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Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 276-280, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345295


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatoportal sclerosis HPS or obliterative portal venopathy (OPV), one of the differential diagnoses for non-cirrohtic portal hypertension, is characterized by the disappearance of the portal branches, portal and septal fibrosis, perisinusoidal fibrosis and regenerative nodular hyperplasia (RNH). It is a spectral disease that may progress to severe portal hypertension. Its etiopathogenesis is still little understood, especially in Brazil, it has been probably misdiagnosed due to its histopatological similarities with the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile of patients with HPS in Northeastern Brazil and to demonstrate the pathological characteristics of HPS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed cases of OPV in liver biopsies and explants from a referral center for liver in Bahia - Brazil. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the portal tracts and liver parenchyma was made so that comparisons could be done among the HPS findings of our population and the findings described by other authors. RESULTS: From the 62 patients identified with HPS, 42% were male, while 58% were female. The average age at diagnosis was 48.3 years. From this group, we analyzed the liver biopsy of 10 patients whose diagnosis of schistosomiasis could be ruled out. From these 100% (10/10) presented dense portal fibrosis and portal venous obliteration. Liver parenchymal atrophy was present in 60% (6/10) of the patients, sinusoidal dilation was present in 30% (3/10), the presence of portal septa occurred in 50% (5/10) and dense portal fibrosis in all patients analyzed. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia was found in 30% (3/10) of the patients. CONCLUSION: HPS seems to be neglected and misdiagnosed in Brazil, due to its similarities with schistossomiasis. In our study dense portal fibrosis, obliteration of the portal vein branches, parenchymal atrophy, sinusoidal dilatation and parenchymal nodular hyperplasia were the main histopathological findings and were similar to that described in other countries.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Esclerose hepatoportal EHP ou venopatia portal obliterativa VPO, um dos diagnósticos diferenciais para a hipertensão portal não cirrótica, é caracterizada pelo desaparecimento dos ramos portais, fibrose portal e septal, fibrose sinusoidal e hiperplasia nodular regenerativa HNR. A EHP é um doença espectral, que pode progredir para hipertensão portal severa. Sua etiopatologia é ainda pouco compreendida, especialmente no Brasil, onde ela é provavelmente subdiagnoticada devido as suas similaridades com a forma hepatoesplênica da esquistossomose. OBJETIVO: Analizar o perfil dos pacientes com EHP no Nordeste do Brasil, e demontrar as características patológicas da EHP. MÉTODOS: Analisamos restrospectivamente os casos de VPO em biópsias hepáticas e explantes de um centro de referência em fígado na Bahia, Brasil. A análise qualiquantitativa dos tratos portais e parênquima hepático foi realizada, permitindo a comparação entre os nossos paciente e os achados descritos por outros autores. RESULTADOS: Entre os 62 paciente identificados com EHP, 42% era do sexo masculino, 58% era do sexo feminino. A média de idade no diagnótico foi 48,3 anos. Desse grupo, analizamos a biópsia hepática de 10 pacientes nos quais o diagnóstico de esquistossomose pode ser excluído. Desses pacientes, 100% 10/10 se apresentou com fibrose portal densa e obliteração venosa portal. Atrofia do perênquima hepático estava presente em 60% 6/10 dos pacientes, dilatação sinusiodal em 30% 3/10 a presença de septos portais ocorreu em 50% 5/10 e fibrose portal densa foi achada em todos os pacientes. Hiperplasia nodular regenerativa foi encontrada em 30% dos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: A EHP parece ser negligenciada e subdiagnosticada no Brasil, devido as suas similaridades com esquistossomose. Em nosso estudo, fibrose portal densa, obliteração dos ramos da veia porta, atrofia do parênquima, dilatação sinusoidal e hiperplasia nodular do parênquima foram os principais achados histopatológicos e foram semelhantes aos descritos em outros países.

Humans , Male , Female , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Hypertension, Portal/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Sclerosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 385-402, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879639


Ultrasound is a non-invasive, real-time, inexpensive, radiation-free and easily repeatable method, usually used for liver imaging. In recent years, new ultrasound examination techniques for liver diseases such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound and elastography have been rapidly developed, which can effectively identify intrahepatic space-occupying lesions, assess the degree of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension, and monitor the effects of treatment. Therefore, these technologies play an important diagnostic role in clinical liver diseases and have therapeutic interventional value. This guideline classifies the instrument set-up, patient preparation, and physician examination methods through multimodal ultrasound examinations (gray-scale ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastic ultrasound) for liver diseases. In addition, liver diseases multimodal ultrasound technology diagnostic criteria for diffuse hepatic lesions (inflammatory lesions, fibrosis, and sclerosis), multiple space-occupying lesions, and interventional procedures have been defined and standardized. Concurrently, we also recommend the ultrasound monitoring time interval and diagnostic report writing standard for liver diseases.

Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 185-187, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341962


Wandering spleen (WS) is a rare entity characterized by laxity of peritoneal ligaments that hold the spleen stationary. It is most commonly diagnosed in children and young women. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic to acute abdomen. A 19-year-old woman came to the emergency department with history of progressive abdominal pain. She also had previous episodes of hematemesis. A computed tomography scan showed an ectopic spleen with a "whirlpool sign." Laparotomy and splenectomy were performed. WS is characterized by a long vascular pedicle and laxity of peritoneal attachments of the spleen. The etiology is usually congenital. Splenopexy is the main treatment; however, splenectomy is indicated when splenic infarction is present. Despite being rare, this condition may be considered in some cases of abdominal pain. An earlier diagnosis would have allowed us to perform a splenopexy, thus reducing morbidity. (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Wandering Spleen/diagnosis , Wandering Spleen/complications , Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Hypertension, Portal/etiology
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 157-159, jul.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150024


Resumen La hipertensión portal se define como la alteración patológica en el gradiente de presión a nivel del sistema portal, es decir, la diferencia entre la presión de la vena porta y la vena cava inferior. El valor normal es entre 1-5 mm Hg y se considera hipertensión cuando es mayor de 10 mm Hg. En este artículo, se describe el caso de una paciente de 5 años con un cuadro de hipertensión portal secundario a várices esofágicas y trombosis de la vena porta, confirmado por endoscopia de vías digestivas alta y angioresonancia magnética. La paciente fue atendida en la Fundación Clínica Infantil Club Noel de la ciudad de Cali, Colombia, entre los meses de diciembre del 2018 y febrero del 2019.

Abstract Portal hypertension is defined as the pathological increase in the portal pressure gradient, which is the difference between the pressure of the portal vein and the inferior vena cava. Normally portal vein pressure ranges between 1-5 mmHg and is considered hypertension when it is higher than 10 mmHg. In this study the case of a 5-year-old patient that suffers from secondary portal hypertension to portal venous thrombosis and esophageal varices is presented. The diagnostic is confirmed by an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract and by a magnetic angioresonance. The patient was treated at the Fundacion Clinica Infantil Club Noel located in Cali, Colombia, between the months of December 2018 and February 2019.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Portal Vein , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Venous Thrombosis , Hypertension , Hypertension, Portal , Pressure , Vena Cava, Inferior , Portal Pressure , Gradient , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract , Endoscopy
Medisan ; 24(6) tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1143261


Introducción: Las varices esofágicas son canales vasculares que unen la circulación venosa portal y la sistémica. Se forman como consecuencia de la hipertensión portal, predominantemente en la submucosa del tercio inferior del esófago. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con rotura de varices esofágicas según principales variables clinicoepidemiológicas y terapéutico-endoscópicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y longitudinal de 20 pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta por rotura de varices esofágicas, los cuales recibieron tratamiento endoscópico con bandas elásticas en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, de noviembre de 2016 a febrero de 2018. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen y se aplicó la prueba de independencia de la Χ2 para identificar alguna asociación significativa entre variables. Resultados: Existió un predominio del sexo masculino (80,0 %) y del grupo etario de 51 a 60 años (40,0 %). La mayoría de los afectados presentó cirrosis hepática (60,0 %) como causa de la hipertensión portal y hematemesis (50,0 %) como forma de hemorragia digestiva alta; asimismo, el gran tamaño de las varices fue el principal factor de riesgo asociado a la rotura (70,0 %) y, luego de practicado el tratamiento endoscópico, no se produjo resangrado en la casi totalidad de los pacientes (95,0 %). Conclusiones: La aplicación de este procedimiento terapéutico resultó ser satisfactoria y no provocó complicación alguna.

Introduction: The esophageal varicose veins are vascular channels that unite the portal venous and systemic circulation. They are formed as consequence of the portal hypertension, predominantly in the submucosa of the inferior section of the esophagus. Objective: To characterize patients with break of esophageal varicose veins according to main clinical epidemiological and therapeutic-endoscopic variables. Methods: An observational, descriptive and longitudinal study of 20 patients with upper digestive bleeding due to break of esophageal varicose veins was carried out, they received endoscopic treatment with banding in the Gastroenterology Service of Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from November, 2016 to February, 2018. In the statistical analysis the percentage was used as summary measure and the chi-square test was applied to identify the existence of some significant association among variables. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (80.0 %) and the 51 to 60 age group (40.0 %). Most of the patients presented liver cirrhosis (60.0 %) as cause of the portal hypertension and hematemesis (50.0 %) as form of upper digestive bleeding; also, the great size of the esophageal varicose veins was the main risk factor associated with the break (70.0 %) and, after the implementation of the endoscopic treatment, there was no second bleeding in almost all the patients (95.0 %). Conclusions: The application of this therapeutic procedure was satisfactory and it didn't cause any complication.

Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Ligation , Hematemesis , Gastroenterology , Hypertension, Portal , Liver Cirrhosis
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 377-381, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138797


Resumen Una de las consecuencias más graves de la trombosis de la vena porta extrahepática es la hipertensión portal con sangrado variceal recurrente. Una vez falla la ligadura endoscópica de las várices y el eje esplenoportal no se encuentra permeable, la devascularización tipo Sugiura modificado puede ser la única alternativa. Se ha documentado su uso en pacientes con cirrosis, pero hay poca información en personas no cirróticas. En este artículo se describe una serie de 4 casos de pacientes no cirróticos, en los cuales se realizó dicho procedimiento. Los pacientes fueron seguidos durante 12 meses y ninguno presentó episodios de resangrado de las várices esofágicas, ni tampoco se requirió la ligadura de las várices residuales. Esta cirugía se perfila como una alternativa terapéutica para este tipo de pacientes.

Abstract One of the most serious consequences of extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis is portal hypertension with recurrent variceal bleeding. Once endoscopic variceal ligation fails and the spleno-portal axis is not permeable, modified Sugiura devascularization may be the only alternative. Its use in patients with cirrhosis has been reported, but there is little information on non-cirrhotic patients. This article presents a series of four cases of non-cirrhotic patients that underwent this procedure. Patients were followed for twelve months; none presented episodes of esophageal varices re-bleeding nor required ligation of residual varices. This surgery is outlined as a therapeutic alternative for this type of patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Portal Vein , Venous Thrombosis , Hemorrhage , Methods , Therapeutics , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hypertension, Portal
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 121-125, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131647


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension is one of the complications of cirrhosis and is associated with numerous systemic manifestations, including renal, brain, pulmonary, cardiac and vascular changes. In routine ophthalmological examinations performed at our service, we observed that some children diagnosed with portal hypertension had increased retinal vascular tortuosity. OBJECTIVE: 1. To evaluate the presence of retinal vascular abnormalities (vascular tortuosity) in children diagnosed with portal hypertension; 2. To investigate the association between retinal vascular tortuosity and the presence of gastroesophageal varices in these children; 3. To evaluate the use of clinical and laboratory parameters to predict the presence of gastroesophageal varices in children with portal hypertension. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional and observational study that included patients aged <18 years with a diagnosis of portal hypertension. The participants included were submitted to dilated fundus examination and fundus photography with Visucam (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG) device. Besides, clinical and laboratorial data were collected from the patients' medical records. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients were included in this study, and 36% of them had an increase in retinal vascular tortuosity. Platelet count (P=0.001), bilirubin dosage (P=0.013) and aspartate transaminase dosage (AST) (P=0.042) were associated with the presence of gastroesophageal varices in digestive endoscopy. There was no association between retinal vascular tortuosity and the presence of gastroesophageal varices (P=0.498). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that platelet count, bilirubin dosage, and aspartate transaminase dosage were associated with the presence of gastroesophageal varices in digestive endoscopy. Regarding the retinal findings, we found that there was an increase in retinal vascular tortuosity in 36% of pediatric patients, but no association was found with the presence of gastroesophageal varices.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hipertensão portal é uma das complicações da cirrose e está associada a inúmeras manifestações sistêmicas, incluindo alterações renais, cerebrais, pulmonares, cardíacas e vasculares. Nos exames oftalmológicos de rotina realizados em nosso serviço, observamos que algumas crianças diagnosticadas com hipertensão portal apresentaram aumento da tortuosidade vascular da retina. OBJETIVO: 1. Avaliar a presença de anormalidades vasculares da retina (tortuosidade vascular) em crianças diagnosticadas com hipertensão portal; 2. Investigar a associação entre tortuosidade vascular da retina e presença de varizes gastroesofágicas nessas crianças; 3. Avaliar o uso de parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais para prever a presença de varizes gastroesofágicas em crianças com hipertensão portal. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal e observacional, que incluiu pacientes com idade <18 anos com diagnóstico de hipertensão portal. Os participantes incluídos foram submetidos ao exame de fundo de olho dilatado e fotografia de fundo com dispositivo Visucam (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG). Além disso, foram coletados dados clínicos e laboratoriais dos prontuários dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Um total de 72 pacientes foi incluído neste estudo e 36% deles apresentaram aumento da tortuosidade vascular da retina. Contagem de plaquetas (P=0,001), dosagem de bilirrubina (P=0,013) e dosagem de aspartato transaminase (AST) (P=0,042) foram associados à presença de varizes gastroesofágicas na endoscopia digestiva. Não houve associação entre tortuosidade vascular da retina e presença de varizes gastroesofágicas (P=0,498). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que a contagem de plaquetas, a dosagem de bilirrubina e a aspartato transaminase foram associadas à presença de varizes gastroesofágicas na endoscopia digestiva. Em relação aos achados da retina, descobrimos que houve um aumento na tortuosidade vascular da retina em 36% dos pacientes pediátricos, mas nenhuma associação foi encontrada com a presença de varizes gastroesofágicas.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hypertension, Portal , Platelet Count , Cross-Sectional Studies , Liver Cirrhosis
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 251-254, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098899


Resumen: Introducción: La hemorragia digestiva por hipertensión portal, sin alternativa de tratamiento endos- cópico o quirúrgico por localizaciones ectópicas, no identificadas del sitio de sangrado o caracterís ticas anatómicas, constituye un desafío terapéutico en Pediatría. El tratamiento habitual incluye la infusión de octreótido endovenoso. En los últimos años, la presentación de octreótido de liberación prolongada (OCT-LAR) para administración mensual intramuscular, resulta una alternativa tera péutica atractiva. Objetivo: Reportar el caso de un lactante con hemorragia digestiva por hiperten sión portal que recibió tratamiento exitoso con OCT-LAR. Caso Clínico: Paciente de 8 meses de vida, con malformación de vena porta extrahepática y episodios reiterados de sangrados digestivos con re querimientos transfusionales e infusiones de octréotido, sin posibilidad de tratamiento endoscópico o quirúrgico. Indicamos OCT-LAR intramuscular mensualmente. Después de diez meses de iniciado el tratamiento, el paciente no repitió sangrados digestivos y no presentó efectos adversos relacionados a la medicación. Conclusión: Consideramos que el reporte de este caso puede resultar de utilidad al presentar una nueva alternativa para el tratamiento de pacientes pediátricos con sangrado digestivo por hipertensión portal sin posibilidades terapéuticas convencionales.

Abstract: Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) secondary to portal hypertension (PHT), without endoscopic or surgical treatment options due to an ectopic or unidentified bleeding site or the patient's anatomic characteristics, is challenging in pediatric hepatology. The usual treatment in these cases includes intravenous Octreotide. Recently, the availability of long-acting release Octreo tide (OCT-LAR) for monthly intramuscular administration has become an interesting therapeutic alternative. Objective: To report the case of an infant with UGIB due to PHT who was successfully treated with OCT-LAR. Clinical Case: Eight-month-old patient with repeated episodes of UGIB due to extrahepatic portal vein malformation, requiring blood transfusions, and intravenous octreotide infusions. As neither endoscopic nor surgical treatment were feasible, we decided to start IM OCT- LAR monthly. After ten months of treatment, the patient did not present bleeding episodes. No medication-related events were observed. Conclusion: We consider that this report could help in the management of similar pediatric patients with UGIB due to PHT without conventional therapeutic possibilities.

Humans , Male , Infant , Gastrointestinal Agents/administration & dosage , Octreotide/administration & dosage , Duodenal Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Delayed-Action Preparations , Duodenal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Injections, Intramuscular
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1525, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141906


ABSTRACT Background: Portal hypertension (PH) can be measured indirectly through a hepatic vein pressure gradient greater than 5 mmHg. Cirrhosis is the leading cause for PH and can present as complications ascites, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and esophagogastric varices, characterizing gastropathy. Aim: To evaluate the use of carvedilol as primary prophylaxis in the development of collateral circulation in rats submitted to the partial portal vein ligament (PPVL) model. Method: This is a combined qualitative and quantitative experimental study in which 32 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (8 animals in each): group I - cirrhosis + carvedilol (PPVL + C); group II - cirrhosis + vehicle (PPVL); group III - control + carvedilol (SO-sham-operated + C); group IV - control + vehicle (SO-sham-operated). After seven days of the surgical procedure (PPVL or sham), carvedilol (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 mL normal saline) were administered to the respective groups daily for seven days. Results: The histological analysis showed no hepatic alteration in any group and a decrease in edema and vasodilatation in the PPVL + C group. The laboratory evaluation of liver function did not show a statistically significant change between the groups. Conclusion: Carvedilol was shown to have a positive effect on gastric varices without significant adverse effects.

RESUMO Racional: A hipertensão portal (HP), medida indiretamente através do gradiente pressórico da veia hepática >5 mmHg, tem como principal causa etiológica a cirrose. Possui como complicações a ascite, disfunção hepática, disfunção renal e varizes esofagogástricas, que caracterizam o quadro de gastropatia. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso do carvedilol como profilaxia primária no desenvolvimento da circulação colateral em ratos submetidos ao modelo de ligadura parcial de veia porta (LPVP). Método: Estudo experimental qualitativo e quantitativo no qual foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar, divididos em quatro grupos (n=8): grupo I - cirrose + carvedilol (LPVP+C); grupo II - cirrose + veículo (LPVP); grupo III - controle + carvedilol (SO - sham-operated+C); grupo IV - controle + veículo (SO - sham-operated). Após transcorridos sete dias do procedimento cirúrgico, foi administrado carvedilol (10 mg/kg) e veículo (1mL) para os respectivos grupos por sete dias consecutivos. Resultados: A análise histológica não mostrou alteração hepática em nenhum grupo e diminuição de edema e vasodilatação no grupo LPVP+C. A avaliação laboratorial da função hepática não mostrou alteração com significância estatística entre os grupos. Conclusão: Carvedilol mostrou ser fármaco com efeito positivo no sangramento das varizes gástricas e sem efeitos adversos significantes.

Animals , Rats , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/administration & dosage , Carvedilol/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
Bull. méd. Owendo (En ligne) ; 18(48): 42-45, 2020. ilus
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1260160


Introduction : La prise en charge de l'hémorragie digestive liée à l'hypertension portale est bien codifiée mais pose un problème de plateau technique dans nos conditions. A l'instar de la prise en charge de l'hémorragie digestive non liée à l'hypertension portale, nous voulions savoir si une prise en charge graduelle sans ligature de varices œsophagiennes était envisageable. Patients et méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude transversale rétrospective, menée entre le 30 mai 2016 et le 31 décembre 2018 au service d'hépato-gastro-entérologie du CHU de Libreville. Nous avons inclus les patients cirrhotiques ayant présenté au moins un épisode de rupture de varices œsophagiennes. Nous avons comparé les données pronostiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des patients ligaturés avec ceux des patients non ligaturés. Résultats : Il y avait 52 patients ligaturés et 100 patients non ligaturés. L'âge moyen (44 ans et 45 ans soit p=0,83), la prédominance masculine (sex-ratio 1,3 et 1,4 soit p=0,72), la situation sociale (69,2% et 67% de sans emploi soit p=0,87), la gravité de la maladie hépatique (100% Child-Pugh C), la prise en charge pré-endoscopique étaient similaires dans les 2 groupes (p=0,52). Le groupe de patients ligaturés avait des varices œsophagiennes plus grosses et un saignement actif plus fréquent (76,9% contre 14%) de façon statistiquement significative (p<0,01).Le nombre de décès (9,6% et 28%) était statistiquement moins élevé chez les patients ligaturés (p<0,01).Conclusion : La ligature de varices œsophagiennes est indispensable dans la prise en charge de l'hémorragie digestive liée à l'hypertension portale. L'absence de ligature de varices semblait associer à une surmortalité indépendamment de la taille des varices et du caractère hémorragique per endoscopique

Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gabon , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hypertension, Portal
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1073-1079, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879238


Portal hypertension (PHT) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis, which could be measured by the means of portal vein pressure (PVP). However, there is no report about an effective and reliable way to achieve noninvasive assessment of PVP so far. In this study, firstly, we collected ultrasound images and echo signals of different ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) concentrations and different pressure ranges in a low-pressure environment based on an

Contrast Media , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 570-574, Out.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056613


Abstract The occurrence of ascites after Renal Transplant (RT) is infrequent, and may be a consequence of surgical or medical complications. Case report: 61 year-old, male, history of arterial hypertension, tongue carcinoma and alcoholic habits 12-20g/day. He had chronic kidney disease secondary to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, without hepatic polycystic disease. He underwent cadaver donor RT in September 2017. He had delayed graft function by surgically corrected renal artery stenosis. He was admitted in January 2018 for ascites de novo, with no response to diuretics. HE had visible abdominal collateral circulation. Graft dysfunction, adequate tacrolinemia, Innocent urinary sediment, mild anemia, without thrombocytopenia. Serum albumin 4.0g / dL. Normal hepatic biochemistry. Peritoneal fluid with transudate characteristics and serum albumin gradient > 1.1. Ultrasound showed hepatomegaly, permeable vascular axes, without splenomegaly. Mycophenolate mofetil was suspended, with reduced remaining immunosuppression. He maintained refractory ascites: excluded infectious, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic etiologies. No nephrotic proteinuria and no heart failure. MRI: micronodules compatible with bile cysts. Upper Digestive Tract Endoscopy did not show gastroesophageal varicose veins. Normal abdominal lymphoscintigraphy. He underwent exploratory laparoscopy with liver biopsy: incomplete septal cirrhosis of probable vascular etiology some dilated bile ducts. He maintained progressive RT dysfunction and restarted hemodialysis. The proposed direct measurement of portal pressure was delayed by ascites resolution. There was further recovery of the graft function. Discussion: Incomplete septal cirrhosis is an uncommon cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Its definition is not well known, morphological and pathophysiological. We have not found published cases of post-RT ascites secondary to this pathology, described as possibly associated with drugs, immune alterations, infections, hypercoagulability and genetic predisposition.

Resumo A ocorrência de ascite no pós-Transplante Renal (TR) é infrequente, podendo ser consequência de complicações cirúrgicas ou médicas. Caso clínico: 61 anos, masculino, antecedentes de hipertensão arterial, carcinoma da língua e hábitos alcoólicos 12-20g/dia. Doença renal crônica secundária à doença renal poliquística autossômica dominante, sem poliquistose hepática. Submetido a TR de doador cadáver em setembro de 2017. Atraso na função de enxerto por estenose da artéria renal, corrigida cirurgicamente. Internado em janeiro de 2018 por ascite de novo, sem resposta a diuréticos. Circulação colateral abdominal visível. Disfunção do enxerto, tacrolinemia adequada. Sedimento urinário inocente. Anemia ligeira, sem trombocitopenia. Albumina sérica 4,0g/dL. Bioquímica hepática normal. Líquido peritoneal com características de transudado e gradiente sero-ascítico de albumina > 1,1. Ecografia com hepatomegalia, eixos vasculares permeáveis, sem esplenomegalia. Suspendeu micofenolato mofetil, reduziu restante imunossupressão. Manteve ascite refratária: excluídas etiologias infecciosas, metabólicas, autoimunes e neoplásicas. Sem proteinúria nefrótica e sem insuficiência cardíaca. RM: micronódulos compatíveis com quistos biliares. EDA sem varizes gastroesofágicas. Linfocintigrafia abdominal normal. Submetido a laparoscopia exploradora com biópsia hepática: cirrose septal incompleta de provável etiologia vascular, alguns ductos biliares dilatados. Manteve disfunção progressiva do TR, reiniciou hemodiálise. Proposta medição direta da pressão portal, protelada por resolução da ascite. Recuperação posterior da função de enxerto. Discussão: A cirrose septal incompleta é uma causa incomum de hipertensão portal não cirrótica. A sua definição é morfológica e a fisiopatologia, pouco conhecida. Não encontramos publicados casos de ascite pós-TR secundária a esta patologia, descrita como possivelmente associada a fármacos, alterações imunitárias, infecções, hipercoagulabilidade e predisposição genética.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascites/etiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/surgery , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Ascites/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis/standards , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/complications , Delayed Graft Function/complications , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(4): 364-369, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092963


Resumen La hepatitis autoinmune (HAI) es una enfermedad hepática inflamatoria progresiva poco frecuente en niños y adolescentes, la cual es un reto diagnóstico para clínicos y patólogos. Describimos las características clínicas, bioquímicas e histopatológicas de 21 pacientes pediátricos con HAI diagnosticados en los últimos 14 años. Las biopsias hepáticas se reevaluaron para analizar detalladamente los hallazgos histopatológicos. De los 21 casos evaluados, 12 (57,1%) fueron mujeres, la mediana de edad fue 14 años, y 17 (80,9%) tenían HAI tipo 1. Los signos clínicos más frecuentes fueron ictericia (66,7%) y coluria (44,4%); también hubo evidencia de hipertensión portal con várices esofágicas (47,1%) y esplenomegalia (41,2%). El 11,8% de los pacientes tenía antecedentes de otras enfermedades autoinmunes. El 89,5%, 88,9% y 60,0% de los casos tenía elevación de aminotransferasas, hiperbilirrubinemia y bajos niveles de albúmina sérica, respectivamente. Las biopsias reevaluadas mostraron infiltrado linfoplasmocitario portal (94,4%), hepatitis de interfase (77,8%) y formación de rosetas (50,0%). En el 42,9% de las biopsias se hallaron inclusiones hialinas en las células de Kupffer. Cerca del 33,5% de los casos mostró cirrosis en la biopsia inicial. A pesar del tratamiento inmunosupresor, 4 pacientes requirieron trasplante hepático y 2 están en lista de espera. La HAI en niños puede manifestarse con ictericia y coluria, signos de hipertensión portal, aminotransferasas elevadas, hiperbilirrubinemia y anticuerpos circulantes. Las inclusiones hialinas en las células de Kupffer pueden ser un hallazgo útil en el diagnóstico histopatológico de la HAI en niños.

Abstract Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a progressive inflammatory liver disease. It is uncommon in children and adolescents, and is a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists. We describe the clinical, biochemical and histopathological characteristics of 21 pediatric patients with AIH diagnosed in the last 14 years. Liver biopsies were reassessed to analyze histopathological findings in detail. Of the 21 cases evaluated, 12 (57.1%) were girls and young women, the median age was 14 years old, and 17 (80.9%) had type 1 AIH. The most frequent clinical signs were jaundice (66.7%), choluria (44.4%), evidence of portal hypertension with esophageal varices (47.1%), and splenomegaly (41.2%). Histories of other autoimmune diseases were found in 11.8% of these patients. Elevated levels of aminotransferases were found in 89.5% of the patients, hyperbilirubinemia was found in 88.9%, and 60.0% of the cases had low levels of serum albumin. Reassessed biopsies showed portal lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate (94.4%), interface hepatitis (77.8%) and rosette formation (50.0%). Hyaline inclusions were found in Kupffer cells in 42.9% of the biopsies. About 33.5% of the cases showed cirrhosis at the initial biopsy. Despite immunosuppressive treatment, four patients required liver transplantation and two are on the waiting list. AIH in children can manifest with jaundice, choluria, signs of portal hypertension, elevated aminotransferases, hyperbilirubinemia and circulating antibodies. Hyaline inclusions in Kupffer cells may be a useful finding in the histopathological diagnosis of AIH in children.

Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Splenomegaly , Biopsy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hypertension, Portal , Jaundice
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 52(1)jan.-mar.,2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024896


Hepatic lobar agenesis is an uncommon condition observed in 1/19,000 autopsies and may be rarer in the right lobe, with about 40 cases reported in the literature. Its diagnosis is based on the non-iden-tification of the hepatic duct, the corresponding portal and hepatic veins. We describe a case of right hepatic lobe agenesis as found in abdominal imaging in a 63-year-old woman with chronic diffuse abdominal discomfort and laboratory findings of a slight elevation of liver enzymes (AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Diagnostic Imaging , Hepatectomy , Hypertension, Portal , Liver/abnormalities
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 582-593, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773065


Portal hypertension(PH) is one of the main complications of cirrhosis.Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) is the percutaneous creation of a conduit from the hepatic vein to the portal vein that is used to manage consequences of PH (i.e., variceal bleeding and refractory ascites) and used as a bridging therapy to liver transplant for decompensated cirrhosis. The following Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) presents profession associational recommendations of the Chinese College of Interventionalists(CCI) on TIPS for PH. The CPGs was written by more than 30 experts in the field of TIPS in China (including interventional radiologists, liver surgeons, hepatologists and gastroenterologist, et al.). The panel of experts, produced these CPGs using evidence from PubMed and Cochrane database searches and combined with relevant expert consensuses and high quality clinical researches in China providing up to date guidance on TIPS for PH with the only purpose of improving clinical practice.

China , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Therapeutics , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Therapeutics , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Therapeutics , Liver Cirrhosis , Therapeutics , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764189


No abstract available.

Hypertension, Portal
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763393


Chronic liver disease is a major disorder worldwide. A better understanding of anatomy, blood flow, and pathophysiology may be a key issue for their proper management. Ultrasound (US) is a simple and non-invasive diagnostic tool in the abdominal field. Doppler mode offers real-time hemodynamic evaluation, and the contrast-enhanced US is one of the most frequently used modalities for the detailed assessment. Further development in digital technology enables three-dimensional (3D) visualization of target images with high resolution. This article reviews the wide ranges of application in the abdominal US and describes the recent progress in the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases.

Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Hemodynamics , Hypertension, Portal , Liver Diseases , Liver , Ultrasonography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763389


BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is a controversy about the availability of invasive treatment for esophageal/gastric varices in patients with Child-Pugh class C (CP-C) end-stage liver cirrhosis (LC). We have evaluated the validity of invasive treatment with CP-C end-stage LC patients. METHODS: The study enrolled 51 patients with CP-C end-stage LC who had undergone invasive treatment. The treatment modalities included endoscopic variceal ligation in 22 patients, endoscopic injection sclerotherapy in 17 patients, and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) in 12 patients. We have investigated the overall survival (OS) rates and risk factors that contributed to death within one year after treatment. RESULTS: The OS rate in all patients at one, three, and five years was 72.6%, 30.2%, and 15.1%, respectively. The OS rate in patients who received endoscopic treatment and the BRTO group at one, three, and five years was 67.6%, 28.2% and 14.1% and 90.0%, 36.0% and 18.0%, respectively. The average of Child-Pugh scores (CPS) from before treatment to one month after variceal treatment significantly improved from 10.53 to 10.02 (P=0.003). Three significant factors that contributed to death within one year after treatment included the presence of bleeding varices, high CPS (≥11), and high serum total bilirubin levels (≥4.0 mg/dL). CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that patients with a CPS of up to 10 and less than 4.0 mg/dL of serum total bilirubin levels may not have a negative impact on prognosis after invasive treatment for esophageal/gastric varices despite their CP-C end-stage LC.

Balloon Occlusion , Bilirubin , Endoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Sclerotherapy , Varicose Veins
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763386


BACKGROUND/AIMS: In recent years, greater assessment accuracy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to ascertain prognosis has become important in decompensated cirrhosis due to portal hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the ratio of the portal pressure gradient (PPG) pre-TIPS (pre-PPG) to albumin (PPA), which influence ascites formation in cirrhotic patients in the 6-months after TIPS placement, and is a metric introduced in our study. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 58 patients with decompensated cirrhosis admitted to an academic hospital for the purpose of TIPS placement. We collected the following data: demographics, laboratory measures, and PPG during the TIPS procedure. Then we analyzed the association between the above data and ascites formation post-TIPS in cirrhosis patients. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with ascites and 28 without ascites were evaluated. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis were adjusted for the following variables: to determine prognosis; Child-Pugh scores, lymphocyte count, platelet count, hemoglobin level, albumin level and pre-PPG or PPA. The outcome showed that PPA was better than pre-PPG and albumin for predicting ascites according to area under receiver operating characteristic curves and a statistical model that also showed PPA’s influence 6-months post-TIPS. CONCLUSIONS: The combined measurement of pre-PPG and albumin, defined as PPA, may provide a better way to predict post-TIPS ascites in decompensated cirrhosis, which underlines the need for a large clinical trial in the future.

Ascites , Cohort Studies , Demography , Fibrosis , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Models, Statistical , Platelet Count , Portal Pressure , Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Serum Albumin