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1.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1353239

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including type-2 diabetes and hypertension, have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Maintaining quality care for these conditions is important but data on the impact of COVID-19 on NCD care in South Africa are sparse. Aim: This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on facility and community-based NCD care and management during the first COVID-19 wave. Setting: Two public health sector primary care sites in the Cape Town Metro, including a Community Orientated Primary Care (COPC) learning site. Methods: A rapid appraisal with convergent mixed-methods design, including semi-structured interviews with facility and community health workers (CHWs) (n = 20) and patients living with NCDs (n = 8), was used. Interviews were conducted in English and Afrikaans by qualified interviewers. Transcripts were analysed by thematic content analysis. Quantitative data of health facility attendance, chronic dispensing unit (CDU) prescriptions and routine diabetes control were sourced from the Provincial Health Data Centre and analysed descriptively. Results: Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: disruption (cancellation of services, fear of infection, stress and anxiety), service reorganisation (communication, home delivery of medication, CHW scope of work, risk stratification and change management) and outcomes (workload and morale, stigma, appreciation and impact on NCD control). There was a drop in primary care attendance and an increase in CDU prescriptions and uncontrolled diabetes. Conclusion: This study described the service disruption together with rapid reorganisation and change management at primary care level during the first COVID-19 wave. The changes were strengthened by the COPC foundation in one of the study sites. The impact of COVID-19 on primary-level NCD care and management requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
Quality of Health Care , Delivery of Health Care , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19 , Disease Management , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(12): 6199-6210, Dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350493

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar o impacto do Programa Academia da Saúde sobre a mortalidade por Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Este estudo quase-experimental configura-se como uma avaliação de impacto de políticas públicas, desenvolvida através da aplicação do método do Pareamento por Escore de Propensão, nos anos de 2010 e 2017. Utilizou-se dados socioeconômicos, demográficos e epidemiológicos dos 89 municípios que implantaram o programa (tratados) e de outros 52 que não implantaram (controles). Os dados são oriundos do Departamento de Informática do SUS, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e outras bases. O impacto do programa foi estimado através de um modelo logit, com o uso do algoritmo de pareamento Kernel. Os municípios tratados tiveram uma diminuição global de 12,8% na taxa de mortalidade por hipertensão, de 12,5% entre as pessoas de cor parda e de 13,1% em maiores de 80 anos. O teste de balanceamento atesta a robustez do modelo para explicar o impacto do programa sobre a mortalidade. A implementação do programa se mostrou efetiva para diminuir a taxa de mortalidade nos municípios tratados, indicando que o mesmo parece estar contribuindo para controlar o avanço das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis.


Abstract The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of the Health Gym Program (HGP) on the Systemic Arterial Hypertension mortality rate in Pernambuco state, Brazil. This public policy impact analysis used a quasi-experimental approach which consisted of the application of Propensity Score Matching in the years 2010 and 2017. Socioeconomic, demographic, and epidemiological data of 89 municipalities that implemented HGP (treated) and 54 that did not (controls) were collected from the Brazilian Health Data Department, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and other databases. The impact of HGP on hypertension mortality rate was estimated through a logit model using the Kernel algorithm. Treated municipalities presented a decrease of 12.8% in global hypertension mortality rate, 12.5% in brown-skinned people and 13.1% in those over 80 years of age. The balancing test attests to the robustness of the estimated model to explain the impact of the program on mortality due to hypertension. The implementation of the program proved to be effective in decreasing the mortality rate in the treated municipalities, indicating that it seems to contribute to controlling the progress of chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Promotion , Hypertension/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise , Cities
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(12): 6059-6068, Dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350483

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se estimar a prevalência e fatores associados à pré-hipertensão e hipertensão arterial entre trabalhadores de saúde que atuam em setores de alta complexidade para pacientes críticos e crônicos. Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico, transversal com 490 trabalhadores de saúde da macrorregional do norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A variável dependente pressão arterial foi categorizada em normal, pré-hipertensão e hipertensão. Para análise múltipla, foi utilizada a Regressão Logística Multinomial. A prevalência da hipertensão arterial foi de 21,8% e da pré-hipertensão foi de 25,9%. As chances de se desenvolver a hipertensão arterial e a pré hipertensão foram maiores nos profissionais do sexo masculino, com idade ≥40 anos, em trabalhadores com vínculo empregatício concursado e naqueles obesos ou com sobrepeso. O uso de medicamento contínuo e o trabalho no turno noturno estiveram associados à hipertensão e pré-hipertensão, respectivamente. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial no grupo de trabalhadores foi menor do que a da população brasileira. São necessários estudos com trabalhadores desse grupo e investimentos em medidas preventivas e que incentivem a mudança para um estilo de vida saudável.


Abstract The objective was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with prehypertension and hypertension among health workers who work in high-complexity services for critically-ill and chronic patients. An epidemiological, cross-sectional study was carried out with 490 health workers in the macroregional region of Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable blood pressure (BP) was categorized as normal BP, prehypertension and hypertension. Multinomial Logistic Regression was used for the multiple analysis. The prevalence of arterial hypertension was 21.8% and that of prehypertension was 25.9%. The chances of developing arterial hypertension and prehypertension were higher in male professionals, aged ≥40 years, in civil servant workers and those who were obese or overweight. The use of continuous medication and night shift work were associated with hypertension and prehypertension, respectively. The prevalence of arterial hypertension in the group of workers was lower than that of the Brazilian population. It is necessary to carry out studies with workers from this group and investments are required in preventive measures that encourage a change to a healthy lifestyle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prehypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Health Personnel
4.
Infectio ; 25(4): 256-261, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286719

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo en adultos con COVID-19 en población rural andina durante 2020. Métodos: En este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo multicéntrico, incluimos a 184 pacientes adultos (≥18 años) con pruebas serológicas y moleculares para CO VID-19 de tres hospitales de la sierra peruana (Ancash y Apurímac) incluidos con sospecha clínica entre abril y junio. Se utilizó análisis descriptivos y regresión logística univariable para explorar los factores de riesgo asociados a los pacientes con COVID-19. Resultados: Del total de pacientes, 14 (7.6%) tuvieron SARS-CoV-2. En los pacientes infectados 12 (85.7%) fueron varones con promedio de edad de 47.3±21 años. Las comorbilidades estuvieron presentes en cerca de la tercera parte de pacientes, siendo la hipertensión y diabetes las más frecuentes (ambas 14.3%), y la sinto matología más frecuentes fueron fiebre y cefalea (57.2%). La regresión univariable mostró mayores probabilidades de infección con SARS-CoV-2 en la población rural andina asociada con la edad avanzada (OR: 1.1 IC95% 0.7-1.8; p=0,019), comorbilidades previas (OR: 1.7, IC95% 0.32-9.39; p=0,006), y sintomatología previa (OR: 49.8, IC95% 5.6-436.9; p=0,0011). Conclusiones: Los posibles factores de riesgo como la edad avanzada, las comorbilidades y sintomatología previas están relacionados con el desarrollo de CO VID-19 en población rural andina de Perú.


Abstract Objective: To determine the risk factors in adults with COVID-19 in the rural Andean population during 2020. Methods: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 184 adult patients (≥18 years) with COVID-19's serological and molecular tests from three Hospitals in the Peruvian mountains (Ancash and Apurímac) included with clinical suspicion between April and June. Descriptive analysis and univariate logistic regression were used to explore the risk factors associated with patients with COVID-19. Results: Of total of patients, 14 (7.6%) had a SARS-CoV-2. In infected patients 12 (85.7%) were men with an average age of 47.3±21 years. Comorbidities were present in about a third of patients, with hypertension and diabetes being the most frequent (both 14.3%), and the most frequent symptoms were fever and hea dache (57.2%). Univariate regression showed higher probabilities of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the rural Andean population associated with advanced age (OR: 1.1 95% CI 0.7 - 1.8; p = 0.019), previous comorbidities (OR: 1.7, 95%CI 0.32 - 9.39; p = 0.006), and previous symptoms (OR: 49.8, 95%CI 5.6 - 436.9; p = 0.0011). Conclusions: Possible risk factors such as advanced age, comorbidities and previous symptoms are related to the development of COVID-19 in the rural Andean population of Peru.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19 , Peru , Rural Population , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Headache , Hospitals , Hypertension , Infections
5.
Rev. ADM ; 78(5): 251-257, sept.-oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344244

ABSTRACT

asistencia ventilatoria cuando la vía aérea y la consciencia están comprometidas. Los elementos utilizados en este procedimiento se encuentran en contacto directo con estructuras dentofaciales, causando diversos tipos de lesiones, principalmente bucales. Aunque existen cuidados clínicos durante procesos de intubación, hay poca información, particularmente de la zona norte del país donde se hayan evaluado las posibles asociaciones entre los motivos de consulta más frecuentes y las diversas características, tanto clínicas como no clínicas de pacientes que han sido intubados. Objetivo: Identificar las alteraciones bucodentales más frecuentes en pacientes intubados, así como explorar las posibles asociaciones de acuerdo con los motivos de intubación más frecuentes. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo en el cual se evaluaron alteraciones bucodentales y sistémicas de pacientes intubados. Los grupos de estudio se desarrollaron de acuerdo con el motivo de intubación y la determinación de las asociaciones fue con cada una de las alteraciones bucodentales y sistémicas. Resultados: El motivo de intubación más frecuente fue el evento cerebral vascular (EVC) y las alteraciones dentofaciales más prevalentes fueron caries, lengua saburral y cálculo dental, entre otras. Además, se encontraron diferencias significativas entre pacientes con EVC, mostrando una mayor frecuencia en tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus, así como en la presencia de gingivitis y úlceras. Pacientes con traumatismo craneoencefálico (TCE) tuvieron mayor frecuencia en la presencia de periodontitis. Conclusión: El motivo de hospitalización y las condiciones sistémicas preexistentes pueden ser un factor de riesgo para desarrollar lesiones bucales específicas antes y durante el periodo de intubación (AU)


Introduction: Intubation is a procedure that allows ventilatory assistance when the airway and consciousness are compromised. The elements used in this procedure are in direct contact with dentofacial structures causing various types of injuries, mainly oral. Although there is clinical care during intubation processes, there is little information, particularly from the northern part of the country where the possible associations between the most frequent reasons for consultation and the various clinical and non-clinical characteristics of patients who have been intubated have been evaluated. Objective: The objectives of the present study were to identify the most frequent oral alterations in intubated patients, as well as to explore possible associations according to the most frequent reasons for intubation. Material and methods: An observational, cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out in which oral and systemic alterations of intubated patients were evaluated. The study groups were formed according to the reason for intubation and the association was determined with each of the oral and systemic disorders. Results: The most frequent reason for intubation was the vascular cerebral event (CVA) and the most prevalent dentofacial alterations were caries, coated tongue, and dental calculus, among others. In addition, significant differences were found between patients with CVA, showing a higher frequency in smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, as well as in the presence of gingivitis and ulcers. Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) had a higher frequency in the presence of periodontitis. Conclusion: The reason for hospitalization and pre-existing systemic conditions can be a risk factor for developing specific oral lesions before and during the intubation period (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Hospitalization , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Tooth Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Risk Factors , Stroke , Diabetes Mellitus , Observational Study , Brain Contusion , Hypertension , Mexico
6.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353129

ABSTRACT

The restriction of sodium intake, one of the pillars of antihypertensive treatment, has been associated with the increase in cholesterol levels. Given this, we hypothesize that a sodium intake restriction may increase cholesterol levels in hypertensive women. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of sodium intake, sociodemo-graphic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables on the blood cholesterol levels of hypertensive women. This was a cross-sectional study with hypertensive and nondiabetic women aged 20 to 59 years, recruited from the primary healthcare units of Maceio, Alagoas, in the Brazilian Northeast. Sodium intake was estimated by the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium; and blood cholesterol was estimated by capillary blood. Age (years), education level (<4 or ≥4 years), race (white or nonwhite), smoking and alcohol consumption were evaluated. The weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index, conicity index and waist-to-height ratio were quantified. The percentage of body fat was measured using a tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance device. The relationship between blood cholesterol and other variables was assessed by multiple regression analysis. A significance level of 5% was used in the final model. This study included 165 hypertensive women. In linear regression, blood cholesterol was directly proportional to age (p<0.001), education level (p=0.01) and race (p=0.04). These variables, as well as sodium intake (p = 0.07) and conicity index (p = 0.12), were included in the multiple regression analysis. Sodium intake (p=0.03) and age (p=0.001) were related, in an inverse and a direct way, respectively, to the blood choles-terol in the hypertensive women studied. (AU)


ção da ingestão de sódio, um dos pilares do tratamento anti-hipertensivo, tem sido associada ao aumen-to dos níveis de colesterol. Diante disso, levantou-se a hipótese de que a ingestão de sódio influencia os níveis de colesterol de mulheres hipertensas, independentemente de outros fatores associados. Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com mulheres hipertensas e não diabéticas, na faixa etária entre 20 e 59 anos, recrutadas em unidades básicas de saúde de Maceió, Alagoas, situada no Nordeste do Brasil. A ingestão de sódio foi estimada pela excreção urinária de sódio de 24 horas; e o colesterol sérico foi mensurado por coleta de sangue capilar. Foram ava-liados idade (anos), escolaridade (<4 ou ≥4 anos), raça (branca ou não branca), tabagismo e consumo de álcool. O peso, a estatura e a circunferência da cintura foram aferidos e o índice de massa corporal, índice de conicidade e razão cintura/estatura foram calculados. A porcentagem de gordura corporal foi medida usando um dispositivo de impedância bioelétrica tetrapolar. A relação entre o colesterol sérico e as outras variáveis em estudo foi avalia-da por meio de análise de regressão múltipla, adotando-se um nível de significância de 5% no modelo final. Este estudo incluiu 165 mulheres hipertensas. Na análise de regressão linear, o colesterol sérico foi relacionado à idade (p<0,001), escolaridade (p=0,01) e raça (p=0,04). Essas variáveis, assim como o consumo de sódio (p=0,07) e o índice de conicidade (p=0,12), foram incluídas na análise de regressão múltipla. As variáveis que permaneceram no modelo final foram ingestão de sódio (p=0,03) e idade (p=0,001). A ingestão de sódio e a idade foram as variáveis que influenciaram o colesterol sérico de mulheres hipertensas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder , Body Height , Alcohol Drinking , Capillaries , Anthropometry , Cholesterol , Hypertension , Life Style , Antihypertensive Agents , Obesity
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 5089-5098, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345723

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article aims to investigate whether difficulty in taking medication is associated with stroke among older adults with Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) and to explore their association with living arrangements. Cross-sectional study was based on 3,502 older adults with SAH from the four universities pole of Frailty in Brazilian Older People (Fibra) Study, Brazil, including 14 municipalities of the five Brazilian regions. We used the medical diagnosis of stroke and difficulty in taking medications (self-reported difficulty and financial difficulty affording prescribed medications). Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Differently from women, older men with SAH, which report difficulty in taking medication (unintentional non-adherence), have higher odds of stroke. When stratified by living arrangements, those living with a partner have even higher odds of stroke compared to those without difficulty in taking medication and living alone. None association was found for difficulty affording prescribed medication for both men and women. Unintentional difficulty in taking medication plays a role in SAH treatment among men. Primary care strategies for controlling blood pressure should not be focus only on patients but targeting spouses as well.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é investigar se a dificuldade em tomar medicamentos está associada ao acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) entre idosos com hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e explorar esta associação com arranjos familiares. Estudo seccional baseado em 3.502 idosos com HAS dos quatro polos do Estudo Fibra, Brasil, incluindo 14 cidades das cinco regiões brasileiras. Foi usado o diagnóstico médico de AVE e a dificuldade em tomar medicamentos (dificuldade autorrelatada e dificuldade financeira). Utilizou-se a regressão logística na análise multivariada. Diferentemente das mulheres, homens com HAS que relataram dificuldade em tomar medicamentos (não adesão não intencional) apresentam maior chance de ter AVE. Quando estratificado por arranjos familiares, homens que moravam com o cônjuge apresentaram chance ainda maior de ter AVE, quando comparados com aqueles sem dificuldade em tomar medicamentos e que vivem sozinhos. Nenhuma associação foi encontrada para dificuldade financeira, tanto para mulheres quanto para homens. Dificuldades não intencionais em tomar medicamentos têm um papel importante no controle da HAS entre homens. Estratégias de controle da pressão arterial realizadas na atenção primária não devem focar apenas nos pacientes, mas nos cônjuges destes pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Stroke/epidemiology , Frailty , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Medication Adherence
8.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(2): 290-296, set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1291398

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Associar as síndromes hipertensivas específicas da gestação (SHEG) com desconforto respiratório agudo em recém-nascidos (RN). Metodologia: Estudo transversal, prospectivo, composto por 130 puérperas com SHEG e 142 RN. Os dados foram coletados através de questionário entre junho e setembro de 2018. Foram utilizados os testes de qui-quadrado de Yates e Exato de Fisher. Resultados: O diagnóstico de SHEG mais prevalente foi pré-eclâmpsia (48,46%). Predominou RN prematuro (62,68%), que necessitou de cuidados intensivos neonatais (61,36%). O diagnóstico de pré-eclâmpsia associou-se a prematuridade (0.01744), baixo peso (0.009306), desconforto respiratório (<0.0000001) e uso de suporte ventilatório (<0.0000001), e de pré-eclâmpsia sobreposta associou-se com desconforto respiratório (0.0006261) e uso de suporte ventilatório (0.0006261). Conclusão: É importante identificar precocemente as SHEG e oferecer uma assistência de qualidade durante o processo gravídico para reduzir os desfechos neonatais desfavoráveis e a taxa de mortalidade infantil. (AU)


Objective: To associate the hypertensive gestational syndromes (SHEG) with acute respiratory distress in newborns (RN). Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study of 130 puerperal women with SHEG and 142 newborns. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire between June and September 2018. It was used the Yates chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: The most prevalent diagnosis of SHEG was preeclampsia (48,46%). Premature newborns were predominating (62,68%), who needed neonatal intensive care (61,36%). The diagnosis of preeclampsia was associated with prematurity (0.01744), low weight (0.009306), respiratory distress (<0.0000001) and use of ventilatory support (<0.0000001), and overlapping preeclampsia was associated with respiratory distress (0.0006261) and the use of ventilatory support (0.0006261). Conclusion: It is important to identify early SHEG and provide quality care during the pregnancy process to reduce unfavorable neonatal outcomes and the infant mortality rate. (AU)


Objetivo: Asociar los síndromes hipertensivos específicos del embarazo (SHEG) con la dificultad respiratoria aguda en recién nacidos (RN). Metodos: Estudio transversal, prospectivo, compuesto por 130 puérperas con SHEG y 142 recién nacidos. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de un cuestionario entre junio y septiembre de 2018. Se utilizó las pruebas de chi cuadrado de Yates y Exacto de Fisher. Resultados: El diagnóstico de SHEG más prevalente fue preeclampsia (48,46%). Predominó recién nacidos prematuro (62,68%), que necesitó de cuidados intensivos neonatales (61,36%). El diagnóstico de preeclampsia se asoció a la prematuridad (0.01744), bajo peso (0.009306), dificultad respiratoria (<0.0000001) y uso de soporte ventilatorio (<0.0000001), y el de preeclampsia superpuesta se asoció con dificultad respiratoria (0.0006261) y uso de soporte ventilatorio (0.0006261). Conclusión: Es importante identificar precozmente el SHEG y ofrecer una asistencia de calidad durante el proceso gravídico para reducir los resultados neonatales desfavorables y la tasa de mortalidad infantil. (AU)


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Hypertension
9.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(2): 400-406, set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1291877

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar, na literatura científica, como as teorias de enfermagem têm sido utilizadas nos cuidados de enfermagem a hipertensos. Métodos: Trata-se de revisão integrativa com buscas nas bases de dados: BVS, SCOPUS, CINAHL, LILACS, PubMed e Web of Science. Encontrou-se 32 artigos dos quais foram selecionados quatro para a amostra final. Resultados: As teorias de enfermagem evidenciadas nas publicações foram: Teoria do Déficit de Autocuidado de Orem, utilizada como subsídio para identificar os déficits de autocuidado e fatores relacionados em paciente hipertensos, bem como para o fortalecimento da autoeficácia e na melhora da qualidade de vida de pacientes com hipertensão; Teoria da Adaptação de Sister Callista Roy, utilizada como meio de cuidado a pessoa com hipertensão e familiares na adaptação no processo de autocuidado e enfrentamento da hipertensão; e Teoria "Human Becoming" de Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, a partir da qual o protagonismo da pessoa com hipertensão em seu processo de tratamento deve ser estimulado pelo enfermeiro, que é mediador do processo de autocuidado. Conclusão: A aplicação das teorias teve maior enfoque nos aspectos que interferiam no autocuidado dos hipertensos, contexto no qual o enfermeiro desempenha cuidados que visam promover a autonomia e independência dos sujeitos. (AU)


Objective: To identify in the scientific literature how nursing theories have been used in nursing care for hypertensives. Methods: Integrative review with database searches: VHL, SCOPUS, CINAHL, LILACS, PubMed and Web of Science. 32 articles were found of which four were selected for the final sample. Results: The nursing theories evidenced in the publications were: Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory, used as a basis for identifying self-care deficits and related factors in hypertensive patients, as well as for strengthening self-efficacy and improving the quality of life of patients with hypertension; Sister Callista Roy's Theory of Adaptation, used as a means of care for people with hypertension and family members in adapting to the process of self-care and coping with hypertension; and Theory "Human Becoming" by Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, from which the role of the person with hypertension in their treatment process should be encouraged by the nurse, who is the mediator of the self-care process. Conclusion: The application of theories was more focused on aspects that interfered with the self-care of hypertensive patients, a context in which nurses perform care aimed at promoting the subjects' autonomy and independence. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar, en la literatura científica, cómo se han utilizado las teorías de enfermería en los cuidados de enfermería a hipertensos. Métodos: Revisión integradora con búsquedas en las bases de datos: BVS, SCOPUS, CINAHL, LILACS, PubMed y Web of Science. Encontramos 32 artículos de los cuales cuatro fueron seleccionados para la muestra final. Resultados: Las teorías de enfermería evidenciadas en las publicaciones fueron: Teoría del déficit de autocuidado de Orem, utilizada como base para identificar los déficits de autocuidado y factores relacionados en pacientes hipertensos, así como para fortalecer la autoeficacia y mejorar la calidad de vida de pacientes con hipertensión; Teoría de la adaptación de la hermana Callista Roy, utilizada como un medio de atención para personas con hipertensión y miembros de la familia para adaptarse al proceso de autocuidado y afrontamiento de la hipertensión; y Teoría "Human Becoming" de Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, desde la cual la enfermera, quien es el mediador del proceso de autocuidado, debe fomentar el papel de la persona con hipertensión en su proceso de tratamiento. Conclusión: La aplicación de las teorías se centró más en aspectos que interferían con el autocuidado de los pacientes hipertensos, contexto en el que los enfermeros realizan cuidados orientados a promover la autonomía e independencia de los sujetos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Nursing Theory , Nursing , Hypertension , Nursing Care
10.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(3): 1-15, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292440

ABSTRACT

En la COVID-19 un porcentaje de los enfermos desarrolla cuadros severos, con una elevada mortalidad, siendo necesario el estudio de sus características con el objetivo de frenar la progresión de la enfermedad. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo en una cohorte de 150 pacientes adultos atendidos en el hospital Manuel Fajardo de Villa Clara, Cuba, en el período de marzo a junio de 2020. Se analizaron variables demográficas, clínicas, de laboratorio, gasométricas y radiológicas medidas al ingreso hospitalario; definiéndose dos grupos de pacientes según la evolución clínica: severos y no severos. Para la comparación de los grupos se realizó un análisis bivariado con el objetivo de determinar aquellas variables con asociación significativa a la severidad. Del total de pacientes, 26 (17,3%) evolucionaron a la severidad y 124 (83.7%), evolucionó satisfactoriamente. Los pacientes severos se caracterizaron por tener edad avanzada (media: 83 años) y presentar comorbilidades; siendo las más significativas: hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, cardiopatía, enfermedad renal crónica y cáncer (p<0.0001). La polipnea y diarrea fueron las manifestaciones clínicas con mayor asociación a la severidad (p<0.0001), seguido por la fiebre (p=0.0157). La escala pronóstica quick SOFA mostró ser un instrumento útil para evaluar a los pacientes al ingreso. Las variables de laboratorio: neutrófilos, linfocitos, índice neutrófilos/linfocitos, hemoglobina. y lactato deshidrogenasa fueron las que mayor asociación tuvieron con la severidad (p<0.0001). Los leucocitos, lactato, dímero D, proteína C reactiva, glicemia y calcio también mostraron resultados significativos (p< 0.05). De las variables gasométricas, la presión y saturación arterial de oxígeno fueron las más significativamente asociadas a la severidad; así como la presencia de infiltrados o consolidación pulmonar en la radiografía de tórax (p <0.0001). El estudio permitió identificar variables al ingreso hospitalario, asociadas a progresión hacia formas severas de la enfermedad


In COVID-19, a percentage of patients develop severe disease, with high mortality, since has been necessary to study its characteristics to stop the progression of the disease. A retrospective study was carried out in a cohort of 150 adult patients attended at Manuel Fajardo Hospital in Villa Clara, Cuba, from March to June 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, gasometric and radiological variables measured at hospital admission were analyzed, defining two groups of patients according to clinical evolution: severe and non-severe. For the comparison of the groups a bivariate analysis was performed, with the objective of determining those variables with a significant association to severity. Of the total number of patients, 26 (17.3%) evolved to severity and 124 (83.7%) evolved satisfactorily. Severe patients were characterized by advanced age (mean: 83 years) and comorbidities; the most significant being hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, chronic kidney disease and cancer (p< 0.0001). Polypnea and diarrhea were the clinical manifestations with the highest association with severity (p<0.0001), followed by fever (p=0.0157). The quick SOFA prognostic scale proved to be a useful instrument to evaluate patients at admission. Laboratory variables: neutrophils, lymphocytes, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, hemoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase were the most associated with severity (p<0.0001). Leukocytes, lactate, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, glycemia and calcium also showed significant results (p<0.05). Of the gasometric variables, arterial oxygen pressure and saturation were the most significantly associated with severity; as well as the presence of pulmonary infiltrates or consolidation in the chest X-ray (p<0.0001). The study allowed us to identify variables at hospital admission associated with progression to severe forms of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Severity of Illness Index , Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Betacoronavirus , Hypertension
11.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 323-326, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288586

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Hypertension is a common clinical disease, which is not uncommon in the aviation industry. Pilots suffering from high blood pressure need to control high blood pressure to ensure flight safety. Exercise therapy is an effective way to control high blood pressure. Objective To design the clinical effects of exercise intervention in the treatment of hypertension in pilots. Method The article randomly assigned 41 pilot volunteers with hypertension to two groups: the treatment and control groups. Except for the different exercise intervention therapy, the other treatment methods are the same. After the expiration of the experiment, the volunteers were tested for their physiological and biochemical indicators. Results After one year of strict diet and exercise intervention, the two groups of physiological and biochemical indicators were significantly different. Conclusion Intervention of moderate-intensity exercise can reduce the body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and blood pressure level of hypertensive patients, correct the disorder of blood lipid metabolism, and can help reduce the recurrence rate of hypertension. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução A hipertensão é uma doença clínica comum, o que não é incomum na indústria de aviação. Os pilotos que sofrem de pressão alta precisam controlar a pressão alta para garantir a segurança do vôo. A terapia com exercícios é uma forma eficaz de controlar a hipertensão. Objetivo Desenhar os efeitos clínicos da intervenção com exercícios no tratamento da hipertensão em pilotos. Método O artigo distribuiu aleatoriamente 41 voluntários pilotos com hipertensão em dois grupos: os grupos de tratamento e controle. Exceto pela terapia de intervenção com exercícios diferentes, os outros métodos de tratamento são os mesmos. Após o término do experimento, os voluntários foram testados quanto aos seus indicadores fisiológicos e bioquímicos. Resultados Após um ano de dieta estrita e intervenção com exercícios, os dois grupos de indicadores fisiológicos e bioquímicos foram significativamente diferentes. Conclusão A intervenção de exercícios de intensidade moderada pode reduzir o índice de massa corporal, a relação cintura-quadril e o nível de pressão arterial de pacientes hipertensos, corrigir o distúrbio do metabolismo dos lipídios do sangue e pode ajudar a reduzir a taxa de recorrência da hipertensão. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción La hipertensión es una enfermedad clínica común, que no es infrecuente en la industria de la aviación. Los pilotos que sufren de presión arterial alta necesitan controlar la presión arterial alta para garantizar la seguridad del vuelo. La terapia con ejercicios es una forma eficaz de controlar la presión arterial alta. Objetivo Diseñar los efectos clínicos de la intervención con ejercicios en el tratamiento de la hipertensión en pilotos. Método El artículo asignó al azar a 41 voluntarios piloto con hipertensión a dos grupos: el de tratamiento y el de control. Excepto por las diferentes terapias de intervención con ejercicios, los otros métodos de tratamiento son los mismos. Después de la terminación del experimento, se evaluó a los voluntarios en cuanto a sus indicadores fisiológicos y bioquímicos. Resultados Después de un año de estricta intervención de dieta y ejercicio, los dos grupos de indicadores fisiológicos y bioquímicos fueron significativamente diferentes. Conclusión La intervención del ejercicio de intensidad moderada puede reducir el índice de masa corporal, la relación cintura-cadera y el nivel de presión arterial de los pacientes hipertensos, corregir el trastorno del metabolismo de los lípidos en sangre y puede ayudar a reducir la tasa de recurrencia de la hipertensión. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Exercise Therapy , Pilots , Hypertension/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hypertension/blood
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 245-250, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280906

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El aumento de prevalencia de trastornos respiratorios del sueño (TRS) y su relación con obesidad e hipertensión arterial (HTA) ha sido poco explorado en adolescentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la prevalencia de TRS y ronquido en esta población y analizar su asociación con obesidad e HTA. Población y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra de adolescentes. Se realizaron mediciones de peso, talla, perímetro de cintura y cuello, tensión arterial, y el Cuestionario de Sueño Pediátrico (PSQ, por su sigla en inglés). Resultados: Participaron 826 adolescentes, 58 (7 %) presentaron TRS (varones: 5,8 %; mujeres: 8 %) y 80 (9,7 %) se consideraron roncadores (varones: 10,4 %; mujeres: 9,1 %). Se detectaron sobrepeso y obesidad en 216 (26,2 %) y 149 (18 %) sujetos, respectivamente. Una mayor proporción de sujetos con obesidad presentaron TRS con respecto a quienes no tenían obesidad (12,8 % versus 5,8 %; p = 0,004). La misma asociación fue encontrada para el ronquido (18,2 % versus 7,8 %; <0,001). El 24,6 % dormía menos de 8 horas por día. El 12,6 % presentó valores compatibles con HTA, con una asociación significativa con obesidad y horas de sueño. Conclusión: Se observó una prevalencia elevada de TRS y ronquido en adolescentes y una asociación entre obesidad e HTA, que pone de manifiesto la importancia de abordar esta problemática de manera temprana a fin de evitar complicaciones


ntroduction: The increased prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and its association with obesity and hypertension (HTN) have not been thoroughly explored in adolescents. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SDB and snoring in this population and analyze its association with obesity and HTN. Population and methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study in a sample of adolescents. Weight, height, waist and neck circumference, and blood pressure were measured, and the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was administered. Results: A total of 826 adolescents participated, 58 (7 %) had SDB (males: 5.8 %; females: 8 %), and 80 (9.7 %) were considered snorers (males: 10.4 %; females: 9.1 %). Overweight and obesity were detected in 216 (26.2 %) and 149 (18 %) participants, respectively. A higher proportion of subjects with obesity had SDB compared to those who were not obese (12.8 % versus 5.8 %; p = 0.004). The same association was observed with snoring (18.2 % versus 7.8 %; p < 0.001). Also, 24.6 % slept less than 8 hours a day and 12.6 % had values compatible with HTN, with a significant association with obesity and sleep hours. Conclusion: A high prevalence of SDB and snoring was observed in adolescents, together with an association with obesity and HTN, which highlights the relevance of addressing this problem in an early manner in order to prevent complications


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Wake Disorders , Respiration Disorders , Snoring , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Overweight , Hypertension
13.
Horiz. enferm ; 32(2): 118-128, 20210831. "tab"
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1290746

ABSTRACT

El deterioro cognitivo es un problema de salud a nivel mundial, el cual se ha convertido en uno de las mayores demandas de atención médica en las personas mayores. Con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo en las personas mayores de 60 años, se realizó un estudio descriptivo, con carácter retrospectivo de corte transversal a 323 adultos mayores en el Consultorio Médico de la Familia # 20, ubicado en la región de Altahabana, perteneciente al Policlínico Universitario "Federico Capdevila" del Municipio Boyeros (Cuba). El estudio se realizó entre enero y diciembre de 2020. Se encontró que el 31% de las personas mayores, pertenecen al grupo de edades de 65 a 69 años, con un predominio del género femenino en un 61%. El nivel de escolaridad universitario estuvo presente en un 57,5%. El deterioro cognitivo de las personas mayores prevaleció en un 14%; la hipertensión arterial, en un 64,8% fue la enfermedad crónica no transmisible que más se asoció al deterioro cognitivo.


Cognitive impairment is a global health problem, which has become one of the greatest demands for medical care in older people. In order to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in people over 60 years of age, a descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out on 323 older adults in the Family Medical Clinic # 20, located in the Altahabana region, belonging to the "Federico Capdevila" University Polyclinic of the Boyeros Municipality (Cuba). The study was carried out between January and December 2020. It was found that 31% of the elderly belong to the 65 to 69 age group, with a 61% predominance of the female gender. The level of university education was present in 57.5%. Cognitive impairment in the elderly prevailed in 14%; arterial hypertension, in 64.8%, was the chronic non-communicable disease that was most associated with cognitive deterioration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Physicians' Offices , Chronic Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Population Dynamics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cuba , Hypertension
14.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(4): e3444, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289648

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La medicación antihipertensiva de pacientes mayores de 20 años amerita un riguroso control, que garantice un adecuado mantenimiento del estado de salud de dicho grupo poblacional. Objetivo: Analizar la adherencia terapéutica en los pacientes con hipertensión arterial del Consultorio del Médico de Familia No. 4, perteneciente al Policlínico Universitario "Joaquín de Agüero y Agüero", del municipio Camagüey. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal durante el periodo de octubre de 2020 a febrero de 2021. Se trabajó con los 98 pacientes de 20 y más años de edad, con dificultad en su control de la tensión arterial debido al incumplimiento de su tratamiento. Se midieron las variables: edad, sexo, grado de hipertensión, adherencia al tratamiento a través del test de Morisky-Green-Levine, cantidad de fármacos utilizados y los factores de la no adherencia. La información se procesó a través del paquete estadístico SPSS 25.0. Resultados: Existió un predominio de los mayores de 60 años (46,9 %), del sexo masculino en un 58,1 %, clasificados como grupo II de la hipertensión arterial (51 %). Predominaron los pacientes con una adherencia parcial terapéutica (68,3 %) según el test de Morisky-Green-Levine y con la utilización de tres fármacos como tratamiento de la enfermedad (46,9 %). Dentro de los factores más frecuentes predominaron la dificultad con la obtención del medicamento (86,7 %) y la realización de la dieta (77,5 %). Conclusiones: La no adherencia terapéutica en los pacientes hipertensos los expone a la aparición de complicaciones cardiovasculares, con la repercusión que conlleva para el individuo, la familia y la sociedad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The antihypertensive treatment in patients with 20 or more years old requires strict controls in order to maintain their healthy life span. Objective: To assess the therapeutic adherence in patients with hypertension from the Family doctor's office No. 4, linked to the Policlínico Universitario "Joaquín de Agüero y Agüero", in Camagüey. Method: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study during the period from October 2020 to February 2021 was conducted. In the research 98 patients with 20 or more years old were recruited to work with. Patients with difficulties in their blood pressure control due to the noncompliance with the treatment. Variables assesed were as follow: age, sex, stage of hypertension, adherence to treatment using the Morisky-Green-Levine test, drugs used, and non-adherence factors. The information gathered was processed via SPSS statistic 25.0. Results: Patients with 60 years old (46.9%), males (58.1%), and clasified as stage 2 hypertension (51%) were predominant. Also, were predominant patients with partial therapeutic adherence (68.3%) (asper the Morisky-Green-Levine test outcomes), and patients whitch used three types of drugs to treat the illness (46.9%). The most common factors found were lack of drugs to treat the hypertension (86.7%) and the inadequate diet (77.5%). Conclusions: Non-adherence to treatment in hypertensive patients expose them to adquire any cardiovascular complication, aspect whitch affect patients themselve, family, and the society.


RESUMO Introdução: A medicação anti-hipertensiva em pacientes com mais de 20 anos exige um controle rigoroso, o que garante uma manutenção adequada do estado de saúde desse grupo populacional. Objetivo: analisar a adesão terapêutica em pacientes com hipertensão arterial no Consultório Médico de Família nº 4, pertencente à Policlínica Universitária "Joaquín de Agüero y Agüero", do município de Camagüey. Método: Estudo observacional, transversal, descritivo, de outubro de 2020 a fevereiro de 2021. Trabalhamos com 98 pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 20 anos, com dificuldade de controle da pressão arterial devido à não adesão ao tratamento. As variáveis foram mensuradas: idade, sexo, grau de hipertensão, adesão ao tratamento pelo teste de Morisky-Green-Levine, quantidade de medicamentos utilizados e fatores de não adesão. As informações foram processadas por meio do pacote estatístico SPSS 25.0. Resultados: Houve predomínio dos maiores de 60 anos (46,9%), 58,1% do sexo masculino, classificados como grupo II de hipertensão arterial (51%). Predominaram pacientes com adesão terapêutica parcial (68,3%) pelo teste de Morisky-Green-Levine e com uso de três medicamentos para tratamento da doença (46,9%). Dentre os fatores mais frequentes, predominou a dificuldade de obtenção do medicamento (86,7%) e da dieta alimentar (77,5%). Conclusões: A não adesão terapêutica em hipertensos os expõe ao aparecimento de complicações cardiovasculares, com as repercussões que isso acarreta para o indivíduo, a família e a sociedade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
15.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(4): e3484, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289658

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares agudas se consideran una epidemia vascular y un problema socio-sanitario de primer orden. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de la enfermedad cerebrovascular en pacientes de una zona rural perteneciente al Policlínico Comunitario "Juan Bruno Zayas"de Cifuentes, provincia Villa Clara, durante el año 2019. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo transversal. La muestra estuvo constituida por 32 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Se aplicó un cuestionario a pacientes y familiares cercanos, además, de la revisión de historias clínicas individuales y familiares con el propósito de identificar la etiopatogenia, mes en que ocurrió el evento cerebrovascular, factores de riesgo asociados, tipo de enfermedad cerebrovascular, variante, y forma de presentación clínica. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de edades de 60-69 años, sexo masculino y color de la piel negro. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron: hipertensión arterial sistémica, tabaquismo y dislipidemia. Marzo fue el mes donde hubo mayor número de casos diagnosticados como enfermedad cerebrovascular. Prevaleció el infarto cerebral como variante más frecuente. Conclusiones: La enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda siempre está asociada a los factores de riesgo clásicos. Existe predominio del ictus de origen isquémico sobre el hemorrágico. Más de la mitad de los pacientes tiene cifras elevadas de tensión arterial durante el evento cerebral. Se evidencia mayor frecuencia de casos durante los meses de menores temperaturas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute cerebrovascular diseases are considered a vascular epidemic and a first-order social and health problem. Objective: To describe the behavior of cerebrovascular disease in patients who residing in a rural area associated to the Policlínico Comunitario "Juan Bruno Zayas" in Cifuentes, Villa Clara, period time 2019. Method: A cross-sectional, descriptive observational study was carried out. The sample selected envolved 32 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A questionnaire was administered to patients and close relatives, and individual and family medical records were reviewed to identify the etiopathogenesis, month in which the cerebrovascular event occurred, associated risk factors, type of cerebrovascular disease, variant, and form of clinical presentation. Results: Group age 60 to 69 and male black patients, were predominant. Most common risk factors were: systemic arterial hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia. March was the month with the highest number of cases diagnosed with cerebrovascular disease. Cerebral infarction prevailed as the most frequent variant. Conclusions: Acute cerebrovascular disease is always associated with classical risk factors. Ischemic stroke predominates over hemorrhagic stroke. More than half of patients have elevated blood pressure during the cerebral event. Arising cases were higher during the months with lower temperatures.


RESUMO Introdução: As doenças cerebrovasculares agudas são consideradas uma epidemia vascular e um problema sócio-sanitário de primeira ordem. Objetivo: descrever o comportamento da doença cerebrovascular em pacientes de uma área rural pertencente à Policlínico Comunitario "Juan Bruno Zayas", de Cifuentes, província de Villa Clara, durante o ano de 2019. Método: Foi realizado um estudo observacional descritivo transversal. A amostra foi composta por 32 pacientes que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Foi aplicado questionário aos pacientes e familiares próximos, além da revisão dos prontuários individuais e familiares para identificação da etiopatogenia, mês em que ocorreu o evento cerebrovascular, fatores de risco associados, tipo de doença cerebrovascular, variante e forma de apresentação clínica. Resultados: Predominou a faixa etária de 60 a 69 anos, sexo masculino e cor da pele negra. Os fatores de risco mais frequentes foram: hipertensão arterial sistêmica, tabagismo e dislipidemia. Março foi o mês com maior número de casos diagnosticados como doença cerebrovascular. O infarto cerebral prevaleceu como a variante mais frequente. Conclusões: A doença cerebrovascular aguda está sempre associada a fatores de risco clássicos. Há predomínio do AVC de origem isquêmica sobre o hemorrágico. Mais da metade dos pacientes apresentam níveis elevados de pressão arterial durante o evento cerebral. Há maior frequência de casos nos meses de menor temperatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 588-596, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346511

ABSTRACT

Abstract Up to 15% of all strokes affect young patients and the incidence of ischemic stroke in this population is rising. Nevertheless, there is limited information of cerebrovascular events in this population both in our country and in Latin America. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of young adults with stroke in Argentina. This is a prospective, multicenter study of stroke in young adults (18 - 55 years) in Argentina. Patients presenting with a cerebrovascular event within 180 days were included. Stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST criteria. A total number of 311 patients were enrolled (men 53.9%, mean age: 43.3 years). Ischemic strokes occurred in 91.8% (brain infarcts 82.6%, transient ischemic attack 9.2%) and hemorrhagic strokes in 8.2%. The most frequent vascular risk factors (including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes) were: hypertension 120 (41%), smoking 92 (31.4%), dyslipidemia 81 (27.6%) and, over weight/obesity: 74 (25.3%). Stroke subtypes were: large artery disease 12.3%, cardioembolism 7.5, small artery occlusion 11.5%, other defined etiology 27.1%, and undetermined etiology 41.6%. Our study demonstrates that vascular risk factors are very frequent in young adults with stroke. Our findings underline that urgent strategies are required for primary and secondary stroke prevention in this group of patients.


Resumen Aproximadamente un 15% de todos los ataques cerebrovasculares afectan a pacientes jóvenes y su incidencia estaría en aumento. Existe escasa información sobre el ataque cerebral en esta población tanto en nuestro país como en Latinoamérica. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar las características clínicas y los factores de riesgo de los adultos jóvenes con ictus en Argentina. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo y multicéntrico en adultos jóvenes (18-55 años) en Argentina, que presentaron un evento cerebrovascular dentro de los 180 días previos. Los subtipos de ictus se clasificaron según los criterios de TOAST. Se incluyeron un total de 311 pacientes (hombres 53.9%, edad media: 43,3 años). Los ataques cerebrovasculares isquémicos ocurrieron en el 91.8% (infartos cerebrales 82.6%, ataque isquémico transitorio 9.2%) y los eventos hemorrágicos correspondieron al 8.2%. Los factores de riesgo vascular más frecuentes (incluyendo los eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos) fueron: hipertensión 120 (41%), tabaquismo 92 (31.4%), dislipidemia 81 (27.6%) y sobrepeso/obesidad: 74 (25.3%). Los subtipos de ictus isquémicos fueron: arteriopatía de gran vaso 12.3%, cardioembolismo 7.5%, oclusión de pequeña arteria 11.5%, otra etiología definida 27.1% y etiología indeterminada 41.6%. Los factores de riesgo vascular son muy frecuentes en los adultos jóvenes con ictus. Nuestros hallazgos subrayan que se requieren estrategias urgentes para la prevención primaria y secundaria del ictus en este grupo particular de pacientes en nuestro país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
17.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(4): 345-352, jul.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1351931

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La hipertensión arterial genera millones de muertes en el mundo. Su multicausalidad abarca factores como alimentación, ejercicio, consumo de sustancias, ciclos circadianos, emociones y genética. Es posible que la personalidad sea un recurso precipitante o protector frente a la enfermedad cardiaca. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre los factores de personalidad y las variaciones fisiológicas de la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca ante estímulos emocionales y motores. Método: Estudio exploratorio intrasujeto ABA en adultos jóvenes sanos para enfermedad cardiaca. En la fase A se aplicó el cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos, Big Five, y se registraron la presión arterial y la frecuencia cardiaca. En la fase B se emplearon estímulos emocionales y motores para el registro de las variables fisiológicas. En la siguiente fase A se registraron la frecuencia cardiaca y la presión arterial en reposo. Resultados: En promedio, la presión arterial de los hombres fue más alta que la de las mujeres, con valores de 124/72 mmHg frente a 113/66 mmHg. Existen correlaciones negativas significativas entre la presión arterial en sístole y los factores de personalidad neuroticismo y conciencia, con valores de r = −0.198 y r = −0.254 (p <0.05), respectivamente. Conclusiones: Este estudio aporta evidencia empírica de la relación entre el sexo y la personalidad. Es probable que ser hombre y los factores de neuroticismo y conciencia con presión arterial alta sean indicadores relevantes para el diseño de programas de prevención que posibiliten la inclusión de la personalidad como variable relacionada con el diagnóstico de enfermedades cardiovasculares.


Abstract Introduction: Arterial hypertension generates millions of deaths, its multicausality in each person varies according to distinct factors such as diet, physical exercise, substance use, circadian cycles, genetic and emotional aspects, among others. It is possible that personality is a precipitating or protective resource against cardiac disease. Objective: To identify the relation between personality factors and physiological variations in blood pressure and heart rate in the face of emotional stimuli and motors. Method: Exploratory study with an ABA intrasubject design in healthy young adults for heart disease. At baseline A, the sociodemographic data questionnaire, the Big Five, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. In phase B, the emotional and motor stimuli were applied, and heart rate and blood pressure were also recorded. In the next A phase, the heart rate and blood pressure were recorded in resting. Results: On average, the blood pressure of men was higher than in women with measurements of 124/72 mmHg compared to 113/66 mmHg. There are negative correlations between blood pressure with personality factors such as neuroticism and consciousness with values of r = −0.198 and r = −0.254 (p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: This study provides empirical evidence in the analysis of the relationship between gender and personality. It is likely that being a man and the factors of neuroticism and conscientiousness with high blood pressure are relevant indicators for the design of prevention programs, enabling the inclusion of personality as a variable related to the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Personality , Arterial Pressure , Heart Rate , Records , Hypertension
18.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 11(3): 544-548, ago.2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292368

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Os contraceptivos orais são a forma mais utilizada para o controle de natalidade, chegando a 200 milhões de usuárias desde sua iniciação na década de 1960. Desde 2013, nosso grupo de pesquisa tem apresentado resultados que sugerem que mulheres em uso de Contraceptivos Orais Combinados (COC), e sem outros fatores de risco, apresentam maior valor de proteína C reativa, lipemia pós-prandial, lipoproteína de baixa densidade oxidada e diminuição da sensibilidade insulínica, quando comparadas a suas congêneres sem uso de COC. Recentemente, foi verificado que o uso de COC eleva os valores de renina plasmática em 600%, podendo explicar por que o uso desse fármaco é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Apesar de o uso de Contraceptivo Hormonal Injetável (CHI) estar aumentando, não encontramos estudos clínicos que abordassem o tema, demonstrando uma lacuna na literatura científica. OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores de renina plasmática, enzima conversora de angiotensina 1 e aldosterona de mulheres que utilizam CHI com mulheres que não utilizam nenhum contraceptivo à base de hormônio. MÉTODOS: Protocolo de um estudo observacional comparativo de corte transversal, composto por mulheres com idade entre 18 e 30 anos, eutróficas, irregularmente ativas pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física, versão curta, que estão em uso continuado de CHI há pelo menos 6 meses ou que não fazem uso. A amostra será por conveniência, as participantes selecionadas assinarão o termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. Posteriormente, responderão a um questionário padrão, serão submetidas a um exame físico, e serão encaminhadas para coleta das amostras sanguíneas.


INTRODUCTION: Oral contraceptives are the most widely used form of birth control, reaching 200 million users since its inception in the 1960. Since 2013, our research group has presented results that suggest that women using Combined Oral Contraceptives (COC) and without other risk factors, have a higher value of C-reactive protein, postprandial lipemia, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and decreased insulin sensitivity, when compared to their counterparts without the use of COC. Recently, it was found that the use of COC increases plasma renin values by 600%, which may explain why the use of this drug is a risk factor for the development of systemic arterial hypertension. Although the use of Injectable Hormonal Contraceptives (IHC) is increasing, we have not found clinical studies that addressed the topic, demonstrating a gap in the scientific literature. OBJECTIVE: Compare the values of plasma renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 and aldosterone of women using IHC with women who do not use any hormone-based contraceptives. METHODS: Protocol of a comparative observational cross-sectional study, composed of women aged between 18 and 30 years, eutrophic, irregularly active by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short version, who have been in continuous use of IHC for at least 6 months or that do not use. The sample will be for convenience and the selected participants will sign the informed consent form. Subsequently, they will answer a standard questionnaire, undergo a physical examination, and be sent to collect blood samples.


Subject(s)
Renin-Angiotensin System , Women's Health , Hypertension
19.
Medisan ; 25(4): 868-881, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1340210

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El tema de la tensión arterial en niños y adolescentes ha cobrado un marcado interés en los últimos años, debido al incremento de su prevalencia en este grupo poblacional Objetivo: Evaluar la prescripción de medicamentos en niños y adolescentes con hipertensión arterial atendidos en el Hospital Infantil Norte Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira de Santiago de Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación observacional, descriptiva y transversal, que se corresponde con un estudio de utilización de medicamentos, del tipo indicación-prescripción, esquemas terapéuticos y consecuencias prácticas, de 39 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial atendidos en el Servicio de Cardiología del mencionado centro hospitalario, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2018, quienes cumplieron los criterios de selección establecidos. Se utilizaron variables principales (prescripción y reacciones adversas) y de control (edad, color de la piel, sexo y factores de riesgo). Resultados: Predominaron el sexo masculino (79,4 %), el grupo etario de 15-18 años (66,6 %), la hipertensión arterial primaria (estadio 1), los pacientes de piel negra y la obesidad como factor de riesgo mayormente identificado (58,9 %). Conclusiones: Las prescripciones fueron evaluadas en su mayoría como adecuadas, lo que demuestra el enfoque preventivo y el uso racional de los medicamentos.


Introduction: The topic of blood pressure in children and adolescents has taken a marked interest in the last years, due to the increment of its prevalence in this population group Objective: To evaluate the prescription of medications in children and adolescents with hypertension assisted in Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira Northern Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional investigation that squared with a medications use study, of indication-prescription type, therapeutic outlines and practical consequences, of 39 patients with diagnosis of hypertension assisted in the Cardiology Service of the hospital abovementioned, was carried out from January to December, 2018, who fulfilled the established selection approaches. Main variables (prescription and adverse reactions) and control variables (age, skin colour, sex and risk factors) were used. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (79.4 %), 15-18 age group (66.6% ), primary hypertension (stage 1), black skin patients and obesity as the risk factor mostly identified (58.9 %). Conclusions: The prescriptions were evaluated in their majority as appropriate, what demonstrates the preventive approach and the rational use of medications.


Subject(s)
Drug Prescriptions , Adolescent , Hypertension/therapy , Child , Cardiology Service, Hospital
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