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Femina ; 51(8): 454-461, 20230830. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512456


O sangramento uterino anormal é diagnóstico sindrômico comum no consultório do ginecologista e pode comprometer substancialmente a qualidade de vida. O objetivo no diagnóstico de sangramento uterino anormal é distinguir pacientes com causas estruturais (anatômicas), como pólipo, adenomiose, leiomioma, malignidade e hiperplasia, de pacientes que apresentam anatomia normal, nas quais o sangramento pode ser devido a alteração dos mecanismos de coagulação, distúrbios ovulatórios, distúrbios primários do endométrio, iatrogenia, ou ter outra causa não classificada. O diagnóstico se inicia a partir de anamnese detalhada e exame físico geral e ginecológico completos, seguidos da solicitação de exames complementares (laboratoriais e de imagem), conforme indicado. O exame de imagem de primeira linha para identificação das causas estruturais inclui a ultrassonografia pélvica. Histerossonografia, histeroscopia, ressonância magnética e amostragem endometrial para exame de anatomia patológica são opções que podem ser incluídas no diagnóstico a depender da necessidade. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a relevância dos exames de imagem na investigação das causas de sangramento uterino anormal.

Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office and may substantially affect quality of life. The aim in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding is to distinguish women with anatomic causes such as polyp, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy and hyperplasia from women with normal anatomy where the cause may be coagulopathy, ovulatory disorders, endometrial, iatrogenic and not otherwise classified. Diagnosis begins with a thorough history and physical examination followed by appropriate laboratory and imaging tests as indicated. The primary imaging test for the identification of anatomic causes include ultrasonography. Saline infusion sonohysterography, magnetic resonance, hysteroscopy, endometrial sampling are options that can be included in the diagnosis depending on the need. The aim of this article is to present the relevance of imaging exams in the investigation of the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding.

Humans , Female , Uterine Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Physical Examination/methods , Polyps/diagnostic imaging , Uterus/pathology , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Endometrium/physiopathology , Adenomyosis/complications , Gynecology/methods , Hyperplasia/complications , Leiomyoma/complications , Medical History Taking/methods
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(2): 136-141, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440351


This study aimed to carry out an integrative review of the use of diode lasers in the treatment of oral fibrous hyperplasia in order to observe surgical efficacy, healing process, and main microscopic findings. The following databases-PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Virtual Health Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and gray literature-were searched without regard to the time of year or language. Diode laser treatment cases described in case reports and case series were included, but those who did not undergo microscopic analysis to confirm the diagnosis or who did not provide postoperative information were excluded. Twelve studies (64 patients) were included. Prevalence was observed for females (68.75 %, n=44). In view of the diagnosis, there was a prevalence of focal fibrous hyperplasia (79.68 %, n=51), followed by inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (20.31 %, n=13). For surgical removal, a diode laser was used with a wavelength ranging from 808 to 960 nm, in continuous mode, and an average power of 2830 mW. In general, there were no intercurrences in the trans and postoperative periods and wound healing occurred by second intention, with excellent evolution. High-powered diode lasers can be an excellent therapeutic option for oral hyperplastic lesions. Long-term clinical trials should be conducted to determine laser setting parameters in various oral lesions.

El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión integradora sobre el uso del láser de diodo en el tratamiento de la hiperplasia fibrosa oral, con el fin de visualizar la eficacia quirúrgica, el patrón de cicatrización y el análisis de los principales resultados microscópicos. Se realizó una búsqueda sin restricciones de año e idioma en PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Virtual Health Library, Scopus, Web of Science y literatura gris. Se incluyeron reportes de casos y series de casos que brindaron información sobre pacientes diagnosticados con lesiones hiperplásicas orales tratados con láser de diodo, excluyendo aquellos a los que no se les había realizado análisis microscópico para confirmar el diagnóstico, así como aquellos que no brindaron información postoperatoria. Se incluyeron doce estudios (64 pacientes). Se observó prevalencia en el sexo femenino (68,75 %, n=44). Ante el diagnóstico, predominó la hyperplasia fibrosa focal (79,68 %, n=51), seguida de la hiperplasia fibrosa inflamatoria (20,31 %, n=13). Para la remoción quirúrgica se utilizó un láser de diodo con una longitud de onda de 808 a 960 nm, en modo continuo, y una potencia promedio de 2830 mW. En general, no hubo intercurrencias en el trans y postoperatorio y la cicatrización de la herida ocurrió por segunda intención, con excelente evolución. El uso de láseres de diodo de alta potencia puede ser una excelente alternativa terapéutica para las lesiones hiperplásicas orales. Se deben realizar más estudios clínicos a largo plazo para determinar los parámetros de ajuste del láser en diferentes lesiones orales.

Humans , Oral Surgical Procedures , Lasers, Semiconductor/therapeutic use , Hyperplasia/surgery , Laser Therapy
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 424-432, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984739


Objective: To investigate the cytomorphological and immunocytochemical features of tumor cells in the ascites of ovarian plasmacytoma (SOC). Methods: Specimens of serous cavity effusions were collected from 61 tumor patients admitted to the Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2015 to July 2021, including ascites from 32 SOC, 10 gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas, 5 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, 6 lung adenocarcinomas, 4 benign mesothelial hyperplasia and 1 malignant mesothelioma patients, pleural effusions from 2 malignant mesothelioma patients and pericardial effusion from 1 malignant mesothelioma. Serous cavity effusion samples of all patients were collected, conventional smears were made through centrifugation, and cell paraffin blocks were made through centrifugation of remaining effusion samples. Conventional HE staining and immunocytochemical staining were applied to observe and summarize cytomorphological characteristics and immunocytochemical characteristics. The levels of serum tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) were detected. Results: Of the 32 SOC patients, 5 had low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC) and 27 had high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). 29 (90.6%) SOC patients had elevated serum CA125, but the difference was not statistically significant between them and patients with non-ovarian primary lesions included in the study (P>0.05); The serum CEA was positive in 9 patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma and 5 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and the positive rate was higher than that in SOC patients (P<0.001); The serum CA19-9 was positive in 5 patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma and 5 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and the positive rate was higher than that in SOC patients (P<0.05). The serum CA125, CEA and CA19-9 were within the normal range in 4 patients with benign mesothelial hyperplasia. LGSOC tumor cells were less heterogeneous and aggregated into small clusters or papillary pattern, and psammoma bodies could be observed in some LGSOC cases. The background cells were fewer and lymphocytes were predominant; the papillary structure was more obvious after making cell wax blocks. HGSOC tumor cells were highly heterogeneous, with significantly enlarged nuclei and varying sizes, which could be more than 3-fold different, and nucleoli and nuclear schizophrenia could be observed in some cases; tumor cells were mostly clustered into nested clusters, papillae and prune shapes; there were more background cells, mainly histiocytes. Immunocytochemical staining showed that AE1/AE3, CK7, PAX-8, CA125, and WT1 were diffusely positively expressed in 32 SOC cases. P53 was focally positive in all 5 LGSOCs, diffusely positive in 23 HGSOCs, and negative in the other 4 HGSOCs. Most of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract and lung had a history of surgery, and tumor cells of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tend to form small cell nests. Immunocytochemistry can assist in the differential diagnosis of mesothelial-derived lesions with characteristic "open window" phenomenon. Conclusion: Combining the clinical manifestations of the patient, the morphological characteristics of the cells in the smear and cell block of the ascites can provide important clues for the diagnosis of SOC, and the immunocytochemical tests can further improve the accuracy of the diagnosis.

Female , Humans , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Ascites , CA-19-9 Antigen , Mesothelioma, Malignant/diagnosis , Hyperplasia , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial , Diagnosis, Differential , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Carbohydrates
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies ; : 1-10, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984345


Objective@#To determine whether bisphenol S (BPS), a common substitute for bisphenol A (BPA), induces cell proliferation and migration in human endometrial epithelial cells (Ishikawa) and adult mouse uterine tissues.@*Methodology@#Human endometrial Ishikawa cells were exposed to low doses of BPS (1 nM and 100 nM) for 72 hours. Cell proliferation was assessed through the viability assays MTT and CellTiter-Glo®. Wound healing assays were also used to evaluate the migration potential of the cell line. The expression of genes related to proliferation and migration was also determined. Similarly, adult mice were exposed to BPS at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight/day for 21 days, after which, the uterus was sent for histopathologic assessment.@*Results@#BPS increased cell number and stimulated migration in Ishikawa cells, in association with the upregulation of estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) and vimentin (VIM). In addition, mice exposed to BPS showed a significantly higher mean number of endometrial glands within the endometrium.@*Conclusion@#Overall, in vitro and in vivo results obtained in this study showed that BPS could significantly promote endometrial epithelial cell proliferation and migration, a phenotype also observed with BPA exposure. Hence, the use of BPS in BPA-free products must be reassessed, as it may pose adverse reproductive health effects to humans.

Uterus , Hyperplasia
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 196-200, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971170


Hypertrophic scar (HS) affects the function and beauty of patients, and brings a heavy psychological burden to patients. However, the specific pathogenesis mechanism of HS in molecular biology level is not yet clear, and this disease is still one of the clinical diseases difficult to prevent and cure. MicroRNA (miR) is a family of single-stranded endogenous noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression. The abnormal transcription of miR in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts can affect the transduction and expression of downstream signal pathway or protein, and the exploration of miR and its downstream signal pathway and protein helps deeply understand the occurrence and development mechanism of scar hyperplasia. This article summarized and analyzed how miR and multiple signal pathways involve in the formation and development of HS in recent years, and further outlined the interaction between miR and target genes in HS.

Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/genetics , Fibroblasts , Hyperplasia
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 175-183, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971167


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) dressings for the treatment of wounds in burn patients. Methods: The meta-analysis method was adopted. Databases including Chinese Journal Full-text Database, Wanfang Database, VIP Database, and Chinese Biomedical Database were retrieved with the search terms in Chinese version of ", , , " and PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were retrieved with the search terms in English version of "xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix, dressing, burn wound, burn" to obtain the publicly published randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of xenogeneic ADM dressings for the treatment of wounds in burn patients from the establishment of each database to December 2021. The outcome indexes included wound healing time, ratio of scar hyperplasia, Vancouver scar scale (VSS) score, ratio of complications, ratio of skin grafting, and ratio of bacteria detection. Rev Man 5.3 and Stata 14.0 statistical softwares were used to conduct a meta-analysis of eligible studies. Results: A total of 1 596 burn patients from 16 studies were included, including 835 patients in experimental group who received xenogeneic ADM dressings therapy and 761 patients in control group who received other methods therapy. The bias risk of all the 16 included studies was uncertain. Compared with those in control group, patients in experimental group had significantly shorter wound healing time, lower VSS scores (with standardized mean differences of -2.50 and -3.10, 95% confidence intervals of -3.02--1.98 and -4.87--1.34, respectively, P values both <0.05), and lower ratios of scar hyperplasia, complications, skin grafting, and bacteria detection (with relative risks of 0.58, 0.23, 0.32, and 0.27, 95% confidence intervals of 0.43-0.80, 0.14-0.37, 0.15-0.67, and 0.11-0.69, respectively, P<0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that the difference of intervention measures in control group might be the source of heterogeneity in wound healing time. There was no publication bias in ratio of scar hyperplasia (P≥0.05), while there was publication bias in wound healing time, VSS score, and ratio of complications (P<0.05). Conclusions: Xenogeneic ADM dressings can shorten the wound healing time of burn patients, reduce the VSS score and the ratios of scar hyperplasia, complications, skin grafting, and bacteria detection.

Humans , Cicatrix , Acellular Dermis , Hyperplasia , Burns/therapy , Bandages
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 132-140, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971162


Objective: To investigate the influence of autologous adipose stem cell matrix gel on wound healing and scar hyperplasia of full-thickness skin defects in rabbit ears, and to analyze the related mechanism. Methods: Experimental research methods were adopted. The complete fat pads on the back of 42 male New Zealand white rabbits aged 2 to 3 months were cut to prepare adipose stem cell matrix gel, and a full-thickness skin defect wound was established on the ventral side of each ear of each rabbit. The left ear wounds were included in adipose stem cell matrix gel group (hereinafter referred to as matrix gel group), and the right ear wounds were included in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) group, which were injected with autologous adipose stem cell matrix gel and PBS, respectively. The wound healing rate was calculated on post injury day (PID) 7, 14, and 21, and the Vancouver scar scale (VSS) scoring of scar tissue formed on the wound (hereinafter referred to as scar tissue) was performed in post wound healing month (PWHM) 1, 2, 3, and 4. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe and measure the histopathological changes of wound on PID 7, 14, and 21 and the dermal thickness of scar tissue in PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4. Masson staining was performed to observe the collagen distribution in wound tissue on PID 7, 14, and 21 and scar tissue in PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF) was calculated. The microvessel count (MVC) in wound tissue on PID 7, 14, and 21 and the expressions of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in scar tissue in PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4 were detected by immunohistochemical method, and the correlation between the expression of α-SMA and that of TGF-β1 in scar tissue in matrix gel group was analyzed. The expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in wound tissue were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on PID 7, 14, and 21. The number of samples at each time point in each group was 6. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, analysis of variance for factorial design, paired sample t test, least significant difference test, and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: On PID 7, the wound healing rate in matrix gel group was (10.3±1.7)%, which was close to (8.5±2.1)% in PBS group (P>0.05). On PID 14 and 21, the wound healing rates in matrix gel group were (75.5±7.0)% and (98.7±0.8)%, respectively, which were significantly higher than (52.7±6.7)% and (90.5±1.7)% in PBS group (with t values of 5.79 and 10.37, respectively, P<0.05). In PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, the VSS score of scar tissue in matrix gel group was significantly lower than that in PBS group (with t values of -5.00, -2.86, -3.31, and -4.45, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the VSS score of scar tissue at each time point after wound healing in the two groups was significantly increased (P<0.05), except for PWHM 4 in matrix gel group (P>0.05). On PID 7, the granulation tissue regeneration and epithelialization degree of the wounds between the two groups were similar. On PID 14 and 21, the numbers of fibroblasts, capillaries, and epithelial cell layers in wound tissue of matrix gel group were significantly more than those in PBS group. In PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, the dermal thickness of scar tissue in matrix gel group was significantly thinner than that in PBS group (with t values of -4.08, -5.52, -6.18, and -6.30, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the dermal thickness of scar tissue in the two groups thickened significantly at each time point after wound healing (P<0.05). Compared with those in PBS group, the collagen distribution in wound tissue in matrix gel group was more regular and the CVF was significantly increased on PID 14 and 21 (with t values of 3.98 and 3.19, respectively, P<0.05), and the collagen distribution in scar tissue was also more regular in PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, but the CVF was significantly decreased (with t values of -7.38, -4.20, -4.10, and -4.65, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the CVFs in wound tissue at each time point after injury and scar tissue at each time point after wound healing in the two groups were significantly increased (P<0.05), except for PWHM 1 in matrix gel group (P>0.05). On PID 14 and 21, the MVC in wound tissue in matrix gel group was significantly higher than that in PBS group (with t values of 4.33 and 10.10, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the MVC of wound at each time point after injury in the two groups was increased significantly (P<0.05), except for PID 21 in PBS group (P>0.05). In PWHM 1, 2, 3, and 4, the expressions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in scar tissue in matrix gel group were significantly lower than those in PBS group (with t values of -2.83, -5.46, -5.61, -8.63, -10.11, -5.79, -8.08, and -11.96, respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the previous time point within the group, the expressions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in scar tissue in the two groups were increased significantly at each time point after wound healing (P<0.05), except for the α-SMA expression in matrix gel group in PWHM 4 (P>0.05). There was a significantly positive correlation between the expression of α-SMA and that of TGF-β1 in scar tissue in matrix gel group (r=0.92, P<0.05). On PID 14 and 21, the expressions of VEGF (with t values of 6.14 and 6.75, respectively, P<0.05) and EGF (with t values of 8.17 and 5.85, respectively, P<0.05) in wound tissue in matrix gel group were significantly higher than those in PBS group. Compared with the previous time point within the group, the expression of VEGF of wound at each time point after injury in the two groups was increased significantly (P<0.05), and the expression of EGF was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: Adipose stem cell matrix gel may significantly promote the wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in rabbit ears by promoting collagen deposition and expressions of VEGF and EGF in wound tissue, and may further inhibit the scar hyperplasia after wound healing by inhibiting collagen deposition and expressions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in scar tissue.

Male , Rabbits , Animals , Cicatrix , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Epidermal Growth Factor , Hyperplasia , Wound Healing , Stem Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 114-121, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971160


Objective: To investigate the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) combined with autologous Meek microskin transplantation on patients with extensive burns. Methods: The prospective self-controlled study was conducted. From May 2019 to June 2022, 16 patients with extensive burns admitted to the 990th Hospital of PLA Joint Logistics Support Force met the inclusion criteria, while 3 patients were excluded according to the exclusion criteria, and 13 patients were finally selected, including 10 males and 3 females, aged 24-61 (42±13) years. A total of 20 trial areas (40 wounds, with area of 10 cm×10 cm in each wound) were selected. Two adjacent wounds in each trial area were divided into hUCMSC+gel group applied with hyaluronic acid gel containing hUCMSCs and gel only group applied with hyaluronic acid gel only according to the random number table, with 20 wounds in each group. Afterwards the wounds in two groups were transplanted with autologous Meek microskin grafts with an extension ratio of 1∶6. In 2, 3, and 4 weeks post operation, the wound healing was observed, the wound healing rate was calculated, and the wound healing time was recorded. The specimen of wound secretion was collected for microorganism culture if there was purulent secretion on the wound post operation. In 3, 6, and 12 months post operation, the scar hyperplasia in wound was assessed using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). In 3 months post operation, the wound tissue was collected for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining to observe the morphological changes and for immunohistochemical staining to observe the positive expressions of Ki67 and vimentin and to count the number of positive cells. Data were statistically analyzed with paired samples t test and Bonferronni correction. Results: In 2, 3, and 4 weeks post operation, the wound healing rates in hUCMSC+gel group were (80±11)%, (84±12)%, and (92±9)%, respectively, which were significantly higher than (67±18)%, (74±21)%, and (84±16)% in gel only group (with t values of 4.01, 3.52, and 3.66, respectively, P<0.05). The wound healing time in hUCMSC+gel group was (31±11) d, which was significantly shorter than (36±13) d in gel only group (t=-3.68, P<0.05). The microbiological culture of the postoperative wound secretion specimens from the adjacent wounds in 2 groups was identical, with negative results in 4 trial areas and positive results in 16 trial areas. In 3, 6, and 12 months post operation, the VSS scores of wounds in gel only group were 7.8±1.9, 6.7±2.1, and 5.4±1.6, which were significantly higher than 6.8±1.8, 5.6±1.6, and 4.0±1.4 in hUCMSC+gel group, respectively (with t values of -4.79, -4.37, and -5.47, respectively, P<0.05). In 3 months post operation, HE staining showed an increase in epidermal layer thickness and epidermal crest in wound in hUCMSC+gel group compared with those in gel only group, and immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells in wound in hUCMSC+gel group compared with those in gel only group (t=4.39, P<0.05), with no statistically significant difference in the number of vimentin positive cells in wound between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: The application of hyaluronic acid gel containing hUCMSCs to the wound is simple to perform and is therefore a preferable route. Topical application of hUCMSCs can promote healing of the autologous Meek microskin grafted area in patients with extensive burns, shorten wound healing time, and alleviate scar hyperplasia. The above effects may be related to the increased epidermal thickness and epidermal crest, and active cell proliferation.

Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Burns/surgery , Cicatrix , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hyaluronic Acid/therapeutic use , Hyperplasia , Ki-67 Antigen , Prospective Studies , Umbilical Cord , Vimentin
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 357-361, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986861


Placental transmogrification of the lung (PTL) is a very rare benign lung lesion. There are only about 40 cases reported in the literature. The imaging and histological features of PTL cases in the publication are various, most of which are cystic and a few of which are solid. Being extremely rare, the solid PTL is unknown to major pathologists and surgeons. We reported a case of solid PTL in the anterior mediastinum. The patient was a 52-year-old male with no history of smoking and without symptoms. During physical examination, chest CT revealed a circular low-density lesion with a maximum diameter of 2.9 cm beside the spine in the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe of the lung. The wedge resection was performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. Grossly, a round nodule was located underneath the visceral pleura. It was about 3.0 cm×3.0 cm×1.6 cm and the cut surface was grey-red, soft and spongy. Microscopically, the nodule was constituted of papillare, which resembled placental villi at low magnification. The axis of papillae was edema, in which some mild round cells with clear cytoplasm and CD10 positive staining aggregated and transitioned to immature adipocytes and amorphous pink materials deposited with a few of inflammatory cells infiltration. The surface of papillae was covered with disconti-nuous alveolar epithelium. Combined with the typical morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics of CD10 positive, the diagnosis was PTL. The patient was followed up for 1 year without recurrence and discomfort. So far, the pathogenesis of PTL is unclear. The major hypotheses include hamartoma, variant of emphysema and clonal hyperplasia of stromal cells. Based on the study of our case and publication, we speculate that the hyperplasia of stromal cells located in the alveolar septa might be the first step to form the solid PTL. With the progression of the disease, a typical unilateral cystic nodule develops as a result of secondary cystic degeneration due to the occlusive valve effect. Surgery is the only option for diagnosis and treatment of PTL. The clinician should make an individualized operation plan according to the clinical manifestations, location and scope of the lesion, and preserve the surrounding normal lung tissue as much as possible while completely removing the lesion. There is a favorable prognosis.

Male , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Middle Aged , Hyperplasia/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Emphysema/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 347-352, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985678


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and possible mechanisms of burned-out testicular germ cell tumors. Methods: The clinical and imaging data, histology and immunophenotypic characteristics of three cases of burned-out testicular germ cell tumors diagnosed at the Ruijin Hospital, Medical College of the Shanghai Jiaotong University, from 2016 to 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The relevant literature was reviewed. Results: The mean age of the three patients was 32 years. Case 1 had an elevated preoperative alpha-fetoprotein level (810.18 μg/L) and underwent "radical pancreaticoduodenectomy and retroperitoneal lesion resection" for a retroperitoneal mass. Postoperative pathology showed embryonal carcinoma, which needed to exclude gonadal metastasis. Color Doppler ultrasound showed a solid mass of the right testis, with hypoechoic lesion and scattered calcification in some areas. Case 2 was a "right supraclavicular lymph node biopsy specimen." Chest X-ray showed multiple metastases in both lungs. The biopsy showed metastatic embryonic carcinoma and bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasound revealed abnormal calcifications in the right testicle. Case 3 showed a cystic mass of the right testis with calcification and solid areas. All 3 patients underwent radical right orchiectomy. Grossly, borders of the testicular scar areas were well defined. Cross sectioning of the tumors showed a gray-brown cut surface and single focus or multiple foci of the tumor. The tumor maximum diameter was 0.6-1.5 cm. Microscopically, lymphocytes, plasma cells infiltration, tubular hyalinization, clustered vascular hyperplasia and hemosiderin laden macrophages were found in the scar. Atrophic and sclerotic seminiferous tubules, proliferation of clustered Leydig cells and small or coarse granular calcifications in seminiferous tubules were present around the scar. Seminoma and germ cell neoplasia in situ were seen in case 1, germ cell neoplasia in situ was seen in case 2 and germ cells with atypical hyperplasia were seen in case 3. Immunohistochemistry showed that embryonic carcinoma expressed SALL4, CKpan(AE1/AE3) and CD30, seminoma and germ cell tumor in situ expressed OCT3/4, SALL4 and CD117, and spermatogenic cells with atypical hyperplasia expressed CD99 and SALL4. The Ki-67 positive index was about 20%, while OCT3/4 and CD117 were both negative. Conclusions: Burned-out testicular germ cell tumors are rare. The possibility of gonad testicular metastasis should be considered first for extragonadal germ cell tumor. If fibrous scar is found in testis, it must be determined whether it is a burned-out testicular germ cell tumor. The burned-out mechanisms may be related to the microenvironment of tumor immune-mediated and local ischemic injury.

Male , Humans , Adult , Seminoma/secondary , Cicatrix/pathology , Hyperplasia , Retrospective Studies , China , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Calcinosis , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 526-535, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985673


Objective: To compare the effects and safety of dydrogesterone (DG) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the treatment in patients with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (EH). Methods: This was a single-center, open-label, prospective non-inferior randomized controlled phase Ⅲ trial. From February 2019 to November 2021, patients with EH admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were recruited. Enrolled patients were stratified according to the pathological types of simple hyperplasia (SH) or complex hyperplasia (CH), and were randomised to receive MPA or DG. Untill May 14, 2022, the median follow-up time after complete response (CR) was 9.3 months (1.1-17.2 months). The primary endpoint was the 6-month CR rate (6m-CR rate). The secondary endpoints included the 3-month CR rate (3m-CR rate), adverse events rate, recurrence rate, and pregnancy rate in one year after CR. Results: (1) A total of 292 patients with EH were enrolled in the study with the median age of 39 years (31-45 years). A total of 135 SH patients were randomly assigned to MPA group (n=67) and DG group (n=68), and 157 CH patients were randomly assigned to MPA group (n=79) and DG group (n=78). (2) Among 292 patients, 205 patients enrolled into the primary endpoint analysis, including 92 SH patients and 113 CH patients, with 100 patients in MPA group and 105 in DG group, respectively. The 6m-CR rate of MPA group and DG group were 90.0% (90/100) and 88.6% (93/105) respectively, and there were no statistical significance (χ2=0.11, P=0.741), with the rate difference (RD) was -1.4% (95%CI:-9.9%-7.0%). Stratified by the pathology types, the 6m-CR rate of SH patients was 93.5% (86/92), and MPA group and DG group were respectively 91.1% (41/45) and 95.7% (45/47); and the 6m-CR rate of CH patients was 85.8% (97/113), and MPA group and DG group were 89.1% (49/55) and 82.8% (48/58) respectively. The 6m-CR rates of the two treatments had no statistical significance either (all P>0.05). A total of 194 EH patients enrolled into the secondary endpoint analysis, including 88 SH patients and 106 CH patients, and 96 patients in MPA group and 98 in DG group, respectively. The 3m-CR rate of SH patients were 87.5% (77/88), while the 3m-CR rates of MPA group and DG group were 90.7% (39/43) and 84.4% (38/45), respectively; the 3m-CR rate of CH patients was 66.0% (70/106), and MPA group and DG group had the same 3m-CR rate of 66.0% (35/53). No statistical significance was found between the two treatments both in SH and CH patients (all P>0.05). (3) The incidence of adverse events between MPA group and DG group had no statistical significance (P>0.05). (4) A total of 93 SH patients achieved CR, and the cumulative recurrence rate in one year after CR were 5.9% and 0 in MPA group and DG group, respectively. While 112 CH patients achieved CR, and the cumulative recurrence rate in one year after CR were 8.8% and 6.5% in MPA group and DG group, respectively. There were no statistical significance between two treatment groups (all P>0.05). Among the 93 SH patients, 10 patients had family planning but no pregnancy happened during the follow-up period. Among the 112 CH patients, 21 were actively preparing for pregnancy, and the pregnancy rate and live-birth rate in one year after CR in MPA group were 7/9 and 2/7, while in DG group were respectively 4/12 and 2/4, and there were no statistical significance in pregnancy rate and live-birth rate between the two treatment groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Compared with MPA, DG is of good efficacy and safety in treating EH. DG is a favorable alternative treatment for EH patients.

Female , Humans , Adult , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/adverse effects , Endometrial Hyperplasia/pathology , Dydrogesterone/adverse effects , Hyperplasia , Prospective Studies
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 292-299, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970465


Caused by endocrine disorder, hyperplasia of mammary glands(HMG) tends to occur in the young with increasing incidence, putting patients at the risk of cancer and threatening the health of women. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of HMG is attracting more and more attention. Amid the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), many scholars have found that Chinese patent medicine has unique advantages and huge potential in treatment of endocrine disorder. Particularly, Chinese patent medicine with the function of blood-activating and mass-dissipating, such as Xiaojin Pills and Xiaozheng Pills, has been commonly used in clinical treatment of HMG, which features multiple targets, obvious efficacy, small side effect, and ease of taking and carrying around. Clinical studies have found that the combination of Chinese patent medicine with other medicine can not only improve the efficacy and relieve symptoms such as hyperplasia and pain but also reduce the toxic and side effects of western medicine. Therefore, based on precious pharmacological research and clinical research, this study reviewed the mechanisms of blood-activating mass-dissipating Chinese patent medicine alone and in combination with other medicine, such as regulating levels of in vivo hormones and receptors, promoting apoptosis, inhibiting angiogenesis, improving hemorheology indexes, enhancing immunity, and boosting antioxidant ability. In addition, limitations and problems were summarized. Thereby, this study is expected to lay a theoretical basis for the further study and clinical application of blood-activating mass-dissipating Chinese patent medicine alone or in combination with other medicine against HMG.

Humans , Female , Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Nonprescription Drugs , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Hemorheology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 361-365, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981938


This study evaluated the association of periurethral calcification (PUC) with uroflowmetric parameters and symptom severity in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The data were collected from a prospectively maintained database of 1321 men with LUTS of BPH who visited Chonnam National University Hospital (Gwang-ju, Korea) from January 2015 to December 2019. PUC severity and location were evaluated on the midsagittal plane during transrectal ultrasonography. Relationships among age, prostate-related parameters, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and uroflowmetric parameters were assessed. Among the 1321 patients in this study, 530 (40.1%) had PUC. Patients with PUC had significantly higher IPSS (mean ± standard deviation [s.d.]: 15.1 ± 8.7 vs 13.1 ± 7.9; P < 0.001) and lower peak flow rate (Qmax; mean ± s.d.: 12.4 ± 6.6 ml s-1 vs 14.7 ± 13.3 ml s-1; P < 0.001), compared with patients who did not have PUC. Analyses according to PUC severity revealed that patients with severe PUC had higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (P = 0.009), higher total IPSS (P < 0.001), lower Qmax (P = 0.002), and smaller prostate volume (P < 0.001), compared with patients who had non-severe (mild or moderate) PUC. Multivariate analysis showed that distal PUC was independently associated with high total IPSS (P = 0.02), voiding symptom score (P = 0.04), and storage symptom score (P = 0.023), and low Qmax (P = 0.015). In conclusion, PUC was significantly associated with worse LUTS parameters in terms of IPSS and Qmax. Furthermore, distally located PUC was independently associated with worse LUTS of BPH in men.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnostic imaging , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Relevance , Hyperplasia , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/complications , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3546-3555, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981486


The purpose of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of Xihuang Pills on rats with precancerous lesions of the breast. Of 48 healthy female rats, 8 were randomly selected as blank group, and the other 40 were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene(DMBA) combined with estrogen and progestin to establish a model of precancerous lesions of the breast. The successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into a model group, a tamoxifen group(1.8 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a Xihuang Pills low-dose group(0.3 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a medium-dose group(0.6 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and a high-dose group(1.2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). After 30 days of admi-nistration, the histopathological changes of viscera and breast were observed by haematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining, and the visceral index was calculated. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the contents of estradiol(E_2) and progesterone(P) in serum. The protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2(FGF2) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2(VEGFR2), phosphorylated-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2(p-VEGFR2), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax) were detected by Western blot and the mRNA expressions of VEGF, FGF2, CXC-chemokine receptor 4(CXCR4), cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease(caspase-3), and stromal cell-derived factor 1(SDF-1) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). HE staining revealed that the model group had some liver and kidney damages and severe hyperplastic mammary tissue, while the Xihuang Pills high-dose group had mild hyperplasia. Compared with the model group, the Xihuang Pills groups had lo-wer ovarian coefficient(P<0.05 or P<0.01) and Xihuang Pills high-dose group had lower uterine coefficient(P<0.01). ELISA results showed that compared with the model group, expressions of E_2 and P in Xihuang Pills high-dose group were significantly decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR indicated that compared with the conditions in the model group, the protein and mRNA expressions of VEGF and FGF2 in the Xihuang Pills groups were down-regulated(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was lowered(P<0.01); there was a decrease in the protein expressions of VEGFR2 and p-VEGFR2(P<0.01), a down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of CXCR4 and SDF-1(P<0.01), while an increase in the mRNA expression of caspase-3(P<0.01) in both Xihuang Pills medium-dose and high-dose groups; the protein expression of Bax in Xihuang Pills high-dose group was increased(P<0.01). The above results indicated that Xihuang Pills can effectively intervene in precance-rous lesions of the breast, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of E_2 and P secretion as well as the inhibition of angiogenesis and chemokine receptor expression, thus controlling the occurrence of precancerous lesions of the breast in rats.

Rats , Female , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Caspase 3 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/toxicity , Precancerous Conditions , Hyperplasia , Receptors, Chemokine , RNA, Messenger
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2856-2867, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981420


Hyperplasia of mammary glands is a benign breast disease with disordered breast structure. Nowadays, the incidence rate of breast hyperplasia in women is increasing year by year, and the etiology is related to the imbalance of estrogen and progesterone in the body. The symptoms include breast pain, breast nodules, or nipple discharge, which can develop into breast cancer in the context of psychological pressure. Therefore, it is timely and effectively necessary for people to treat the symptoms. At present, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) often treats breast hyperplasia by oral drug, external application, acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage, while western medicine often uses hormone therapy or surgery. TCM can regulate hormone levels to treat breast hyperplasia. Acupuncture, moxibustion, and other methods can stimulate acupoints to reduce breast lumps. However, since TCM is easy to produce hepatorenal toxicity after long-term use and simple external treatment is slow to take effect, rapid and effective treatment is difficult to be achieved. Although western medicine can inhibit the disease, it is easy to produce toxic and side effects if taken for a long time. In addition, surgery can only remove the focus and the recurrence rate is high. Some studies have found that the combination of oral and external use of TCM compounds has a significant effect, with mild toxic and side effects, few adverse reactions, and a low recurrence rate. Based on the relevant literature in recent years, this article reviewed the combination of oral and external treatment of TCM in the treatment of hyperplasia of mammary glands, discussed the effectiveness, clinical evaluation indexes, and mechanism, and pointed out the existing shortcomings to explore a comprehensive therapy worthy of clinical application.

Female , Humans , Mammary Glands, Human , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Hyperplasia , Acupuncture Therapy , Breast Neoplasms , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Estrogens
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(1): 114-119, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515104


Se realiza revisión de la literatura y presentación de un caso clínico de Hiperplasia de Células Neuroendocrinas en paciente lactante masculino que inicia su padecimiento a los 3 meses de vida con dificultad respiratoria caracterizada por retracciones subcostales y taquipnea persistente, posterior-mente a los 8 meses de edad se agrega hipoxemia respirando aire ambiente que requiere uso de oxígeno suplementario continuo. Tiene antecedente de tres hospitalizaciones, con diagnóstico de Bronquiolitis y Neumonía atípica, realizándose panel viral respiratorio con reporte negativo. El paciente persiste con sintomatología respiratoria a pesar de tratamientos médicos, por lo que se deriva a neumología pediátrica, unidad de enfermedad pulmonar intersticial del lactante, iniciando protocolo de estudio, se realiza tomografía tórax de alta resolución, que evidencia imágenes en vidrio despulido en lóbulo medio y región lingular, además de atrapamiento aéreo. Se concluye el diagnóstico de Hiperplasia de Células neuroendocrinas con base a la clínica y hallazgos tomográficos. La Hiperplasia de Células Neuroendocrinas es una patología pulmonar intersticial poco frecuente, cuyo diagnóstico es clínico y radiológico, en la minoría de los casos se requiere biopsia pulmonar para confirmación. Puede ser fácilmente confundida con otras enfermedades respiratorias comunes, por lo que es importante sospecharla para realizar un diagnóstico precoz. La mayor parte de los casos evolucionan con declinación de los síntomas, mejorando espontáneamente en los primeros años de vida.

A review of the literature and presentation of a clinical case of Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia in a male infant patient who begins his condition at 3 months of age with respiratory distress characterized by subcostal retractions and persistent tachypnea is presented. After 8 months of age hypoxemia is added requiring continuous oxygen therapy. He has a history of three hospitalizations, with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis and atypical pneumonia, respiratory viral panel has a negative report. The patient persists with respiratory symptoms despite medical treatments, so it is referred to pediatric pulmonology, initiating study protocol for interstitial lung disease of the infant. A high resolution chest tomography is performed, which evidences images in polished glass in the middle lobe and lingular region, in addition to air entrapment. The diagnosis of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia is concluded based on clinical and tomographic findings. Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia is a rare interstitial pulmonary pathology, whose diagnosis is clinical and radiological. Lung biopsy is required only in the minority of cases for confirming diagnosis. It can be easily confused with other common respiratory diseases, so it is important to suspect it to make an early diagnosis. Most cases evolve with decline in symptoms, improving spontaneously in the first years of life.

Humans , Male , Infant , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Neuroendocrine Cells/pathology , Tachypnea/etiology , Hyperplasia/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Hyperplasia/diagnostic imaging
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 110(2): 1100811, may.-ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416608


Objetivo: Evaluar los efectos de la aplicación de un dispositivo intraoral de uso permanente en el comportamien- to de los cóndilos con hiperplasia condilar (HC) confirmada por tomografía computarizada de emisión por fotón único (SPECT), estableciendo una comparación con un grupo de pacientes con HC que no utilizó el dispositivo. Materiales y métodos: 30 pacientes con una edad promedio de 21,7 años (+/-5,56) con HC confirmada con SPECT fueron asignados al azar a dos grupos: a los del grupo I (n=18) se les colocó un dispositivo intraoral de uso perma- nente para modificar la posición de la mandíbula, mientras que a los del grupo II (n=12) no se les colocó ningún dispo- sitivo. Se realizaron evaluaciones de dolor, del desvío de la línea media, de la apertura máxima y del disconfort al inicio del estudio y a los 2, 4, 6, 10, 12 y 14 meses. A los 19 meses promedio, la actividad osteoblástica (AO) fue reevaluada me- diante SPECT. Resultados: En el grupo I, la AO en los cortes coro- nales y transversales cesó o disminuyó (p<0,001) respecto a la condición inicial, mientras que en el grupo II la AO au- mentó (p<0,001). Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el test de Wilcoxon de rangos signados. Al ajustar un modelo de ANCOVA robusto utilizando el valor inicial como covariable también se observa que el efecto del grupo fue estadística- mente significativo en ambos cortes (p<0,001). Conclusiones: La aplicación de un dispositivo intrao- ral de uso permanente mejora la evolución de la hiperplasia condilar, lo que lo puede convertir en un tratamiento de uti- lidad para el tiempo que se aguarda para realizar una condi- lectomía alta de cuello de cóndilo, o incluso para evitar este procedimiento (AU)

Objective: To evaluate the effects of the application of an intraoral device for permanent use on the behavior of con- dyles with condylar hyperplasia (CH) confirmed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), establish- ing a comparison with a group of patients with CH that did not use the device. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with an aver- age age of 21.7 years (+/-5.56) with CH confirmed by SPECT were randomly divided into two groups: the ones in group I (n=18) received an intraoral device for permanent use to align the mandible, while those in group II (n=12) did not get any device. Pain, midline shift, maximum opening, and discomfort were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, and 14 months. At an average of 19 months, osteoblastic activity (AO) was reassessed by SPECT. Results: In group I, the AO in the coronal and trans- verse sections ceased or decreased (p<0.001) in comparison to the initial condition, while in group II the AO increased (p<0.001). The data was analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Adjusting a robust ANCOVA model using the ini-tial value as a covariate made it possible to observe that the effect of the group was statistically significant in both cuts (p<0.001). Conclusions: The application of an intraoral device for permanent use improves the evolution of condylar hyperpla- sia, which can make it a useful treatment until a high condylectomy of the neck of the condyle is performed, or even to avoid this procedure (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Occlusal Splints , Hyperplasia/diagnostic imaging , Mandibular Condyle/physiopathology , Mandibular Condyle/metabolism , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/therapy , Analysis of Variance , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Range of Motion, Articular/physiology , Randomized Controlled Trial
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e306, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1383647


La hiperplasia de glándulas sebáceas es un hallazgo benigno y transitorio, común en el período neonatal. Secundariamente al estímulo hormonal androgénico se produce un hipercrecimiento de las glándulas, con mayor frecuencia en nariz y mejillas, donde existen en mayor densidad. La hiperplasia de glándulas en una localización ectópica, llamada gránulos de Fordyce (GF), es excepcional en el período neonatal. Se han reportado en aproximadamente 1% de los recién nacidos, y con frecuencia se localizan en la mucosa oral. Los GF se describen como lesiones papulares de aspecto vesiculoso blanco amarillentas de 1-3 mm2, que podrían confundir al neonatólogo o al pediatra con entidades infecciosas, dando lugar a pruebas invasivas y tratamientos innecesarios. Se describen tres casos clínicos de neonatos con diagnóstico de hiperplasia sebácea ectópica localizada en mucosa oral, con el objetivo de revisar la etiología, las características clínicas, los diagnósticos diferenciales y la evolución de esta entidad benigna. Conclusiones: la hiperplasia sebácea ectópica en mucosa oral de neonatos es un hallazgo benigno autolimitado que se presenta con baja frecuencia. El reconocimiento clínico de esta entidad es importante para evitar diagnósticos incorrectos y tratamientos innecesarios.

Sebaceous gland hyperplasia is a common transient and benign finding in neonates. After androgenic hormonal stimulation, there is a gland overgrowth mainly in the nose and cheeks where there is a greater density of glands. Ectopic sebaceous gland hyperplasia, called Fordyce's Granules (FG), is exceptional in neonates and it is reported in approximately 1% of newborns and frequently located in the oral mucosa. FGs are described as 1-3mm2 yellowish-white papular and vesicular lesions. Neonatologists or pediatricians may confuse these clinical features with infectious diseases, leading to invasive tests and unnecessary treatment. We describe three clinical cases of neonates with diagnosis of ectopic sebaceous gland hyperplasia located in the oral mucosa, with the aim of reviewing the etiology, clinical characteristics, differential diagnoses and evolution of this benign entity. Conclusions: ectopic sebaceous gland hyperplasia of the lips is a self-limited benign finding occurring infrequently in newborns. The clinical recognition of this entity is important to avoid inaccurate diagnoses or unnecessary treatment.

A hiperplasia das glândulas sebáceas é um achado benigno e transitório comum nos neonatos. Secundário ao estímulo hormonal androgênico, há um hipercrescimento das glândulas com mais frequência no nariz e nas bochechas onde há uma maior densidade das glândulas. A hiperplasia das glândulas num local ectópico, chamado Fordyce Granules (FG), é excepcional no período neonatal, e ela é relatada em aproximadamente 1% dos recém-nascidos e muitas vezes está localizada na mucosa oral. Os FGs são descritos como lesões vesiculares brancas amareladas de 1-3mm2, o que poderia confundir o neonatologista ou pediatra com entidades infecciosas, levando a testes invasivos e tratamentos desnecessários. Descrevemos três relatos clínicos de recém-nascidos com diagnóstico de hiperplasia sebácea ectópica localizada na mucosa oral, com o objetivo de rever a etiologia, características clínicas, diagnósticos diferenciais e evolução desta entidade benigna. Conclusões: hiperplasia sebácea ectópica na mucosa oral de recém-nascidos é um achado benigno autolimitante que ocorre com baixa frequência. O reconhecimento clínico desta entidade é importante para evitar diagnósticos incorretos e tratamentos desnecessários.

Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcus agalactiae , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(5): 682-687, mayo 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409849


ABSTRACT We report a 27 -year-old male referred because of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism with low testosterone and azoospermia. At 23 years of age, he underwent an excision of a hypoechoic 0.7 cm nodule of the left testicle. The pathological diagnosis was a Leydig cell tumor. In the right testicle, there were three nodules at ultrasound, the biggest measuring 0.6 cm. Four years later, the nodules in the right testicle were still present and the larger nodule was excised. The biopsy showed tubules with only Sertoli cells in the perinodular zone. Diffuse and nodular hyperplasia of the Leydig cells was found in the interstitium. The pathological diagnosis was Sertoli syndrome with severe hyperplasia of the Leydig cells. With testosterone therapy, LH decreased, and the nodules disappeared. Thereafter, upon interrupting therapy, LH increased, and the nodules reappeared in two occasions. Resuming testosterone treatment, the nodules disappeared again, suggesting a Leydig cell hyperplasia dependent on chronic LH stimulation.

Presentamos un varón de 27 años referido por hipogonadismo hipergonadotrófico con testosterona baja y azoospermia. El paciente tenía el antecedente de un nódulo sólido hipoecogénico de 0,7 cm en el testículo izquierdo, extirpado los 23 años de edad en el año 2002 y diagnosticado patológicamente como tumor de células de Leydig. En ese año se encontraron tres nódulos en el testículo derecho por ultrasonografía, el mayor de 0,6 cm. Cuatro años después, en 2007, los micronódulos del testículo derecho seguían presentes. El mayor de ellos fue extirpado. En la biopsia, había túbulos con solo células de Sertoli en la zona perinodular. En el intersticio había hiperplasia difusa y nodular de las células de Leydig. El diagnóstico patológico fue un síndrome de Sertoli con severa hiperplasia de células de Leydig. La terapia con testosterona disminuyó la LH y los nódulos inesperadamente desaparecieron. En dos ocasiones, al interrumpir esta terapia, la LH aumentó y los nódulos reaparecieron. Este proceso revirtió nuevamente con el uso de testosterona, sugiriendo una hiperplasia de células de Leydig dependiente del estímulo crónico de LH.

Humans , Male , Adult , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Testosterone/pharmacology , Hypogonadism/pathology , Hypogonadism/drug therapy , Sertoli Cells/pathology , Hyperplasia/pathology , Leydig Cells/pathology
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 28(1): 25-28, 20220000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392239


La hiperplasia pseudoangiomatosa estromal de la mama es una patología benigna de rara aparición en mujeres, que hoy en día sigue generando incertidumbre en cuanto a su manifestación y al tratamiento definitivo. Nuestro objetivo será detallar el manejo y los resultados obtenidos luego de tratar a una paciente con esta patología atendida en hospital público durante la pandemia, que presentó gigantomastia bilateral a expensas de crecimiento y simetrización de mama contralateral afectada por HEP durante su estado gravídico.

Pseudoangimatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast, is a pathology of rare appearance, in women, which today continues to generate uncertainty regarding its manifestation and definitive treatment. Our objective will be to detail the management and results obtained after treating a patient with this pathology in a public hospital during a pandemic. who presented bilateral gigantomastia at the expense of growth and symmetrization of the contralateral breast affected by HEP during her pregnancy.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Breast Diseases/therapy , Pregnancy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Stillbirth , Fetal Death , Hyperplasia/pathology , Angiomatosis/pathology