Abstract Introduction Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is an extracorporeal therapy which removes apolipoprotein B-containing particles from the circulation. We evaluated techniques and efficiency of lipoprotein apheresis procedures applied to patients with familial and non-familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) at our center. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 250 LA procedures applied to 27 patients with dyslipidemia between March 2011 and August 2019. Results A total of 27 patients, of whom 19 (70.4%) were male and 8 (29.6%), female, were included. Eighteen (66.7%), 6 (22.2%) and 3 (11.1%) patients were diagnosed with non-FH, homozygous FH (HoFH) and heterozygous FH (HeFH), respectively. Two different apheresis techniques, direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) (48.8%) and double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) (51.2%), were used. The change in the serum total cholesterol (TC) level was the median 302 mg/dl (171-604 mg/dl) (60.4%) in HoFH patients, 305 mg/dl (194-393 mg/dl) (60.8%) in HeFH patients and 227 mg/dl (75-749 mg/dl) (65.3%) in non-FH patients. The change in the serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level was the median 275 mg/dl (109-519 mg/dl) (64.2%), 232 mg/dl (207-291 mg/dl) (64.5%) and 325 mg/dl (22-735 mg/dl) (70.9%) in patients with HoFH, HeFH and non-FH, respectively. A significantly effective reduction in serum lipid levels, including TC, LDL and triglycerides, was achieved in all patients, regardless of the technique, p< .001. The decrease in the serum TC and LDL levels was significantly higher in the DFPP, compared to the DALI, being 220 mg/dl (-300 to 771) vs 184 mg/dl (64-415), p< .001 and 196 mg/dl (11-712) vs 157 mg/dl (54-340), p< .001, respectively. Conclusions Our results showed that LA is a highly effective treatment in reducing serum lipid levels and safe, without any major adverse event.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Blood Component Removal , Lipoproteins , Hyperlipidemias
The inverse relationship between HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and cardiovascular disease is well established. However, it is consensus that the cholesterol content present in HDL does not capture its complexity, and other metrics need to be explored. HDL is a heterogeneous, protein-enriched particle with functions going beyond lipid metabolism. In this way, its protein content seems to be attractive to investigate its behavior in the face of pathologies. Many of the proteins with important function in HDL are in low abundance (<1% of total proteins), which makes their detection challenging. Quantitative proteomics allows detecting proteins with high precision and robustness in complex matrix. However, quantitative proteomics is still poorly explored in the context of HDL. In this sense, in the second chapter of this thesis, the analytical performance of two quantitative methodologies was carefully investigated. These methods achieved adequate linearity and high precision using labeled peptides in a pool HDL, in addition to comparable ability to differentiate proteins from HDL subclasses of healthy subjects. Another bottleneck that waits for a solution in proteomics is the lack of standardization in data processing and analysis after mass spectrometry acquisition. In addition, interest in the cardioprotective properties of omega-3 is growing, but little is known about its effects on the HDL proteome. Thus, in the third chapter of this thesis, we compared five protein quantification strategies using Skyline and MaxDIA software platforms in order to investigate the HDL proteome from mice submitted to a high-fat diet supplemented or not with omega-3. MaxDIA with label-free quantification (MaxLFQ) achieved high precision to show that polyunsaturated fatty acids remodel the HDL proteome to a less inflammatory profile. Therefore, the two studies presented in this thesis begin to open new paths for a deeper and more reliable understanding of HDL, both at the level of protein quantification by mass spectrometry and after data acquisition
A inversa relação entre HDL-C (do inglês, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) e doenças cardiovasculares é bem estabelecida. No entanto, é consenso que o conteúdo de colesterol presente na HDL não captura sua complexidade, e outras métricas precisam ser exploradas. A HDL é uma partícula heterogênea, enriquecida em proteínas, com funções que vão além do metabolismo de lipídeos. Dessa forma, seu conteúdo proteico parece ser mais atrativo para exprimir seu comportamento frente às patologias. Muitas das proteínas com função importante estão em baixa abundância (<1% do total de proteínas), o que torna a detecção desafiadora. Métodos quantitativos de proteômica permitem detectar proteínas com alta precisão e robustez em matrizes complexas. No entanto, a proteômica quantitativa ainda é pouco explorada no contexto da HDL. Nesse sentido, no segundo capítulo dessa tese, a performance analítica de dois métodos quantitativos foi criteriosamente investigada, os quais alcançaram adequada linearidade e alta precisão usando peptídeos marcados em um pool de HDL, além de comparável habilidade em diferenciar as proteínas das subclasses da HDL de indivíduos saudáveis. Outro gargalo que aguarda por solução em proteômica é a falta de padronização no processamento e análise de dados após a aquisição por espectrometria de massas. Além disso, é crescente o interesse das propriedades cardioprotetivas do ômega-3, porém pouco se conhece sobre seus efeitos no proteoma da HDL. Então, no terceiro capítulo dessa tese, comparamos cinco estratégias de quantificação de proteínas utilizando os softwares Skyline e MaxDIA com o intuito de comparar o proteoma da HDL de camundongos submetidos a uma dieta hiperlipídica suplementados ou não com ômega-3. MaxDIA com quantificação label-free (MaxLFQ) apresentou alta precisão para mostrar que o ômega-3 remodela o proteoma da HDL para um perfil menos inflamatório. Portanto, os dois estudos apresentados nessa tesa começam a abrir novos caminhos para o entendimento mais profundo e confiável da HDL tanto por meio da quantificação das proteínas por espectrometria de massas quanto após à aquisição dos dados
Subject(s)Proteomics/instrumentation , Hyperlipidemias/pathology , Cholesterol, HDL/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Diet/classification , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects
RESUMO Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de dislipidemias e os fatores associados em adultos de Rio Branco, Acre. Métodos: estudo de delineamento seccional, populacional, que avaliou adultos (18 a 59 anos) residentes nas zonas urbana e rural de Rio Branco em 2014. As dislipidemias foram definidas conforme os critérios da Atualização da Diretriz Brasileira de Dislipidemias e Prevenção da Ateroscle rose. Empregou-se regressão logística para estimar as odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: a prevalência de dislipidemia, HDL-c baixo, hipertrigliceridemia isolada, hipercolesterolemia isolada e hiperlipidemia mista foi de 56,1%, 37,4%, 23,6%, 9,8% e 3,5%, respectivamente. No modelo final multivariado, apenas a obesidade (OR = 1,86; IC95%: 1,12;3,10) manteve associação estatisticamente significativa com a dislipidemia. Entre os subtipos de dislipidemias, associaram-se à hipertrigliceridemia isolada as variáveis: faixa etária de 40 a 49 anos (OR = 2,17; IC95%: 1,53;4,80); hipercolesterolemia isolada (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 1,23;5,15); HDL-c baixo (OR = 2,53; IC95%: 1,65;3,86); obesidade (OR = 2,10; IC95%: 1,25;3,53); e diabetes mellitus (OR = 5,41; IC95%: 1,46;20,4). Conclusão: a prevalência de alterações lipídicas foi elevada entre adultos. Estratégias de intervenções para diagnóstico, tratamento e intensificação de medidas preventivas e orientações de estilo de vida saudáveis são importantes nessa população.
RESUMEN Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de dislipidemias y los factores asociados en adultos de Rio Branco, Acre-Brasil. Métodos: estudio de investigación seccional, poblacional, que evaluó adultos (18 a 59 años) residentes en las zonas urbana y rural de Rio Branco en 2014. Las dislipidemias fueron definidas conforme a los criterios de la Actualización de la Directriz Brasileña de Dislipidemias y Prevención de la Aterosclerosis. Se empleó regresión logística para estimar las odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%). Resultados: la prevalencia de dislipidemia, HDL-c bajo, hipertrigliceridemia aislada, hipercolesterolemia aislada e hiperlipidemia mixta fue de 56,1%, 37,4%, 23,6%, 9,8% y 3,5%, respectivamente. En el modelo final multivariado, solo la obesidad (OR = 1,86; IC95%: 1,12;3,10) mantuvo una asociación estadísticamente significativa con la dislipidemia. Entre los subtipos de dislipidemias, se asociaron a la hipertrigliceridemia aislada las variables: franja etaria de 40 a 49 años (OR = 2,17; IC95%: 1,53;4,80); hipercolesterolemia aislada (OR = 2,52; IC95%: 1,23;5,15); HDL-c bajo (OR = 2,53; IC95%: 1,65;3,86); obesidad (OR = 2,10; IC95%: 1,25;3,53); y diabetes mellitus (OR = 5,41; IC95%: 1,46;20,4). Conclusión: la prevalencia de cambios lipídicos fue elevada entre adultos. Estrategias de intervenciones para el diagnóstico, tratamiento e intensificación de medidas preventivas y orientaciones de estilo de vida saludables son importantes en esa población.
ABSTRACT Objective: to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated factors in adults in Rio Branco, Acre. Methods: a cross-sectional, population-based study that assessed adults (age 18 to 59 years) living in urban and rural areas of Rio Branco in 2014. Dyslipidemias were defined according to the criteria of the Brazilian Guidelines Update on Dyslipidemias and Prevention of Atherosclerosis. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%). Results: the prevalence of dyslipidemia, low HDL-c, isolated hypertriglyceridemia, isolated hypercholesterolemia and mixed hyperlipidemia was 56.1%, 37.4%, 23.6%, 9.8% and 3.5%, respectively. In the final multivariate model, only obesity (OR = 1.86; CI95%: 1.12; 3.10) maintained a statistically significant association with dyslipidemia. Among the dyslipidemia subtypes, the following variables were associated with isolated hypertriglyceridemia: age group 40 to 49 years (OR = 2.17; CI95%: 1.53; 4.80); isolated hypercholesterolemia (OR = 2.52; CI95%: 1.23; 5.15); low HDL-c (OR = 2.53; CI95%: 1.65; 3.86); obesity (OR = 2.10; CI95%: 1.25;3.53); and diabetes mellitus (OR = 5.41; CI95%: 1.46; 20.4). Conclusion: the prevalence of lipid alterations was high among adults. Intervention strategies for diagnosis, treatment and intensification of preventive measures and healthy lifestyle guidelines are important in this population.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Adult , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertriglyceridemia/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
The use of plants in disease treatment is cost effective and relatively safe. This study was designed to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus alone and in combination therapy in hyperlipidemic & diabetic mice. Eight groups comprising five mice each were used. Group A was hyperlipidemic control, group B, C, D received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and leaf extract in combination with atorvastatin (200 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) orally for 15 days. Group E was diabetic control. Group F, G, H received sitagliptin (40 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and extract in combination with sitagliptin (200 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) orally for 7 days. Blood cholesterol levels were measured at 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th day and fasting blood sugar levels were measured at 2, 12, 24, 72 and 168 hours during treatment. One-way ANOVA with tukey- kramer multiple comparison test was used. The chemical characterization of ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus leaves showed presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus has significant anti-hyperlipidemic & anti-diabetic effects (p<0.05, p<0.01) when compared with control but had not cause significantly increase in anti-hyperlipidemic effects of atorvastatin. While significantly increased the antidiabetic effect of sitagliptin (p<0.05)
Subject(s)Plant Leaves/classification , Catharanthus/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol/blood , Disease/classification , Alkaloids/blood , Hyperlipidemias/blood
Diabetes is a global issue, the diabetes epidemic is expected to continue, and the burden of diabetes causes catastrophic expenditure for healthcare system. The current study aimed to determine the presentation, the clinical feature and cardio-vascular risk factors in patients with diabetes. A retrospective observational study had been conducted in out-patients department at Almustaqpal Almosherq Centre during September, 2013 till September, 2020, the total number of attended out-patients department were 1 024, 820 patients who were selected for this study. A special perform was completed for every patient, which included details about patient's demographics, points in clinical history, relevant investigations and clinical examinations were recorded. The study reported that out of 820 patients, 66% (n = 538) was female and their age range was between 14 - 87 years with a mean age of 56.53 ± 13.49 years, 96% (n = 791) were clinically diagnosed as type II diabetes, 07% of the patients were diagnosed as pre-diabetes, the duration of diabetes ranged from newly diagnosed to more than 10 years, with 46% (n = 379) of the studied population were more than 10 years diabetes duration, 70% (581) were presented with classical symptoms of diabetes. Initial treatment for diabetes also different in the studied sample, were absent of anti-diabetic medications in 30% (n = 248) of the patients, they refused to start glucose lowering drugs, 34.6% (n = 284) of them have morbid obesity (body mass index is more than 40), 80% (n = 662) have high HBA1c (more than 8 g%), 40.3% (n = 240/596) were uncontrolled hypertension on anti-hypertension drugs, 95.6% (n = 682/713) were controlled on treatment of lipid lowering drugs. This study showing the presentation of diabetes were the common, type II diabetes, at age group between 41 - 66 years about 65%, female sex, with high body mass index, high glycated hemglobulin and uncontrolled hypertension. There is concern that diabetic patients were occurring at a high frequency in younger adults, where longer duration of illness could increase the risk of developing more complications in later life. The rate of coexist cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity) in Libyan patients with diabetes is highlighted.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Obesity , Hyperlipidemias
changes occur commonly among patients affected with malaria. This study aimed to assess lipid changes in blood among patients with malaria in Butembo, a hypoendemic region. Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted in the Departments of Internal and Parasitology of Matanda Hospital, located in Butembo, from July 1st, 2020, to November 2, 2020; involved 100 patients diagnosed with malaria. Biochemical analyses carried out by three lab technicians were performed among patients who had positive malaria using positive thick film. Plasmodial species, the parasite density, the triglycerides, the total cholesterol, the HDL-cholesterol, the LDL-cholesterol were assessed. Results: Cholesteroleamia and HDLemia demonstrated a low level in 93% and in 61% of participants respectively; whereas 73% of cases showed an increased level of triglycerides in the blood. Lipidemia profile was independently associated with parasite density among patients with malaria. Conclusion: Although the lipid changes in the blood are not specific in the diagnosis of malaria, this study highlighted their status among patients with malaria. Further researches should be conducted to determine their impact on malaria outcomes. Therefore, dyslipidemia could be used in malaria screening.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Blood , Cholesterol , Dyslipidemias , Hyperlipidemias , Malaria , Triglycerides , Lipids
A series of N-(benzoylphenyl)-carboxamide derivatives (2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a and 6b) was prepared with good yields by reacting the corresponding carbonyl chlorides with aminobenzophenones at room temperature. This was followed by evaluating the hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of 3b, 5a and 5b. Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to overnight-fasted rats to induce hyperlipidemia. Rats were divided into six groups: control, hyperlipidemic, hyperlipidemic plus compounds 3b, 5a and 5b and hyperlipidemic plus bezafibrate. Results showed that after 18 h of treatment at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight of each of the test compounds, the elevated plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were significantly lowered by compounds 5b and 3b (p < 0.001) and by 5a (p < 0.0001), compared to the hyperlipidemic control group. Compounds 3b and 5a significantly increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 58 and 71%, respectively. In addition, compounds 3b and 5a caused significant reduction (p < 0.0001) of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to the control group. These results suggest a promising potential for compounds 3b, 5a and 5b as lipid-lowering agents, which may contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease
Subject(s)Animals , Male , Rats , Pyridines/pharmacology , Hyperlipidemias/chemically induced , Lipids/blood , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Polyethylene Glycols , Pyridines/chemical synthesis , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Lipoproteins, HDL/drug effects , Lipoproteins, LDL/drug effects , Hypolipidemic Agents/chemical synthesis
This study evaluated the effect of essential oil (ESOL) of Mentha piperita and Melaleuca alternifolia on meat-type quails. To examine performance, a completely randomized design was used, with four treatments and eight repetitions each, using seven birds per repetition. To assess lipidemia, a completely randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme was used, with four treatments and two collection conditions using eight repetitions and one bird per repetition. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass yield, cholesterol, high-density lipoporteins, triglycerides, pH, and brightness of quail breast meat were assessed. The data were analyzed for homoscedasticity and normality, and the means were subjected to analysis of variance. Adding M. piperita and M. alternifolia ESOL to the diets of meat-type quails can improve performance, carcass yield, and meat quality characteristics, comparable to the use of performance-enhancing antibiotics. The use of zinc bacitracin, M. piperita, and M. alternifolia under different collection conditions did not increase the serum levels of low-density and very low-density lipoproteins. The variation coefficients measured after 12 hours of fasting were 86% lower than without fasting.
Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do uso dos óleos essenciais (OLES) de Mentha piperita e Melaleuca alternifolia em codornas de corte. Para o estudo do desempenho foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatrotratamentos e oito repetições, sendo sete aves por repetição. Para o estudo da lipidemia utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial: 4x2, consistindo em quatro tratamentos e duas condições de coleta, com oito repetições, sendo uma ave por repetição. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso, consumo ração, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, colesterol, HDL, triglicerídeos, pH, capacidade de retenção de água, perda de peso por cozimento, luminosidade na carne do peito de codornas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados quanto à homocedasticidade e normalidade, as médias foram submetidas à análise de variância. O uso de OLES de M. piperita e M. alternifolia na dieta de codornas de corte pode proporcionar desempenhos zootécnicos, rendimentos de carcaça e características de qualidade da carne comparáveis ao uso de antibióticos melhoradores de desempenho. A redução no nível de colesterol HDL foi notada nas aves tratadas com Bacitracina de zinco e com os OLES de M. piperita e M. alternifolia, em 8,12; 16,52 e 3,36% respectivamente. O uso da Bacitracina de zinco, da M. piperita e da M. alternifolia associado às diferentes condições de coleta não aumentaram os valores séricos de LDL, VLDL. Os coeficientes de variação aferidos na condição "após 12 horas de jejum" apresentaram-se 86% inferiores à condição "sem jejum".
Subject(s)Animals , Weight Gain , Mentha piperita , Coturnix/growth & development , Melaleuca , Animal Feed/analysis , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Hyperlipidemias/veterinary
Objective@#To analyze the prevalence of dry and wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and to analyze the risk factors for AMD.@*Methods@#A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted involving 14,440 individuals. We assessed the prevalence of dry and wet AMD in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and analyzed the risk factors for AMD.@*Results@#The prevalence of wet AMD in diabetic and non-diabetic patients was 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively, and the prevalence of dry AMD was 17% and 16.4%, respectively. The prevalence of wet AMD in healthy, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and hypertensive/hyperlipidemic populations was 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dry AMD in healthy, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and hypertensive/hyperlipidemic populations was 16.6%, 16.2%, 15.2%, and 17.2%, respectively. Age, sex, body mass index, and use of hypoglycemic drugs or lowering blood pressure drugs were corrected in the risk factor analysis of AMD. Diabetes, diabetes/hypertension, diabetes/hyperlipidemia, and diabetes/hypertension/hyperlipidemia were analyzed. None of the factors analyzed in the current study increased the risk for the onset of AMD.@*Conclusion@#There was no significant difference in the prevalence of wet and dry AMD among diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of wet and dry AMD among subjects with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Diabetes co-existing with hypertension and hyperlipidemia were not shown to be risk factors for the onset of dry AMD.
Subject(s)Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration/etiology , Risk Factors
Objective To explore the interaction between abnormal prepregnancy body mass index(pBMI)and high blood lipid level during pregnancy on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods A total of 235 patients with GDM and no blood lipid-related diseases before pregnancy were selected from Hangzhou Women's Hospital during March 2017 to July 2018 as the GDM group.At a ratio of 1∶3,a total of 705 individual age-matched pregnant women with normal glucose metabolism during prenatal examination from the same hospital were selected as the control group.The generalized multifactor dimension reduction(GMDR)method was employed to characterize the possible interaction between pBMI-blood lipid and GDM.The cross-validation consistency,equilibrium test accuracy,and P value were calculated to evaluate the interaction of each model. Results GMDR model analysis showed that the second-order model including pBMI and gestational blood lipid level had the best performance(P=0.001),with the cross-validation consistency of 10/10 and the equilibrium test accuracy of 64.48%,suggesting that there was a potential interaction between pBMI and gestational high blood lipid level.After adjustment of confounding factors,the model demonstrated that overweight/obesity patients with high triglyceride(TG) level had the highest risk of developing GDM(OR=14.349,95%CI=6.449-31.924,P<0.001).Stratified analysis showed that overweight/obesity patients under high TG level group had a higher risk of developing GDM than normal weight individuals(OR=2.243,95%CI=1.173-4.290,P=0.015). Conclusions Abnormal pBMI and high blood lipid level during pregnancy are the risk factors of GDM and have an interaction between each other.Overweight/obese pregnant women with high TG levels are more likely to develop GDM.
Subject(s)Body Mass Index , Diabetes, Gestational , Female , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Obesity/complications , Overweight , Pregnancy
Subject(s)Humans , Xanthomatosis , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Metabolic Diseases
Abstract Case description: Case of lipemia retinalis secondary to hyperchylomicronemia in a 40-year-old man with a history of total body irradiation and immunosuppressive treatment that was attended in this hospital due to decreased visual acuity and abdominal pain. Clinical findings: Hyperchylomicronemia caused the development of acute pancreatitis and lipemia retinalis. The latter is an infrequent ocular manifestation that reflects excessive triglyceride blood levels in the organism (>2,000 mg/dL). Lipemia retinalis is characterized by the accumulation of chylomicrons in the retinal vessels, which gives them a white and creamy appearance in direct retinal ophthalmoscopy. The initial clinical suspicion of hyperchylomicronemia was based on the visualization of the supernatant in the analytical tube. Treatment and result: In the absence of definitive biochemical results, and owing to the need for special processing of the sample, lipid-lowering treatment and serum therapy were established after ophthalmological confirmation of lipemia retinalis, with subsequent full recovery of visual acuity. Clinical relevance: Given the initial difficulty to determine the accurate triglyceride levels in this kind of patient, early visualization of milky-colored retinal vessels on a salmon-colored eye fundus can help develop an early clinical suspicion of severe hyperchylomicronemia and contribute to limit the severity of complications.
Resumen Descripción del caso: Caso de lipemia retinalis secundaria a hiperquilomicronemia en varón de 40 años con antecedentes de irradiación corporal total y medicación inmunosupresora que acude al hospital por disminución de agudeza visual y dolor abdominal. Hallazgos clínicos: La hiperquilomicronemia contribuyó al desarrollo de pancreatitis aguda y lipemia retinalis. Esta última es una manifestación ocular infrecuente que refleja unos parámetros excesivos de triglicéridos en el organismo (>2,000 mg/dL). La Lipemia Retinalis consiste en la acumulación de quilomicrones en los vasos retinianos lo que les confiere un aspecto blanco y cremoso en la oftalmoscopia retiniana directa. La sospecha clínica inicial de hiperquilomicronemia se produjo por la visualización de sobrenadante en el tubo analítico. Tratamiento y resultado: Sin tener resultados definitivos bioquímicos, por necesidad de procesamiento especial de la muestra, se instauró tratamiento hipolipemiante y sueroterapia tras la confirmación oftalmológica de Lipemia Retinalis con recuperación total de la agudeza visual. Relevancia clínica: Dada la dificultad inicial para determinar las cifras reales de triglicéridos en este tipo de pacientes, la visualización precoz de vasos retinianos de color lechoso sobre lecho de color asalmonado en el fondo de ojo puede ser de ayuda para elaborar una sospecha clínica temprana de hiperquilomicronemia severa que contribuya a limitar la gravedad de las complicaciones.
Subject(s)Adult , Humans , Male , Pancreatitis , Retinal Diseases , Hypertriglyceridemia , Hyperlipidemias , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Acute Disease
A single dose of simvastatin and of artesunate monotherapy cause damage to the reproductive system of schistosomes as well as severe tegumental damage in male worms recovered from mice fed high-fat chow. This study aims to investigate whether treatment with multipledose regimes may offer more antischistosomal activity advantages than single daily dosing in mice fed high-fat chow. For this purpose, nine weeks post-infection, Swiss Webster mice were gavaged with simvastatin (200 mg/kg) or artesunate (300 mg/kg) for five consecutive days and euthanized two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were analyzed using brightfield microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, presenting damages caused by simvastatin and artesunate to the reproductive system of males and females as well as tegument alterations, including peeling, sloughing areas, loss of tubercles, tegumental bubbles and tegument rupture exposing subtegumental tissue. The overall findings in this study revealed the potential antischistosomal activity of simvastatin and artesunate against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms, in addition to showing that multiple doses of either monotherapy caused severe damage to the tegument.
Una sola dosis de simvastatina y de artesunato en monoterapia causa daño al sistema reproductivo de los esquistosomas, así como daño tegumental severo en gusanos machos recuperados de ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar si el tratamiento con regímenes de dosis múltiples puede ofrecer más ventajas de actividad antiesquistosomal que la dosis única diaria en ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Para este propósito, nueve semanas después de la infección, los ratones Swiss Webster se alimentaron por sonda con simvastatina (200 mg / kg) o artesunato (300 mg / kg) durante cinco días consecutivos y se sacrificaron dos semanas después del tratamiento. Los gusanos adultos se analizaron utilizando campo claro microscopía, microscopía confocal y microscopía electrónica de barrido, presentando daños causados ââpor simvastatina y artesunato en el sistema reproductivo de machos y hembras, así como alteraciones del tegumento, incluyendo descamación, desprendimiento, pérdida de tubérculos, burbujas tegumentales y rotura del tegumento exponiendo tejido subtegumental. Los hallazgos generales de este estudio revelaron la posible actividad antiesquistosomal de la simvastatina y el artesunato contra los gusanos adultos de Schistosoma mansoni, además de mostrar que dosis múltiples de cualquiera de las dos monoterapia causaron daños graves al tegumento.
Uma única dose de sinvastatina e de monoterapia com artesunato causa danos ao sistema reprodutivo dos esquistossomos, bem como danos graves ao tegumento em vermes machos recuperados de camundongos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar se o tratamento com regimes de múltiplas doses pode oferecer mais vantagens da atividade anti-esquistossomótica do que uma única dose diária em ratos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Para tanto, nove semanas após a infecção, camundongos Swiss Webster foram inoculados com sinvastatina (200 mg / kg) ou artesunato (300 mg / kg) por cinco dias consecutivos e sacrificados duas semanas após o tratamento. Vermes adultos foram analisados ââusando campo claro microscopia, microscopia confocal e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, apresentando danos causados ââpela sinvastatina e artesunato ao sistema reprodutivo de homens e mulheres, bem como alterações do tegumento, incluindo descamação, áreas de descamação, perda de tubérculos, bolhas tegumentais e ruptura do tegumento com exposição de tecido subtegumentar. Os achados gerais deste estudo revelaram a potencial atividade anti-esquistossomótica da sinvastatina e do artesunato contra vermes adultos do Schistosoma mansoni, além de mostrar que doses múltiplas de ambas as monoterapias causaram danos graves ao tegumento.
Subject(s)Animals , Mice , Schistosoma mansoni , Simvastatin , Hyperlipidemias , Mice , Microscopy
The plant, Malva neglecta wallr., is widely consumed for medicinal and nutritional purposes. The current study was carried out to assess the hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic potential of aqueous methanolic extract of M. neglecta. Chemical evaluation of the extract was performed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done in diabetic rats pre-exposed to 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg plant extract via the oral route. For hypoglycemic and biochemical study, the same therapy was administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The standard control group received Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and other phenolic acids were detected and estimated in the extract. Administration of the plant extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rats subjected to OGTT. The plant extract lowered the fasting blood glucose and alpha amylase, and prevented the damage to pancreas. It also corrected dyslipidemia in diabetic animals following 14 days therapy. Hence, this experimental study establishes the fact that M. neglecta exhibited significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Subject(s)Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Malvaceae/classification , Malva/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
The burden of hyperlipidemia is on the rise globally especially in many low-income countries like Uganda. Management of this metabolic disorder mainly involves dietary and behavioral therapies, which are often met with poor results as they require time and discipline from the patients. The chemotherapeutic options available are expensive, have many side effects and are rarely available to the average citizen. Thus, an alternative effective remedy which is readily available and cheap is needed to combat the problem of hyperlipidemia. This study sought to establish the effect of the mixture of Allium cepa extract and Camellia sinensis extract on the serum lipid profile of the male Wistar rats. Allium cepa and Camellia sinensis mixture in a ratio of 3:7 had the highest antioxidant activity. It reduced body weight, total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL, and in addition it had no toxicity to the liver of the animal models used. It has thus been recommended as a potential therapy for hyperlipidemia and its associated complication of liver toxicity. A pharmaco-kinetic study regarding the interaction of antioxidants for combinations of Allium cepa and Camellia sinensis extracts in different ratios should be conducted to understand the cause of synergism and antagonism.
Subject(s)Humans , Onions , Hyperlipidemias , Camellia sinensis , Diet, High-Fat , Lipids , Antioxidants
Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, severe acute pancreatitis, acute stroke), hypothyroidism, malignant diseases, severe malnutrition, and those with normal lipid profile under lipid-lowering medicines (e.g., statin, niacin, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and ezetimibe) were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at 1:1 ratio was performed to minimize baseline differences between patient groups of hyperlipidemia and non-hyperlipidemia. PSM analyses with the same strategies were further conducted for the parameters of hyperlipidemia in patients with increased triglyceride (TG), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mixed-effect Cox model analysis was performed to investigate the associations of the 28-days all-cause deaths of COVID-19 patients with hyperlipidemia and the abnormalities of lipid parameters. The results were verified in male, female patients, and in patients with pre-existing CVDs and type 2 diabetes. Results Of 10 945 inpatients confirmed as COVID-19, there were 9822 inpatients included in the study, comprising 3513 (35.8%) cases without hyperlipidemia and 6309 (64.2%) cases with hyperlipidemia. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after PSM at 1:1 ratio, hyperlipidemia was not associated with increased or decreased 28-day all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (
Subject(s)Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
This article aims to investigate the ameliorative effect of Linderae Radix ethanol extract on hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet and to explore its possible mechanism from the perspective of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT). SD rats were divided into normal group, model group, atorvastatin group, Linderae Radix ethanol extract(LREE) of high, medium, low dose groups. Except for the normal group, the other groups were fed with a high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidemia rat models; the normal group and the model group were given pure water, while each administration group was given corresponding drugs by gavage once a day for five weeks. Serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels were measured by automatic blood biochemistry analyzer; the contents of TC, TG, total bile acid(TBA) in liver and TC and TBA in feces of rats were detected by enzyme colorimetry. HE staining was used to observe the liver tissue lesions; immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ATP-binding cassette G8(ABCG8) in small intestine; Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/aerfa(PPARγ/α), liver X receptor-α(LXRα), ATP-binding cassette A1(ABCA1) pathway protein and scavenger receptor class B type Ⅰ(SR-BⅠ) in liver. The results showed that LREE could effectively reduce serum and liver TC, TG levels, serum LDL-c levels and AST activity, and increase HDL-c levels, but did not significant improve ALT activity and liver index; HE staining results showed that LREE could reduce liver lipid deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, LREE also increased the contents of fecal TC and TBA, and up-regulated the protein expressions of ABCG8 in small intestine and PPARγ/α, SR-BⅠ, LXRα, and ABCA1 in liver. LREE served as a positive role on hyperlipidemia model rats induced by high-fat diet, which might be related to the regulation of RCT, the promotion of the conversion of cholesterol to the liver and bile acids, and the intestinal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids. RCT regulation might be a potential mechanism of LREE against hyperlipidemia.
Subject(s)Animals , Biological Transport , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides/metabolism
OBJECTIVES@#To study the expression of adipokines in children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) before and after treatment and its correlation with blood lipids, as well as the role of adipokines in PNS children with hyperlipidemia.@*METHODS@#A total of 90 children who were diagnosed with incipient PNS or recurrence of PNS after corticosteroid withdrawal for more than 6 months were enrolled as subjects. Thirty children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the control group. Venous blood samples were collected from the children in the control group and the children with PNS before corticosteroid therapy (active stage) and after urinary protein clearance following 4 weeks of corticosteroid therapy (remission stage). ELISA was used to measure the levels of adipokines. An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure blood lipid levels.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the children with PNS had a significantly lower level of omentin-1 in both active and remission stages, and their level of omentin-1 in the active stage was significantly lower than that in the remission stage (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Omentin-1 may be associated with disease activity, dyslipidemia, and proteinuria in children with PNS. Blood lipid ratios may be more effective than traditional blood lipid parameters in monitoring early cardiovascular risk in children with PNS.
Subject(s)Adipokines , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Lectins/metabolism , Lipids , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Proteinuria
High fat diet induced hyperlipidemia hamster model was used to explore the anti-hyperlipidemia effect of water extract of Moringa oleifera leaves( WEMOL). On this basis,the possible action mechanism was predicted by network pharmacology. Golden hamsters were randomly divided into normal diet group( NFD),high-fat diet group( HFD),simvastatin group,high dose group of WEMOL( HIWEMOL) and low dose group of WEMOL( LOWEMOL). The model was administered simultaneously for 66 days,during which the body weight changes of hamsters were recorded. At the end of the experiment,serum lipid level and serum transaminase level of golden hamsters in each group were detected,and the pathological changes of liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin( HE) staining. The results showed that WEMOL could significantly decrease the serum total cholesterol( TC),total triglyceride( TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol( LDL-c) levels,and reduce the lipid deposition in liver tissue,thus improving the hyperlipidemia of golden hamsters. According to the prediction of network pharmacology,219 targets of potential active components of M.oleifera leaves and 185 targets of water-soluble potential active components of M. oleifera leaves for the treatment of hyperlipidemia were obtained separately. The MCODE analysis was performed on the PPI network of 219 targets and 185 targets obtained above and got five and four clusters respectively. The signaling pathway analysis of clusters showed that among the common pathways,nonalcoholic fatty liver,insulin resistance,MAPK signaling pathway,estrogen signaling pathway,cell apoptosis and HIF-1 signaling pathway were associated with hyperlipidemia. In addition,the potential active components of M. oleifera leaves could also inhibit the metabolic inflammation of hyperlipidemia by modulating complement and coagulation cascades signaling pathway,and GSK3 B,F2,AKT1,RELA,SERPINE1 might be the key targets. The water-soluble potential active components of M. oliefera leaves could modulate lipid metabolism by modulating AMPK signaling pathway and JAK-STAT signaling pathway,with PIK3 CB,PIK3 CA,CASP3,AKT1 and BCL2 as the key targets. These results suggested that WEMOL had anti hyperlipidemia effect,and its mechanism might be related to the protein expression regulation of lipid metabolism,nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis related signaling pathways.
Subject(s)Animals , Cricetinae , Diet, High-Fat , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Liver , Moringa oleifera , Plant Leaves
The aim of this paper was to study the improvement effect of ethanol extract from Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium(CRP) on triglyceride of hyperlipidemia model rats, and to explore the possible mechanism. SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, positive control group, and high, medium and low-dose CRP ethanol extract groups, with 10 rats in each group. During the experiment, except for the normal group that was fed with distilled water and ordinary feed, rats in the other groups were given different concentrations of alcohol and fed with high-sugar and fat diets. All rats were given free diets. While being modeled, each group was administered with 0.01 mL·g~(-1) by gavage once a day for six weeks. Blood samples were collected after two weeks, four weeks and six weeks of drug treatment. After the completion of the experiment, blood, liver and adipose tissue were collected. Triglyceride(TG), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase(ALP) in serum, TG in liver tissue and TG in fecal were detected. Free fatty acid(FFA) and triglyceride-related hydrolase, such as adipose tiglyceride lipase(ATGL), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), hepatic lipase(HL), hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase(HSL) were detected by ELISA. The mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors(PPARγ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 c(SREBP-1 c) and farnesoid X receptor(FXR) were determined by RT-PCR. Compared with the model group, each administration group could reduce TG levels in serum and liver to varying degrees, reduce serum ALT, AST, ALP activities, significantly reduce free fatty acid content in serum, significantly increase triglyceride metabolism-related enzymes, including fat ATGL, LPL and liver HL content, and significantly reduced the content of fat HSL. According to the study of transcriptional regulation genes relating to triglyceride metabolism, extract from CRP could significantly increase the mRNA expressions of PPARγ and FXR. In conclusion, ethanol extract from CRP could ob-viously reduce the TG level of hyperlipidemia model rats, and might reduce plasma TG content by increasing PPARγ-LPL/ATGL and FXR-HL triglyceride hydrolysis pathways.