbone pain and spontaneous femoral fracture, osteolytic lesions, hypercalcemia, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone detected; the scintigraphy showed a functioning tumor located in upper mediastinum. By hemithyroidectomy in block, the tumor was resected. Histopathological study reported parathyroid carcinoma. Discussion: PC is the least common neoplasia, in patients with parathyroid hormone levels greater than 1,000 pg/ml and hypercalcemia upper of 14 mg/dl this disease should be suspected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Parathyroid Neoplasms/complications , Parathyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Femoral Fractures/etiology , Hypercalcemia/complications , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Femur , Mexico
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(7): 575-576, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976835

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Hypercalcemia associated with silicone-induced granuloma is a rare disease. Diagnosis can be tricky as it is established after ruling out other hypercalcemia-causing entities. In addition, management is customized depending on the patient's wishes and possible solutions. We present a male bodybuilder, in his thirties, with multiple silicone injections in his upper extremities, who developed hypercalcemia and urinary symptoms. Advanced laboratory tests ruled out various causes of hypercalcemia and CT imaging revealed nephrocalcinosis. A biopsy of the upper arm showed granulomatous tissue and inflammation. The patient necessitated two sessions of dialysis and corticosteroids were given to relieve symptoms and reverse laboratory abnormalities. Silicone-induced hypercalcemia should be on high alert because of the increasing trend of body contour enhancements with injections, implants and fillers. Treatment should be optimized depending on the patient's needs and condition.


RESUMO A hipercalcemia associada ao granuloma induzido por silicone é uma doença rara. O diagnóstico pode ser complicado, pois é estabelecido depois de eliminadas outras entidades que causam hipercalcemia. Além disso, o gerenciamento é personalizado, dependendo dos desejos do paciente e das possíveis soluções. Apresentamos um fisiculturista masculino, com trinta e poucos anos, múltiplas injeções de silicone nas extremidades superiores, que desenvolveu hipercalcemia e sintomas urinários. Testes laboratoriais avançados descartaram várias causas de hipercalcemia e a imagem da TC revelou nefrocalcinoses. Uma biópsia da parte superior mostrou tecido granulomatoso e inflamação. O paciente exigiu duas sessões de diálise e foram administrados corticosteroides para aliviar os sintomas e reverter as anormalidades laboratoriais. A hipercalcemia induzida por silicone deve estar em alerta elevado devido à crescente tendência de aprimoramentos do contorno corporal com injeções, implantes e enchimentos. O tratamento deve ser otimizado de acordo com as necessidades e condições do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Silicones/adverse effects , Granuloma, Foreign-Body/complications , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Weight Lifting , Biopsy , Injections, Intradermal , Granuloma, Foreign-Body/pathology , Hypercalcemia/pathology
17.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 11(1): 16-19, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999028

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The hypercalcemia is infrequent in pediatrics, its clinical is diverse, and its etiology is determined by age. Among the dependent causes of parathormone (PHT) is the hyperthyroidism, state of hypersecretion of PHT by parathyroid glands (PG). The primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is rare in children, there are 200 reported cases. In older children, the causes for PHPT correspond to parathyroid adenoma, multiglandular disease and parathyroid carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: Report a case of an 11 years old male adolescent. He presents three months symptoms of constipation, anorexia, vomiting and weight loss. Urgent consultation due to an increase of his symptoms, in exams stand out: calcemia 16.67 mg/dl (NV 8.8-10.8 mg/dl), phosphatemia 2.21 mg/dl (NV 4.5-5.5 mg/dl), parathormone (PHT) 308.7 pg/ml (NV 15-68.3 pg/ml), calciuria/creatininuria 0.56 (NV < 0.2). He was hospitalized to manage his severe hypercalcemia, it was indicated hyperhydration, monopotassium phosphate, intravenous hydrocortisone and furosemide. In his study was performed a cervical ultrasound which showed a solid node in the right parathyroid gland, hypoechogenic and scintigram parathyroid compatible with right superior parathyroid adenoma. In the waiting for surgery was necessary the administration of intravenous pamidronate. In the post-operatory, he evolved with hipocalcemia that was corrected with intravenous calcium carbonate, overlapping to oral calcium and calcitriol. CONCLUSION: The PHPT is a pathology of low prevalence in pediatrics, one hundred times less than adults. In the adolescent, the most frequent cause is the parathyroid adenoma. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of symptomatic hypercalcemia in this age group


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Parathyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenoma/diagnosis , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Parathyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Parathyroid Neoplasms/complications , Phosphorus/blood , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Adenoma/surgery , Adenoma/complications , Calcium/blood , Parathyroidectomy , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/etiology
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(4): 259-263, 20170000. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-877086

ABSTRACT

A hipercalcemia deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial de alterações neuropsiquiátricas agudas. Em 90% dos casos, a etiologia corresponde a hiperparatireoidismo primário ou neoplasias. Valores séricos superiores a 14mg/dL e sintomáticos são frequentemente tradutores de causa maligna. O carcinoma anaplásico da tireoide consiste em um tumor indiferenciado, com progressão rápida e prognóstico reservado, que evolui, em alguns casos, a partir de lesões tireóideas preexistentes, benignas ou malignas (desdiferenciação). Embora a apresentação clínica mais frequente destes tumores consista no desenvolvimento de massa cervical, eles podem ser diagnosticados no esclarecimento etiológico de metástases ou síndromes paraneoplásicos. A hipercalcemia, associada à neoplasia, pode ocorrer em contexto de metástases ósseas, com libertação de citocinas, ou por mecanismo humoral, mediada pela proteína relacionada ao hormônio hormônio paratireóideo (PTHrP). Os autores descrevem o caso de uma mulher de 85 anos, com antecedentes de bócio multinodular benigno, internada para esclarecimento etiológico de hipercalcemia grave, com manifestações neuropsiquiátricas, diagnosticando-se, após avaliação, carcinoma anaplásico da tireoide. O caso foi abordado em reunião multidisciplinar, optando-se por limitação terapêutica a cuidados paliativos. A doente faleceu 3 meses após o diagnóstico.(AU)


Hypercalcaemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute neuropsychiatric disorders. In 90% of the cases, the etiology corresponds to primary hyperparathyroidism or neoplasms. Serum values above 14mg/dL and symptomatic are often indicative of a malignant cause. The anaplastic thyroid carcinoma consists of an undifferentiated tumor, with rapid progression and poor prognosis, which in some cases progresses from pre-existing benign or malignant thyroid diseases (dedifferentiation). Although the most frequent clinical presentation of these tumors consists of the development of a cervical mass, they can be diagnosed in the etiological clarification of metastases or paraneoplastic syndromes. Neoplasm-associated hypercalcaemia may occur in the context of bone metastasis, with release of cytokines, or through a humoral mechanism, mediated by the parathyroid hormone (PTHrP)-related protein. The authors describe the case of an 85-year-old woman with a history of multinodular benign goiter, hospitalized for etiological elucidation of severe hypercalcaemia with neuropsychiatric manifestations, with a final diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, after the diagnostic evaluation. The case was approached in a multidisciplinary meeting, and the therapeutic limitation to palliative care was chosen. The patient died 3 months after the diagnosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic/diagnosis , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic/etiology , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(11): 1485-1489, nov. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902470

ABSTRACT

High-grade B-cell lymphomas with rearrangement of MYC, BCL-2 and/or BCL-6 were introduced by the update of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms. They usually present unique morphological and molecular characteristics, with an aggressive clinical outcome and worse prognosis. We report a 48 year-old female patient presenting with B symptoms and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood count showed pancytopenia and peripheral blood smears showed large lymphoid cells, some with nuclei and vacuoles. LDH was 3524 g/L and serum calcium was 11.5 mg/dL. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping showed pathological mature B lymphocytes. Protein electrophoresis showed a slight monoclonal peak. The biopsy disclosed a triple expressor diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, arising from germinal center. FISH was positive for MYC, BCL-2 and BCL-6 (triple hit) with a clonal evolution. Conventional cytogenetics showed a complex karyotype. Chemotherapy was started with R-CHOP (Rituximab/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone). She developed impaired consciousness; the brain CT scan showed a large brain mass. The patient died within 3 weeks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Translocation, Genetic/genetics , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6/genetics , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/complications , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Karyotype
20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(5): 506-509, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887589

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can secrete hormones, including ectopic secretions, but they have been rarely associated with malignant hypercalcemia. A 52-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was diagnosed with a pancreatic tumor. A pancreatic biopsy confirmed a well-differentiated pancreatic NET (pNET). The patient subsequently developed liver metastasis and hypercalcemia with high 1,25 OH vitamin D and suppressed parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Hypercalcemia was refractory to chemotherapy, intravenous saline fluids, diuretics, calcitonin and zoledronate. Cinacalcet administration (120 mg/day) resulted in a significant calcium reduction. Hypocalcemia was observed when sunitinib was added three months later and cinacalcet was stopped. Subsequently, the calcium and PTH levels normalized. After six months, we observed 20% shrinkage of the pancreatic tumor and necrosis of a liver metastasis. Cinacalcet is an allosteric activator of the calcium receptor agonist, and it is used for severe hypercalcemia in patients with primary (benign and malignant) hyperparathyroidism. In this patient, cinacalcet demonstrated a calcium lowering effect, normalized hypophosphatemia, and improved the clinical condition of the patient. The mechanism through which cinacalcet improved PTH-rp mediated hypercalcemia is still unclear, but studies have suggested that a potential mechanism is the activation of calcitonin secretion. Sunitinib is an oral multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat advanced pNETs. The hypocalcemic effects of sunitinib have not been previously described in a patient with pNET. Here, we report for the first time the successful combination of cinacalcet and sunitinib in the treatment of a pNET patient presenting with malignant hypercalcemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neuroendocrine Tumors/drug therapy , Cinacalcet/administration & dosage , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Indoles/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Pyrroles/administration & dosage , Neuroendocrine Tumors/complications , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sunitinib , Hypercalcemia/etiology
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