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In. Serra Sansone, María del Pilar; Vitureira Liard, Gerardo José; Pereda Domínguez, Jimena; Medina Romero, Gonzalo Alexander; Rodríguez Rey, Marianela Ivonne; Blanc Reynoso, Agustina; Santos, Karina de los; Morán, Rosario; Sotelo, Débora; Barreiro, Carolina. Diabetes y embarazo. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.101-115, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1419144
In. Serra Sansone, María del Pilar; Vitureira Liard, Gerardo José; Pereda Domínguez, Jimena; Medina Romero, Gonzalo Alexander; Rodríguez Rey, Marianela Ivonne; Blanc Reynoso, Agustina; Santos, Karina de los; Morán, Rosario; Sotelo, Débora; Barreiro, Carolina. Diabetes y embarazo. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.233-247.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1419161
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 226-235, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982675


Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, typified by hyperglycemia resulting from failures in complex multifactorial metabolic functions, that requires life-long medication. Prolonged uncontrolled hyperglycemia leads to micro- and macro-vascular complications. Although antidiabetic drugs are prescribed as the first-line treatment, many of them lose efficacy over time or have severe side effects. There is a lack of in-depth study on the patents filed concerning the use of natural compounds to manage diabetes. Thus, this patent analysis provides a comprehensive report on the antidiabetic therapeutic activity of 6 phytocompounds when taken alone or in combinations. Four patent databases were searched, and 17,649 patents filed between 2001 and 2021 were retrieved. Of these, 139 patents for antidiabetic therapeutic aids that included berberine, curcumin, gingerol, gymnemic acid, gymnemagenin and mangiferin were analyzed. The results showed that these compounds alone or in combinations, targeting acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 2, serine/threonine protein kinase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipooxygenase, phosphorylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, PPARγ co-activator-1α, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3C, could regulate glucose metabolism which are validated by pharmacological rationale. Synergism, or combination therapy, including different phytocompounds and plant extracts, has been studied extensively and found effective, whereas the efficacy of commercial drugs in combination with phytocompounds has not been studied in detail. Curcumin, gymnemic acid and mangiferin were found to be effective against diabetes-related complications. Please cite this article as: DasNandy A, Virge R, Hegde HV, Chattopadhyay D. A review of patent literature on the regulation of glucose metabolism by six phytocompounds in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(3): 226-235.

Humans , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Glucose
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 587-601, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982402


Studies have shown that targeting xanthine oxidase (XO) can be a feasible treatment for fructose-induced hyperuricemia and hyperglycemia. This study aimed to evaluate the dual regulatory effects and molecular mechanisms of diacylated anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (diacylated AF-PSPs) on hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia induced by a high-fructose/high-fat diet. The body weight, organ index, serum biochemical indexes, and liver antioxidant indexes of mice were measured, and the kidneys were observed in pathological sections. The relative expression levels of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of fructose metabolism pathway enzymes in kidney were detected by fluorescent real-time quantitative polymerase chain (qPCR) reaction technique, and the expression of renal transporter protein and inflammatory factor pathway protein was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique. Results showed that diacylated AF-PSPs alleviated hyperuricemia in mice, and that this effect might be related to the regulation of liver XO activity, lipid accumulation, and relevant renal transporters. Diacylated AF-PSPs reduced body weight and relieved lipid metabolism disorder, liver lipid accumulation, and liver oxidative stress, thereby enhancing insulin utilization and sensitivity, lowering blood sugar, and reducing hyperglycemia in mice. Also, diacylated AF-PSPs restored mRNA levels related to renal fructose metabolism, and reduced kidney injury and inflammation. This study provided experimental evidence for the mechanisms of dual regulation of blood glucose and uric acid (UA) by diacylated AF-PSPs and their utilization as functional foods in the management of metabolic syndrome.

Mice , Animals , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Ipomoea batatas/chemistry , Fructose/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Lipids
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-16, sept. 2022. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518675


Cyperus esculentus L. (tiger nut) is a tuberous plant that promotes and protects reproductive functions, which are usually hampered in diabetics. The present study investigated the effect of Cyperus esculentus tuber extract (CETE) on testicular histology and sperm viability of alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats weighing 150-200g and grouped into five (n=5): Group 1, the control, administered tap water (20mL/kg), while groups 2-5 were administered a single intraperitoneal dose (120mg/kg b.w.) of alloxan, and each further received orally tap water (20mL/kg), CETE (100mg/kg), CETE (500 mg/kg) and metformin (500 mg/kg), respectively for 21 days. The animals were sacrificed, their sperm collected for analysis, while the testes were harvested, and processed for histology. Results showed significantly increased (p<0.05) blood glucose and testosterone, and significantly decreased (p<0.05) sperm pH, motility, count, morphology and density, as well as disruptions and hypertrophy of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells of the hyperglycaemic group. There were significant (p<0.05) blood glucose decline, while the sperm parameters and testicular weight improved with normal testicular histology in the 100 mg/kg CETE, 500 mg/kg CETE, and metformin-treated groups compared to the control and hyperglycaemic group. Treatment with CETE showed blood glucose amelioration and improved sperm quality, as well as testicular damage attenuation.

Cyperus esculentus L. es una planta tuberosa que promueve y protege las funciones reproductivas, que generalmente se ven afectadas en los diabéticos. El presente estudio investigó el efecto del extracto de tubérculo de Cyperus esculentus (CETE) sobre la histología testicular y la viabilidad de los espermatozoides de ratas wistar con hiperglicemia inducida por alloxan. Veinticinco ratas Wistar macho adultas que pesaban 150-200 g y se agruparon en cinco (n = 5): el grupo 1, el control, administró agua del grifo (20ml / kg), mientras que los grupos 2-5 se les administró una dosis intraperitoneal única (120 mg / kg p.v.) de alloxan, y agua del grifo por vía oral (20ml/kg), CETE (100 mg/kg), CETE (500 mg/kg) y metformina (500 mg/kg), respectivamente durante 21 días. Los animales fueron sacrificados, su esperma recolectada para su análisis, mientras que los testículos fueron retirados y procesados para histología. Los resultados mostraron un aumento significativo (p<0,05) de la glucosa en sangre y la testosterona, y una disminución significativa (p<0,05) del pH, la motilidad, el recuento, la morfología y la densidad de los espermatozoides, así como interrupciones e hipertrofia de las células espermatogénicas y sertoli del grupo hiperglucémico. Hubo una disminución significativa (p<0,05) de la glucosa en sangre, mientras que los parámetros espermáticos y el peso testicular mejoraron con la histología testicular normal en los grupos de 100 mg / kg de CETE, 500 mg / kg de CETE y tratados con metformina en comparación con el grupo de control e hiperglucémico. El tratamiento con CETE mostró una mejora de la glucosa en sangre y una mejora de la calidad de los espermatozoides, así como atenuación del daño testicular.

Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Cyperus/chemistry , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Organ Size , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testosterone , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Alloxan , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(1): 1-9, 2022-01-09. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363761


Background: Diabetes mellitus treatment is based on oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Medicinal plants constitute an option, and the leaves of Prosopis ruscifolia (Pr) were shown to be effective in reducing glycemia in hyperglycemic animals. Objective: In this paper, we report the effect of P. rusciofolia (Pr) on insulin and incretin secretion in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methodology: The effective dose was selected, and four groups (n=10) of Wistar rats were used. Two groups with normal glycemia received water or Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.), and two groups with hyperglycemia induced by alloxan (intraperitoneal, ip), received water or Pr (75 mg/Kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, and incretin and insulin levels were measured at the end of the experimental period. Results: The results showed that extract promotes better tolerance to oral glucose overload, in addition to a statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in blood levels of incretin and insulin, compared to the hyperglycemic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of P. ruscifolialeaves has a hypoglycemic effect in hyperglycemic animals by a mechanism that involves the incretin-insulin system

Antecedentes: la diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad metabólica cuyo tratamiento se basa en el uso de agentes hipoglicemiantes orales o insulina. Una opción al tratamiento son las plantas medicinales y en ese sentido, estudios previos en animales con hojas de Prosopis ruscifolia (Pr) han demostrado efecto hipoglicemiante. Objetivo: en este trabajo se reporta el efecto de P. rusciofolia (Pr) en la secreción de insulina e incretina, en ratas hiperglicémicas por aloxano. Metodología: se emplearon cuatro grupos de ratas Wistar (n=10). Dos grupos con glicemia normal que fueron tratadas con agua Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.) y dos grupos con hiperglicemia inducida por la inyección intraperitoneal de aloxano recibieron agua Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.) durante dos semanas. Se midieron la tolerancia oral a la glucosa, y los niveles de incretina e insulina al final del periodo de experimentación. Resultados: se encontró que el extracto promueve una mayor tolerancia a la sobrecarga de glucosa, y además un incremento significativo (p<0.001) de los niveles de incretina e insulina en sangre, comparados al grupo de ratas hiperglicémicas. Conclusión: se concluye que e l estracto etanólico de las hojas de P. ruscifolia tienen efecto hipoglicemiante en animales hiperglicémicos por un mecanismo que incluye al sistema incretina-insulina

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prosopis/chemistry , Incretins/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/metabolism , Biochemical Phenomena , Rats, Wistar , Alloxan , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 138-145, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289066


RESUMO Objetivo: Duplicar a percentagem de tempo no intervalo glicêmico 100 - 180mg/dL nos primeiros 3 meses após implementação faseada de um programa de educação formal e, posteriormente, de um protocolo de insulinoterapia, sem condicionar um aumento da frequência de hipoglicemia. Métodos: Foi feita a avaliação retrospetiva do controle glicêmico pré-intervenção. Foram realizados: implementação de um programa formal de educação; distribuição de algoritmos manuais de insulinoterapia endovenosa - otimizados pelos utilizadores, a partir do protocolo de Yale modificado - e formação informal da equipe de enfermagem. Foi dado apoio à utilização dos sistemas eletrônicos de controle glicêmico e do registo prospetivo dos resultados. Resultados: A primeira fase do programa (educação formal) melhorou o tempo no intervalo euglicêmico (28% para 37%). A segunda fase permitiu atingir 66% do tempo de euglicemia, com diminuição das hipoglicemias. A percentagem de doentes sob perfusão endovenosa de insulina às 48 horas de internamento aumentou (6% para 35%). Conclusão: A implementação faseada de um programa formal de educação que favoreceu a aplicação de protocolos de insulinoterapia eletrônicos e manuais dinâmicos demonstrou ter aderência e ser segura e eficaz no controle glicêmico no doente crítico, com diminuição concomitante das hipoglicemias.

ABSTRACT Objective: To double the percentage of time within the 100 - 180mg/dL blood glucose range in the first three months following a phased implementation of a formal education program, and then, of an insulin therapy protocol, without entailing an increased incidence of hypoglycemia. Methods: The pre-intervention glycemic control was assessed retrospectively. Next, were carried out the implementation of a formal education program, distribution of manual algorithms for intravenous insulin therapy - optimized by the users, based on the modified Yale protocol - and informal training of the nursing staff. The use of electronic blood glucose control systems was supported, and the results were recorded prospectively. Results: The first phase of the program (formal education) lead to improvement of the time within the euglycemic interval (28% to 37%). In the second phase, euglycemia was achieved 66% of the time, and the incidence of hypoglycemia was decreased. The percentage of patients on intravenous insulin infusion at 48 hours from admission increased from 6% to 35%. Conclusion: The phased implementation of a formal education program, fostering the use of electronic insulin therapy protocols and dynamic manuals, received good adherence and has shown to be safe and effective for blood glucose control in critically ill patients, with a concomitant decrease in hypoglycemia.

Humans , Glycemic Control , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Portugal , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 160-164, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391846


Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência e o manejo da hiperglicemia de estresse em pacientes internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, realizado de janeiro a junho de 2018. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de 582 prontuá- rios eletrônicos, considerando os valores glicêmicos durante a hospitalização, história prévia ou não de diabetes mellitus, causas do internamento, tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva, presença de complicações durante o internamento e conduta utilizada em caso de hiperglicemia de estresse. Resulta- dos: Dos 582 pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensi- va, 579 tiveram sua glicemia indicada nos prontuários analisados; 341 (58,9%) apresentaram hiperglicemia em algum momento da internação, sendo a hiperglicemia de estresse caracterizada em 200 pacientes (35%). A duração média de internamento desses pacientes foi de 8,39±10,9 dias, e a causa mais frequente de inter- namento foi devido a pós-operatório por diversas causas, somando 148 indivíduos (74%). Dentro os pacientes, 72 (36%) apresenta- ram alguma complicação. Além disso, 13 casos (6,5%) evoluíram para óbito. Conclusão: Estudos disponíveis sobre alvos de gli- cose em pacientes críticos das unidades de terapia intensiva apresentam difícil interpretação devido às diferenças subs- tanciais no grupo de populações e aos protocolos de gestão de pacientes utilizados em vários centros. Todavia, a prevalência da hiperglicemia de estresse encontrada nesta amostra é se- melhante à de outras casuísticas estudadas. O índice eleva- do de complicações enfatiza a necessidade de padronização nos critérios para diagnóstico e tratamento da hiperglicemia de estresse objetivando melhor prognóstico desses pacientes independentemente da causa do internamento.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and management of stress hyperglycemia in patients hospitalized in anintensive care unit. Methods: Retrospective study, carried out from January to June 2018. Data were obtained from 582 electronic medical records, considering glycemic values during hospitalization, existence of previous history of Diabetes Mellitus, causes of hospitalization, length of stay in the intensive care unit, presence of complications during hospitalization, and behavior used in case of stress hyper- glycemia. Results: Of the 582 patients admitted in the ICU, 579 had their glycemia indicated in the charts analyzed: 341 (58,9%) had hyperglycemia in a certain moment of hospitalization, with stress hyperglycemia being present in 200 patients (35%). The average duration of hospitalization of these patients was 8,39 ± 10,9 days, and the most frequent cause of hospitalization was postoperative for various causes, totaling 148 individuals (74%). Of the patients, 72 (36%) presented some type of complication and 13 patients (6,5%) died. Conclusion: Available studies on glucose targets in critical intensive care unit patients are difficult to be interpre- ted because of substantial differences in the study populations and of patient management protocols used at various centers. However, the prevalence of stress hyperglycemia found in this sample is similar to that of other study groups. The high com- plication rate emphasizes the need for standardization of the criteria for diagnosis and treatment of stress hyperglycemia aiming at a better prognosis of these patients regardless of the cause of hospitalization.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Stress, Physiological , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Clinical Protocols , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Administration, Intravenous , Glycemic Control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypotension/diagnosis , Insulin/administration & dosage
In. Fernández, Anabela. Manejo de la embarazada crítica y potencialmente grave. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.353-370, tab.
Monography in Spanish | UY-BNMED, LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1377640
Rev. guatemalteca cir ; 27(1): 43-47, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1372407


Se realizó un estudio que caracterizó a los pacientes que reciben tratamiento quirúrgico en el Hospital Roosevelt por pie diabético según la Clasificación Wagner. El objetivo era determinar el tratamiento quirúrgico brindado al paciente con pie diabético, basado en la clasificación Wagner, en el Departamento de Cirugía del Hospital Roosevelt durante el período de enero a octubre 2015. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo estudiando a los pacientes con diagnóstico de pie diabético, con una muestra de 81 pacientes. Se encontró que 56% presentaron grado IV, edad de 56-65 años en 38%, de sexo masculino 65%. 134 procedimientos quirúrgicos realizados, más común lavado y desbridamiento en 38%. Principalmente diagnóstico de Diabetes mellitus tipo II, con tiempo diagnóstico mayor a 10 años en 51%. Uso de hipoglucemiantes orales 49%. De los estudiados, 41% no presentaba ninguna comorbilidad. Se concluyó que el tratamiento quirúrgico más frecuente para Pie diabético Wagner II y III fue el lavado y desbridamiento, grado IV amputación de dedos y grado V las amputaciones femorales supracondíleas. Caracterizados como pacientes en rango de edad entre los 56-65 años, de sexo masculino, que padece Diabetes mellitus tipo II, clasificado como pie diabético Wagner IV, ameritando tratamiento quirúrgico como amputación de dedos seguido de amputaciones radicales descritas como amputación supracondílea, con tiempo de diagnóstico mayor a 10 años, con tratamiento de hipoglucemiantes orales, y sin ninguna comorbilidad médica asociada. (AU)

A study was conducted that characterized patients receiving surgical treatment at Roosevelt Hospital for diabetic foot according to the Wagner Classification. The objective was to determine the surgical treatment provided to the patient with diabetic foot, based on the Wagner classification, in the Department of Surgery at Roosevelt Hospital during the period from January to October 2015. A descriptive study was carried out studying patients with a diagnosis of diabetic foot, with a sample of 81 patients. It was found that 56% had grade IV, age 56-65 years in 38%, male 65%. 134 surgical procedures performed, the most common was lavage and debridement in 38%. Mainly diagnosis of type II diabetes mellitus, with a diagnosis time greater than 10 years in 51%. Use of oral hypoglycemic agents 49%. Of those studied, 41% did not present any comorbidity. The conclusion was that the most frequent surgical treatment for Wagner II and III was lavage and debridement, grade IV finger amputation and grade V supracondylar femoral amputations. Characterized as patients in the age range between 56-65 years, male, suffering from type II diabetes mellitus, classified as Wagner IV diabetic foot, meriting surgical treatment such as amputation of fingers followed by radical amputations described as supracondylar amputation, with time of diagnosis greater than 10 years, with treatment of oral ypoglycemic agents, and without any associated medical comorbidity. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Time Factors , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetic Foot/classification , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Debridement , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Amputation, Surgical , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18901, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350236


The plant, Malva neglecta wallr., is widely consumed for medicinal and nutritional purposes. The current study was carried out to assess the hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic potential of aqueous methanolic extract of M. neglecta. Chemical evaluation of the extract was performed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done in diabetic rats pre-exposed to 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg plant extract via the oral route. For hypoglycemic and biochemical study, the same therapy was administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The standard control group received Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and other phenolic acids were detected and estimated in the extract. Administration of the plant extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rats subjected to OGTT. The plant extract lowered the fasting blood glucose and alpha amylase, and prevented the damage to pancreas. It also corrected dyslipidemia in diabetic animals following 14 days therapy. Hence, this experimental study establishes the fact that M. neglecta exhibited significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Malvaceae/classification , Malva/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(10): 1254-1264, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041026


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Real-world effectiveness of basal insulin therapy is affected by poor treatment persistence, often occurring soon after initiation. This analysis is part of an international cross-sectional study conducted in T2DM patients and is intended to describe the reasons behind non-persistence to insulin therapy in Brasil. METHODS Responders to an online survey in seven countries were classified as continuers (no gap of ≥7 days), interrupters (interrupted therapy for ≥7 days within first 6 months, then restarted), and discontinuers (terminated therapy for ≥7 days within first 6 months, and did not start it again before the survey). We present the results from the Brazilian cohort. RESULTS Of 942 global respondents, 156 were from Brasil, with a mean age of 34 years and a mean of 5.8 years since T2DM diagnosis. Reasons contributing to insulin continuation (n=50) were improved glycemic control (82%) and improved physical feeling (50%). Common reasons for interruption (n=51) or discontinuation (n=55) were, respectively, weight gain (47.1%, 43.6%), hypoglycemia (45.1%, 38.2%), and pain from injections (39.2%, 49.1%). However, not all patients who reported weight gain and hypoglycemia as a reason for interruption or discontinuation experienced these: 16/24 (66.7%) and 22/24 (91.7%) participants had weight gain, and 13/23 (56.5%) and 15/21 (71.4%) had hypoglycemia, respectively. The most important reason for possible re-initiation for interrupters and discontinuers, respectively, was persuasion by the physician/HCP (80.4%, 72.7%). CONCLUSION The benefits of basal insulin therapy motivated continuers to persist with the treatment; experienced or anticipated side effects contributed to interruption and discontinuation. Physician and patient training is key in the treatment of diabetes.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Dados de vida real sobre como a eficácia da terapia com insulina é afetada pela baixa persistência ao tratamento que ocorre logo após o início da terapia. Esta análise é a parte brasileira de um estudo transversal internacional conduzido em pacientes com DM2 que teve como objetivo descrever as razões relacionadas à não persistência ao tratamento com insulina. METODOLOGIA O estudo realizado em sete países por meio de questionários on-line classificou como pacientes continuadores (aqueles que não apresentaram intervalo ≥7 dias sem uso da insulina), interrompedores (interromperam a terapia por ≥7 dias nos primeiros seis meses de uso, depois recomeçaram) e descontinuadores (interromperam a terapia por ≥7 dias nos primeiros seis meses de uso e não retornaram). Nesta análise descrevemos os dados da coorte brasileira. RESULTADOS Dos 942 pacientes incluídos, 156 eram do Brasil, com idade média de 34 anos e média de seis anos desde o diagnóstico de DM2. Razões que contribuíram para o uso contínuo da insulina (n=50) foram a melhora do controle glicêmico (82%) e a melhora no estado geral (50%). Razões para a interrupção (n=51) ou para a descontinuação (n=55) foram, respectivamente, ganho de peso (41,7%, 43,6%), hipoglicemia (45,1%, 38,2%) e dor à aplicação (39,2%, 49,1%). Entretanto, nem todos os pacientes que reportaram ganho de peso e hipoglicemia como possível razão para interrupção ou descontinuação realmente apresentaram esses eventos: 16/24 (66,7%) e 22/24 (91,4%) dos participantes apresentaram ganho de peso e 13/23 (56,6%) e 15/21 (71,4%) apresentaram hipoglicemia, respectivamente. A razão mais importante para o possível recomeço entre os interrompedores e descontinuadores foi a persuasão de médicos/profissionais de saúde (80,4% e 72,7%, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES Os benefícios do tratamento com insulina basal motivaram continuadores a persistir com a terapia; a experiência ou a antecipação de eventos adversos contribuíram para a interrupção e descontinuação. O treinamento de médicos e pacientes é um dos pilares fundamentais do tratamento do diabetes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Physician-Patient Relations , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 24-32, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985013


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), each 18 mg/dl (1 mmol/L) increment is associated with a 3% increase in mortality rates. All strategies applied for reducing blood glucose to this date, however, have not presented encouraging results. METHODOLOGY We searched the Medline (PubMed) and Cochrane Library databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from 1995 to 2017 that used the intensive strategy or GIK therapy for blood glucose control during the acute stage of the AMI. We included eight studies. In order to identify the effects of GIK or insulin therapy, we calculated a overall risk ratio (RR) with meta-analysis of fixed and random effects models. A two-tail p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS A total of 28,151 patients were included: 1,379 intensively treated with insulin, 13,031 in GIK group, and 13,741 in the control group. The total mortality was 10.5% (n=2,961) and the RR of 1.03 [95%CI 0.96-1.10]; I2 = 31%; p = 0.41 for the combined intensive insulin plus GIK groups in comparison with the control group. In meta-regression analyses, intense reductions in blood glucose (> 36 mg/dL) in relation to the estimated average blood glucose (estimated by HbA1c) were associated with higher mortality, whereas lower reductions in blood glucose (< 36 mg/dL) were not associated with mortality. The lowering of blood glucose in the acute phase of MI compared with the average blood glucose was more effective around 18 mg/dL. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that there may be a tenuous line between the effectiveness and safety of reducing blood glucose in the acute phase of MI. The targets must not exceed a reduction greater than 36 mg/dL in relation to estimated average blood glucose.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO No infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM), cada incremento de 18 mg/dl (1 mmol/L) se associa a um aumento de 3% na mortalidade. As estratégias de redução da glicemia tentadas até o momento, entretanto, não trouxeram resultados animadores. METODOLOGIA Foram pesquisadas nas bases de dados Medline (PubMed) e Cochrane Library os ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) de 1995 a 2017 que utilizaram estratégia intensiva ou a terapia GIK no controle glicêmico durante a fase aguda do IAM. Foram incluídos oito estudos. Para identificar os efeitos da insulinoterapia ou da terapia GIK, calculamos um risco relativo geral (RR) com meta-análises de modelos de efeitos fixos e aleatórios. Um valor de p-bicaudal < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. RESULTADOS Foram incluídos 28.151 pacientes, sendo 1.379 no grupo de tratamento intensivo da glicemia, 13.031 no GIK e 13.741 no controle. A mortalidade total foi de 2.961 (10,5%), computando um risco relativo de 1,03 [95%CI 0,96-1,10]; I 2 = 31%; p = 0,41 para o grupo intensivo ou GIK contra o grupo conservador. Reduções intensas (> 36 mg/dL) em relação à glicemia estimada média se associaram à maior mortalidade, enquanto reduções menores não se associaram com seu incremento ou redução. A redução glicêmica na fase aguda em relação à glicemia estimada média foi mais efetiva e segura na faixa em torno de 18 mg/dL. CONCLUSÃO Esta meta-análise levanta a hipótese de haver um limite tênue entre efetividade e segurança para a redução glicêmica na fase aguda, sendo que os alvos não devem exceder uma redução maior do que 36 mg/dL de glicemia.

Humans , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism
In. Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Pereira-Barretto, Antônio Carlos; Rondon, Maria Urbana Pinto Brandão. Cardiologia do exercício: do atleta ao cardiopata / Exercise cardiology: from athlete to heart disease. São Paulo, Manole, 4ª; 2019. p.335-383.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015678
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 36-42, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990001


RESUMEN: Estudios recientes han demostrado que los compuestos activos presentes en extractos de C. chayamansa, E. prostrata y J. dioica tienen propiedades antioxidantes. Los resultados obtenidos en nuestro estudio fueron compuestos fenólicos solubles mostraron en C. chayamansa 6,34, E. prostrata 10,67, J. dioica 1,83 mg equiv de ácido gálico/gm BS respectivamente. Los antioxidantes solubles en agua por el método ABTS fueron para C. chayamansa 5.9, E. prostrata 12.7 y para J. dioica 2.5 mM equiv. de trolox/gr BS. Los resultados histopatológicos muestran una mejoría en los tejidos tratados con los extractos después de la inducción a hiperglicemia.

SUMMARY: Recent studies have shown that the active compounds present in extracts of C. chayamansa, E. prostrata and J. dioica have antioxidant properties. The results obtained in our study were soluble phenolic compounds showed in C. chayamansa 6.34, E. prostrata 10.67, J. dioica 1.83 mg equiv of gallic acid/gm BS respectively. The antioxidants soluble in water by the ABTS method were for C. chayamansa 5.9, E. prostrata 12.7 and for J. dioica 2.5 mM equiv. of trolox/gr BS. The histopathological results show an improvement in the tissues treated with the extracts after the induction to hyperglycemia.

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Euphorbia/chemistry , Jatropha/chemistry , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Phenolic Compounds , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Antioxidants/chemistry
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 618-625, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977465


Abstract Currently there is a progressive increase in the prevalence of diabetes in a referred for cardiovascular surgery. Benefits of glycemic management (< 180 mg/dL) in diabetic patients compared to patients without diabetes in perioperative cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study is to present recommendations based on international evidence and adapted to our clinical practice for the perioperative management of hyperglycemia in adult patients with and without diabetes undergoing cardiovascular surgery. This update is based on the latest current literature derived from articles and guidelines regarding perioperative management of diabetic patients to cardiovascular surgery.

Humans , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Perioperative Care , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Clinical Protocols , Evidence-Based Medicine
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(5): 514-522, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983795


ABSTRACT Objective: Glycemic control has been increasingly recognized as a critical element in inpatient care, but optimal management of blood glucose in the hospital setting remains challenging. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate the impact of the implementation of an inpatient multidisciplinary glucose control management program on glucose control in hospitalized patients. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records and glucose monitoring data obtained by point- of-care testing (POCT) in hospitalized patients before (May 2014) and after (June 2015 and May 2017) the implementation of the program. Results: We analyzed 6888, 7290, and 7669 POCTs from 389, 545, and 475 patients in May 2014, June 2015, and May 2017, respectively. Hyperglycemia (≥ 180 mg/ dL) occurred in 23.5%, 19.6%, and 19.3% POCTs in May 2014, June 2015, and May/2017, respectively (p < 0.001), while severe hyperglycemia (≥ 300 mg/dL) was observed in 2.5%, 2.2%, and 1.8% of them, respectively (p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (≥ 180 mg/dL) reduced significantly from May 2014 to June 2015 (16.3%, p < 0.001) and from May 2014 to May 2017 (178%, p < 0.001). No significant changes occurred in hypoglycemic parameters. Conclusions: The implementation of an inpatient multidisciplinary glucose control management program led to significant reductions in hyperglycemic events. The key elements for this achievement were the development of institutional inpatient glycemic control protocols, establishment of a multidisciplinary team, and continuing educational programs for hospital personnel. Altogether, these actions resulted in improvements in care processes, patient safety, and clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , Point-of-Care Testing/statistics & numerical data , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Reference Standards , Time Factors , Program Evaluation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use