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2.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(1): 12-17, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893887

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate risk factors associated with asthma symptoms in adolescents in the 13- to 14-year age bracket. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents enrolled in randomly selected public schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and conducted with the use of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and its supplementary module for risk factor assessment. The ISAAC questionnaire was completed by the students themselves, whereas the supplementary questionnaire was completed by their parents or legal guardians. Variables showing p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used for variable selection. Results: We evaluated 375 adolescents, 124 (33.1%) of whom had asthma symptoms. The final multivariate analysis model revealed that asthma symptoms were associated with birth weight < 2,500 g (p < 0.001), day care center or nursery attendance (p < 0.002), maternal history of asthma (p < 0.001), contact with animals during the first year of life (p < 0.027), current contact with animals outside the home (dogs, cats, or farm animals; p < 0.005), and more than 20 cigarettes per day smoked by parents or other household members (p < 0.02). Conclusions: Exposure to animals in and outside the home is associated with asthma symptoms, as is environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Families, health professionals, and administrators of health care facilities should take that into account in order to prevent asthma and reduce asthma morbidity.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores de risco associados aos sintomas relacionados à asma em adolescentes de 13 e 14 anos. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com alunos matriculados em escolas públicas de Belo Horizonte (MG), selecionadas aleatoriamente, com a utilização dos questionários International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood e de seu módulo complementar para a avaliação dos potenciais fatores de risco. O primeiro questionário foi respondido pelos alunos, e o segundo foi respondido pelos pais e/ou responsáveis. Após a análise univariada, todas as variáveis cujo valor de p foi igual ou inferior a 0,25 foram submetidas à análise multivariada. A seleção das variáveis foi realizada pelo método passo a passo com eliminação retrógrada de variáveis. Resultados: Foram avaliados 375 adolescentes, dos quais 124 (33,1%) apresentavam sintomas de asma. O modelo final da análise multivariada revelou que sintomas de asma estiveram associados a peso ao nascimento < 2.500 g (p < 0,001), frequência a creches ou berçários (p < 0,002), história materna de asma (p < 0,001), contato com animais durante o primeiro ano de vida (p < 0,027), contato atual com animais fora da residência (cão, gato ou outros animais em fazenda; p < 0,005) e consumo de mais que 20 cigarros por dia por residentes no mesmo domicílio que o adolescente (p < 0,02). Conclusões: As exposições intra e extradomiciliar a animais domésticos e ao tabaco estiveram associadas à presença de sintomas de asma. Esses resultados devem ser considerados tanto pelos familiares como pelos profissionais e gestores dos serviços de saúde na prevenção da asma e na redução do seu impacto na morbidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Respiratory Sounds/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Environmental Exposure , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 774-778, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887115

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Actinic prurigo (AP) is an idiopathic photodermatosis. Although its initial manifestations can appear in 6 to 8-year-old children, cases are diagnosed later, between the second and fourth decades of life, when the injuries are exacerbated. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with clinical manifestations of AP such as skin and mucosal lesions. Methods: Thirty patients with AP and 60 controls were included in the study, the dependent variable was the presence of skin or labial mucosal lesions, the independent variables were age, sex, solar exposure, living with pets or farm animals, exposure to wood smoke, smoking habit, years smoking, and hours spent per day and per week in contact with people who smoke. Results: Of the 30 diagnosed AP patients, 66.7% were female. Patients age ranged from 7 to 71 years and the mean age was 35.77 ± 14.55 years. We found significant differences with the age and cohabitation with farm animals. Those who lived with farm animals presented 14.31 times higher probability of developing AP (95% CI 3-78.06). Study limitations: This is a case-control study; therefore, a causal relationship cannot be proven, and these results cannot be generalized to every population. Conclusions: The identification of factors related to the development of AP increases our knowledge of its physiopathology. Moreover, identifying antigens that possibly trigger the allergic reaction will have preventive and therapeutic applications in populations at risk of AP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Photosensitivity Disorders/etiology , Skin Diseases, Genetic/etiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Photosensitivity Disorders/physiopathology , Skin Diseases, Genetic/physiopathology , Sunlight/adverse effects , Time Factors , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Animals, Domestic
4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 37(2): 88-94, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893978

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute physical and psychological stress and temporary central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) block on stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into 7 groups (n = 6); 1 - Control, 2 - physical stress, 3 - psychological stress, 4 - sham, 5 - lidocaine, 6 - lidocaine + physical stress and 7 - lidocaine + psychological stress. Stress induction was done using a communication box. Results: Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score was monitored one hour after stress exposure. AWR score significantly heightened at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in the psychological stress group compared with control (p < 0.05), while, it was almost unchanged in other groups. This score was strikingly decreased at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg in lidocaine + psychological stress group compared with psychological stress with no tangible response on physical stress. Total stool weight was significantly increased in psychological stress group compared with control (0.72 ± 0.15, 0.1 ± 0.06 g) (p < 0.05), but it did not change in physical stress compared to control group (0.16 ± 0.12, 0.1 ± 0.06 g) (p < 0.05). Concomitant use of lidocaine with stress followed the same results in psychological groups (0.18 ± 0.2, 0.72 ± 0.15 g) (p < 0.05), while it did not have any effect on physical stress group (0.25 ± 0.1, 0.16 ± 0.12 g) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Psychological stress could strongly affect visceral hypersensitivity. This effect is statistically comparable with physical stress. Temporary CeA block could also reduce visceral hypersensitivity post-acute psychological stress.


RESUMEN Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar os efeitos do estresse físico e psicológico agudo e bloqueio temporário do núcleo central da amídala (CeA) na hipersensibilidade visceral induzida por estresse. Métodos: Quarenta e dois ratos Wistar machos foram empregados nesse estudo. Os animais foram divididos em 7 grupos (n = 6): 1 - Controle, 2 - estresse físico, 3 - estresse psicológico, 4 - simulacro, 5 - lidocaína, 6 - lidocaína + estresse físico e 7 - lidocaína + estresse psicológico. A indução do estresse foi feita com o uso de uma caixa de comunicação. Resultados: O escore do reflexo de retirada abdominal (RRA) foi monitorado uma hora depois da exposição ao estresse. O escore RRA aumentou significativamente a 20, 40 e 60 mmHg no grupo de estresse psicológico versus controle (p < 0,05), enquanto que praticamente permaneceu inalterado nos demais grupos. Esse escore diminuiu drasticamente a 20, 40 e 60 mmHg no grupo de lidocaína + estresse psicológico versus estresse psicológico, sem resposta tangível no estresse físico. O peso total das fezes aumentou significativamente no grupo de estresse psicológico versus controle (0,72 ± 0,15, 0,1 ± 0,06 g) (p < 0,05), mas não houve mudança no grupo de estresse físico versus controle (0,16 ± 0,12, 0,1 ± 0,06 g) (p < 0,05). O uso simultâneo da lidocaína com o estresse acompanhou os mesmos resultados nos grupos psicológicos (0,18 ± 0,2, 0,72 ± 0,15 g) (p < 0,05), enquanto que não foi observado qualquer efeito no grupo de estresse físico (0,25 ± 0,1, 0,16 ± 0,12 g) (p < 0,05). Conclusões: O estresse psicológico pode afetar fortemente a hipersensibilidade visceral. Esse efeito é estatisticamente comparável com o estresse físico. Um bloqueio temporário do CeA também pode reduzir a hipersensibilidade visceral pós-estresse psicológico agudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Stress, Psychological/complications , Viscera/physiopathology , Central Amygdaloid Nucleus/physiopathology , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Reflex, Abdominal/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Pain Perception/physiology , Central Amygdaloid Nucleus/metabolism
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(4): 479-488, July-Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792452

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Advances in knowledge of neurocellulars relations have provided new directions in the understanding and treatment of numerous conditions, including atopic dermatitis. It is known that emotional, physical, chemical or biological stimuli can generate more accentuated responses in atopic patients than in non-atopic individuals; however, the complex network of control covered by these influences, especially by neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and their genetic relations, still keep secrets to be revealed. Itching and airway hyperresponsiveness, the main aspects of atopy, are associated with disruption of the neurosensory network activity. Increased epidermal innervation and production of neurotrophins, neuropeptides, cytokines and proteases, in addition to their relations with the sensory receptors in an epidermis with poor lipid mantle, are the aspects currently covered for understanding atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Neuroimmunomodulation/physiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/etiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/physiopathology , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Keratinocytes/physiology , Nerve Growth Factor/physiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Medical Illustration
6.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 29(3): f:123-l:126, jul.-set. 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-831511

ABSTRACT

Cardiopathia fantastica é o termo utilizado para a variante cardíaca da síndrome de Munchausen, condição na qual o paciente busca atendimento médico repetidamente por doenças factícias. Relatamos um caso de síncope induzida por administração inadequada de fármacos cronotrópicos negativos, que resultou em implante de marcapasso definitivo, seguido de reações cutâneas sobre a loja do marcapasso. O acompanhamento da paciente mostrou que as alterações cutâneas eram lesões factícias (Dermatitis artefacta). Apresentamos também uma breve revisão sobre as reações alérgicas a dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis, abrangendo sua fisiopatologia e alternativas terapêuticas disponíveis.


Cardiopathia fantastica is the cardiac variant of Munchausen syndrome, a condition where patients repeatedly seek medical consultation for factitious diseases. We report a case of syncope induced by an inadequate administration of negative chronotropic drugs, which resulted in permanent pacemaker implantation, followed by the appearance of cutaneous reactions over the pacemaker pocket. This patient´s follow-up showed that the cutaneous disease consisted of factitious lesions (Dermatitis artefacta). We also present a brief review on allergic reactions to cardiac implantable electronic devices, including its pathophysiology and available therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pacemaker, Artificial , Diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Hypersensitivity/therapy , Munchausen Syndrome/diagnosis , Electrocardiography/methods
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(2): 373-382, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782845

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the detrusor overactivity (DO) model induced by visceral hypersensitivity (VH) and investigate the relationship between mast cell (MC) infiltration and DO. Materials and Methods: Sixty rats are divided into 4 groups randomly: Group 1:Baseline group; Group 2: DO group; Group 3: CON group; Group 4: VH group. The colorectal distension (CRD) and abdominal withdral reflex (AWR) scores are performed to evaluate VH. The cystometric investigation and histological test of MC infiltration are assessed. Results: The threshold pressure of CRD in the VH group is significantly lower than that in the CON group (P<0.001). At the distension pressure ≥20 mmHg, the AWR scores of the VH group are significantly higher than those of the CON group (10 mmHg: P=0.33; 20 mmHg: P=0.028; 40 mmHg: P<0.001; 60 mmHg: P<0.001; 80 mmHg: P<0.001). DO model is successfully established in the VH group (DO rate=100%). Compared with the CON group, the numbers of MC infiltration are significantly increased in the VH group, including submucosa of bladder (P<0.001), mucosa lamina propria/mesentery of small intestine (P<0.001), and mucosa lamina propria/mesentery of large intestine (P<0.001). Furthermore, more MC activation as well as degranulation are observed in the VH group. Conclusions: It is indicated that DO model can be established in the VH rats. The MC infiltration may play an important role in DO induced by VH, and may be helpful to understand the mechanisms of DO in VH patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Viscera/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/etiology , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/physiopathology , Hypersensitivity/complications , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Mast Cells/pathology , Pressure , Urodynamics , Viscera/pathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/physiopathology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/pathology , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/pathology , Visceral Pain/complications , Visceral Pain/physiopathology , Visceral Pain/pathology , Hypersensitivity/pathology , Intestines/physiopathology , Intestines/pathology
8.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 21(6): 875-882, nov. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999163

ABSTRACT

En el presente artículo revisaremos los aspectos más relevantes de la alergia ocular: su epidemiología, fisiopatología, cuadros clínicos y su terapéutica. Se encontrará una descripción más detallada de la fisiopatología ya que es, sin duda, la base del éxito terapéutico


In the present article we will review the most important aspectsof ocular allergy: its epidemiology, physiopathology, clinicalcharacteristics and treatment. A more detailed description ofthe physiopathology is addressed because is the basis for asuccessful treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Diseases/physiopathology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/physiopathology , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/immunology , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 75(2): 268-274, mar.-abr. 2009. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-517168

ABSTRACT

A respiração oral pode acarretar alterações estruturais e funcionais do sistema estomatognático. OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença de alterações das funções de respiração, mastigação, deglutição e fala em pacientes com rinite alérgica e relacioná-as com a intensidade dos sintomas da rinite. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Para este estudo prospectivo, foram avaliados 170 pacientes com faixa etária entre 6 e 55 anos de idade. Todos os pacientes passaram por avaliação otorrinolaringológica e fonoaudiológica. Foram colhidos os dados referentes às funções de respiração, mastigação, deglutição e fala e dados da consulta médica. Os dados foram comparados e analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: A diferença dos escores de sinais e sintomas entre GR e GC mostrou-se estatisticamente significante. Quando comparada a presença de alteração nas funções estudadas entre GR e GC, foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante no modo respiratório e nos padrões de mastigação e deglutição. A correlação existente entre o escore de obstrução nasal e a presença de alteração funcional foi significante na análise do modo respiratório e do padrão de mastigação. CONCLUSÃO: O paciente com rinite alérgica apresenta alterações funcionais do sistema estomatognático e o aumento do escore de obstrução nasal pode ser considerado um indicativo destas alterações.


Mouth breathing can cause structural and functional alterations to the stomatognathic system. AIM: the aim of this investigation was to study breathing, chewing, swallowing and speaking alterations present in patients with allergic rhinitis and associate it to rhinitis symptom intensity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 170 patients between the ages of 6 and 55 years were prospectively evaluated in this study, all of them underwent both otorhinolaryngological and speech evaluation. Data on breathing, chewing, swallowing and speaking was gathered, as well as data from the medical evaluation. The data was compared and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: the difference in signs and symptoms' score between GR and GC was significant. We noticed a significant difference between GR and GC in breathing, chewing and swallowing. We observed a significant association between the score of nasal obstruction and the intensity of breathing and chewing alterations. CONCLUSION: patients with allergic rhinitis have functional alterations in their stomatognathic system and an increase in nasal obstruction scores can be considered as a indication of such alterations.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Rhinitis/physiopathology , Stomatognathic System/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Deglutition/physiology , Mastication/physiology , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Respiration , Rhinitis/complications , Speech/physiology , Young Adult
10.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 50(6): 983-995, dez. 2006. ilus
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-439716

ABSTRACT

Os glicocorticóides exercem um papel importante na regulação fisiológica e na adaptação a situações de stress, sendo a maioria dos efeitos destes hormônios mediada pela interação com os receptores glicocorticóides. A sensibilidade ao glicocorticóide depende da densidade celular de receptores expressos, bem como da eficiência da transdução do sinal mediada pelo complexo hormônio-receptor. Os estados de resistência ou de hipersensibilidade ao glicocorticóide, observados, respectivamente, nas doenças inflamatórias auto-imunes e na síndrome metabólica, podem representar a variabilidade dos fatores que influenciam a cascata de sinalização do glicocorticóide. O reconhecimento destes fatores contribui para uma melhor compreensão tanto do fenótipo clínico e da evolução destas doenças quanto da resposta terapêutica com glicocorticóide. A compreensão destes mecanismos fisiopatológicos também pode contribuir para a escolha de intervenções terapêuticas. Neste artigo de revisão, descrevemos os múltiplos fatores envolvidos nesta cascata de sinalização, os quais são capazes de influenciar a sensibilidade ao glicocorticóide.


Glucocorticoids play an essential role in maintaining basal and stress-related homeostasis. Most known effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular glucocorticoid receptors. The glucocorticoid sensitivity seems to depend on the amount of receptors expressed and the efficiency of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated signal transduction. Glucocorticoid resistance or hypersensitivity, seen in autoimmune-inflammatory diseases and in metabolic syndrome respectively, can represent the variability of several steps that influence the signaling cascade of glucocorticoid action. The recognition of these steps could provide the understanding of the clinical phenotype and course of such diseases as well as their responsiveness to glucocorticoid therapy. The comprehension of these pathophysiological mechanisms can also improve the possible therapeutic interventions. In this review, we have summarized the multiple factors that have been shown to be involved in this signaling cascade and, thus, to influence glucocorticoid sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/physiopathology , Glucocorticoids/physiology , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypersensitivity/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects
12.
Scientific Journal of Al-Azhar Medical Faculty [Girls] [The]. 2001; 22 (3): 27-39
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-104969

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide [NO] plays an important role as an inflammatory mediator in the airways. However, because direct measurement of endogenous NO has been difficult in vivo, the exact pathologic role of NO in bronchial asthma has remained unclear. To study the levels of nitric oxide derivatives in induced sputum of asthmatic patients in order to assess their clinical utility as non-invasive prognostic indicator for monitoring the degree of airway inflammation in asthmatics. We examined the concentration of stable end products of NO, namely nitrite and nitrate in hypertonic saline-induced sputum in 25 patients with different grades of bronchial asthma among whom 12 patients were examined before and after anti-asthmatic medications including steroid preparations. Ten normal age and sex-matched subjects were included as controls. Patients were 14 males and 11 females aged 36.6 +/- 8.7 years. They included 11 patients with severe asthma, 7 with moderate asthma and 7 with mild asthma. Fresh expectorated sputum was treated with equal volume of dithiothreitol 0.1%, cytospinned for cell count, and the supernatant was collected for biochemical assay. Measurement of NO derivatives in induced sputum was carried out colorimetrically by using modified Griess reaction. We evaluated the relationship between levels of NO derivatives and percentages of eosinophils, epithelial shedding in induced sputum and the degree of airway obstruction measured by pulmonary functions [forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC]] in asthmatic patients. The concentration of NO derivatives in induced sputum was significantly higher in patients with asthma than in normal control subjects [1126 +/- 134.3 micro mol/L versus 567 +/- 98.4 micro mol/L; P <0.01]. According to asthma severity, severe and moderate asthmatic patients had higher levels of NO derivatives [1261 +/- 193.2 and 1037 +/- 156.3micro mol/L, respectively] in induced sputum as compared to mild asthmatic patients [786 +/- 89.5 micro mol/L] [P < 0.01]. Percentages of eosinophils in induced sputum were also significantly higher in asthmatic patients than controls [35.6 +/- 4.7% vs 1.3 +/- 0.2%, P<0.01]. There were significant positive correlations between NO derivatives levels and percentages of each of eosinophils and shedding epithelial cells in induced sputum in asthmatic patients [r[S]=0.58, P <0.01; r[S]=0.62, P<0.01, respectively]. A significant negative correlation was found between NO derivatives levels and the ratio of FEV1/FVC [r[S]= -0.63, P<0.01], that's to say NO derivatives levels correlated positively with the degree of airway obstruction in asthmatic patients. The levels of NO derivatives and percentages of eosinophils in induced sputum were reduced significantly in asthmatic patients following treatment with corticosteroids [P<0.05]. These findings confirmed that the level of NO derivatives was increased in the tracheobronchial secretion of asthmatic patients and was parallel with the severity of asthma. Hence, measurement of NO derivatives in induced sputum could be used as a non-invasive prognostic biochemical marker for assessing the degree of airway inflammation and monitoring the anti-inflammatory treatment response in asthmatic patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nitric Oxide/chemistry , Sputum/chemistry , Prognosis , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Colorimetry/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods
14.
Alergia (Méx.) ; 46(6): 166-70, nov.-dic. 1999.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-276583

ABSTRACT

El óxido nítrico es un gas reactivo que se produce de manera endógena por enzimas óxido nítrico sintetasa. Existe una gran producción de óxido nítrico inducida por la isoforma de la enzima óxido nítrico sintetasa, que da como resultado la formación de productos citotóxicos, que son importantes mediadores de los mecanismo de defensa y de la respuesta inflamatoria normal. El óxido nítrico puede detectarse en el aire exhalado en humanos, sus concentraciones están incrementadas en pacientes con asma, y después de la exposición a alergenos. La medición del óxido nítrico exhalado se efectúa por métodos sencillos, no invasivos, para valorar el grado de inflamación de la vía aérea y la respuesta al tratamiento con esteroides en pacientes pediátricos


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Nitric Oxide/immunology , Nitric Oxide/chemical synthesis , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Inflammation/immunology
15.
Alergia (Méx.) ; 46(4): 136-9, jul.-ago. 1999.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-258938

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Determinar la obstrucción del flujo aéreo por flujimetría posterior a la aplicación de pruebas cutáneas específicas (dermathophagoides pteronisinnus), en niños sensibles a éste. Material y método. Se estudiaron 44 pacientes de uno y otro sexo con diagnóstico de asma y antecedente de sensibilidad al ácaro Dermathophagoides pteronisinnus mediante pruebas cutáneas por prick, con una edad promedio de 6 a 16 años, captados de la consulta externa del servicio de alergia del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Es un estudio longitudinal, prospectivo, ciego cruzado, en el que previamente se hizo una prueba de reto con antígeno estandarizado de Dermatophagoides pteronisinnus o glicerina, previa lectura de flujimetría. Resultados. De los pacientes retados con antígeno en 23 hubo descenso del flujo espiratorio máximo, con una p<0.05, pero sin significado clínico. Cuando se retaron con placebo sólo disminuyó en siete pacientes el flujo espiratorio máximo, también estadísticamente significativo, pero sin relevancia clínica. Conclusión. Las pruebas cutáneas son una herramienta útil en alergia y seguras, pues casi no producen reacciones sistémicas graves


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Forced Expiratory Flow Rates , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Mites , Skin Tests
16.
Alergia (Méx.) ; 46(3): 83-8, mayo-jun 1999. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-276579

ABSTRACT

Los padecimientos alérgicos están genéticamente determinados y afectan del 20 al 30 por ciento de la población general en países desarrollados. En la última década se ha observado un incremento en la prevalencia de los mismos. Estos se caracterizan por un aumento en la capacidad de los linfocitos B para producir anticuerpos inmunoglobulina Tipo E (IgE). Esta síntesis de la IgE humana resulta de la colaboración entre subtipos de células T auxiliadoras (th) CD4+ y células B. En años recientes se han estudiado intensamente las propiedades funcionales de las células Th, particularmente las tipo 2, en el mecanismo de unión de las células B propuctoras de IgE, células cebadas o basófilos y eosinófilos en reacciones alérgicas. Estos conceptos se conocen en la actualidad como la teoría Th2 en alergia


Subject(s)
/immunology , Hypersensitivity/genetics , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
17.
Rev. sanid. mil ; 52(6): 398-405, nov.-dic. 1998. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-240880

ABSTRACT

La rinitis alérgica es una patología vista con relativa frecuencia en la consulta general, aunque generalmente no es una amenaza para la vida sí es extremadamente desconfortante, interfiere con el sueño, alimentación y disminuye ostensiblemente la calidad de vida del paciente, por tal razón éste busca tempranamente atención médica. En consecuencia el médico general debe desarrollar la experiencia necesaria para reconocer, diagnosticar y tratar este cuadro alérgico. Debido a la amplia gama de factores etiológicos que desencadenan esta patología y las múltiples modalidades de tratamiento que existen, es nuestra intensión sistematizar el reconocimiento y manejo de entidad clínica. Se presenta el flujograma de tratamiento


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholinergic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Histamine H1 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Hypersensitivity/therapy , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhinitis/physiopathology , Rhinitis/therapy
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 92(supl.2): 193-6, Dec. 1997. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-202031

ABSTRACT

The elevation of intercellular cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitors in eosinophils is associated with inhibition of the activation and recruitment of these cells. We have previously shown that systemic treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram effectively inhibit eosinophil migration in guinea pig skin. In the present study we compare the oral potency and efficacy of the PDE4 inhibitors rolipram, RP 73401 and CDP 840 on allergic and PAF-induced eosinophil recruitment. Rolipram and RP 73401 were equally effective and potent when given by the oral route and much more active than the PDE4 inhibitor CDP 840. We suggest that this guinea pig model of allergic and mediator-induced eosinophil recuitment is both a sensitive and simple tool to test the efficacy of PDE4 inhibitors in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Eosinophils , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 92(supl.2): 211-4, Dec. 1997. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-202035

ABSTRACT

Chemokines (chemoattractant cytokines) induce potent and selective chemotaxis of leukocyte subsets in vitro. Here, we review briefly the chemokines shown to induce eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro and describe a novel model for the study of the ability of chemokines to stimulate eosinophil migration in vivo. Eosinophils were purified from the blood of mice over-expressing the IL-5 gene and labelled with 111In. Only the C-C chemokines, eotaxin and MIP-1 alpha, but not RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1ß. KC and MIP-2, effectively induced the recruitment of 111In-eosinophils in mouse skin. We suggest that this mouse model will be useful in assessing the role of endogenously-generated chemokines in mediating eosinophil migration to sites of allergic inflammation in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chemokines/physiology , Eosinophils , Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins/physiology , Cell Movement/physiology , Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
20.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 25(4): 315-26, oct.-dic. 1997. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-218050

ABSTRACT

En este artículo el autor hace una presentación detallada de las reacciones alérgicas y su incidencia bajo anestesia, Inicialmente se revisa la fisiopatología y posteriormente se dan explicaciones claras de como reconocer una reacción anafiláctica intraoperatoria. Se hace énfasis en el diagnóstico intra-operatorio y el diagnóstico tardío con pruebas cutáneas. En el artículo se explican como se deben realizar las pruebas cutáneas de alergia a droga y así al terminar de leer esta revisión, el lector tendrá en claro la utilidad de estas pruebas bajo anestesia. Se revisan las reacciones alérgicas mas frecuentes en el intra-operatorio y se dan pautas claras para el tratamiento preciso de este episodio indeseable


Subject(s)
Humans , Anaphylaxis , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis/physiology , Anaphylaxis/complications , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Hypersensitivity/complications , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Hypersensitivity/physiopathology
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